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L Janousek, S Maly, M Oliverius, M Kocik, M Kucera, J Fronek
BACKGROUND: The most common biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation are bile leaks, anastomotic and intrahepatic strictures, stones, and ampullary dysfunction. These complications can occur in up to 10% to 30% of liver transplant recipients. Leaks occur early in the posttransplant period; the stricture formation typically graduates over time. METHODS: Ten patients underwent transplantation in our preliminary study: 5 were randomized to the group with stent placement and 5 to the control group...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Li-Hua Gan, Rui Wu, Jian-Lei Tian, Patrick W Fowler
Structural identification is a difficult task in the study of metallofullerenes, but understanding of the mechanism of formation of these structures is a pre-requisite for new high-yield synthetic methods. Here, systematic density functional theory calculations demonstrate that metal sulfide fullerenes Sc2S@Cn have similar cage geometries from C70 to C84 and form a close-knit family of structures related by Endo-Kroto insertion/extrusion of C2 units and Stone-Wales isomerization transformations. The stabilities predicted for favoured isomers by DFT calculations are in good agreement with available experimental observations, have implications for the formation of metallofullerenes, and will aid structural identification from within the combinatorially vast pool of conceivable isomers...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Rachel L Behler
Despite widespread interest in the link between social and sexual networks, little research has focused on how social networks influence the progression of intimate relationships (e.g., from holding hands to sexual intercourse). I argue that social networks not only affect individuals' opportunities to meet romantic partners, but also shape the ideal and actual progressions of intimate acts within their relationships. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), I conduct an optimal matching analysis of adolescents' purported ideal versus actual relationship sequences, which are comprised of romantic and sexual events...
January 2017: Social Science Research
Yann Reynaud, Nalin Rastogi
We recently showed that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineage LAM9 could be subdivided as two distinct subpopulations - each reflecting its unique biogeographical structure and evolutionary history. We subsequently attempted to verify if this genetic structuration could be traced in an enlarged global sample. For this purpose, we analyzed global evolutionary relationships of LAM strains in a large dataset (n = 1923 isolates from 35 countries worldwide) with concomitant spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data, followed by a deeper analysis of LAM9 sublineage (n = 851 isolates)...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
Stephanie Berger, Erik Procko, Daciana Margineantu, Erinna F Lee, Betty W Shen, Alex Zelter, Daniel-Adriano Silva, Kusum Chawla, Marco J Herold, Jean-Marc Garnier, Richard Johnson, Michael J MacCoss, Guillaume Lessene, Trisha N Davis, Patrick S Stayton, Barry L Stoddard, W Douglas Fairlie, David M Hockenbery, David Baker
Many cancers overexpress one or more of the six human pro-survival BCL2 family proteins to evade apoptosis. To determine which BCL2 protein or proteins block apoptosis in different cancers, we computationally designed three-helix bundle protein inhibitors specific for each BCL2 pro-survival protein. Following in vitro optimization, each inhibitor binds its target with high picomolar to low nanomolar affinity and at least 300-fold specificity. Expression of the designed inhibitors in human cancer cell lines revealed unique dependencies on BCL2 proteins for survival which could not be inferred from other BCL2 profiling methods...
November 2, 2016: ELife
Sandra D Bot, Joreintje D Mackenbach, Giel Nijpels, Jeroen Lakerveld
OBJECTIVES: In this exploratory study we examined the associations between several social network characteristics and lifestyle behaviours in adults at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we explored whether similarities in lifestyle between individuals and their network members, or the level of social support perceived by these individuals, could explain these associations. METHODS: From the control group of the Hoorn Prevention Study, participants with high and low educational attainment were approached for a structured interview between April and August 2010...
2016: PloS One
Vojtech Zapotocky, Martina Pospisilova, Katerina Janouchova, Daniel Svadlak, Jana Batova, Jana Sogorkova, Martin Cepa, Jiri Betak, Veronika Stepankova, Romana Sulakova, Jaromir Kulhanek, Tomas Pitucha, Jana Vranova, Garry Duffy, Vladimir Velebny
In this work, we report on the preparation of a novel biodegradable textile scaffold made of palmitoyl-hyaluronan (palHA). Monofilament fibres of palHA with a diameter of 120 mm were prepared by wet spinning. The wet-spun fibres were subsequently processed into a warp-knitted textile. To find a compromise between swelling in water and degradability of the final textile scaffold, a series of palHA derivatives with different degrees of substitution of the palmitoyl chain was synthesized. Freeze-drying not only provided shape fixation, but also speeded up scaffold degradation in vitro...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
A R Liboff
It has been established that living things are sensitive to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at vanishingly small intensities, on the order of tens of nT. We hypothesize, as a consequence of this sensitivity, that some fraction of an individual's central nervous system activity can be magnetically detected by nearby individuals. Even if we restrict the information content of such processes to merely simple magnetic cues that are unconsciously received by individuals undergoing close-knit continuing exposure to these cues, it is likely that they will tend to associate these cues with the transmitting individual, no less than would occur if such signals were visual or auditory...
October 27, 2016: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
Eiluned Pearce, Jacques Launay, Max van Duijn, Anna Rotkirch, Tamas David-Barrett, Robin I M Dunbar
Singing together seems to facilitate social bonding, but it is unclear whether this is true in all contexts. Here we examine the social bonding outcomes of naturalistic singing behaviour in a European university Fraternity composed of exclusive 'Cliques': recognised sub-groups of 5-20 friends who adopt a special name and identity. Singing occurs frequently in this Fraternity, both 'competitively' (contests between Cliques) and 'cooperatively' (multiple Cliques singing together). Both situations were re-created experimentally in order to explore how competitive and cooperative singing affects feelings of closeness towards others...
November 2016: Psychology of Music
Xuehang Wang, Haitao Zhou, Fengliu Lou, Yahao Li, Marthe E M Buan, Xuezhi Duan, John C Walmsley, Edel Sheridan, De Chen
The specific energy of a supercapacitor (SC) with an ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte is larger than that using an aqueous electrolyte owing to the wide operating voltage window provided by the IL. However, the wide-scale application of high-energy SCs using ILs is limited owing to a serious reduction of the energy with increasing power. The introduction of macropores to the porous material can mitigate the reduction in the gravimetric capacitance at high rates, but this lowers the volumetric capacitance...
November 9, 2016: ChemSusChem
Mary Lee Potter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Simon F Williams, David P Martin, Arikha C Moses
The GalaFLEX Scaffold (Galatea Surgical, Inc., Lexington, MA) for plastic and reconstructive surgery belongs to a new generation of products for soft tissue reinforcement made from poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB). Other members of this new family of products include MonoMax Suture (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) for soft tissue approximation, BioFiber Scaffold (Tornier, Inc., Edina, MN) for tendon repair, and Phasix Mesh (C.R. Bard, Inc., Murray Hill, NJ) for hernia repair. Each of these fully resorbable products provides prolonged strength retention, typically 50% to 70% strength retention at 12 weeks, and facilitates remodeling in vivo to provide a strong, lasting repair...
November 2016: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
James M Shine, Patrick G Bissett, Peter T Bell, Oluwasanmi Koyejo, Joshua H Balsters, Krzysztof J Gorgolewski, Craig A Moodie, Russell A Poldrack
Higher brain function relies upon the ability to flexibly integrate information across specialized communities of brain regions; however, it is unclear how this mechanism manifests over time. In this study, we used time-resolved network analysis of fMRI data to demonstrate that the human brain traverses between functional states that maximize either segregation into tight-knit communities or integration across otherwise disparate neural regions. Integrated states enable faster and more accurate performance on a cognitive task, and are associated with dilations in pupil diameter, suggesting that ascending neuromodulatory systems may govern the transition between these alternative modes of brain function...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Alice Tonazzini, Stefano Mintchev, Bryan Schubert, Barbara Mazzolai, Jun Shintake, Dario Floreano
A variable stiffness fiber made of silicone and low melting point alloys quickly becomes >700 times softer and >400 times more deformable when heated above 62 °C. It shows remarkable self-healing properties and can be clamped, knitted, and bonded, as shown in a foldable multi-purpose drone, a wearable cast for bone injuries, and a soft multi-directional actuator.
September 30, 2016: Advanced Materials
Gauri Tendulkar, Phillip Grau, Patrick Ziegler, Alfred Buck, Alfred Buck, Andreas Badke, Hans-Peter Kaps, Sabrina Ehnert, Andreas K Nussler
Intervertebral disc degeneration and disc herniation is one of the major causes of lower back pain. Depletion of extracellular matrix, culminating in nucleus pulposus (NP) extrusion leads to intervertebral disc destruction. Currently available surgical treatments reduce the pain but do not restore the mechanical functionality of the spine. In order to preserve mechanical features of the spine, total disc or nucleus replacement thus became a wide interest. However, this arthroplasty era is still in an immature state, since none of the existing products have been clinically evaluated...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Fatou Farima Bagayogo, Annick Lepage, Jean-Louis Denis, Lise Lamothe, Liette Lapointe, Isabelle Vedel
Purpose The purpose of this paper of inter-professional networks is to analyze the evolution of relationships between professional groups enacting new forms of collaboration to address clinical imperatives. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses a case study based on semi-structured interviews with physicians and nurses, document analysis and informal discussions. Findings This study documents how two inter-professional networks were developed through professional agency. The findings show that the means by which networks are developed influence the form of collaboration therein...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Health Organization and Management
Daisy Chou, Allan Tulloch, David Cossman, J Louis Cohen, Rajeev Rao, Galinos Barmparas, James Mirocha, Willis Wagner
OBJECTIVES: In selected populations, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) reduces long-term stroke risk. Studies have shown increased risk of restenosis with use of a collagen-impregnated Dacron patch compared to a PTFE patch. There is concern that collagen-impregnation may initiate thrombosis or promote restenosis due to platelet activation. We performed a retrospective analysis of our CEA experience with routine patching using knitted Dacron patches with (Hemashield) and without (Sauvage) collagen-impregnation...
September 22, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Caroline E Robertson, Katherine L Hermann, Anna Mynick, Dwight J Kravitz, Nancy Kanwisher
We experience our visual environment as a seamless, immersive panorama. Yet, each view is discrete and fleeting, separated by expansive eye movements and discontinuous views of our spatial surroundings. How are discrete views of a panoramic environment knit together into a broad, unified memory representation? Regions of the brain's "scene network" are well poised to integrate retinal input and memory [1]: they are visually driven [2, 3] but also densely interconnected with memory structures in the medial temporal lobe [4]...
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
M Dodel, N Hemmati Nejad, S H Bahrami, M Soleimani, H Hanaee-Ahvaz
Tissue reconstruction is among the increasing applications of polymer nanofibers. Fibrous scaffolds (mats) can be easily produced using the electrospinning method with structure and biomechanical properties similar to those of a cellular matrix. Electrospinning is widely used in the production of nanofibers and the GAP-method electrospinning is one of the means of producing fully aligned nanofibers. In this research, using the GAP-method, knitted fibrous scaffolds were made of silk fibroin, which is a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Jina Huh, Rebecca Marmor, Xiaoqian Jiang
BACKGROUND: Online health community (OHC) moderators help facilitate conversations and provide information to members. However, the necessity of the moderator in helping members achieve goals by providing the support they need remains unclear, with some prior research suggesting that moderation is unnecessary or even harmful for close-knit OHCs. Similarly, members' perceptions of moderator roles are underexplored. Starting January of 2013, WebMD moderators stopped working for WebMD communities...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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