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Vitamin deficiency

Dorothy A Thompson, Kaoru Fujinami, Ido Perlman, Ruth Hamilton, Anthony G Robson
The International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) standard for full-field electroretinography (ERG) describes a minimum procedure, but encourages more extensive testing. This ISCEV extended protocol describes an extension to the ERG standard, namely the dark-adapted (DA) red flash ERG. The DA red flash ERG can be incorporated conveniently within the ISCEV standard ERG protocol after a minimum of 20-min DA and recorded after the DA 0.01 ERG to a flash strength of 0.3 phot cd s m-2 , eliciting a waveform with two positive peaks in healthy individuals...
June 22, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Mervi Javanainen, Tuula Pekkarinen, Harri Mustonen, Tom Scheinin, Marja Leivonen
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional deficiencies may occur after bariatric surgery despite supplementation. Fracture risk may also be elevated after bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVES: To compare 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], vitamin B12, and albumin serum concentrations in severely obese patients who had undergone either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Fracture data was compared with data for a conservatively treated group of severely obese patients...
June 23, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Grace Cham, Nichola Davis, Edward Strivens, Aileen Traves, Grant Manypeney, Ronny Gunnarsson
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify factors which correlate to the propensity of general practitioners (GPs) to prescribe supplementation for borderline vitamin B12 deficiency. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys were distributed in person. SETTING: Conferences held in Cairns, Palm Cove Beach, Mt Isa; educational meetings in Atherton; and meetings with individual general practices within the Cairns and Hinterland region. All located in Queensland, Australia...
June 22, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
V Fischer, M Haffner-Luntzer, M Amling, A Ignatius
Calcium and vitamin D are essential for maintaining bone health. Therefore, deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D are major risk factors for osteoporosis development. Because sufficient amounts of calcium are also required for fracture-callus mineralisation, compromised bone repair that is frequently observed in osteoporotic patients might be attributed to calcium and vitamin D deficiencies. Consequently, calcium and vitamin D supplementation represents a potential strategy for treating compromised fracture healing in osteoporotic patients...
June 22, 2018: European Cells & Materials
Linda Björkhem-Bergman, Catharina Missailidis, John Karlsson-Valik, Ann Tammelin, Lena Ekström, Matteo Bottai, Ulf Hammar, Gudrun Lindh, Peter Bergman
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics and can cause severe infections that are difficult to treat. Eradication strategies with conventional antibiotics are not always effective and alternative approaches are warranted. Here, we tested the hypothesis that daily supplementation with vitamin D for 12 months would reduce MRSA carriage rates among a group of persistent carriers. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial with n = 65 persistent MRSA carriers with 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25OHD) < 75 nmol/L, who were followed up with bacterial cultures at baseline and every 3 months for 1 year...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Albert Shieh, Christina Ma, Rene F Chun, Jonas Wittwer-Schegg, Leon Swinkels, Tonnie Huijs, Jeffrey Wang, Ines Donangelo, Martin Hewison, John S Adams
Context: The physiologic role of free 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in humans is unclear. Objective: To assess whether rise in total versus free 25(OH)D is associated with change in downstream biomarkers of 25(OH)D entry into target cells in kidney (24,25-dihyroxyvitamin D [24,25(OH) 2D ]) and parathyroid (parathyroid hormone [PTH]). Design: 16-week randomized controlled trial. Intervention: 60 mcg (2,400 IU)/day of D3 or 20 mcg/day of 25(OH)D3...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Alex Brito, Edwin Habeych, Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Nicola Galaffu, Lindsay H Allen
Vitamin B-12 (B-12) deficiency is still relatively common in low-, medium-, and high-income countries, mainly because of dietary inadequacy and, to a lesser extent, malabsorption. This narrative review is based on a systematic search of evidence on methods to assess B-12 bioavailability and technologies to enhance its absorption. A total of 2523 scientific articles identified in PubMed and 1572 patents identified in Orbit Intelligence were prescreened. Among the reviewed methods, Schilling's test and/or its food-based version (using cobalamin-labeled egg yolk) were used for decades but have been discontinued, largely because they required radioactive cobalt...
June 20, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Wendy Schijns, Jens Homan, Leah van der Meer, Ignace M Janssen, Cees J van Laarhoven, Frits J Berends, Edo O Aarts
Background: After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), patients often develop a vitamin B-12 deficiency. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether oral supplementation increases and normalizes low vitamin B-12 concentrations (vitamin B-12 > 200 pmol/L) in RYGB patients as compared to intramuscular injections. Design: A randomized controlled trial in RYGB patients with subnormal serum B-12 concentrations was performed. One group (IM B-12) received bimonthly intramuscular hydroxocobalamin injections (2000 µg as loading dose and 1000 µg at follow-up) for 6 mo...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Samuel M Kim, Di Zhao, Anna J Podolanczuk, Pamela L Lutsey, Eliseo Guallar, Steven M Kawut, R Graham Barr, Ian H de Boer, Bryan R Kestenbaum, David J Lederer, Erin D Michos
Background: Activated vitamin D has anti-inflammatory properties. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency might contribute to subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD). Objective: We examined associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and subclinical ILD among middle-aged to older adults who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Methods: We studied 6302 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants who had baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations and computed tomography (CT) imaging spanning ≤ 10 y...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Rebecca L Wilson, Alison J Leviton, Shalem Y Leemaqz, Paul H Anderson, Jessica A Grieger, Luke E Grzeskowiak, Petra E Verburg, Lesley McCowan, Gustaaf A Dekker, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Claire T Roberts
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are at increased susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency. Hence, there is continuing interest in determining how vitamin D influences pregnancy health. We aimed to compare vitamin D status in two distinct populations of pregnant women in Australia and New Zealand and to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and pregnancy outcome. This included evaluating possible effect measure modifications according to fetal sex. METHODS: Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 15 ± 1 weeks' gestation in 2800 women from Adelaide and Auckland who participated in the multi-centre, prospective cohort SCreening fOr Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study...
June 20, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Katherine Healy, Amanda C Palmer, Maxwell A Barffour, Kerry J Schulze, Ward Siamusantu, Justin Chileshe, Keith P West, Alain B Labrique
Background: Impairments in visual function have been well characterized in vitamin A deficiency. However, eye function may also be sensitive to other nutrient deficiencies. Objective: We examined associations between visual function-characterized by pupillary threshold or pupillary responsiveness-and nutritional status in Zambian children. Methods: We used digital pupillometry to measure visual responses to calibrated light stimuli (-2.9 to 0...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Angela Filoni, Michelangelo Vestita, Maurizio Congedo, Giuseppe Giudice, Silvio Tafuri, Domenico Bonamonte
Recent literature has focused on the association of psoriasis with lower than normal or highly deficient vitamin D blood levels.To investigate the controversial association between psoriasis and vitamin D levels.From 2012 to 2014, 561 subjects were assessed, of which 170 had psoriasis, 51 had an autoimmune bullous, and 340 were healthy patients. Anagraphical data, 25(OH)D blood levels, and seasons of vitamin D levels assessments were recorded for each group.Vitamin D levels were significantly different among the 3 groups (K = 151...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yong Guo, Hai-Jin Ke, Ying Liu, Min Fu, Jing Ning, Li Yu, Yu Xiao, Di Che, Xiao-Yan Chen, Yu-Hong Deng, Jie-Ling Wu
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with numerous public health issues. Limited data are available for children in southern China, a region that receives abundant sunlight. We aimed to estimate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in children in that area, and to determine seasonal variations in serum 25(OH)D levels. A total of 16,755 children aged 0 to 6 years, who visited the Guangdong Women and Children's Hospital for health examination between January 2016 and May 2017, were included in the present study...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Frédéric V Valla, Muriel Bost, Sylvain Roche, Marion Pitance, Charlotte Cuerq, Jenna Ridout, René Ecochard, Tiphanie Ginhoux, Amandine Bellon, Carole Ford-Chessel, Aurélie Portefaix, Etienne Javouhey, Emilie Blond
OBJECTIVES: Micronutrient supplementation in critically ill adults remains controversial. In the pediatric setting, the impact of oxidative stress on the overall micronutrient status has been poorly explored, due to the limited number of studies and to confounding factors (i.e., malnutrition or extra losses). In order to better understand this phenomenon, we aim to describe micronutrient status, focusing on seven micronutrients, in well-nourished critically ill children presenting with severe oxidative stress...
June 19, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Kassem Sharif, Yousra Sharif, Abdulla Watad, Yarden Yavne, Benjamin Lichtbroun, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects close to 1% of couples; however, the etiology is known in only about 50% of the cases. Recent studies show that autoimmune dysregulation is a probable cause of RPL, which in some cases may be overlooked. In order for a pregnancy to proceed to term, early modulation of immunologic response is required to induce tolerance to the semi-allogenic fetus. Certain subsets of both the innate and adaptive immune responses play a role in the induction of fetomaternal tolerance. A relatively predominant T-cell helper (Th) 2 and T regulatory (Treg) cell population seem to favor a better pregnancy outcome, whereas Th1 and Th17 cell populations appear to have an opposite effect...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
N Oosterom, N F Dirks, S G Heil, R de Jonge, W J E Tissing, R Pieters, M M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, A C Heijboer, S M F Pluijm
PURPOSE: Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency, which might make them more susceptible to developing adverse events. Previous studies showed that low vitamin D levels were associated with an increased inflammatory mucosal state and impaired mucosal tissue barriers. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and studied the association between vitamin D levels and methotrexate (MTX)-induced oral mucositis in pediatric ALL...
June 19, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Ji-Hyeon Shin, Byung-Guk Kim, Boo Young Kim, Soo Whan Kim, Sung Won Kim, Hojong Kim
BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D levels have been linked to the risk of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children. Although adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) is the major contributor to childhood SDB, the relationship between ATH and serum vitamin D is uncertain. We therefore investigated the relationship between vitamin D levels and associated factors in children with ATH. METHODS: We reviewed data from all children with SDB symptoms who were treated from December 2013 to February 2014...
June 19, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Małgorzata Wrzosek, Ada Sawicka, Marek Tałałaj, Marcin Wojnar, Grażyna Nowicka
BACKGROUND: Obesity is recognized as a major health problem. Vitamin D is involved in maintaining energy metabolism by regulation of glucose transporters, uncoupling proteins, and normal brain function. We aimed to explore a relationship between impulsivity, eating behaviors, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in a sample of 322 bariatric surgery candidates. METHODS: Participants completed a questionnaire on their health, eating habits and The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q)...
February 5, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Laila A AlBishi, Kousalya Prabahar, Yara M Albalawi, Shahad A Albalawi, Ashwaq A Abosalem, Wjdan A Alqarni, Salha A Almarhapi, Maram M Albalawi
OBJECTIVES: To understand the knowledge, attitude, and practice of healthcare practitioners in Saudi Arabia, with regard to vitamin D supplementation. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among healthcare practitioners in the Tabuk region of Saudi Arabia between January 2015 and December 2016. A questionnaire assessing knowledge, attitude and practice with regard to prevention of vitamin D deficiency was distributed to 100 healthcare practitioners. RESULTS: There was a good understanding of the importance of vitamin D deficiency; and overall practices were good...
June 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Nora A AlFaris, Nora M ALkehayez, Fatema I AlMushawah, AbdulRhman N Al Naeem, Nadia D Al-Amri, Ebtisam S Almudawah
OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of serum vitamin D and other nutritional factors in women with breast cancer in Saudi. METHODS: A total of 500 women (250 patients with breast cancer and 250 controls) aged 30-60 years were recruited from King Saud Medical City and King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,  between May 2015 and June 2016. In this cross-sectional study, blood pressure, plasma concentrations of vitamin D, and calcium levels were evaluated. A 3-day dietary record was used to assess dietary intake...
June 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
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