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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150936/the-roles-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-tissue-development-and-regenerative-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Maryam Majidinia, Javad Aghazadeh, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlani, Bahman Yousefi
Regenerative medicine is a translational field which combines tissue engineering and molecular biology to construct spare organs or help injured or defective tissues to regenerate or restore their normal functions. This is particularly important with specific organs such as heart, central nervous system, retina or limbs which possess very limited regenerative capacity. As such, regenerative medicine has received peculiar attention in the last decade. In this regard, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been subject to intensive research, since it plays many essential roles in the regulation of the progenitor cell fate, developmental decisions, proliferation during embryonic development, and adult tissue homeostasis...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150935/generation-of-insulin-producing-cells-from-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-pva-scaffold-by-optimized-differentiation-protocol
#2
Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Masoud Soleimani, Yousef Mortazavi, Samad Nadri, Ali Salimi
The studies have been done on patient-specific human adipose-derived from mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) like a series of autologous growth factors and nanofibrous scaffolds (3D culture) will probably have many benefits for regenerative medicine in type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM) patients in the future. For this purpose, we established a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffold and a differentiation protocol by adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP) that induces the hADSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). The Characteristics of the derived IPCs in 3D culture were compared with conventional culture (2D) groups evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150791/16-channel-flexible-system-to-measure-electrophysiological-properties-of-bioengineered-hearts
#3
Betsy H Salazar, Kristopher A Hoffman, Anilkumar K Reddy, Sridhar Madala, Ravi K Birla
As tissue engineering continues to mature, it is necessary to develop new technologies that bring insight into current paradigms and guide improvements for future experiments. To this end, we have developed a system to characterize our bioartificial heart model and compare them to functional native structures. In the present study, the hearts of adult Sprague-Dawley were decellularized resulting in a natural three-dimensional cardiac scaffold. Neonatal rat primary cardiac cells were then cultured within a complex 3D fibrin gel, forming a 3-dimensional cardiac construct, which was sutured to the acellular scaffold and suspended in media for 24-48 h...
November 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150767/cell-migration-in-1d-and-2d-nanofiber-microenvironments
#4
Horacio M Estabridis, Aniket Jana, Amrinder Nain, David J Odde
Understanding how cells migrate in fibrous environments is important in wound healing, immune function, and cancer progression. A key question is how fiber orientation and network geometry influence cell movement. Here we describe a quantitative, modeling-based approach toward identifying the mechanisms by which cells migrate in fibrous geometries having well controlled orientation. Specifically, U251 glioblastoma cells were seeded onto non-electrospinning Spinneret based tunable engineering parameters fiber substrates that consist of networks of suspended 400 nm diameter nanofibers...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150723/a-grapevine-inducible-gene-vv-%C3%AE-gal-sip-confers-salt-and-desiccation-tolerance-in-escherichia-coli-and-tobacco-at-germinative-stage
#5
Samia Daldoul, Anis Ben Amar, Mahmoud Gargouri, Hajer Limam, Ahmed Mliki, Thierry Wetzel
Grapevine is an important fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Previously, we have reported the characterization of a salt stress-inducible gene Vv-α-gal/SIP isolated from the tolerant grapevine cultivar Razegui. In this study, we performed functional studies in both Escherichia coli and tobacco systems to gain more insights in the role of the Vv-α-gal/SIP gene. Our data revealed that the recombinant E. coli cells harboring the pET24b(+) expression vector with the Vv-α-gal/SIP showed higher tolerance to desiccation and salinity compared to E...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150718/re-educating-immunity-in-respiratory-allergies-the-potential-for-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mediated-gene-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Jeremy F Brooks, Janet M Davies, James W Wells, Raymond J Steptoe
Respiratory allergies represent a significant disease burden worldwide affecting up to 300 million people globally. Medication and avoidance of known triggers do not address the underlying pathology. Traditional immunotherapies for allergy aim to reinstate immune homeostasis but require years of treatment and have poor long-term efficacy. Novel approaches, such as gene-engineered hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, induce profound antigen-specific tolerance in autoimmunity. Recent evidence shows this approach may also have therapeutic utility for allergy...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150705/novel-polycondensed-biopolyamide-generated-from-biomass-derived-4-aminohydrocinnamic-acid
#7
Yukie Kawasaki, Nag Aniruddha, Hajime Minakawa, Shunsuke Masuo, Tatsuo Kaneko, Naoki Takaya
Biomass plastics are expected to contribute to the establishment of a carbon-neutral society by replacing conventional plastics derived from petroleum. The biomass-derived aromatic amine 4-aminocinnamic acid (4ACA) produced by recombinant bacteria is applied to the synthesis of high-performance biopolymers such as polyamides and polyimides. Here, we developed a microbial catalyst that hydrogenates the α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acid of 4ACA to generate 4-aminohydrocinnamic acid (4AHCA). The ability of 10 microbial genes for enoate and xenobiotic reductases expressed in Escherichia coli to convert 4ACA to 4AHCA was assessed...
November 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150693/a-collection-of-genetically-engineered-populus-trees-reveals-wood-biomass-traits-that-predict-glucose-yield-from-enzymatic-hydrolysis
#8
Sacha Escamez, Madhavi Latha Gandla, Marta Derba-Maceluch, Sven-Olof Lundqvist, Ewa J Mellerowicz, Leif J Jönsson, Hannele Tuominen
Wood represents a promising source of sugars to produce bio-based renewables, including biofuels. However, breaking down lignocellulose requires costly pretreatments because lignocellulose is recalcitrant to enzymatic saccharification. Increasing saccharification potential would greatly contribute to make wood a competitive alternative to petroleum, but this requires improving wood properties. To identify wood biomass traits associated with saccharification, we analyzed a total of 65 traits related to wood chemistry, anatomy and structure, biomass production and saccharification in 40 genetically engineered Populus tree lines...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150655/reverse-engineering-protocols-for-controlling-spin-dynamics
#9
Qi Zhang, Xi Chen, D Guéry-Odelin
We put forward reverse engineering protocols to shape in time the components of the magnetic field to manipulate a single spin, two independent spins with different gyromagnetic factors, and two interacting spins in short amount of times. We also use these techniques to setup protocols robust against the exact knowledge of the gyromagnetic factors for the one spin problem, or to generate entangled states for two or more spins coupled by dipole-dipole interactions.
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150639/in-vitro-maturation-and-in-vivo-integration-and-function-of-an-engineered-cell-seeded-disc-like-angle-ply-structure-daps-for-total-disc-arthroplasty
#10
J T Martin, S E Gullbrand, D H Kim, K Ikuta, C G Pfeifer, B G Ashinsky, L J Smith, D M Elliott, H E Smith, R L Mauck
Total disc replacement with an engineered substitute is a promising avenue for treating advanced intervertebral disc disease. Toward this goal, we developed cell-seeded disc-like angle ply structures (DAPS) and showed through in vitro studies that these constructs mature to match native disc composition, structure, and function with long-term culture. We then evaluated DAPS performance in an in vivo rat model of total disc replacement; over 5 weeks in vivo, DAPS maintained their structure, prevented intervertebral bony fusion, and matched native disc mechanical function at physiologic loads in situ...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150628/artificial-topography-changes-the-growth-strategy-of-spartina-alterniflora-case-study-with-wave-exposure-as-a-comparison
#11
Hualong Hong, Minyue Dai, Haoliang Lu, Jingchun Liu, Jie Zhang, Chaoqi Chen, Kang Xia, Chongling Yan
This paper reports findings about the growth of Spartina alterniflora (Loisel.) near an engineered coastal protection defences to discover the potential influences on vegetation growth from the artificial topography. Impacts of the artificial topography on the sediment element composition were detected by comparing the fixed effects caused by artificial topography and wave exposure using linear mixed models. Surficial sediments under the impacts of artificial topography contain elevated levels of biogenic elements and heavy metals, including C (and organic carbon), N, S, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150516/drna-seq-implicates-sulfide-as-master-regulator-of-s-0-metabolism-in-chlorobaculum-tepidum-and-other-green-sulfur-bacteria
#12
Jacob M Hilzinger, Vidhyavathi Raman, Kevin E Shuman, Brian J Eddie, Thomas E Hanson
The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are anaerobes that use electrons from reduced sulfur compounds (sulfide, S(0), and thiosulfate) as electron donors for photoautotrophic growth. Chlorobaculum tepidum, the model system for the Chlorobiaceae, both produces and consumes extracellular S(0) globules depending on the availability of sulfide in the environment. These physiological changes imply significant changes in gene regulation, which has been observed when sulfide is added to Cba. tepidum growing on thiosulfate...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150512/a-genetic-system-for-the-thermophilic-acetogenic-bacterium-thermoanaerobacter-kivui
#13
Mirko Basen, Irina Geiger, Laura Henke, Volker Müller
Thermoanaerobacter kivui is one of the very few thermophilic acetogenic microorganisms. It grows optimally at 66°C on sugars but also lithotrophically with H2 + CO2 or with CO, producing acetate as major product. While a genome-derived model of acetogenesis has been developed, only few physiological or biochemical experiments towards the function of important enzymes in carbon and energy metabolism have been carried out. To address this issue, we developed a method for targeted, markerless gene deletions and for integration of genes into the genome of T...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150511/sulfolobus-acidocaldarius-uptakes-pentoses-via-a-cut2-type-abc-transporter-and-metabolizes-them-through-the-aldolase-independent-weimberg-pathway
#14
Michaela Wagner, Lu Shen, Andreas Albersmeier, Nienke van der Kolk, Sujin Kim, Jaeho Cha, Christopher Bräsen, Jörn Kalinowski, Bettina Siebers, Sonja-Verena Albers
Sulfolobus spp. possess a great metabolic versatility and grow heterotrophically on various carbon sources such as different sugars and peptides. Known sugar transporters in Archaea predominantly belong to ABC transport systems. Although several ABC transporters for sugar uptake have been characterized in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, only one homologue of these transporters, the maltose/maltooligomer transporter, could be identified in the closely related Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Comparison of the transcriptome of S...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150499/understanding-functional-roles-of-native-pentose-specific-transporters-for-activating-dormant-pentose-metabolism-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#15
Seunghyun Ryu, Cong T Trinh
Pentoses including xylose and arabinose are the second-most prevalent sugars of lignocellulosic biomass that can be harnessed for biological conversion. Although Yarrowia lipolytica has emerged as a promising industrial microorganism for production of high-value chemicals and biofuels, its native pentose metabolism is poorly understood. Our previous study demonstrated that Y. lipolytica (ATCC MYA-2613) has endogenous enzymes for D-xylose assimilation, but inefficient xylitol dehydrogenase causes Y. lipolytica to assimilate xylose poorly...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150150/biocompatible-hollow-polymeric-particles-produced-by-a-mild-solvent-and-template-free-strategy
#16
Eustolia Rodríguez-Velázquez, Pablo Taboada, Manuel Alatorre-Meda
Macroscopic hollow polymeric particles are attractive materials for various applications such as surgery, food industry, agriculture, etc. However, protocols reporting their synthesis have hitherto made use of organic solvents and/or sacrificial templates, compromising the encapsulation of different bioactive compounds and the process yield. Here, millimeter-size, hollow polymeric particles were synthesized, for the first time, in a solvent- and template free manner onto superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS). The particles were produced upon assembly and double superficial crosslinking of liquid droplets of DNA and methacrylamide chitosan aqueous solutions (CH:MA), leading to liquid-core particles with a hardened hydrogel shell...
November 14, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150007/crispr-in-animals-and-animal-models
#17
Ellen Shrock, Marc Güell
CRISPR-Cas9 has revolutionized the generation of transgenic animals. This system has demonstrated an unprecedented efficiency, multiplexability, and ease of use, thereby reducing the time and cost required for genome editing and enabling the production of animals with more extensive genetic modifications. It has also been shown to be applicable to a wide variety of animals, from early-branching metazoans to primates. Genome-wide screens in model organisms have been performed, accurate models of human diseases have been constructed, and potential therapies have been tested and validated in animal models...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150006/genome-engineering-using-haploid-embryonic-stem-cells
#18
Takuro Horii, Izuho Hatada
Haploidy is a useful feature for the study of gene function because disruption of one allele in haploid cells, which contain only a single set of chromosomes, can cause loss-of-function phenotypes. Recent success in generating haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells from several mammalian species, including human, provides a new platform for simple genetic manipulation of the mammalian genome. The genome-editing potential of the CRISPR/Cas system is enhanced by the use of haploid ES cells. For example, CRISPR/Cas has been used for high-efficiency generation of multiple knockouts and knockins in haploid ES cells, with potential application in genome-wide screening...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150004/dynamics-of-indel-profiles-induced-by-various-crispr-cas9-delivery-methods
#19
Michael Kosicki, Sandeep S Rajan, Flaminia C Lorenzetti, Hans H Wandall, Yoshiki Narimatsu, Emmanouil Metzakopian, Eric P Bennett
The introduction of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in mammalian cells is a scientific breakthrough, which has greatly affected basic research and gene therapy. The simplicity and general access to CRISPR/Cas9 reagents has in an unprecedented manner "democratized" gene targeting in biomedical research, enabling genetic engineering of any gene in any cell, tissue, organ, and organism. The ability for fast, precise, and efficient profiling of the double-stranded break induced insertions and deletions (indels), mediated by any of the available programmable nucleases, is paramount to any given gene targeting approach...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150003/crispr-cas9-technology-applications-and-human-disease-modeling
#20
Marta Martinez-Lage, Raúl Torres-Ruiz, Sandra Rodriguez-Perales
The CRISPR/Cas9 system development has revolutionized the field of genome engineering through the efficient creation of targeted breaks in the DNA of almost any organism and cell type, opening an avenue for a wide range of applications in biomedical research and medicine. Apart from gene edition through knock-in or knock-out approaches, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been used for many other purposes, including regulation of endogenous gene expression, epigenome editing, live-cell imaging of chromosomal loci, edition of RNA and high-throughput screening...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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