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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446009/applications-of-microfluidic-devices-for-urology
#1
REVIEW
Se Jik Han, Hun-Kuk Park, Kyung Sook Kim
Microfluidics is considered an important technology that is suitable for numerous biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis, metastasis, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. Although microfluidics is still considered to be a new approach in urological research, several pioneering studies have been reported in recent years. In this paper, we reviewed urological research works using microfluidic devices. Microfluidic devices were used for the detection of prostate and bladder cancer and the characterization of cancer microenvironments...
April 2017: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445948/combined-mek-and-pi3-kinase-inhibition-reveals-synergy-in-targeting-thyroid-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Oussama ElMokh, Dorothée Ruffieux-Daidié, Matthias A Roelli, Amandine Stooss, Wayne A Phillips, Jürg Gertsch, Matthias S Dettmer, Roch-Philippe Charles
Anaplastic thyroid cancers and radioiodine resistant thyroid cancer are posing a major treat since surgery combined with Iodine131 therapy is ineffective on them. Small-molecule inhibitors are presenting a new hope for patients, but often lead to drug resistance in many cancers. Based on the major mutations found in thyroid cancer, we propose the combination of a MEK inhibitor and a Pi3'-kinase inhibitor in pre-clinical models. We used human thyroid cancer cell lines and genetically engineered double mutant BRAFV600E PIK3CAH1047R mice to evaluate the effect of both inhibitors separately or in combination in terms of proliferation and signaling in vitro; tumor burden, histology, cell death induction and tumor markers expression in vivo...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445833/phytochrome-diversification-in-cyanobacteria-and-eukaryotic-algae
#3
REVIEW
Nathan C Rockwell, J Clark Lagarias
Phytochromes control almost every aspect of plant biology, including germination, growth, development, and flowering, in response to red and far-red light. These photoreceptors thus hold considerable promise for engineering crop plant responses to light. Recently, structural research has shed new light on how phytochromes work. Genomic and transcriptomic studies have improved our understanding of phytochrome loss, retention, and diversification during evolution. We are also beginning to understand phytochrome function in cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445823/engineering-metal-hydr-oxide-sorbents-for-removal-of-arsenate-and-similar-weak-acid-oxyanion-contaminants-a-critical-review-with-emphasis-on-factors-governing-sorption-processes
#4
Kiril D Hristovski, Jasmina Markovski
To create an integrative foundation for engineering of the next generation inexpensive sorbent systems, this critical review addresses the existing knowledge gap in factor/performance relationships between weak-acid oxyanion contaminants and metal (hydr)oxide sorbents. In-depth understanding of fundamental thermodynamics and kinetics mechanisms, material fabrication, and analytical and characterization techniques, is necessary to engineer sorbent that exhibit high capacity, selectivity, stability, durability and mass transport of contaminants under a wide range of operating and water matrix conditions requirements...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445803/jetvalve-rapid-manufacturing-of-biohybrid-scaffolds-for-biomimetic-heart-valve-replacement
#5
Andrew K Capulli, Maximillian Y Emmert, Francesco S Pasqualini, Debora Kehl, Etem Caliskan, Johan U Lind, Sean P Sheehy, Sung Jin Park, Seungkuk Ahn, Benedikt Weber, Josue A Goss, Simon P Hoerstrup, Kevin Kit Parker
Tissue engineered scaffolds have emerged as a promising solution for heart valve replacement because of their potential for regeneration. However, traditional heart valve tissue engineering has relied on resource-intensive, cell-based manufacturing, which increases cost and hinders clinical translation. To overcome these limitations, in situ tissue engineering approaches aim to develop scaffold materials and manufacturing processes that elicit endogenous tissue remodeling and repair. Yet despite recent advances in synthetic materials manufacturing, there remains a lack of cell-free, automated approaches for rapidly producing biomimetic heart valve scaffolds...
April 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445724/quantification-of-the-impact-of-the-hiv-1-glycan-shield-on-antibody-elicitation
#6
Tongqing Zhou, Nicole A Doria-Rose, Cheng Cheng, Guillaume B E Stewart-Jones, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Michael Chambers, Aliaksandr Druz, Hui Geng, Krisha McKee, Young Do Kwon, Sijy O'Dell, Mallika Sastry, Stephen D Schmidt, Kai Xu, Lei Chen, Rita E Chen, Mark K Louder, Marie Pancera, Timothy G Wanninger, Baoshan Zhang, Anqi Zheng, S Katie Farney, Kathryn E Foulds, Ivelin S Georgiev, M Gordon Joyce, Thomas Lemmin, Sandeep Narpala, Reda Rawi, Cinque Soto, John-Paul Todd, Chen-Hsiang Shen, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Yongping Yang, Peng Zhao, Barton F Haynes, Leonidas Stamatatos, Michael Tiemeyer, Lance Wells, Diana G Scorpio, Lawrence Shapiro, Adrian B McDermott, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong
While the HIV-1-glycan shield is known to shelter Env from the humoral immune response, its quantitative impact on antibody elicitation has been unclear. Here, we use targeted deglycosylation to measure the impact of the glycan shield on elicitation of antibodies against the CD4 supersite. We engineered diverse Env trimers with select glycans removed proximal to the CD4 supersite, characterized their structures and glycosylation, and immunized guinea pigs and rhesus macaques. Immunizations yielded little neutralization against wild-type viruses but potent CD4-supersite neutralization (titers 1: >1,000,000 against four-glycan-deleted autologous viruses with over 90% breadth against four-glycan-deleted heterologous strains exhibiting tier 2 neutralization character)...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445642/the-predictive-power-of-clean-bed-filtration-theory-for-fecal-indicator-bacteria-removal-in-stormwater-biofilters
#7
Emily Parker, Megan A Rippy, Andrew Mehring, Brandon Winfrey, Richard F Ambrose, Lisa A Levin, Stanley B Grant
Green infrastructure (also referred to as low impact development, or LID) has the potential to transform urban stormwater runoff from an environmental threat to a valuable water resource. In this paper we focus on the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a pollutant responsible for runoff-associated inland and coastal beach closures) in stormwater biofilters (a common type of green infrastructure). Drawing on a combination of previously published and new laboratory studies of FIB removal in biofilters, we find that 66% of the variance in FIB removal rates can be explained by clean bed filtration theory (CBFT, 31%), antecedent dry period (14%), study effect (8%), biofilter age (7%), and the presence or absence of shrubs (6%)...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445607/fractal-characteristics-of-the-microvascular-network-a-useful-index-to-assess-vascularization-level-of-porous-silk-fibroin-biomaterial
#8
Kuihua Zhan, Lun Bai, Qinqin Wu, Derong Lei, Guangqian Wang
The neovascularization of biomaterials for tissue engineering is not only related to growth of capillaries but also involves appropriate hierarchy distribution of the microvessels. In this study, we proposed hierarchy distribution contrast method which can assess vascular transport capacity, in order to examine the hierarchy distribution of the neovessels during vascularization of the porous silk fibroin biomaterials implanted into rats and its evolution. The results showed that the fractal characteristics appeared toward the end of the vascularization stages, and the structure of the microvascular network after 3 weeks of implantation was similar to the fractal microvascular tree with bifurcation exponent x=3 and fractal dimension D=1...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445599/growth-engineering-of-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942-for-mixotrophy-under-natural-light-conditions-for-improved-feedstock-production
#9
Aditya Sarnaik, Reena Pandit, Arvind Lali
Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 has been widely explored as cyanobacterial cell factory through genetic modifications for production of various value-added compounds. However, successful industrial scale-ups have not been reported for the system predominantly due to its obligate photoautotrophic metabolism and use of artificial light in photobioreactors. Hence, engineering the organism to perform mixotrophy under natural light could serve as an effective solution. Thus, we applied a genetically engineered strain of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 expressing heterologous hexose transporter gene (galP) to perform mixotrophy under natural light in a temperature controlled environmental chamber (EC)...
April 26, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445589/a-network-engineering-perspective-on-probing-and-perturbing-cognition-with-neurofeedback
#10
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Ankit N Khambhati
Network science and engineering provide a flexible and generalizable tool set to describe and manipulate complex systems characterized by heterogeneous interaction patterns among component parts. While classically applied to social systems, these tools have recently proven to be particularly useful in the study of the brain. In this review, we describe the nascent use of these tools to understand human cognition, and we discuss their utility in informing the meaningful and predictable perturbation of cognition in combination with the emerging capabilities of neurofeedback...
April 26, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445526/biosynthesis-of-the-oxygenated-diterpene-nezukol-in-the-medicinal-plant-isodon-rubescens-is-catalyzed-by-a-pair-of-diterpene-synthases
#11
Kyle A Pelot, David M Hagelthorn, J Bennett Addison, Philipp Zerbe
Plants produce an immense diversity of natural products (i.e. secondary or specialized metabolites) that offer a rich source of known and potentially new pharmaceuticals and other desirable bioproducts. The Traditional Chinese Medicinal plant Isodon rubescens (Lamiaceae) contains an array of bioactive labdane-related diterpenoid natural products. Of these, the ent-kauranoid oridonin is the most prominent specialized metabolite that has been extensively studied for its potent antimicrobial and anticancer efficacy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445507/various-mutations-compensate-for-a-deleterious-lacz%C3%AE-insert-in-the-replication-enhancer-of-m13-bacteriophage
#12
Emily M Zygiel, Karen A Noren, Marta A Adamkiewicz, Richard J Aprile, Heather K Bowditch, Christine L Carroll, Maria Abigail S Cerezo, Adelle M Dagher, Courtney R Hebert, Lauren E Hebert, Gloria M Mahame, Stephanie C Milne, Kelly M Silvestri, Sara E Sutherland, Alexandria M Sylvia, Caitlyn N Taveira, David J VanValkenburgh, Christopher J Noren, Marilena Fitzsimons Hall
M13 and other members of the Ff class of filamentous bacteriophages have been extensively employed in myriad applications. The Ph.D. series of phage-displayed peptide libraries were constructed from the M13-based vector M13KE. As a direct descendent of M13mp19, M13KE contains the lacZα insert in the intergenic region between genes IV and II, where it interrupts the replication enhancer of the (+) strand origin. Phage carrying this 816-nucleotide insert are viable, but propagate in E. coli at a reduced rate compared to wild-type M13 phage, presumably due to a replication defect caused by the insert...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445468/discovery-of-intrinsic-ferromagnetism-in-two-dimensional-van-der-waals-crystals
#13
Cheng Gong, Lin Li, Zhenglu Li, Huiwen Ji, Alex Stern, Yang Xia, Ting Cao, Wei Bao, Chenzhe Wang, Yuan Wang, Z Q Qiu, R J Cava, Steven G Louie, Jing Xia, Xiang Zhang
The realization of long-range ferromagnetic order in two-dimensional van der Waals crystals, combined with their rich electronic and optical properties, could lead to new magnetic, magnetoelectric and magneto-optic applications. In two-dimensional systems, the long-range magnetic order is strongly suppressed by thermal fluctuations, according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem; however, these thermal fluctuations can be counteracted by magnetic anisotropy. Previous efforts, based on defect and composition engineering, or the proximity effect, introduced magnetic responses only locally or extrinsically...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445398/consensus-based-cooperative-control-based-on-pollution-sensing-and-traffic-information-for-urban-traffic-networks
#14
Antonio Artuñedo, Raúl M Del Toro, Rodolfo E Haber
Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks...
April 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445366/biomechanical-integrity-in-craniofacial-surgery-calvarial-reconstruction-in-favorable-and-infected-defects-with-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2
#15
Zoe M MacIsaac, Sarah E Henderson, Sameer Shakir, Sanjay Naran, Darren M Smith, Liliana Camison, James J Cray, Alejandro J Almarza, Gregory M Cooper, Joseph E Losee
BACKGROUND: The limitations of autologous and alloplastic reconstruction for craniofacial bone defects have created a clinical need for viable tissue-engineering strategies. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has shown promise in this setting. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term biomechanical properties of rhBMP-2-mediated calvarial reconstruction. METHODS: Twelve-week-old New Zealand White rabbits underwent subtotal calvarectomy...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445263/acupuncture-for-enhancing-early-recovery-of-bowel-function-in-cancer-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#16
Yi-Hua Liu, Yang Ye, Jia-Bin Zheng, Xue-Qian Wang, Ying Zhang, Hong-Sheng Lin
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients undergoing surgical procedure often suffer from bowel dysfunction and postoperative ileus (POI). Cancer management for early recovery of bowel function is still a challenging topic. Acupuncture has been commonly used in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of acupuncture therapy to reduce the duration of POI and enhance bowel function in cancer patients. METHODS: We will systematically screen all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through electronically and hand searching...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445233/preclinical-models-for-translational-sarcoma-research
#17
Rainer Hamacher, Sebastian Bauer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sarcoma is a basket term for mesenchymal tumors for which more than 75 genetically and histologically distinct subtypes are recognized. Therapeutic progress has largely been achieved with classical chemotherapeutic drugs that were tested in empirical clinical trials. However, outcome in metastatic patients remains poor and with few exceptions numerous trials have failed or only provided limited improvement in recent years. RECENT FINDINGS: Given the genomic heterogeneity, preclinical model systems will be indispensable to identify new molecular targets and to prioritize drugs and drug combinations...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445172/telehealth-intensive-care-unit-nurse-surveillance-of-sepsis
#18
Teresa A Rincon, E LaVerne Manos, Janet D Pierce
The purpose of this article is to describe the usability and human factors engineering standards used in development of a sepsis alert known as the sepsis prompt. Sensory processing, cognitive processing, signal detection, criterion response, and user satisfaction were evaluated with controlled user testing and critical incident response techniques. Nurses reported that the sepsis prompt was visible and distinct, making it easily detectable. The prompt provided a clear response mechanism and adequately balanced the number of false alerts with the likelihood of misses...
April 25, 2017: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445071/polymorphic-assembly-from-beveled-gold-triangular-nanoprisms
#19
Juyeong Kim, Xiaohui Song, Fei Ji, Binbin Luo, Nicole F Ice, Qipeng Liu, Qiao Zhang, Qian Chen
The shape anisotropy of nanoparticle building blocks is of critical importance in determining their packing symmetry and assembly directionality. While there has been extensive research on the effect of their overall geometric shapes, the importance of nanometer morphology details is not well-recognized or understood. Here we draw on shape-anisotropic gold triangular nanoprism building blocks synthesized based on a method we recently developed; besides the "large-scale" triangular prism shape (79.8 nm in side length and 22...
April 26, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445068/experimental-demonstration-of-230%C3%A2-phase-modulation-in-gate-tunable-graphene-gold-reconfigurable-mid-infrared-metasurfaces
#20
Michelle C Sherrott, Philip W C Hon, Katherine T Fountaine, Juan C Garcia, Samuel M Ponti, Victor Watson Brar, Luke A Sweatlock, Harry A Atwater
Metasurfaces offer significant potential to control far-field light propagation through the engineering of amplitude, polarization, and phase at an interface. We report here phase modulation of an electronically reconfigurable metasurface and demonstrate its utility for mid-infrared beam steering. Using a gate-tunable graphene-gold resonator geometry, we demonstrate highly tunable reflected phase at multiple wavelengths and show up to 237° phase modulation range at an operating wavelength of 8.50 μm. We observe a smooth monotonic modulation of phase with applied voltage from 0° to 206° at a wavelength of 8...
April 26, 2017: Nano Letters
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