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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342158/real-time-community-detection-in-full-social-networks-on-a-laptop
#1
Benjamin Paul Chamberlain, Josh Levy-Kramer, Clive Humby, Marc Peter Deisenroth
For a broad range of research and practical applications it is important to understand the allegiances, communities and structure of key players in society. One promising direction towards extracting this information is to exploit the rich relational data in digital social networks (the social graph). As global social networks (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) are very large, most approaches make use of distributed computing systems for this purpose. Distributing graph processing requires solving many difficult engineering problems, which has lead some researchers to look at single-machine solutions that are faster and easier to maintain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342074/characterization-of-an-additive-manufactured-tial-alloy-steel-joint-produced-by-electron-beam-welding
#2
Gloria Basile, Giorgio Baudana, Giulio Marchese, Massimo Lorusso, Mariangela Lombardi, Daniele Ugues, Paolo Fino, Sara Biamino
In this work, the characterization of the assembly of a steel shaft into a γ-TiAl part for turbocharger application, obtained using Electron Beam Welding (EBW) technology with a Ni-based filler, was carried out. The Ti-48Al-2Nb-0.7Cr-0.3Si (at %) alloy part was produced by Electron Beam Melting (EBM). This additive manufacturing technology allows the production of a lightweight part with complex shapes. The replacement of Nickel-based superalloys with TiAl alloys in turbocharger automotive applications will lead to an improvement of the engine performance and a substantial reduction in fuel consumption and emission...
January 17, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341854/separation-of-brown-carbon-from-black-carbon-for-improve-and-csn-pm2-5-samples
#3
Judith C Chow, John G Watson, Mark C Green, Xiaoliang Wang, L-W Antony Chen, Dana L Trimble, Paul M Cropper, Steven D Kohl, Steven B Gronstal
The replacement of the DRI Model 2001 with Model 2015 thermal/optical analyzers (TOAs) results in continuity of the long-term organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) data base, and it adds optical information with no additional carbon analysis effort. The value of multiwavelength light attenuation is that light absorption due to black carbon (BC) can be separated from that of brown carbon (BrC), with subsequent attribution to known sources such as biomass burning and secondary organic aerosols. There is evidence of filter loading effects for the 25% of all samples with the highest EC concentrations based on the ratio of light attenuation to EC...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341813/regenerative-medicine-a-vehicle-to-infuse-laboratory-bench-modules-into-an-exercise-physiology-curriculum
#4
Jason M Brown, Breonte S Guy, Dawn X Henderson, C Edward Ebert, Jill Harp, Chad D Markert
Regenerative medicine is a novel discipline that both excites undergraduates and may be used as a vehicle to expose students to scientific concepts and opportunities. The goal of this article is to describe the implementation of a National Science Foundation-funded Targeted Infusion Project in which underrepresented minority undergraduates are exposed to laboratory-bench skills and summer research opportunities that they may not have encountered otherwise. A 3-wk infusion of laboratory-bench and data presentation skills, in the context of a regenerative medicine/bioengineering project, aimed to engage students and expose them to opportunities as summer researchers and teaching assistants...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341731/ultrafocused-electromagnetic-field-pulses-with-a-hollow-cylindrical-waveguide
#5
P Maurer, J Prat-Camps, J I Cirac, T W Hänsch, O Romero-Isart
We theoretically show that a dipole externally driven by a pulse with a lower-bounded temporal width, and placed inside a cylindrical hollow waveguide, can generate a train of arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic pulses. The waveguide encloses vacuum with perfect electric conducting walls. A dipole driven by a single short pulse, which is properly engineered to exploit the linear spectral filtering of the cylindrical hollow waveguide, excites longitudinal waveguide modes that are coherently refocused at some particular instances of time, thereby producing arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic pulses...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341723/improving-a-solid-state-qubit-through-an-engineered-mesoscopic-environment
#6
G Éthier-Majcher, D Gangloff, R Stockill, E Clarke, M Hugues, C Le Gall, M Atatüre
A controlled quantum system can alter its environment by feedback, leading to reduced-entropy states of the environment and to improved system coherence. Here, using a quantum-dot electron spin as a control and probe, we prepare the quantum-dot nuclei under the feedback of coherent population trapping and observe their evolution from a thermal to a reduced-entropy state, with the immediate consequence of extended qubit coherence. Via Ramsey interferometry on the electron spin, we directly access the nuclear distribution following its preparation and measure the emergence and decay of correlations within the nuclear ensemble...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341711/macroscopic-polarization-from-antiferrodistortive-cycloids-in-ferroelastic-srtio_-3
#7
Andrea Schiaffino, Massimiliano Stengel
Based on a first-principles based multiscale approach, we study the polarity P of ferroelastic twin walls in SrTiO_{3}. In addition to flexoelectricity, which was pointed out before, we identify two new mechanisms that crucially contribute to P: a direct "rotopolar" coupling to the gradients of the antiferrodistortive oxygen tilts, and a trilinear coupling that is mediated by the antiferroelectric displacement of the Ti atoms. Remarkably, the rotopolar coupling presents a strong analogy to the mechanism that generates a spontaneous polarization in cycloidal magnets...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341658/floquet-symmetry-protected-topological-phases-in-cold-atom-systems
#8
I-D Potirniche, A C Potter, M Schleier-Smith, A Vishwanath, N Y Yao
We propose and analyze two distinct routes toward realizing interacting symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases via periodic driving. First, we demonstrate that a driven transverse-field Ising model can be used to engineer complex interactions which enable the emulation of an equilibrium SPT phase. This phase remains stable only within a parametric time scale controlled by the driving frequency, beyond which its topological features break down. To overcome this issue, we consider an alternate route based upon realizing an intrinsically Floquet SPT phase that does not have any equilibrium analog...
September 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341637/enhancing-sideband-cooling-by-feedback-controlled-light
#9
Massimiliano Rossi, Nenad Kralj, Stefano Zippilli, Riccardo Natali, Antonio Borrielli, Gregory Pandraud, Enrico Serra, Giovanni Di Giuseppe, David Vitali
We realize a phase-sensitive closed-loop control scheme to engineer the fluctuations of the pump field which drives an optomechanical system and show that the corresponding cooling dynamics can be significantly improved. In particular, operating in the counterintuitive "antisquashing" regime of positive feedback and increased field fluctuations, sideband cooling of a nanomechanical membrane within an optical cavity can be improved by 7.5 dB with respect to the case without feedback. Close to the quantum regime of reduced thermal noise, such feedback-controlled light would allow going well below the quantum backaction cooling limit...
September 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341583/tumor-catalytic-photothermal-therapy-with-yolk-shell-gold-carbon-nanozymes
#10
Lei Fan, Xiangdong Xu, Chunhua Zhu, Jie Han, Lizeng Gao, Juqun Xi, Rong Guo
Nanozymes, as a new generation of artificial enzymes, offer great opportunities in biomedical engineering and disease treatment. Synergizing the multiple intrinsic functions of nanozymes can improve their performance in biological systems. Here, we report a novel nanozyme with yolk-shell structure fabricated by combining a single gold nanoparticle core with a porous hollow carbon shell nanospheres (Au@HCNs). Au@HCNs exhibited enzyme-like activities similar to horseradish peroxidase and oxidase under an acidic environment, showing the ability of ROS generation...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341492/development-of-a-bi-modal-in-situ-crosslinking-method-to-achieve-multi-factor-release-from-electrospun-gelatin
#11
Alysha P Kishan, Taneidra Walker, Nick Sears, Thomas Wilems, Elizabeth M Cosgriff-Hernandez
To better mimic native tissue microenvironments, current efforts have moved beyond single growth factor delivery to more complex multiple growth factor delivery with distinct release profiles. Electrospun gelatin, a widely investigated drug delivery vehicle, requires post-processing crosslinking techniques that generate a mesh with uniform crosslinking density, limiting the ability to deliver multiple factors at different rates. Herein, we describe a method to independently control release of multiple factors from a single electrospun gelatin mesh...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341434/recombinant-collagen-scaffolds-as-substrates-for-human-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#12
Richard A Que, Janahan Arulmoli, Nancy A Da Silva, Lisa A Flanagan, Szu-Wen Wang
Adhesion to the microenvironment profoundly affects stem cell functions, including proliferation and differentiation, and understanding the interaction of stem cells with the microenvironment is important for controlling their behavior. In this study, we investigated the effects of the integrin binding epitopes GFOGER and IKVAV (natively present in collagen I and laminin, respectively) on human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs). To test the specificity of these epitopes, GFOGER or IKVAV were placed within the context of recombinant triple-helical collagen III engineered to be devoid of native integrin binding sites...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341380/tuning-the-adsorption-energy-of-methanol-molecules-along-ni-n-doped-carbon-phase-boundaries-via-the-mott-schottky-effect-for-highly-efficient-dehydrogenation-of-gas-phase-methanol
#13
Zhong-Hua Xue, Jing-Tan Han, Wei-Jie Feng, Qiu-Ying Yu, Xin-Hao Li, Markus Antonietti, Jie-Sheng Chen
Engineering the adsorption of molecules on active sites is an integral and challenging part for the design of highly efficient transition-metal-based catalysts for methanol dehydrogenation. Here we report a Mott-Schottky catalyst composed of Ni nanoparticles and tailorable nitrogen-doped carbon-foam (Ni/NCF) and thus tunable adsorption energy for highly efficient and selective dehydrogenation of gas-phase methanol to hydrogen and CO even under relatively high weight hourly space velocities (WHSV). Both theoretical and experimental results reveal the key role of the rectifying contact at the Ni/NCF boundaries in tailoring the electron density of Ni species and enhancing the absorption energies of methanol molecules, which leads to a remarkably high turnover frequency (TOF) value (356 mol methanol mol-1 Ni h-1 at 350 °C), 10-fold outpacing the bench-marked transition-metal catalysts in the literature...
January 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341307/chemical-and-enzymatic-strategies-for-bacterial-and-mammalian-cell-surface-engineering
#14
Xiaobao Bi, Juan Yin, Ashley Chen Guanbang, Chuan-Fa Liu
Cell surface serves important functions such as the regulation of cell-cell and cell-environment interactions. The understanding and manipulation of the cell surface is important for a wide range of fundamental studies of cellular behavior and for biotechnological and medical applications. With the rapid advance of biology, chemistry and materials science, many strategies have been developed for the functionalization of bacterial and mammalian cell surfaces. Here, we review the recent development of chemical and enzymatic approaches to cell surface engineering with particular emphasis on discussing the advantages and limitations of each of these strategies...
January 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341305/plasmid-templated-control-of-dna-cyclodextrin-nanoparticle-morphology-through-molecular-vector-design-for-effective-gene-delivery
#15
Laura Gallego-Yerga, Juan M Benito, Laura Blanco-Fernández, María Martínez-Negro, Itziar Vélaz, Emilio Aicart, Elena Junquera, Carmen Ortiz Mellet, Conchita Tros de Ilarduya, Jose M Garcia Fernandez
Engineering self-assembled superstructures through complexation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) and single-isomer nanometric size macromolecules (molecular nanoparticles) is a promising strategy for gene delivery. Notably, the functionality and overall architecture of the vector can be precisely moulded at the atomic level by chemical tailoring, enabling unprecedented opportunities for structure/self-assembling/pDNA delivery relationship studies. Beyond this notion, by judiciously preorganizing the functional elements in cyclodextrin (CD)-based molecular nanoparticles through covalent dimerization, here we demonstrate that the morphology of the resulting nanocomplexes (CDplexes) can be tuned, from spherical to ellipsoidal, rod-type or worm-like nanoparticles, which makes it possible to gain understanding of their shape-dependent transfection properties...
January 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341288/lipid-and-nucleic-acid-chemistries-combining-the-best-of-both-worlds-to-construct-advanced-biomaterials
#16
REVIEW
Julie Baillet, Valérie Desvergnes, Aladin Hamoud, Laurent Latxague, Philippe Barthélémy
Hybrid synthetic amphiphilic biomolecules are emerging as promising supramolecular materials for biomedical and technological applications. Herein, recent progress in the field of nucleic acid based lipids is highlighted with an emphasis on their molecular design, synthesis, supramolecular properties, physicochemical behaviors, and applications in the field of health science and technology. In the first section, the design and the study of nucleolipids are in focus and then the glyconucleolipid family is discussed...
January 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341265/cicatricial-alopecia-research-foundation-meeting-may-2016-progress-towards-the-diagnosis-treatment-and-cure-of-primary-cicatricial-alopecias
#17
John P Sundberg, Maria K Hordinsky, Wilma Bergfeld, Yolanda M Lenzy, Amy J McMichael, Angela M Christiano, Tracy McGregor, Kurt S Stenn, Raja K Sivamani, C Herbert Pratt, Lloyd E King
Primary Cicatricial Alopecias (PCAs) are a group of skin diseases in which there is progressive and permanent destruction of hair follicles followed by replacement with fibrous tissue. Unfortunately, by the time patients seek clinical evaluation of their hair loss, the skin is already inflamed and/or scarred, so there is little hope for a return to their normal hair growth pattern. Clinical and basic science investigations are now focusing on three forms of human PCA, lichen planopilaris (LPP), frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA)...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341200/human-agency-in-disaster-planning-a-systems-approach
#18
John Hamer Powell, Michael Hammond, Albert Chen, Navonil Mustafee
Current approaches to risk management place insufficient emphasis on the system knowledge available to the assessor, particularly in respect of the dynamic behavior of the system under threat, the role of human agents (HAs), and the knowledge available to those agents. In this article, we address the second of these issues. We are concerned with a class of systems containing HAs playing a variety of roles as significant system elements-as decisionmakers, cognitive agents, or implementers-that is, human activity systems...
January 16, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341024/advanced-contrast-agents-for-multimodal-biomedical-imaging-based-on-nanotechnology
#19
Daniel Calle, Paloma Ballesteros, Sebastián Cerdán
Clinical imaging modalities have reached a prominent role in medical diagnosis and patient management in the last decades. Different image methodologies as Positron Emission Tomography, Single Photon Emission Tomography, X-Rays, or Magnetic Resonance Imaging are in continuous evolution to satisfy the increasing demands of current medical diagnosis. Progress in these methodologies has been favored by the parallel development of increasingly more powerful contrast agents. These are molecules that enhance the intrinsic contrast of the images in the tissues where they accumulate, revealing noninvasively the presence of characteristic molecular targets or differential physiopathological microenvironments...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341015/in-utero-mri-of-mouse-embryos
#20
Jiangyang Zhang, Dan Wu, Daniel H Turnbull
Genetically engineered mouse models are used extensively as models of human development and developmental diseases. Conventional histological approaches are static and two-dimensional, and do not provide a full understanding of the dynamic, spatiotemporal changes in developing mouse embryos. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a noninvasive and longitudinal approach for three-dimensional in utero imaging of normal and mutant mouse embryos. In this chapter, we describe MRI approaches that have been developed for imaging the living embryonic mouse brain and vasculature...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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