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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793171/compositional-engineering-of-acceptors-for-highly-efficient-bulk-heterojunction-hybrid-organic-solar-cells
#1
S Amber Yousaf, M Ikram, S Ali
The wet chemical synthesis of chromium oxide (Cr2 O3 ) nanoparticles (NPs) and its application in active layer of inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells is documented in this research. Chromium oxide NPs of 10-30 nm size range having a band gap of 2.9 eV were successfully synthesized. These NPs were used in inverted organic solar cells in amalgamation with P3HT:PCBM and PTB7:PCBM polymers. The fabricated hybrid devices improves PCE significantly for P3HT:PCBM and PTB7:PCBM systems. The photophysical energy levels, optoelectrical properties and microscopic images have been systematically studied for the fabricated devices...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793157/energy-dissipation-in-quasi-linear-viscoelastic-tissues-cells-and-extracellular-matrix
#2
Behzad Babaei, A J Velasquez-Mao, Kenneth M Pryse, William B McConnaughey, Elliot L Elson, Guy M Genin
Characterizing how a tissue's constituents give rise to its viscoelasticity is important for uncovering how hidden timescales underlie multiscale biomechanics. These constituents are viscoelastic in nature, and their mechanics must typically be assessed from the uniaxial behavior of a tissue. Confounding the challenge is that tissue viscoelasticity is typically associated with nonlinear elastic responses. Here, we experimentally assessed how fibroblasts and extracellular matrix (ECM) within engineered tissue constructs give rise to the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of a tissue...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792959/fabrication-and-cytotoxicity-assessment-of-cellulose-nanofibrils-using-bassia-eriophora-biomass
#3
Jegan Athinarayanan, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan Periasamy, Ali A Alshatwi
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNs) are eco-friendly, biodegradable, biocompatible, renewable, cost-effective, and possess excellent mechanical properties. We fabricated CNs from Bassia eriophora biomass, and the structure and morphology were investigated by transmission electron microscopy that revealed 2-6 μm long fibrillated structures with diameters of 15-40 nm. CNs biocompatibility was assessed using in vitro based assays, including cell viability assay, AO/EB staining, Hoechst staining, JC-1 staining, and gene expression analysis...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792931/engineering-the-production-of-dipicolinic-acid-in-e-coli
#4
Maria K McClintock, Grant W Fahnhorst, Thomas R Hoye, Kechun Zhang
Dicarboxylic acids, such as the phthalic acids and their derivatives, are monomeric components in several important polyesters and polyamides. In most cases, these compounds are derived from fossil fuels and are not easily biodegradable. Dipicolinic acid (DPA) is a biologically derived aromatic di-acid that has a similar structure to isophthalic acid. Furthermore, DPA has been shown to make polyesters, is readily biodegradable, and is non-toxic. DPA is naturally produced by Bacillus and Clostridium species during sporulation and can comprise up to 15% of the dry weight...
May 21, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792810/optogenetic-inhibition-of-g%C3%AE-q-protein-signaling-reduces-calcium-oscillation-stochasticity
#5
Pimkhuan Hannanta-Anan, Brian Y Chow
As fast terminators of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) serve critical roles in fine-tuning second messenger levels and, consequently, cellular responses to external stimuli. Here, we report the creation of an optogenetic RGS2 (opto-RGS2) that suppresses agonist-evoked calcium oscillations by the inactivation of Gαq protein. In this system, cryptochrome-mediated hetero-dimerization of the catalytic RGS2-box with its N-terminal amphipathic helix reconstitutes a functional membrane-localized complex that can dynamically suppress store-operated release of calcium...
May 24, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792795/tuning-the-morphology-of-nanostructured-peptide-films-by-introduction-of-a-secondary-structure-conformational-constraint-a-case-study-of-hierarchical-self-assembly
#6
Marta De Zotti, Beatrice Muzzi, Emanuela Gatto, Benedetta Di Napoli, Claudia Mazzuca, Antonio Palleschi, Ernesto Placidi, Fernando Formaggio, Claudio Toniolo, Mariano Venanzi
Peptide self-assembly is ubiquitous in nature. It governs the organization of proteins, controlling their folding kinetics and preserving their structure stability and bioactivity. In this connection, model oligopeptides may give important insights on the molecular mechanisms and elementary forces driving the formation of supramolecular structures. In this contribution we show that a single residue substitution, i.e. Aib (α-aminoisobutyric acid) in place of Ala at position 4 of an -(L-Ala)5- homo-oligomer, strongly alters the aggregation process...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792713/gan-nanowire-arrays-for-efficient-optical-read-out-and-optoelectronic-control-of-nv-centers-in-diamond
#7
Martin Hetzl, Jakob Wierzbowski, Theresa Hoffmann, Max Kraut, Verena Zuerbig, Christoph E Nebel, Kai Müller, Jonathan J Finley, Martin Stutzmann
Solid state quantum emitters embedded in a semiconductor crystal environment are potentially scalable platforms for quantum optical networks operated at room temperature. Prominent representatives are nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond showing coherent entanglement and interference with each other. However, these emitters suffer from inefficient optical outcoupling from the diamond and from fluctuations of their charge state. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of regular n-type gallium nitride nanowire arrays on diamond as photonic waveguides to tailor the emission direction of surface-near NV centers and to electrically control their charge state in a p-i-n nano-diode...
May 24, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792712/targeted-discovery-and-combinatorial-biosynthesis-of-polycyclic-tetramate-macrolactam-combamides-a-e
#8
Yan Liu, Haoxin Wang, Rentai Song, Jining Chen, Tianhong Li, Yaoyao Li, Liangcheng Du, Yuemao Shen
Polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PoTeMs) are a growing class of natural products with distinct structure and diverse biological activities. By promoter engineering and heterologous expression of the cryptic cbm gene cluster, four new PoTeMs, combamides A-E (1-4), were identified. Additionally, two new derivatives, combamides E (5) and F (6), were generated via combinatorial biosynthesis. Together, our findings provide a sound base for expanding the structure diversities of PoTeMs through genome mining and combinatorial biosynthesis...
May 24, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792711/interfacial-emulsification-an-emerging-monodisperse-droplet-generation-method-for-microreactors-and-bioanalysis
#9
Shenglong Liao, Yi Tao, Wenbin Du, Yapei Wang
Generation of uniform droplets has been extensively investigated owing to its profound potentials both in scientific research and engineering applications. Although various methods have been put forward to expand this area, new innovations are still needed to improve the technical convenience and save instrumental cost. In this feature article, we highlight an Interfacial Emulsification technique that we developed in the past several years. This technique serves as a platform for preparing uniform droplets that are formed on the air-liquid interface of the continuous phase based on interfacial shearing...
May 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792692/small-molecule-targeted-recruitment-of-a-nuclease-to-rna
#10
Matthew G Costales, Yasumasa Matsumoto, Sai Pradeep Velagapudi, Matthew D Disney
The choreography between RNA synthesis and degradation is a key determinant in biology. Engineered systems such as CRISPR have been developed to rid a cell of RNAs. Here, we show that a small molecule can recruit a nuclease to a specific transcript, triggering its destruction. A small molecule that selectively binds the oncogenic microRNA(miR)-96 hairpin precursor was appended with a short 2'-5' poly(A) oligonucleotide. The conjugate locally activated endogenous, latent ribonuclease (RNase L), which selectively cleaved the miR-96 precursor in cancer cells in a catalytic and sub-stoichiometric fashion...
May 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792673/recent-advances-on-sodium-oxygen-batteries-a-chemical-perspective
#11
Hossein Yadegari, Xueliang Sun
Releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere because of widespread use of fossil fuels by humankind has resulted in raising the earth's temperature during the past few decades. Known as global warming, increasing the earth's temperature may in turn endanger civilization on the earth by starting a cycle of environmental changes including climate change and sea level rise. Therefore, replacing fossil fuels with more sustainable energy resources has been considered as one of the main strategies to tackle the global warming crisis...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792672/biosynthesis-of-lincosamide-antibiotics-reactions-associated-with-degradation-and-detoxification-pathways-play-a-constructive-role
#12
Daozhong Zhang, Zhijun Tang, Wen Liu
Natural products typically are small molecules produced by living organisms. These products possess a wide variety of biological activities and thus have historically played a critical role in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology either as chemotherapeutic agents or as useful tools. Natural products are not synthesized for use by human beings; rather, living organisms produce them in response to various biochemical processes and environmental concerns, both internal and external. These processes/concerns are often dynamic and thus motivate the diversification, optimization, and selection of small molecules in line with changes in biological function...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792568/physical-ergonomics-awareness-in-an-offshore-processing-platform-among-malaysian-oil-and-gas-workers
#13
M Hafizul Hilmi, Raja Ariffin Raja Ghazilla
INTRODUCTION: The reliability of offshore oil and gas (O&G) facilities depend on the operation and maintenance activities, where human physical intervention is involved. Workers are often exposed to ergonomics hazards due to inefficient workplace design. Ergonomics awareness among workers is a crucial factor in mitigating such hazards. OBJECTIVES: This study intends to evaluate the state of physical ergonomics awareness among Malaysian O&G workers and to assess their perception towards the criticality of physical ergonomics issues within an offshore processing facility...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792531/the-expression-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-5-is-necessary-for-the-regulation-of-intestinal-na-h-exchanger-3-by-lysophosphatidic-acid-in-vivo
#14
Kayte A Jenkin, Peijian He, C Chris Yun
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid molecule, which regulates a broad range of pathophysiological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that LPA modulates electrolyte flux in the intestine and its potential as an anti-diarrheal agent has been suggested. Of six LPA receptors, LPA5 is highly expressed in the intestine. Recent studies by our group have demonstrated activation of Na+ /H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) by LPA5 . However, much of what has been elucidated was achieved using colonic cell lines that were transfected to express LPA5 ...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792527/enteric-neural-stem-cells-expressing-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-a-novel-cellular-therapy-for-hirschsprung-s-disease-in-mouse-model
#15
Wei Liu, Lijuan Zhang, Rongde Wu
Transplanting enteric neural stem cells (ENSCs) is an innovative approach for replacing enteric neurons in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). However, posttransplantation cell survival and differentiation limit efficacy. We aimed to investigate whether transplantation of ENSCs engineered with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) could improve survival and differentiation of the engrafted cells and promote functional recovery of the aganglionic colon. ENSCs were isolated from the intestine of neonatal mice and genetically modified to express IGF-1...
May 24, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792458/the-trade-offs-of-teamwork-among-stem-doctoral-graduates
#16
Kevin M Kniffin, Andrew S Hanks
Teamwork has increasingly become prevalent in professional fields such as academic science, perhaps partly because research shows that teams tend to produce superior work. Although research on teamwork has typically focused on its impact on work products, we complement that work by examining the degree to which teamwork influences salary, hours worked, and overall job satisfaction. Drawing on microdata collected through the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients as well as the Survey of Earned Doctorates, we find that doctoral degree holders in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields tend to earn substantially higher salaries and work more hours when they engage in teamwork...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792454/addressing-the-paradox-of-the-team-innovation-process-a-review-and-practical-considerations
#17
Amanda L Thayer, Alexandra Petruzzelli, Caitlin E McClurg
Facilitating team innovation is paramount to promoting progress in the science, technology, engineering, and math fields, as well as advancing national health, safety, prosperity, and welfare. However, innovation teams face a unique set of challenges due to the novelty and uncertainty that is core to the definition of innovation, as well as the paradoxical nature of idea generation and idea implementation processes. These and other challenges must be overcome for innovation teams to realize their full potential for producing change...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792422/toward-total-synthesis-of-thiolate-protected-metal-nanoclusters
#18
Qiaofeng Yao, Tiankai Chen, Xun Yuan, Jianping Xie
Total synthesis, where desired organic- and/or biomolecules could be produced from simple precursors at atomic precision and with known step-by-step reactions, has prompted centuries-lasting bloom of organic chemistry since its conceptualization in 1828 (Wöhler synthesis of urea). Such expressive science is also highly desirable in nanoscience, since it represents a decisive step toward atom-by-atom customization of nanomaterials for basic and applied research. Although total synthesis chemistry is less established in nanoscience, recent years have witnessed seminal advances and increasing research efforts devoted into this field...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792417/directional-passive-transport-of-micro-droplets-in-oil-infused-diverging-channels-for-effective-condensate-removal
#19
Hongxia Li, Ablimit Aili, Mohamed H Alhosani, Qiaoyu Ge, TieJun Zhang
Condensation widely exists in nature and industry, and its performance heavily relies on the efficiency of condensate removal. Recent advances in micro/nano-scale surface engineering enable condensing droplet removal from solid surfaces without extra energy cost, but it is still challenging to achieve passive transport of micro-droplets over long distance along horizontal surfaces. The mobility of these condensate droplets can be enhanced by lubricant oil infusion on flat surfaces and frequent coalescence, which lead to fast growth but random motion of droplets...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792385/an-organotypic-reconstructed-human-urethra-to-study-c-trachomatis-infection
#20
Bart Versteeg, Lenie J van den Broek, Sylvia Bruisten, Margriet Mullender, Henry J C de Vries, Susan Gibbs
Organotypic models to investigate host-microbiome interactions are still a challenge for the field of tissue engineering. This is particularly the case for organs such as the urethra. Several cell line, animal and tissue models are available to study C. trachomatis infections, but none fully reflect natural infection in native human tissue. Therefore, we developed an organotypic reconstructed human urethral model (RhU) to study invasive and non-invasive strains of C. trachomatis. Primary urethra cells were used to reconstruct epithelium on a fibroblast populated collagen-fibrin hydrogel, yielding a RhU...
May 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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