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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100227/prenatal-and-postnatal-mothering-by-diesel-exhaust-pm2-5-exposed-dams-differentially-program-mouse-energy-metabolism
#1
Minjie Chen, Shuai Liang, Huifen Zhou, Yanyi Xu, Xiaobo Qin, Ziying Hu, Xiaoke Wang, Lianglin Qiu, Wanjun Wang, Yuhao Zhang, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the leading threats to global public health. It is consequent to abnormal energy metabolism. Currently, it has been well established that maternal exposure to environmental stressors that cause inappropriate fetal development may have long-term adverse effects on offspring energy metabolism in an exposure timing-dependent manner, known as developmental programming of health and diseases paradigm. Rapidly increasing evidence has indicated that maternal exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2...
January 18, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097753/fully-copper-exchanged-high-silica-lta-zeolites-as-unrivaled-hydrothermally-stable-nh3-scr-catalysts
#2
Taekyung Ryu, Nak Ho Ahn, Seungwan Seo, Jung Cho, Hyojun Kim, Donghui Jo, Gi Tae Park, Pyung Soon Kim, Chang Hwan Kim, Elliott L Bruce, Paul A Wright, In-Sik Nam, Suk Bong Hong
Diesel engine technology is still the most effective solution to meet tighter CO2 regulations in the mobility and transport sector. In implementation of fuel-efficient diesel engines, the poor thermal durability of lean nitrogen oxides (NOx ) aftertreatment systems remains as one major technical hurdle. Divalent copper ions when fully exchanged into high-silica LTA zeolites are demonstrated to exhibit excellent activity maintenance for NOx reduction with NH3 under vehicle simulated conditions even after hydrothermal aging at 900 °C, a critical temperature that the current commercial Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst cannot overcome owing to thermal deactivation...
January 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097517/in-utero-exposure-of-hyperlipidemic-mice-to-diesel-exhaust-lack-of-effects-on-atherosclerosis-in-adult-offspring-fed-a-regular-chow-diet
#3
Jenna Harrigan, Divya Ravi, Jerry Ricks, Michael E Rosenfeld
Uterine stress is associated with an increased risk of later life metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure in utero on adult susceptibility to atherosclerosis in genetically hyperlipidemic mice. Pregnant apolipoprotein E-deficient mice received either DE exposure (~250-300 μg/m(3) PM2.5 for 6 h/day, 5 days/week) or filtered air (FA) throughout gestation. Treatment effects on litter size and gender distribution were recorded. Plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were measured at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age...
January 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090765/aggregation-kinetics-of-diesel-soot-nanoparticles-in-wet-environments
#4
Chengyu Chen, Weilin Huang
Soot produced during incomplete combustion consists mainly of carbonaceous nanoparticles (NPs) with severe adverse environmental and health effects, and its environmental fate and transport are largely controlled by aggregation. In this study, we examined the aggregation behavior for diesel soot NPs under aqueous condition in an effort to elucidate the fundamental processes that govern soot particle-particle interactions in wet environments such as rain droplets or surface aquatic systems. The influence of electrolytes and aqueous pH on colloidal stability of these NPs was investigated by measuring their aggregation kinetics in different aqueous solution chemistries...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081386/effects-of-biodiesel-made-from-swine-and-chicken-fat-residues-on-co-co2-and-nox-emissions
#5
Vivian Feddern, Anildo Cunha Junior, Marina C De Prá, Marcio L Busi da Silva, Rodrigo da S Nicoloso, Martha M Higarashi, Arlei Coldebella, Paulo G de Abreu
Implications Emissions from motor vehicles can contribute considerably to the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The use of biodiesel to replace or augment diesel can not only decrease our dependency on fossil fuels but also help decrease air pollution. Thus, different sources of feedstocks are constantly being explored for affordable biodiesel production. However, the amount of CO, CO2 and/or NOx emissions can vary largely depending on type of feedstock used to produce biodiesel. In this work we demonstrated animal fat feasibility in replacing petrodiesel with less impact regarding greenhouse gas emissions than other sources...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071984/particulate-matter-mediated-release-of-long-pentraxin-3-ptx3-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-vegf-in-vitro-limited-importance-of-endotoxin-and-organic-content
#6
J I Herseth, V Volden, A K Bolling
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects, but it is still relatively unknown which role PM sources and physicochemical properties play in the observed effects. It was postulated that PM in vitro induces release of long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and that endotoxin and organic compounds present in the PM regulate this release. A contact coculture of THP-1 human leukemia monocytes and A549 human adenocarcinoma alveolar pneumocytes was exposed to PM from Traffic, Wood, Diesel, and Quartz (10-40 µg/cm(2)) for 12-64 h to determine release of PTX3 and VEGF...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071047/linking-load-fuel-and-emission-controls-to-photochemical-production-of-secondary-organic-aerosol-from-a-diesel-engine
#7
Shantanu H Jathar, Beth Friedman, Abril A Galang, Michael F Link, Patrick Brophy, John Volckens, Sailaja Eluri, Delphine K Farmer
Diesel engines are important sources of fine particle pollution in urban environments but their contribution to the atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is not well constrained. We investigated direct emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and photochemical production of SOA from a diesel engine using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR). In less than a day of simulated atmospheric aging, SOA production exceeded POA emissions by an order of magnitude or more. Efficient combustion at higher engine loads coupled to the removal of SOA precursors and particle emissions by aftertreatment systems reduced POA emission factors by an order of magnitude and SOA production factors by factors of 2-10...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069968/diesel-exhaust-causes-lung-cancer-now-what
#8
Debra T Silverman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069619/occupational-exposure-to-solvents-and-risk-of-head-and-neck-cancer-in-women-a-population-based-case-control-study-in-france
#9
Matthieu Carton, Christine Barul, Gwenn Menvielle, Diane Cyr, Marie Sanchez, Corinne Pilorget, Brigitte Trétarre, Isabelle Stücker, Danièle Luce
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the association between head and neck cancer and occupational exposure to chlorinated, oxygenated and petroleum solvents in women. METHODS: Investigation of occupational and environmental CAuses of REspiratory cancers (ICARE), a French population-based case-control study, included 296 squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) in women and 775 female controls. Lifelong occupational history was collected. Job-exposure matrices allowed to assess exposure to 5 chlorinated solvents (carbon tetrachloride; chloroform; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichloroethylene), 5 petroleum solvents (benzene; special petroleum product; gasoline; white spirits and other light aromatic mixtures; diesel, fuels and kerosene) and 5 oxygenated solvents (alcohols; ketones and esters; ethylene glycol; diethyl ether; tetrahydrofuran)...
January 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069305/use-of-plant-growth-promoting-bacterial-strains-to-improve-cytisus-striatus-and-lupinus-luteus-development-for-potential-application-in-phytoremediation
#10
María Balseiro-Romero, Panagiotis Gkorezis, Petra S Kidd, Jonathan Van Hamme, Nele Weyens, Carmen Monterroso, Jaco Vangronsveld
Plant growth promoting (PGP) bacterial strains possess different mechanisms to improve plant development under common environmental stresses, and are therefore often used as inoculants in soil phytoremediation processes. The aims of the present work were to study the effects of a collection of plant growth promoting bacterial strains on plant development, antioxidant enzyme activities and nutritional status of Cytisus striatus and/or Lupinus luteus plants a) growing in perlite under non-stress conditions and b) growing in diesel-contaminated soil...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067206/preparation-of-aao-ceo2-nanotubes-and-their-application-in-electrochemical-oxidation-desulfurization-of-diesel
#11
Xiaoqing Du, Yumeng Yang, Chenxi Yi, Yu Chen, Chao Cai, Zhao Zhang
The coaxial arrays of AAO-CeO2 NTs have been successfully galvanostatically deposited on an anode, characterized and adopted as a catalyst for removing organic sulfurs from diesel. The influence of the main electrochemical oxidation factors on the efficiency of desulfurization have also been investigated. The results show that the fabrication process of AAO-CeO2 NTs is accompanied by the formation of a new phase, namely Al3Ce, and the main oxidation products of the diesel are soluble inorganic sulphides, especially Ce2(SO4)3...
January 9, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054921/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-air-pollutants-on-diabetic-wounds
#12
Young Suk Choi, Il-Hoon Sung, Ji Yun Lim, A Hyun Kyun, Eui Dong Yeo, Sun Geun Lee, Young Koo Lee
BACKGROUND: Although air pollution containing fine dust particles is gaining attention worldwide, little is known about the effects of such pollutants on diabetic wounds. Air pollutants from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) cause inflammation, resulting in an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemo- kines, which attract monocytes and T cells to the sites of inflamma- tion. The authors evaluated the effects of air pollutants on diabetic wounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fibroblast cells were derived from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
December 29, 2016: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051865/evolution-of-in-cylinder-diesel-engine-soot-and-emission-characteristics-investigated-with-on-line-aerosol-mass-spectrometry
#13
Vilhelm Berg Malmborg, Axel Christian Eriksson, Mengqin Shen, Patrik Nilsson, Yann Gallo, Björn Waldheim, Johan Martinsson, Oivind Andersson, Joakim Pagels
To design diesel engines with low environmental impact, it is important to link health and climate-relevant soot (black carbon) emission characteristics to specific combustion conditions. The in-cylinder evolution of soot properties over the combustion cycle and as a function of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. A novel combination of a fast gas-sampling valve and a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) enabled on-line measurements of the in-cylinder soot chemistry...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049186/diesel-exhaust-particles-enhance-muc4-expression-in-nci-h292-cells-and-nasal-epithelial-cells-via-the-p38-creb-pathway
#14
Il-Ho Park, Ju-Hyung Kang, Jin Ah Kim, Jae-Min Shin, Heung-Man Lee
BACKGROUND: Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), the major contributors to air pollution, induce inflammatory responses in the nasal epithelium. Overproduction of airway mucins is an important pathogenic finding in inflammatory airway diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present study were to determine the effect of DEPs on the expression of the mucin gene MUC4 and to investigate the underlying mechanism of DEP-induced MUC4 expression in NCI-H292 cells and primary nasal epithelial cells (PNECs)...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045606/evaluation-of-solid-particle-number-and-black-carbon-for-very-low-pm-emissions-standards-in-light-duty-vehicles
#15
M-C Oliver Chang, J Erin Shields
: To reliably measure at the low particulate matter (PM) levels needed to meet California's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV III) 3- and 1- mg/mile particulate matter (PM) standards, various approaches other than gravimetric measurement have been suggested for testing purposes. In this work, a feasibility study of solid particle number (SPN, D50=23nm) and black carbon (BC) as alternatives to gravimetric PM mass was conducted, based on the relationship of these two metrics to gravimetric PM mass as well as the variability of each of these metrics...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045504/will-aerosol-hygroscopicity-change-with-biodiesel-renewable-diesel-fuels-and-emission-control-technologies
#16
Diep Vu, Daniel Z Short, Georgios Karavalakis, Thomas D Durbin, Akua Asa-Awuku
The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045111/analysis-of-the-global-warming-potential-of-biogenic-co2-emission-in-life-cycle-assessments
#17
Weiguo Liu, Zhonghui Zhang, Xinfeng Xie, Zhen Yu, Klaus von Gadow, Junming Xu, Shanshan Zhao, Yuchun Yang
Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO2 (GWPbio). In this study we calculated the GWPbio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043705/characteristics-of-pahs-in-street-dust-of-beijing-and-the-annual-wash-off-load-using-an-improved-load-calculation-method
#18
Yingxia Li, Ningning Song, Yang Yu, Zhifeng Yang, Zhenyao Shen
A significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed in street dust ends up in runoff. Accordingly, evaluating the content, possible wash-off load and constituent risks associated with street dust is critical for urban runoff usage. Based on the PAH concentrations examined in this study, different risk assessment methods were applied and the differences among results were analyzed. An improved PAH wash-off calculation method was established and the annual PAH wash-off load was obtained. In addition, emission sources were diagnosed based on isomer ratios and PMF methods...
December 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035605/the-level-of-toxic-and-essential-trace-elements-in-hair-of-petrochemical-workers-involved-in-different-technological-processes
#19
Anatoly V Skalny, Galina A Kaminskaya, Tatyana I Krekesheva, Sholpan K Abikenova, Margarita G Skalnaya, Elena S Berezkina, Andrei R Grabeklis, Alexey A Tinkov
The objective of the investigation is comparative analysis of hair trace element content in workers of different departments of petrochemical plant. A total of 75 men working in office (engineers), and departments 1 (D1), 3 (D3), and 4 (D4) of the petrochemical plant, as well as occupationally non-exposed persons, were examined. Hair trace element levels were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The office workers were characterized by the highest hair As, Hg, Sn, I, and Si content as compared to the workers of other departments, whereas the level of those elements did not differ significantly from the control values...
December 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034879/dirty-diesel
#20
EDITORIAL
Robin Russell-Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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