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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637328/diesel-engine-exhaust-basis-for-occupational-exposure-limit-value
#1
Piia Taxell, Tiina Santonen
Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition...
June 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636482/impact-of-freeway-weaving-segment-design-on-light-duty-vehicle-exhaust-emissions
#2
Qing Li, Fengxiang Qiao, Lei Yu, Shuyan Chen, Tiezhu Li
In United States, 26% of greenhouse gas emissions is emitted from the transportation sector, which meanwhile accompanies with enormous toxic emissions to humans, such as CO, NOx, and HC, approximately 2.5% and 2.44% of a total exhaust emission for a petrol and diesel engine, respectively. These exhaust emissions are typically subject to vehicles' intermittent operations, such as hard acceleration and hard braking. In practice, drivers are inclined to operate intermittently while driving through a weaving segment, due to complex vehicle maneuvering for weaving...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634596/study-on-drive-system-of-hybrid-tree-harvester
#3
Shen Rong-Feng, Zhang Xiaozhen, Zhou Chengjun
Hybrid tree harvester with a 60 kW diesel engine combined with a battery pile could be a "green" forest harvesting and transportation system. With the new design, the diesel engine maintains a constant engine speed, keeping fuel consumption low while charging the batteries that drive the forwarder. As an additional energy saving method, the electric motors work as generators to charge the battery pile when the vehicle moves downhill. The vehicle is equipped with six large wheels providing high clearance over uneven terrain while reducing ground pressure...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630908/biofuel-by-isomerizing-metathesis-of-rapeseed-oil-esters-with-bio-ethylene-for-use-in-contemporary-diesel-engines
#4
Kai F Pfister, Sabrina Baader, Mathias Baader, Silvia Berndt, Lukas J Goossen
Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) and (bio)ethylene are converted into biofuel with an evenly rising boiling point curve, which fulfills the strict boiling specifications prescribed by the fuel standard EN 590 for modern (petro)diesel engines. Catalyzed by a Pd/Ru system, RME undergoes isomerizing metathesis in a stream of ethylene gas, leading to a defined olefin, monoester, and diester blend. This innovative refining concept requires negligible energy input (60°C) and no solvents and does not produce waste...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629970/variation-analysis-of-bacterial-polyhydroxyalkanoates-production-using-saturated-and-unsaturated-hydrocarbons
#5
Saiqa Tufail, Sajida Munir, Nazia Jamil
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are efficient, renewable and environment friendly polymeric esters. These polymers are synthesized by a variety of microbes under stress conditions. This study was carried out to check the suitability of waste frying oil in comparison to other oils for economical bioplastic production. Six bacterial strains were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus (KF270349), Klebsiella pneumoniae (KF270350), Bacillus subtilis (KF270351), Brevibacterium halotolerance (KF270352), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KF270353), and Stenotrophomonas rhizoposid (KF270354) by ribotyping...
May 29, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628865/urban-emissions-hotspots-quantifying-vehicle-congestion-and-air-pollution-using-mobile-phone-gps-data
#6
Conor K Gately, Lucy R Hutyra, Scott Peterson, Ian Sue Wing
On-road emissions vary widely on time scales as short as minutes and length scales as short as tens of meters. Detailed data on emissions at these scales are a prerequisite to accurately quantifying ambient pollution concentrations and identifying hotspots of human exposure within urban areas. We construct a highly resolved inventory of hourly fluxes of CO, NO2, NOx, PM2.5 and CO2 from road vehicles on 280,000 road segments in eastern Massachusetts for the year 2012. Our inventory integrates a large database of hourly vehicle speeds derived from mobile phone and vehicle GPS data with multiple regional datasets of vehicle flows, fleet characteristics, and local meteorology...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628664/effects-of-diesel-exhaust-particle-exposure-on-a-murine-model-of-asthma-due-to-soybean
#7
Daniel Alvarez-Simón, Xavier Muñoz, Susana Gómez-Ollés, Miquel de Homdedeu, María-Dolores Untoria, María-Jesús Cruz
BACKGROUND: Exposure to soybean allergens has been linked to asthma outbreaks. Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with an increase in the risk of asthma and asthma exacerbation; however, in both cases the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, as does the possible interaction between the two entities. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the combination of soybean allergens and DEP can affect the induction or exacerbation of asthma in a murine model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622993/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-traditionally-harvested-bivalves-in-northern-british-columbia-canada
#8
Kim-Ly Thompson, Chris R Picard, Hing Man Chan
Butter clams, blue mussels, and Nuttall's cockle are important traditional food of the Gitga'at First Nation in Canada. Samples were collected and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) from the Gitga'at harvest sites from 2006 to 2015 to: 1) establish baseline conditions; 2) determine the likely source; 3) understand species specific response to spills; and 4) evaluate health risk associated with consumption. Baseline lipid normalized-total PAH in mussels was 2.36 (±2.86, 95%CI) μg/g in mussels, 3...
June 13, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620855/physicochemical-characteristics-mutagenicity-and-genotoxicity-of-airborne-particles-under-industrial-and-rural-influences-in-northern-lebanon
#9
Pamela N Melki, Frédéric Ledoux, Samer Aouad, Sylvain Billet, Bilal El Khoury, Yann Landkocz, Roula M Abdel-Massih, Dominique Courcot
In this work, the main objectives were to assess the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of fine particulate matter collected in an industrial influenced site in comparison with a non-industrial influenced one (rural site) and to relate the particulate matter (PM) composition to the observed genotoxic effects. At the industrial influenced site, higher concentrations of phosphates, trace metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particles could be related to the contributions of quarries, fertilizer producer, cement plants, and tires burning...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620294/gestational-exposure-to-air-pollution-alters-cortical-volume-microglial-morphology-and-microglia-neuron-interactions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#10
Jessica L Bolton, Steven Marinero, Tania Hassanzadeh, Divya Natesan, Dominic Le, Christine Belliveau, S N Mason, Richard L Auten, Staci D Bilbo
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619790/complete-genome-sequence-of-acinetobacter-calcoaceticus-ca16-a-bacterium-capable-of-degrading-diesel-and-lignin
#11
Margaret T Ho, Brian Weselowski, Ze-Chun Yuan
We report here the complete assembled genome sequence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus CA16, which is capable of utilizing diesel and lignin as a sole carbon source. CA16 contains a 4,110,074-bp chromosome and a 5,920-bp plasmid. The assembled sequences will help elucidate potential metabolic pathways and mechanisms responsible for CA16's hydrocarbon degradation ability.
June 15, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612311/a-market-modeling-review-study-on-predicting-malaysian-consumer-behavior-towards-widespread-adoption-of-phev-ev
#12
Nadia Adnan, Shahrina Mohammad Nordin, Imran Rahman, Mohammad Hadi Amini
With the rising concern about climate change, there has been an increased public awareness that has resulted in new government policies to support scientific research for mitigating these problems. Malaysia is among the major energy-intense countries and is under an excessive burden to advance its energy efficiency and to also work towards the reduction of its carbon emission. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to lessen the carbon emission and gasoline consumption in order to alleviate environmental problems...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609786/gravimetric-measurements-of-filtering-facepiece-respirators-challenged-with-diesel-exhaust
#13
Swathi Satish, Jacob J Swanson, Kai Xiao, Andrew S Viner, David B Kittelson, David Y H Pui
Elevated concentrations of diesel exhaust have been linked to adverse health effects. Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are widely used as a form of respiratory protection against diesel particulate matter (DPM) in occupational settings. Previous results (Penconek A, Drążyk P, Moskal A. (2013) Penetration of diesel exhaust particles through commercially available dust half masks. Ann Occup Hyg; 57: 360-73.) have suggested that common FFRs are less efficient than would be expected for this purpose based on their certification approvals...
June 13, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609736/effects-of-continental-anthropogenic-sources-on-organic-aerosols-in-the-coastal-atmosphere-of-east-china
#14
Dongjie Shang, Min Hu, Qingfeng Guo, Qi Zou, Jing Zheng, Song Guo
Although organic compounds in marine atmospheric aerosols have significant effects on climate and marine ecosystems, they have rarely been studied, especially in the coastal regions of East China. To assess the origins of the organic aerosols in the East China coastal atmosphere, PM2.5 samples were collected from the atmospheres of the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and Changdao Island during the CAPTAIN (Campaign of Air PolluTion At INshore Areas of Eastern China) field campaign in the spring of 2011. The marine atmospheric aerosol samples that were collected were grouped based on the backward trajectories of their air masses...
June 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603656/simultaneous-no-x-and-particulate-matter-removal-from-diesel-exhaust-by-hierarchical-fe-doped-ce-zr-oxide
#15
Ying Cheng, Weiyu Song, Jian Liu, Huiling Zheng, Zhen Zhao, Chunming Xu, Yuechang Wei, Emiel J M Hensen
Particulate matter and NO x emissions from diesel exhaust remains one of the most pressing environmental problems. We explore the use of hierarchically ordered mixed Fe-Ce-Zr oxides for the simultaneous capture and oxidation of soot and reduction of NO x by ammonia in a single step. The optimized material can effectively trap the model soot particles in its open macroporous structure and oxidize the soot below 400 °C while completely removing NO in the 285-420 °C range. Surface characterization and DFT calculations emphasize the defective nature of Fe-doped ceria...
June 2, 2017: ACS Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603295/unsupervised-classification-of-petroleum-certified-reference-materials-and-other-fuels-by-chemometric-analysis-of-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-data
#16
Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho Rocha, Michele M Schantz, David A Sheen, Pamela M Chu, Katrice A Lippa
As feedstocks transition from conventional oil to unconventional petroleum sources and biomass, it will be necessary to determine whether a particular fuel or fuel blend is suitable for use in engines. Certifying a fuel as safe for use is time-consuming and expensive and must be performed for each new fuel. In principle, suitability of a fuel should be completely determined by its chemical composition. This composition can be probed through use of detailed analytical techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS)...
June 1, 2017: Fuel
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602003/evaluation-of-ethyl-lactate-as-solvent-in-fenton-oxidation-for-the-remediation-of-total-petroleum-hydrocarbon-tph-contaminated-soil
#17
Seyedeh Pegah Jalilian Ahmadkalaei, Suyin Gan, Hoon Kiat Ng, Suhaimi Abdul Talib
Due to the health and environmental risks posed by the presence of petroleum-contaminated areas around the world, remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil has drawn much attention from researchers. Combining Fenton reaction with a solvent has been proposed as a novel way to remediate contaminated soils. In this study, a green solvent, ethyl lactate (EL), has been used in conjunction with Fenton's reagents for the remediation of diesel-contaminated soil. The main aim of this research is to determine how the addition of EL affects Fenton reaction for the destruction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) within the diesel range...
June 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601905/effect-of-the-genetic-group-production-system-and-sex-on-the-meat-quality-and-sensory-traits-of-beef-from-crossbred-animals
#18
R T Nassu, R R Tullio, A Berndt, V C Francisco, T A Diesel, M M Alencar
The crossbreeding of two or more breeds from the Bos taurus and Bos indicus species is an alternative for obtaining high-quality meat from animals adapted to tropical climates. Quality and sensory attributes of beef, mainly its tenderness and flavour, are very important with regard to the consumer's point of view. This study aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of crossbred young bulls and heifers, the offspring of Angus or Limousin bulls and 1/2 Angus + 1/2 Nellore or 1/2 Simental + 1/2 Nellore cows that were finished on feedlot or pasture...
June 10, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598213/characterization-and-degradation-potential-of-diesel-degrading-bacterial-strains-for-application-in-bioremediation
#19
María Balseiro-Romero, Panagiotis Gkorezis, Petra S Kidd, Jonathan Van Hamme, Nele Weyens, Carmen Monterroso, Jaco Vangronsveld
Bioremediation of polluted soils is a promising technique with low environmental impact, which uses soil organisms to degrade soil contaminants. In this study, 19 bacterial strains isolated from a diesel-contaminated soil were screened for diesel-degrading potential, biosurfactant production, and biofilm formation abilities, all desirable characteristics when selecting strains for re-inoculation into hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Diesel degradation rates were determined in vitro in minimal medium with diesel as the sole carbon source...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593807/cyclic-filtration-behavior-of-structured-cattail-fiber-assembly-for-oils-removal-from-wastewater
#20
Shengbin Cao, Ting Dong, Guangbiao Xu, Fumei Wang
Structured cattail fiber assembly was reported as the filter for oils removing from runoff. The oil-wetted filter was recovered by rotational centrifugation and reused in the next filtration. The cyclic filtration behavior of the assembly was characterized by oil removal efficiency, oil sorption capacity, influence of packing density and numbers of filtration cycle. The efficiency of liquid removal and oil recovery from the centrifuged filter were also investigated. Cattail filters showed an excellent oil cyclic filtration performance which was found to have a close relationship with the inner structural characteristic of the fibers...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Technology
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