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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162083/clinical-significance-of-cigarette-smoking-and-dust-exposure-in-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-a-korean-national-survey
#1
Ji An Hwang, Joo Han Song, Jung Hoon Kim, Man Pyo Chung, Dong Soon Kim, Jin Woo Song, Young Whan Kim, Sun Mi Choi, Seung Ick Cha, Soo Taek Uh, Choon-Sik Park, Sung Hwan Jeong, Yong Bum Park, Hong Lyeol Lee, Jong Wook Shin, Eun Joo Lee, Yangjin Jegal, Hyun Kyung Lee, Jong Sun Park, Moo Suk Park
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics of Korean PAP patients and to examine the potential risk factors of PAP. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 78 Korean PAP patients diagnosed between 1993 and 2014. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence/absence of treatment (lavage). Clinical and laboratory features were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Of the total 78 PAP patients, 60% were male and median age at diagnosis was 47...
November 21, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161601/characterizing-emission-rates-of-regulated-pollutants-from-model-year-2012-heavy-duty-diesel-vehicles-equipped-with-dpf-and-scr-systems
#2
Yu Jiang, Jiacheng Yang, David Cocker, Georgios Karavalakis, Kent C Johnson, Thomas D Durbin
The regulated emissions of five 2012 and newer, low-mileage, heavy-duty Class 8 diesel trucks equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were evaluated over test cycles representing urban, highway, and stop-and-go driving on a chassis dynamometer. NOx emissions over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) ranged from 0.495 to 1.363g/mi (0.136 to 0.387g/bhp-hr) for four of the normal emitting trucks. For those trucks, NOx emissions were lowest over the cruise (0...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158200/effects-of-diesel-exhaust-derived-secondary-organic-aerosol-soa-on-oocytes-potential-risks-to-meiotic-maturation
#3
Osamu Udagawa, Akiko Furuyama, Koji Imai, Yuji Fujitani, Seishiro Hirano
Particulate air pollution (PM 2.5) is a worldwide concern. Growing epidemiological evidence has shown pathophysiological effects of PM 2.5,not only on cardiovascular system but also on reproductive performance. The composition and physicochemical properties of PM 2.5 vary depending on the emission sources, climate conditions, and complex chemical reactions in the air. These factors make it difficult to understand the cause and mechanistic details of the adverse health effects of PM 2.5. Here, we show potential impacts of PM 2...
November 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158003/transportation-fuel-from-plastic-two-cases-of-study
#4
Gian Claudio Faussone
Synthesis of liquid fuels from waste is a promising pathway for reducing the carbon footprint of transportation industry and optimizing waste management towards zero landfilling. The study of commercial plants that conduct pyrolysis of plastics from post-consumer recycled materials and directly mine from old landfills without any pre-treatment has revealed two cases that show the feasibility of manufacturing transportation fuels via these methods. Pyrolysis oil, consisting of almost 26% hydrocarbons within the gasoline range and almost 70% within the diesel range, is upgraded to transportation fuel in the existing refinery...
November 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157090/a-critical-review-of-developmental-exposure-to-particulate-matter-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Tiffani A Fordyce, Megan J Leonhard, Ellen T Chang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (ADD/ADHD) are key focuses of current health research due to their increasing prevalence. The objective of this systematic literature search and critical review was to evaluate whether the human epidemiologic data indicate a pattern of association between ASD or ADD/ADHD and developmental exposure to particulate matter (PM), with a focus on exposures encountered before the age of three. A MEDLINE and EMBASE search was conducted; following preliminary and full-text screening, 14 relevant articles were identified for review...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150353/barrier-dysfunction-in-the-nasal-allergy
#6
REVIEW
Ayumi Fukuoka, Tomohiro Yoshimoto
Epithelial cells form the first physiological barrier against invasion by pathogens and the infiltration of allergens. Tight junctions (TJ), a cell-cell junctional complex located on the apical side of epithelial cells, have a critical role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Impaired TJ structures are observed in patients with asthma, atopic dermatitis and nasal allergy; therefore, the dysfunction of epithelial barriers might be involved in the initiation or progression of allergic diseases...
November 14, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150258/a-spent-coffee-grounds-based-biorefinery-for-the-production-of-biofuels-biopolymers-antioxidants-and-biocomposites
#7
REVIEW
Sanjib Kumar Karmee
Spent coffee grounds are composed of lipid, carbohydrates, carbonaceous, and nitrogen containing compounds among others. Using n-hexane and n-hexane/isopropanol mixture highest oil yield was achived during soxhlet extraction of oil from spent coffee grounds. Alternatively, supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as a green solvent for the extraction of oil. Using advanced chemical and biotechnological methods, spent coffee grounds are converted to various biofuels such as, biodiesel, renewable diesel, bioethanol, bioethers, bio-oil, biochar, and biogas...
November 14, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147552/peptide-based-ambidextrous-bifunctional-gelator-applications-in-oil-spill-recovery-and-removal-of-toxic-organic-dyes-for-waste-water-management
#8
Kingshuk Basu, Nibedita Nandi, Biplab Mondal, Ashkan Dehsorkhi, Ian W Hamley, Arindam Banerjee
A low molecular weight peptide-based ambidextrous gelator molecule has been discovered for efficient control of water pollution. The gelator molecules can gel various organic solvents with diverse polarity, e.g. n-hexane, n-octane, petroleum ether, petrol, diesel, aromatic solvents like chlorobenzene, toluene, benzene, o-xylene and even aqueous phosphate buffer of pH 7.5. These gels have been thoroughly characterized using various techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction analysis, small angle X-ray scattering and rheological experiments...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145053/elucidating-the-urban-levels-sources-and-health-risks-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-pakistan-implications-for-changing-energy-demand
#9
Naima Hamid, Jabir Hussain Syed, Muhammad Junaid, Adeel Mahmood, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Riffat Naseem Malik
Due to the severe fuel crisis in terms of natural gas, a paradigm shift in fuel combustion (diesel, gasoline, and biomass) may increase the atmospheric emissions and associated health risks in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to investigate the concentration of fugitive PAHs in the environment (outdoor and indoor settings), associated probabilistic health risk assessment in the exposed population, and possible linkage between fuel consumption patterns and PAHs emissions in twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145050/can-farmers-mitigate-environmental-impacts-through-combined-production-of-food-fuel-and-feed-a-consequential-life-cycle-assessment-of-integrated-mixed-crop-livestock-system-with-a-green-biorefinery
#10
Ranjan Parajuli, Tommy Dalgaard, Morten Birkved
This study evaluates environmental impacts of an integrated mixed crop-livestock system with a green biorefinery (GBR). System integration included production of feed crops and green biomasses (Sys-I) to meet the demand of a livestock system (Sys-III) and to process green biomasses in a GBR system (Sys-II). Processing of grass-clover to produce feed protein was considered in Sys-II, particularly to substitute the imported soybean meal. Waste generated from the livestock and GBR systems were considered for the conversion to biomethane (Sys-IV)...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145048/development-of-a-microscale-land-use-regression-model-for-predicting-no2-concentrations-at-a-heavy-trafficked-suburban-area-in-auckland-nz
#11
L F Weissert, J A Salmond, G Miskell, M Alavi-Shoshtari, D E Williams
Land use regression (LUR) analysis has become a key method to explain air pollutant concentrations at unmeasured sites at city or country scales, but little is known about the applicability of LUR at microscales. We present a microscale LUR model developed for a heavy trafficked section of road in Auckland, New Zealand. We also test the within-city transferability of LUR models developed at different spatial scales (local scale and city scale). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was measured during summer at 40 sites and a LUR model was developed based on standard criteria...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144986/decadal-changes-in-emissions-of-volatile-organic-compounds-vocs-from-on-road-vehicles-with-intensified-automobile-pollution-control-case-study-in-a-busy-urban-tunnel-in-south-china
#12
Yanli Zhang, Weiqiang Yang, Isobel Simpson, Xinyu Huang, Jianzhen Yu, Zhonghui Huang, Zhaoyi Wang, Zhou Zhang, Di Liu, Zuzhao Huang, Yujun Wang, Chenglei Pei, Min Shao, Donald R Blake, Junyu Zheng, Zhijiong Huang, Xinming Wang
In the efforts at controlling automobile emissions, it is important to know in what extent air pollutants from on-road vehicles could be truly reduced. In 2014 we conducted tests in a heavily trafficked tunnel in south China to characterize emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from on-road vehicle fleet and compared our results with those obtained in the same tunnel in 2004. Alkanes, aromatics, and alkenes had average emission factors (EFs) of 338, 63, and 42 mg km(-1) in 2014 against that of 194, 129, and 160 mg km(-1) in 2004, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142612/trends-and-patterns-of-air-quality-in-santa-cruz-de-tenerife-canary-islands-in-the-period-2011-2015
#13
Jose M Baldasano, Jordi Massagué
Air quality trends and patterns in the coastal city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) for the period 2011-2015 were analyzed. The orographic and meteorological characteristics, the proximity to the African continent, and the influence of the Azores anticyclone in combination with the anthropogenic (oil refinery, road/maritime traffic) and natural emissions create specific dispersion conditions. SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and O3 pollutants were assessed. The refinery was the primary source of SO2; EU hourly and daily average limit values were exceeded during 2011 and alert thresholds were reached in 2011 and 2012...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137886/diesel-exhaust-inhalation-exposure-induces-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-mice
#14
Jing Liu, Xiaoqing Ye, Dapeng Ji, Xiaofei Zhou, Cong Qiu, Weiping Liu, Luyang Yu
Diesel exhaust (DE) is one of the main sources of urban air pollution. An increasing number of evidence showed the association of air pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is one of the most disastrous vascular diseases, which results in right ventricular failure and death. However, the relationship of DE inhalation exposure with PAH is still unknown. In this study, male adult mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered ambient air (negative control), 10% O2 hypoxia (PAH-phenotype positive control), 350 μg/m(3) particulate matter whole DE, or the combination of DE and hypoxic condition...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137707/use-of-chemical-conversion-for-determination-of-nitrated-aromatic-hydrocarbons-using-femtosecond-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#15
Takuya Fujii, Tomoko Imasaka, Totaro Imasaka
A sample containing nitrated aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) was injected into the sample inlet port of a gas chromatograph (GC), along with hydrazine, a reducing reagent. The analytes that eluted from the GC column were measured by mass spectrometry (MS) using an ultraviolet femtosecond laser as the ionization source. When no reducing reagent was used, large numbers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including NPAHs were observed in the two-dimensional GC/MS display. In contrast, when hydrazine was present, reduced forms of NPAHs, which included amino PAHs, were detected...
December 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136928/prediction-of-2-ehn-content-in-diesel-biodiesel-blends-using-ftir-and-chemometrics
#16
Dan Vrtiška, Pavel Šimáček
Quantification models based on the processing of FTIR spectra by partial least squares regression (PLS) were created in order to develop a method for the determination of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (2-EHN) in diesel fuels. The set of standards was prepared using 2-EHN, biodiesel (FAME) and various mineral diesel fuels (2-EHN free). The standards were prepared in the concentration range of 2-EHN of 0-2436mgkg(-1). The set of the standards was divided into the calibration, validation and test sets. While the calibration set was used to build the model, validation set was used in order to optimize the model parameters...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136832/interleaved-incremental-association-markov-blanket-as-a-potential-feature-selection-method-for-improving-accuracy-in-near-infrared-spectroscopic-analysis
#17
Kyeol Chang, Junghye Lee, Chi-Hyuck Jun, Hoeil Chung
The interleaved Incremental Association Markov Blanket (inter-IAMB) is described herein as a feature selection method for the NIR spectroscopic analysis of several samples (diesel, gasoline, and etchant solutions). Although the Markov blanket (MB) has been proven to be the minimal optimal set of features (variables) that does not change the original target distribution, variables selected by the existing IAMB algorithm could be redundant and/or misleading as the IAMB requires an unnecessarily large amount of learning data to identify the MB...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136129/comparison-of-respirable-mass-concentrations-measured-by-a-personal-dust-monitor-and-a-personal-dataram-to-gravimetric-measurements
#18
Andrew Halterman, Sinan Sousan, Thomas M Peters
In 2016, the Mine Safety and Health Administration required the use of continuous monitors to measure respirable dust in mines and better protect miner health. The Personal Dust Monitor, PDM3700, has met stringent performance criteria for this purpose. In a laboratory study, respirable mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and a photometer (personal DataRam, pDR-1500) were compared to those measured gravimetrically for five aerosols of varying refractive index and density (diesel exhaust fume, welding fume, coal dust, Arizona road dust (ARD), and salt [NaCl] aerosol) at target concentrations of 0...
November 9, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132002/brassica-napus-has-a-key-role-in-the-recovery-of-the-health-of-soils-contaminated-with-metals-and-diesel-by-rhizoremediation
#19
Rafael G Lacalle, María T Gómez-Sagasti, Unai Artetxe, Carlos Garbisu, José M Becerril
Contaminated soils are frequently characterized by the simultaneous presence of organic and inorganic contaminants, as well as a poor biological and nutritional status. Rhizoremediation, the combined use of phytoremediation and bioremediation, has been proposed as a Gentle Remediation Option to rehabilitate multi-contaminated soils. Recently, newer techniques, such as the application of metallic nanoparticles, are being deployed in an attempt to improve traditional remediation options. In order to implement a phytomanagement strategy on calcareous alkaline peri-urban soils simultaneously contaminated with several metals and diesel, we evaluated the effectiveness of Brassica napus L...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129869/fast-determination-of-biodiesel-content-in-commercial-diesel-biodiesel-blends-by-using-digital-images-and-multivariate-calibration
#20
Mayara Ferreira Barbosa, Danielle Silva DO Nascimento, Marcos Grünhut, Hebertty Vieira Dantas, Beatriz S Fernandez Band, Mario C Ugulino DE Araújo, Matías Insausti
A new simple, rapid and inexpensive analytical method was developed to determine the biodiesel percentage in biodiesel/diesel blends through simple digital images of samples obtained by scanning with a commercial scanner. Soybean biodiesel and petroleum diesel samples were acquired from refineries currently in operation. There were prepared several mixtures within the range 1.5 to 12.0% of biodiesel in diesel oil, using the same procedure as is done in industry. The analytical signals were images recorded with a scanner...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
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