Read by QxMD icon Read


Rahul Goel
Passenger modes in India include walking, cycling, buses, trains, intermediate public transport modes (IPT) such as three-wheeled auto rickshaws or tuk-tuks, motorised two-wheelers (2W) as well as cars. However, epidemiological studies of traffic crashes in India have been limited in their approach to account for the exposure of these road users. In 2011, for the first time, census in India reported travel distance and mode of travel for workers. A Poisson-lognormal mixture regression model is developed at the state level to explore the relationship of road deaths of all the road users with commute travel distance by different on-road modes...
January 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Gunda Mohanakrishna, Ibrahim M Abu-Reesh, Sanath Kondaveeti, Riyadh I Al-Raoush, Zhen He
Electrochemically active anodic biofilm that has adapted under mild applied potentials in the range 100-500 mV was evaluated for its improved bioelectrogenesis and bioelectrochemical treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) in a single chamber air cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC). MFC operation with 500 mV as supplemental voltage has exhibited a maximum power density of 132 mW/m2, which was three times higher than control MFC (45 mW/m2). Similarly, highest substrate removal efficiency (48%) was also obtained with the MFC of 500 mV, followed by 300 mV (37%), 100 mV (32%) and control (27%)...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Daniel Carrión, W Victoria Lee, Diana Hernández
Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP), were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP's policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Thierry Douki, Cécile Corbière, David Preterre, Perrine J Martin, Valérie Lecureur, Véronique André, Yann Landkocz, Ivannah Pottier, Veronika Keravec, Olivier Fardel, Silvestre Moreira-Rebelo, Didier Pottier, Cathy Vendeville, Frédéric Dionnet, Pierre Gosset, Sylvain Billet, Christelle Monteil, François Sichel
The contribution of diesel exhaust to atmospheric pollution is a major concern for public health, especially in terms of occurrence of lung cancers. The present study aimed at addressing the toxic effects of a repeated exposure to these emissions in an animal study performed under strictly controlled conditions. Rats were repeatedly exposed to the exhaust of diesel engine. Parameters such as the presence of a particle filter or the use of gasoil containing rapeseed methyl ester were investigated. Various biological parameters were monitored in the lungs to assess the toxic and genotoxic effects of the exposure...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jakub Czarny, Justyna Staninska-Pięta, Jolanta Powierska-Czarny, Jacek Nowak, Łukasz Wolko, Agnieszka Piotrowska-Cyplik
The aim of the studies was to compare the composition of soil bacterial metabiomes originating from urbanized areas and areas con¬taminated with hydrocarbons with those from agricultural soil and forest soil obtained from a protected wild-life park area. It should be noted that hydrocarbons are everywhere therefore bacteria capable of their utilization are present in every soil type. In the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and in the soil of anthropogenic origin, the bacteria belonging to Gammaproteobacteria were dominant (28...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
Kun Yang, John Fox
The use of carbon soot recovered from diesel particulate filters (DPF) has been investigated as a potential adsorbent for heavy metals including cadmium, chromium, and copper from wastewater. Results were compared with the adsorption performance of powder activated carbon (PAC). The uptake capacity of heavy metals for soot was found to be higher than PAC. And the thermodynamic study result for both soot and PAC indicated the adsorption procedures are exothermic. The adsorption studies were carried out for both single and binary systems...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Maurílio Gustavo Nespeca, Gabriel Baroffaldi Piassalonga, José Eduardo de Oliveira
Environmental contamination caused by leakage of fuels and lubricant oils at gas stations is of great concern due to the presence of carcinogenic compounds in the composition of gasoline, diesel, and mineral lubricant oils. Chromatographic methods or non-selective infrared methods are usually used to assess soil contamination, which makes environmental monitoring costly or not appropriate. In this perspective, the present work proposes a methodology to identify the type of contaminant (gasoline, diesel, or lubricant oil) and, subsequently, to quantify the contaminant concentration using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and multivariate methods...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jeffrey R Brook, Eleanor M Setton, Evan Seed, Mahdi Shooshtari, Dany Doiron
BACKGROUND: Multiple external environmental exposures related to residential location and urban form including, air pollutants, noise, greenness, and walkability have been linked to health impacts or benefits. The Canadian Urban Environmental Health Research Consortium (CANUE) was established to facilitate the linkage of extensive geospatial exposure data to existing Canadian cohorts and administrative health data holdings. We hypothesize that this linkage will enable investigators to test a variety of their own hypotheses related to the interdependent associations of built environment features with diverse health outcomes encompassed by the cohorts and administrative data...
January 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
Rosa Maria Vivanco-Hidalgo, Gregory Wellenius, Xavier Basagaña, Marta Cirach, Alejandra Gómez González, Pablo de Ceballos, Ana Zabalza, Jordi Jiménez-Conde, Carolina Soriano-Tarraga, Eva Giralt-Steinhauer, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Jordi Sunyer, Jaume Roquer
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between short-term exposure to outdoor ambient air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5] and black carbon [BC]), ischemic stroke (IS) and its different subtypes, and the potential modifying effect of neighborhood greenspace and noise. METHODS: This time-stratified case-crossover study was based on IS and transient ischemic attacks (TIA) recorded in a hospital-based prospective stroke register (BASICMAR 2005-2014) in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain)...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Xiankun Huang, Han Yuan, Jian Zhao, Ning Mei
Low-speed marine diesel flue gas denitrification is in great demand in the ship transport industry. This research proposes an ammonia supply system which can be used for flue gas denitrification of low-speed marine diesel. In this proposed ammonia supply system, ammonium bicarbonate is selected as the ammonia carrier to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide by thermal decomposition. The diesel engine exhaust heat is used as the heating source for ammonium bicarbonate decomposition and ammonia gas desorption. As the ammonium bicarbonate decomposition is critical to the proper operation of this system, effects have been observed to reveal the performance of the thermal decomposition chamber in this paper...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Yun-Fang An, Xiao-Rui Geng, Li-Hua Mo, Jiang-Qi Liu, Li-Teng Yang, Xiao-Wen Zhang, Zhi-Gang Liu, Chang-Qing Zhao, Ping-Chang Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is recognized that the air pollution is associated with the pathogenesis of airway diseases. This study aims to elucidate the role of the 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC), one of the components of diesel-exhaust particles, in compromising the airway epithelial barrier integrity. METHODS: A549 cells, an airway epithelial cell line, were cultured to monolayers to be used as an in vitro epithelial barrier model. BALB/c mice were treated with nasal drops containing PNMC to test the effects of PNMC on alternating the airway epithelial barrier functions...
January 4, 2018: Toxicology
Jiankun Huang, Zifeng Yan
A facile synthesis strategy was adopted to prepare resilient graphene aerogel(GA) with properties of high emulsified oil adsorption capacities, excellent rebounding performance, oil-water selectivity and recycling abilities. The maximum adsorption capacities of GA for emulsified diesel oil were 2.5×104 mg g -1. The microscopic kinetics and thermodynamics mutual reaction models of diesel oil emulsion adsorption onto graphene aerogel were investigated to describe the adsorption mechanism. The emulsified diesel oil was able to be separated efficiently from the oil-water emulsion by GA due to their high oil selectivity...
January 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Rajdeep Shakya, Sushil Adhikari, Ravishankar Mahadevan, El Barbary Hassan, Thomas A Dempster
Upgrading of bio-oil obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of algae is necessary for it to be used as a fuel. In this study, bio-oil obtained from HTL of Nannochloropsis sp. was upgraded using five different catalysts (Ni/C, ZSM-5, Ni/ZSM-5, Ru/C and Pt/C) at 300 °C and 350 °C. The upgraded bio-oil yields were higher at 300 °C; however, higher quality upgraded bio-oils were obtained at 350 °C. Ni/C gave the maximum upgraded bio-oil yield (61 wt%) at 350 °C. However, noble metal catalysts (Ru/C and Pt/C) gave the better upgraded bio-oils in terms of acidity, heating values, and nitrogen values...
December 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Erin A Riley, Emily E Carpenter, Joemy Ramsay, Emily Zamzow, Christopher Pyke, Michael H Paulsen, Lianne Sheppard, Terry M Spear, Noah S Seixas, Dale J Stephenson, Christopher D Simpson
We investigated the viability of particle bound 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) air concentration measurements as a surrogate of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure, as compared with industry-standard elemental carbon (EC) and total carbon (TC) measurements. Personal exposures are reported for 18 employees at a large underground metal mine during four different monitoring campaigns. Full-shift personal air exposure sampling was conducted using a Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) compliant diesel particulate matter (DPM) impactor cassette downstream of a GS-1 cyclone pre-selector...
December 30, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Amgad Elgowainy, Jeongwoo Han, Jacob Ward, Fred Joseck, David Gohlke, Alicia Lindauer, Todd Ramsden, Mary J Biddy, Mark Alexander, Steven Barnhart, Ian Sutherland, Laura Verduzco, Timothy J Wallington
This article presents a cradle-to-grave (C2G) assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and costs for current (2015) and future (2025-2030) light-duty vehicles. The analysis addressed both fuel cycle and vehicle manufacturing cycle for the following vehicle types: gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), flex fuel vehicles, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Shenxiang Zhang, Gaoshuo Jiang, Shoujian Gao, Huile Jin, Yuzhang Zhu, Feng Zhang, Jian Jin
Developing an effective and sustainable solution for cleaning up or separating oily water is highly desired. In this work, we report a completely new inorganic mesh membrane made up of cupric phosphate (Cu3(PO4)2) in a special nanosheets-constructed honeycomb-like structure. Combing the unique hierarchical structure with strong hydration ability of Cu3(PO4)2, the nanosheets-wrapped membrane exhibits a superior superhydrophilic and underwater anti-oil fouling and anti-bio fouling property for efficient oil/water separation to various viscous oils such as heavy diesel oil, light crude oil, and even heavy crude oil with underwater oil contact angles (CAs) all above 158° and nearly zero underwater oil adhesive force even when a large preload force up to 400 μN applied on the oil droplet...
January 3, 2018: ACS Nano
Grethel León-Mejía, Mariana Nascimento Machado, Renata Tiemi Okuro, Luis F O Silva, Claudia Telles, Johnny Dias, Liana Niekraszewicz, Juliana Da Silva, João Antônio Pêgas Henriques, Walter Araujo Zin
Continuous exposure to coal mining particles can cause a variety of lung diseases. We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of exposure to detailed characterized coal and coal fly ash (CFA) particles on DNA, lung and extrapulmonary tissues. Coal samples (COAL11 and COAL16) and CFA samples (CFA11 and CFA16) were included in this study. Intending to enhance the combustion process COAL16 was co-fired with a mixture of fuel oil and diesel oil, producing CFA16. Male BALB/c mice were intratracheally instilled with coal and CFA particles...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
K Treusch, J Ritzberger, N Schwaiger, P Pucher, M Siebenhofer
The bioCRACK process is a promising technology for the production of second generation biofuels. During this process, biomass is pyrolized in vacuum gas oil and converted into gaseous, liquid and solid products. In cooperation with the Graz University of Technology, the liquid phase pyrolysis process was investigated by BDI - BioEnergy International AG at an industrial pilot plant, fully integrated in the OMV refinery in Vienna/Schwechat. The influence of various biogenous feedstocks and the influence of the temperature on the product distribution in the temperature range of 350°C to 390°C was studied...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Anmesh Kumar Srivastava, Shyam Lal Soni, Dilip Sharma, Narayan Lal Jain
In this paper, the effect of injection pressure on the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a diesel-acetylene fuelled single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection (DI) diesel engine with a rated power of 3.5 kW at a rated speed of 1500 rpm was studied. Experiments were performed in dual-fuel mode at four different injection pressures of 180, 190, 200, and 210 bar with a flow rate of 120 LPH of acetylene and results were compared with that of baseline diesel operation. Experimental results showed that highest brake thermal efficiency of 27...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Penghao Jiao, Zhijun Li, Qiang Li, Wen Zhang, Li He, Yue Wu
In the coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particular Filter (DPF) system, soot cannot be completely removed by only using the passive regeneration. And DPF active regeneration is necessary. The research method in this paper is to spray different kinds of combustion-supporting agents to the DOC in the front of the DPF. Therefore, the low temperature combustion mechanism of different kinds of combustion-supporting agents in DOC was studied, in order to grasp the law of combustion in DOC, and the influence of follow-up emission on DPF removal of soot...
December 26, 2017: ISA Transactions
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"