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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210752/biodegradation-of-diesel-crude-oil-and-spent-lubricating-oil-by-soil-isolates-of-bacillus-spp
#1
Maddela Naga Raju, Rodriguez Leo, Sanaguano Salguero Herminia, Ricardo Ernesto Burgos Morán, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Scalvenzi Laura
Two species of Bacillus, B. thuringiensis B3 and B. cereus B6, isolated from crude oil-contaminated sites in Ecuador, were tested for their capability in degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel (shake-flask), and to remove total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from crude oil- or spent lubricating oil-polluted soils (plot-scale). TPHs and PAHs were analyzed by Gas chromatography-Flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Degradation percentages of PAHs by strain B6 were in the range of 11-83 after 30 days...
February 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208275/comprehensive-three-dimensional-gas-chromatography-with-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#2
Nathanial E Watson, H Daniel Bahaghighat, Ke Cui, Robert E Synovec
Development of comprehensive, three-dimensional (3D) gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (GC(3)/TOFMS) is described. This instrument provides four dimensions (4D) of chemical selectivity and includes significant improvements to total selectivity (mass spectrometric and chromatographic), peak identification, and operational temperature range relative to previous models of the GC(3) reported. The new instrumental design and data output are evaluated and illustrated via two samples, a 115-component test mixture and a diesel fuel spiked with several compounds, for the purpose of illustrating the chemical selectivity benefits of this instrumental platform...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207236/using-roc-curves-to-optimize-discovery-based-software-with-comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-with-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#3
Brooke C Reaser, Bob W Wright, Robert E Synovec
We report a quantitative approach to optimize implementation of discovery-based software for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC - TOFMS). The software performs a tile-based Fisher ratio (F-ratio) analysis, and facilitates a supervised non-targeted analysis based upon the experimental design to aid in the discovery of analytes with statistically different variances between sample classes. The quantitative approach for software optimization uses receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves...
February 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202193/comprehensive-three-dimensional-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-separation-of-diesel
#4
Frank Cheng-Yu Wang
Diesel, a complex hydrocarbon mixture, was examined using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and a field ionization mass spectrometer (FIMS), which preferentially yields molecular ions, providing an extra dimension for component separation. Molecular ions collected at low mass resolution can be assigned an NM-class (Nominal Mass-class) value that does not completely express hydrogen deficiency. In contrast to formulae and Z-class assignments that are possible from ultrahigh mass resolution, NM-class assignments are not unambiguous; however, the separation provided by GC×GC can result in coelution of components that differ in NM-class...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192932/assessment-of-the-influence-of-soil-characteristics-and-hydrocarbon-fuel-cocontamination-on-the-solvent-extraction-of-perfluoroalkyl-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances
#5
Sandra Mejia-Avendaño, Gabriel Munoz, Sébastien Sauvé, Jinxia Liu
Sites impacted by the use of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) present elevated concentrations of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The characterization of the PFAS contamination at such sites may be greatly complicated by the presence of hydrocarbon cocontaminants and by the large variety of PFAS potentially present in AFFFs. In order to further a more comprehensive characterization of AFFF-contaminated soils, the solvent extraction of PFAS from soil was studied under different conditions...
February 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187387/permeable-bio-reactive-barriers-to-address-petroleum-hydrocarbon-contamination-at-subantarctic-macquarie-island
#6
Benjamin L Freidman, Deborah Terry, Dan Wilkins, Tim Spedding, Sally L Gras, Ian Snape, Geoffrey W Stevens, Kathryn A Mumford
A reliance on diesel generated power and a history of imperfect fuel management have created a legacy of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island. Increasing environmental awareness and advances in contaminant characterisation and remediation technology have fostered an impetus to reduce the environmental risk associated with legacy sites. A funnel and gate permeable bio-reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in 2014 to address the migration of Special Antarctic Blend diesel from a spill that occurred in 2002, as well as older spills and residual contaminants in the soil at the Main Power House...
January 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178418/how-well-do-we-know-the-future-of-co2-emissions-projecting-fleet-emissions-from-light-duty-vehicle-technology-drivers
#7
Niall P D Martin, Justin D K Bishop, Adam M Boies
While the UK has committed to reduce CO2 emissions to 80% of 1990 levels by 2050, transport accounts for nearly a fourth of all emissions and the degree to which decarbonisation can occur is highly uncertain. We present a new methodology us- ing vehicle and powertrain parameters within a Bayesian framework to determine the impact of engineering vehicle improvements on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Our results show how design changes in vehicle parameters (e.g. mass, engine size and compression ratio) result in fuel consumption improvements from a fleet-wide mean of 5...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177341/opportunities-in-upgrading-biomass-crudes
#8
Y Mathieu, L Sauvanaud, L Humphreys, W Rowlands, T Maschmeyer, A Corma
An unconventional crude from biomass (biocrude) has been processed to yield a hydrocarbon stream that is not only fully processable in conventional refineries but is already close to the specification of commercial fuels such as transportation diesel. The upgrading of biocrude was carried out with a combination of hydrotreatment and catalytic cracking, yielding middle distillate as the main product.
February 8, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166626/in-use-nox-emissions-from-diesel-and-liquefied-natural-gas-refuse-trucks-equipped-with-scr-and-twc-respectively
#9
Chandan Misra, Chris Ruehl, John Francis Collins, Don Chernich, Jorn Herner
The California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the City of Sacramento undertook this study to characterize the in-use emissions from model year (MY) 2010 or newer diesel, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and hydraulic hybrid diesel engines during real-world refuse truck operation. Emissions from five trucks: two diesels equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), two LNG's equipped with three-way catalyst (TWC) and one hydraulic hybrid diesel equipped with SCR were measured using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) in the Sacramento area...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166462/comparison-of-personal-diesel-and-biodiesel-exhaust-exposures-in-an-underground-mine
#10
Eric A Lutz, Rustin J Reed, Vivien S T Lee, Jefferey L Burgess
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare personal exposures to diesel fuel and a biodiesel blend exhaust in an underground mine. METHODS: Personal exposure monitoring was performed in a non-operational, hard rock underground mine during use of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA8) exposure concentrations of ultra-low sulfur diesel and 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75) fuels were compared. RESULTS: Compared to diesel, use of B75 was associated with relative percent reductions of 22 and 28% in median respirable (r) diesel particulate matter (DPM) and nitrogen dioxide and 25 and 23% increases in median total DPM and nitric oxide TWA8 exposure concentrations, respectively...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160493/analysis-of-transcriptional-responses-of-normalizing-genes-on-crassostrea-brasiliana-under-different-experimental-conditions
#11
Gabrielle do Amaral E Silva Müller, Daína de Lima, Flávia Lucena Zacchi, Rômi Sharon Piazza, Karim Hahn Lüchmann, Jacó Joaquim Mattos, Daniel Schlenk, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Bivalves show remarkable plasticity to environmental changes and have been proposed as sentinel organisms in biomonitoring. Studies related to transcriptional analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in these organisms have notably increased, imposing a need to identify and validate adequate reference genes for an accurate and reliable analysis. In the present study, nine reference genes were selected from transcriptome data of Crassostrea brasiliana in order to identify their suitability as qRT-PCR normalizer genes...
February 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157284/mechanisms-of-increased-particle-and-voc-emissions-during-dpf-active-regeneration-and-practical-emissions-considering-regeneration
#12
Hiroyuki Yamada, Satoshi Inomata, Hiroshi Tanimoto
Mechanisms involved in increased particle and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during active and parked active regenerations of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were investigated using heavy-duty trucks equipped with both a urea selective catalytic reduction system and a DPF (SCR + DPF) and a DPF-only. Particle emissions increased in the later part of the regeneration period but the mechanisms were different above and below 23 nm. Particles above 23 nm were emitted due to the lower filtering efficiency of the DPF because of the decreasing amount of soot trapped during regeneration...
February 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152992/absence-of-multiplicative-interactions-between-occupational-lung-carcinogens-and-tobacco-smoking-a-systematic-review-involving-asbestos-crystalline-silica-and-diesel-engine-exhaust-emissions
#13
Mohamad El Zoghbi, Pascale Salameh, Isabelle Stücker, Patrick Brochard, Fleur Delva, Aude Lacourt
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. METHODS: Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time...
February 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148458/impact-of-biodiesel-on-regulated-and-unregulated-emissions-and-redox-and-proinflammatory-properties-of-pm-emitted-from-heavy-duty-vehicles
#14
Georgios Karavalakis, Nicholas Gysel, Debra A Schmitz, Arthur K Cho, Constantinos Sioutas, James J Schauer, David R Cocker, Thomas D Durbin
The emissions and the potential health effects of particulate matter (PM) were assessed from two heavy-duty trucks with and without emission control aftertreatment systems when operating on CARB ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and three different biodiesel blends. The CARB ULSD was blended with soy-based biodiesel, animal fat biodiesel, and waste cooking oil biodiesel at 50vol%. Testing was conducted over the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) in triplicate for both trucks. The aftertreatment controls effectively decreased PM mass and number emissions, as well as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared to the uncontrolled truck...
January 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145232/diesel-emissions-from-cars-much-worse-than-trucks-and-buses
#15
Talha Khan Burki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144803/effect-of-petroleum-derived-substances-on-life-history-traits-of-black-bean-aphid-aphis-fabae-scop-and-on-the-growth-and-chemical-composition-of-broad-bean
#16
Milena Rusin, Janina Gospodarek, Aleksandra Nadgórska-Socha, Gabriela Barczyk
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances, namely petrol, diesel fuel and spent engine oil, on life history traits and population dynamics of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. and on growth and chemical composition of its host plant Vicia faba L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 g kg(-1) and 18 g kg(-1)). The experiment was conducted in four replications (four pots with five plants in each pot per treatment). Plants were cultivated in both control and contaminated soils...
January 31, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129927/catalytic-co-pyrolysis-of-waste-vegetable-oil-and-high-density-polyethylene-for-hydrocarbon-fuel-production
#17
Yunpu Wang, Leilei Dai, Liangliang Fan, Leipeng Cao, Yue Zhou, Yunfeng Zhao, Yuhuan Liu, Roger Ruan
In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel...
January 24, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129777/diesel-exhaust-alters-the-response-of-cultured-primary-bronchial-epithelial-cells-from-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-to-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#18
Maria C Zarcone, Annemarie van Schadewijk, Evert Duistermaat, Pieter S Hiemstra, Ingeborg M Kooter
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both bacterial infections, such as those with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and exposures to diesel engine emissions are known to contribute to exacerbations in COPD patients. However, the effect of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure on the epithelial response to microbial stimulation is incompletely understood, and possible differences in the response to DE of epithelial cells from COPD patients and controls have not been studied...
January 28, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124139/biomarkers-of-endothelial-activation-and-thrombosis-in-tunnel-construction-workers-exposed-to-airborne-contaminants
#19
Dag G Ellingsen, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Yngvar Thomassen, Magny Thomassen, Berit Bakke, Bente Ulvestad
OBJECTIVES: The aims were to study biomarkers of systemic inflammation, platelet/endothelial activation and thrombosis in tunnel construction workers (TCW). METHODS: Biomarkers and blood fatty acids were measured in blood of 90 TCW and 50 referents before (baseline) and towards the end (follow-up) of a 12 days work period. They had been absent from work for 9 days at baseline. Air samples were collected by personal sampling. RESULTS: Personal thoracic air samples showed geometric mean (GM) particulate matter and α-quartz concentrations of 604 and 74 µg/m(3), respectively...
January 25, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120192/optimization-of-enterobacter-cloacae-ku923381-for-diesel-oil-degradation-using-response-surface-methodology-rsm
#20
Sugumar Ramasamy, Arumugam Arumugam, Preethy Chandran
Efficiency of Enterobacter cloacae KU923381 isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil was evaluated in batch culture and bioreactor mode. The isolate were screened for biofilm formation using qualitative and quantitative assays. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effect of pH, temperature, glucose concentration, and sodium chloride on diesel degradation. The predicted values for diesel oil degradation efficiency by the statistical designs are in a close agreement with experimental data (R (2) = 99...
February 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
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