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Lamri Naidja, Hocine Ali-Khodja, Salah Khardi
In order to assess the significance of PM in ambient air, it is necessary to evaluate their physical and chemical characteristics as well as identify their major emission sources. On a global scale, particulate matter in the atmosphere arises mainly from the combustion process of motorized vehicles, but natural sources are still considered as the major contributors. In Africa, PM emissions differ from those in developed countries; human activities such as biomass burning in households, poor household waste management, and the high number of diesel-powered vehicles are the predominant anthropogenic sources...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Saddaf Rashid, Muhammad Arshad, Maryam Siddiqa, Rafiq Ahmad
Air quality in urban areas is generally poor especially at traffic intersections and roadsides due to continuous vehicular emissions comprising poly aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, benzene, diesel soot etc. The objective of this study was to compare the primary DNA damage in traffic police wardens occupationally exposed to airborne Cd and Zn (exposed group) and educational institution with negligible exposure to airborne Cd and Zn (control group). Blood levels of Cd and Zn in traffic police wardens and control group were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) and DNA damage was assessed by using Comet assay...
March 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shaohui Sun, Ruishu Yang, Xin Wang, Shaokang Yan
An attractive approach for the production of transportation fuels from renewable biomass resources is to convert oxygenates into alkanes. In this paper, C5 -C20 alkanes formed via the hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of the oligomers of furfuryl alcohol(FA) can be used as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel fraction. The first step of the process is the oligomers of FA convert into hydrogenated products over Raney Ni catalyst in a batch reactor. The second step of the process converts hydrogenated products to alkanes via hydrodeoxygenation over different bi-functional catalysts include hydrogenation and acidic deoxidization active sites...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Syahir Habib, Siti Aqlima Ahmad, Wan Lutfi Wan Johari, Mohd Yunus Abd Shukor, Siti Aisyah Alias, Khalilah Abdul Khalil, Nur Adeela Yasid
BACKGROUND: Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in Antarctic soil has been reported to be achieved through the utilisation of indigenous cold-adapted microorganisms. Although numerous bacteria isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated sites in Antarctica were able to demonstrate promising outcomes in utilising hydrocarbon components as their energy source, reports on the utilisation of hydrocarbons by strains isolated from pristine Antarctic soil are scarce. In the present work, two psychrotolerant strains isolated from Antarctic pristine soil with the competency to utilise diesel fuel as the sole carbon source were identified and optimised through conventional and response surface method...
March 17, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Yingshuai Liu, Yunshan Ge, Jianwei Tan, Mingliang Fu, Asad Naeem Shah, Luqiang Li, Zhe Ji, Yan Ding
Maritime transport has been playing a decisive role in global trade. Its contribution to the air pollution of the sea and coastal areas has been widely recognized. The air pollutant emission inventories of several harbors in China have already been established. However, the emission factors of local ships have not been addressed comprehensively, and thus are lacking from the emission inventories. In this study, on-board emission tests of eight diesel-powered offshore fishing ships were conducted near the coastal region of the northern Yellow Bo Sea fishing ground of Dalian, China...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Carolina Petitto, Gérard Delahay
Nitrogen oxides (NOx : NO, NO2 ) are a concern due to their adverse health effects. Diesel engine transport sector is the major emitter of NOx . The regulations have been strengthened and to comply with them, one of the two methods commonly used is the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 (NH3 -SCR), NH3 being supplied by the in-situ hydrolysis of urea. Efficiency and durability of the catalyst for this process are highly required. Durability is evaluated by hydrothermal treatment of the catalysts at temperature above 800°C...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
S Thiyagarajan, V Edwin Geo, Leenus Jesu Martin, B Nagalingam
This experimental study aims to mitigate harmful emissions from a CI engine using bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) approach. The engine used for this experimental work is a single cylinder CI engine with a rated power of 5.2 kW at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The BECCS approach is a combination of plant-based biofuels and carbon capture and storage system. The whole investigation was done in four phases: (1) Substituting diesel with Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) (2) Equal volume blending of Orange oil (ORG) with KOME (3) 20% blending of n-butanol (B) with KOME-ORG blend (4) Carbon capture and storage (CCS) system with zeolite based non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) and mono ethanolamine (MEA) based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system with KOME-ORG + B20 blend...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Technology
Johannes Diesel, Anastasiia M Finogenova, Nicolai Cramer
Annulated pyridones are an important scaffold found in many biologically active compounds. A Ni(0)-catalyzed C-H functionalization of 2- and 4-pyridone is disclosed, providing access to annulated pyridones via enantioselective intramolecular olefin hydroarylation. Key to the success of the transformation was the development of a sterically hindered and tunable N-heterocyclic carbene ligand resembling a chiral version of IPr. This ligand allows for mild reaction temperatures, and leads to the annulated pyridones in excellent yields and enantioselectivities...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Md Aynul Bari, Warren B Kindzierski
Exposure to ambient volatile organic compound (VOCs) in urban areas is of interest because of their potential chronic and acute adverse effects to public health. Limited information is available about VOC sources in urban areas in Canada. An investigation of ambient VOCs levels, their potential sources and associated risks to public health was undertaken for the urban core of Alberta's largest city (downtown Calgary) for the period 2010-2015. Twenty-four hour arithmetic and geometric mean concentrations of total VOCs were 42μg/m3 and 39μg/m3 , respectively and ranged from 16 to 160μg/m3 , with winter levels about two-fold higher than summer...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Stergios Vakalis, Carlo Caligiuri, Konstantinos Moustakas, Dimitris Malamis, Massimiliano Renzi, Marco Baratieri
There is a growing market demand for small-scale biomass gasifiers that is driven by the economic incentives and the legislative framework. Small-scale gasifiers produce a gaseous fuel, commonly referred to as producer gas, with relatively low heating value. Thus, the most common energy conversion systems that are coupled with small-scale gasifiers are internal combustion engines. In order to increase the electrical efficiency, the operators choose dual fuel engines and mix the producer gas with diesel. The Wiebe function has been a valuable tool for assessing the efficiency of dual fuel internal combustion engines...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Mohit Raj Saxena, Piyush Rai, Aashish Bhardwaj
Currently, diesel engines are more preferred over gasoline engines due to their higher torque output and fuel economy. However, diesel engines confront major challenge of meeting the future stringent emission norms (especially soot particle emissions) while maintaining the same fuel economy. In this study, nanosize range soot particle emission characteristics of a stationary (non-road) diesel engine have been experimentally investigated. Experiments are conducted at a constant speed of 1500 rpm for three compression ratios and nozzle opening pressures at different engine loads...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ye Zhang, April Z Gu, Tianyu Cen, Xiangyang Li, Dan Li, Jianmin Chen
Particles exhausted from petrol and diesel consumptions are major components of urban air pollution that can be exposed to human via direct inhalation or other routes due to atmospheric deposition into water and soil. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious threats to modern health care. However, how the petrol and diesel exhaust particles affect the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in various environments remain largely unknown. This study investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of four representative petrol and diesel exhaust particles, namely 97 octane petrol, 93 octane petrol, light diesel oil, and marine heavy diesel oil, on the horizontal transfer of ARGs between two opportunistic Escherichia coli (E...
March 7, 2018: Environment International
Haley Reis, Cesar Reis, Akbar Sharip, Wenes Reis, Yong Zhao, Ryan Sinclair, Lawrence Beeson
Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) from vehicles and industry is hazardous and affects proper function of organ systems. DE can interfere with normal physiology after acute and chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM). Exposure leads to potential systemic disease processes in the central nervous, visual, hematopoietic, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal systems. In this review, we give an overview of the epidemiological evidence supporting the harmful effects of diesel exhaust, and the numerous animal studies conducted to investigate the specific pathophysiological mechanisms behind DE exposure...
March 7, 2018: Environment International
Dengle Duan, Roger Ruan, Hanwu Lei, Yuhuan Liu, Yunpu Wang, Yayun Zhang, Yunfeng Zhao, Leilei Dai, Qiuhao Wu, Shumei Zhang
The co-pyrolysis of pretreated lignin and soapstock was carried out to upgrade vapors under microwave irradiation. Results showed that the yield of 29.92-42.21 wt% of upgraded liquid oil was achieved under varied pretreatment conditions. Char yield decreased from 32.44 wt% for untreated control to 24.35 wt% for the 150 °C pretreated samples. The increased temperature, irradiation time and acid concentration were conducive to decrease the relative contents of phenols and oxygenates in liquid oils. The main components of the liquid oil were gasoline fraction (mono-aromatics and C5-C12 aliphatics), which ranged from 57...
February 27, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Johanna Sigaux, Jérôme Biton, Emma André, Luca Semerano, Marie-Christophe Boissier
Pollution has long been incriminated in many cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. More recently, studies evaluated the potential role for particulate pollutants in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The incidence of RA was found to be higher in urban areas. Living near air pollution emitters was associated with higher risks of developing RA and of producing RA-specific autoantibodies. Nevertheless, no strong epidemiological evidence exists to link one or more specific air pollution particles to RA...
March 7, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Romina M Lasagni Vitar, Julia Tau, Natasha S Janezic, Agustina I Tesone, Ailen G Hvozda Arana, Claudia G Reides, Alejandro Berra, Sandra M Ferreira, Susana F Llesuy
The aim of this study was to evaluate the time course of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory mediators in human conjunctival epithelial cells (IOBA-NHC) exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) for 1, 3, and 24 h. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid and protein oxidation, Nrf2 pathway activation, enzymatic antioxidants, glutathione (GSH) levels and synthesis, as well as cytokine release and cell proliferation were analyzed. Cells exposed to DEP showed an increase in ROS at all time points...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Jacki L Coburn, Toby B Cole, Khoi T Dao, Lucio G Costa
Adult neurogenesis is the process by which neural stem cells give rise to new functional neurons in specific regions of the adult brain, a process that occurs throughout life. Significantly, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders present suppressed neurogenesis, activated microglia, and neuroinflammation. Traffic-related air pollution has been shown to adversely affect the central nervous system. As the cardinal effects of air pollution exposure are microglial activation, and ensuing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, we investigated whether acute exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) would inhibit adult neurogenesis in mice...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Cayla M Duffy, Jacob Swanson, William Northrop, Joshua P Nixon, Tammy A Butterick
The brain is the central regulator for integration and control of responses to environmental cues. Previous studies suggest that air pollution may directly impact brain health by triggering the onset of chronic neuroinflammation. We hypothesize that nanoparticle components of combustion-generated air pollution may underlie these effects. To test this association, a microglial in vitro biological sensor model was used for testing neuroinflammatory response caused by low-dose nanoparticle exposure. The model was first validated using 20 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNP)...
March 9, 2018: Nanomaterials
Debra T Silverman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ellen T Chang, Edmund C Lau, Cynthia Van Landingham, Kenny S Crump, Roger O McClellan, Suresh H Moolgavkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
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