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Pediatric bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612155/prenatal-effects-of-zika-virus-and-management-of-the-pregnant-woman
#1
Solange N Eloundou, Jeanne S Sheffield
The identification of Zika virus as a significant teratogen has raised international concern, causing the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This has allowed a global mobilization of experts in tropical infectious diseases, obstetrics, pediatrics, virology, public health policy, reproductive health, bioethics, and germ cell research to name just a few. This worldwide crisis has also raised awareness of health care disparities and concerns regarding the ability of families and societies to shoulder the long-term financial burden that the follow-up of affected children will require...
September 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586522/the-ethics-of-vaccination-nudges-in-pediatric-practice
#2
Mark C Navin
Techniques from behavioral economics-nudges-may help physicians increase pediatric vaccine compliance, but critics have objected that nudges can undermine autonomy. Since autonomy is a centrally important value in healthcare decision-making contexts, it counts against pediatric vaccination nudges if they undermine parental autonomy. Advocates for healthcare nudges have resisted the charge that nudges undermine autonomy, and the recent bioethics literature illustrates the current intractability of this debate...
September 1, 2016: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462957/exhaust-all-measures-ethical-issues-in-pediatric-end-of-life-care
#3
Kara J Thieleman, Cara Wallace, Andrea N Cimino, Heidi A Rueda
The death of a child may have a profound impact on parents, family members, and health care providers who provided care for the child. Unique challenges are faced by parents of seriously ill children as they must serve as the legal authority for health care decisions of children under age 18, although the child's wishes must also be considered. Social workers must balance core social work values, bioethical values, and psychosocial issues presented by such situations. While studies have been conducted with physicians and nurses regarding ethical issues in pediatric end-of-life care settings, little is known about how social workers experience these conflicts...
July 2016: Journal of Social Work in End-of-life & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461194/developing-a-bioethics-curriculum-for-medical-students-from-divergent-geo-political-regions
#4
Rebecca A Greenberg, Celine Kim, Helen Stolte, Jonathan Hellmann, Randi Zlotnik Shaul, Rahim Valani, Dennis Scolnik
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization calls for stronger cross-cultural emphasis in medical training. Bioethics education can build such competencies as it involves the conscious exploration and application of values and principles. The International Pediatric Emergency Medicine Elective (IPEME), a novel global health elective, brings together 12 medical students from Canada and the Middle East for a 4-week, living and studying experience. It is based at a Canadian children's hospital and, since its creation in 2004, ethics has informally been part of its curriculum...
2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456514/informed-consent-in-decision-making-in-pediatric-practice
#5
(no author information available yet)
Informed consent should be seen as an essential part of health care practice; parental permission and childhood assent is an active process that engages patients, both adults and children, in health care. Pediatric practice is unique in that developmental maturation allows, over time, for increasing inclusion of the child's and adolescent's opinion in medical decision-making in clinical practice and research.
August 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456510/informed-consent-in-decision-making-in-pediatric-practice
#6
Aviva L Katz, Sally A Webb
Informed consent should be seen as an essential part of health care practice; parental permission and childhood assent is an active process that engages patients, both adults and children, in their health care. Pediatric practice is unique in that developmental maturation allows, over time, for increasing inclusion of the child's and adolescent's opinion in medical decision-making in clinical practice and research. This technical report, which accompanies the policy statement "Informed Consent in Decision-Making in Pediatric Practice" was written to provide a broader background on the nature of informed consent, surrogate decision-making in pediatric practice, information on child and adolescent decision-making, and special issues in adolescent informed consent, assent, and refusal...
August 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426893/vincent-a-fulginiti-md-1931-2013-a-visionary-leader-in-pediatric-education-research-and-bioethics
#7
REVIEW
Laura C Fulginiti, Grant Morrow, Elmer S Lightner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Advances in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346825/a-life-below-the-threshold-examining-conflict-between-ethical-principles-and-parental-values-in-neonatal-treatment-decision-making
#8
Thomas V Cunningham
Three common ethical principles for establishing the limits of parental authority in pediatric treatment decision-making are the harm principle, the principle of best interest, and the threshold view. This paper considers how these principles apply to a case of a premature neonate with multiple significant co-morbidities whose mother wanted all possible treatments, and whose health care providers wondered whether it would be ethically permissible to allow him to die comfortably despite her wishes. Whether and how these principles help in understanding what was morally right for the child is questioned...
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27253891/three-decades-after-baby-doe-how-neonatologists-and-bioethicists-conceptualize-the-best-interests-standard
#9
F X Placencia, Y Ahmadi, L B McCullough
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine how neonatologists and bioethicists conceptualize and apply the Best Interests Standard (BIS). STUDY DESIGN: Members of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities and the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine were surveyed to determine how they conceptualized the BIS and ranked the appropriateness of forgoing life-sustaining therapy (LST). RESULTS: Neonatologists' median response supported an infant-specific BIS conceptualization that linked the infant's and family's interests...
October 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194404/circumcision-of-male-infants-and-children-as-a-public-health-measure-in-developed-countries-a-critical-assessment-of-recent-evidence
#10
Morten Frisch, Brian D Earp
In December of 2014, an anonymous working group under the United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a draft of the first-ever federal recommendations regarding male circumcision. In accordance with the American Academy of Pediatrics' circumcision policy from 2012 - but in contrast to the more recent 2015 policy from the Canadian Paediatric Society as well as prior policies (still in force) from medical associations in Europe and Australasia - the CDC suggested that the benefits of the surgery outweigh the risks...
May 19, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157356/following-the-yellow-brick-road-next-steps-in-the-synthesis-of-pediatric-bioethics-and-child-rights
#11
Jeffrey Goldhagen
The Symposium on "The Interface of Child Rights and Pediatric Bioethics in the Clinical Setting" brought together a diverse group of pediatric bioethicists and child rights advocates to explore how the junction of these disciplines could inform their respective work. In retrospect, it is clear how the diversity of personal histories, professional disciplines, knowledge, experience, language, culture, and politics of the participants influenced the outcomes of the Symposium and provided both challenges and opportunities for further collaboration...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157355/child-rights-and-clinical-bioethics-historical-reflections-on-modern-medicine-and-ethics
#12
Jeffrey P Brosco
Why might pediatric bioethicists in the United States reject the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as a framework for resolving ethical issues? The essays in this issue present arguments and counterarguments regarding the usefulness of the CRC in various clinical and research cases. But underlying this debate are two historical factors that help explain the seeming paradox of pediatric bioethicists' arguing against child's rights. First, the profession of clinical bioethics emerged in the 1970s as one component of modern medicine's focus on improving health through the application of technologically sophisticated treatments...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157347/toward-a-child-rights-theory-in-pediatric-bioethics
#13
Jeffrey Goldhagen, Raul Mercer, Elspeth Webb, Rita Nathawad, Sherry Shenoda, Gerison Lansdown
This article offers a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics, applying the principles, standards, and norms of child rights, health equity, and social justice to medical and ethical decision-making. We argue that a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics will help pediatricians and pediatric bioethicists analyze and address the complex interplay of biomedical and social determinants of child health. These core principles, standards and norms, grounded in the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), provide the foundational elements for the theory and a means for better understanding the complex determinants of children's health and well-being...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157346/the-potential-value-of-the-u-n-convention-on-the-rights-of-the-child-in-pediatric-bioethics-settings
#14
Michael Da Silva, Cheryl D Lew, Laura Lundy, Kellie R Lang, Irene Melamed, Randi Zlotnik Shaul
This article provides support for the use of a particular international human rights law document, the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), in contemporary pediatric bioethics practice without relying on the legally binding force of the document. It first demonstrates that the CRC's core commitments and values substantially overlap with the core commitments and values of mainstream bioethics and with the laws of many domestic jurisdictions where mainstream bioethics are currently practiced. It then explores some implications of this overlap...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157345/actions-speak-louder-than-words-the-u-n-convention-on-the-rights-of-the-child-and-u-s-pediatric-bioethicists
#15
Kellie R Lang, Cheryl D Lew
In exploring the relationship between "child rights" and "pediatric bioethics" and how these disciplines might provide mutual support in advancing the health and wellness of children around the world, our article responds to the questions of whether the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) could be of any benefit in the United States, the only country that has not yet ratified this international treaty, and whether the CRC has any value for addressing clinical pediatric bioethics' questions. We describe the considerable influence that the United States had in developing significant components of the CRC, and we argue that the CRC may be useful for U...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157344/theory-and-practice-of-pediatric-bioethics
#16
Lainie Friedman Ross
This article examines two typical bioethics frameworks: the "Four Principles" by Beauchamp and Childress, and the "Four Boxes" by Jonsen, Siegler, and Winslade. I show how they are inadequate to address the ethical issues raised by pediatrics, in part because they do not pay adequate attention to families. I then consider an alternate framework proposed by Buchanan and Brock that focuses on four questions that must be addressed for the patient who lacks decisional capacity. This model also does not give adequate respect for the family, particularly the intimate family...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157343/the-u-n-convention-on-the-rights-of-the-child-relevance-and-application-to-pediatric-clinical-bioethics
#17
Gerison Lansdown, Laura Lundy, Jeffrey Goldhagen
This article provides an overview of the relevance and import of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) to child health practice and pediatric bioethics. We discuss the four general principles of the CRC that apply to the implementation of all rights contained in the document, the right to health articulated in Article 24, and the important position ascribed to parents in fulfilling the rights of their children. We then examine how the CRC is implemented and monitored in law and practice. The CRC and associated principles of child rights provide strategies for rights-based approaches to clinical practice and health systems, as well as to policy design, professional training, and health services research...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157342/advancing-the-synergy-between-pediatric-bioethics-and-child-rights
#18
Alissa Swota, Jeffrey Goldhagen, Cheryl D Lew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26661063/examining-the-complementarity-of-children-s-rights-and-bioethics-moral-frameworks-in-pediatric-health-care
#19
Franco A Carnevale, Irma Manjavidze
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has inspired numerous initiatives to recognize children's health-related rights. Whereas children's rights have served as the dominant moral framework for child health concerns in Europe, pediatric bioethics has emerged as the principal framework used in North America. Despite their similarities, these two frameworks differ significantly. Children's rights initiatives tend to be universalists, highlighting substantive standards for all children, while pediatric bioethics has developed norms, models, and procedures for the ethical analysis and management of individual cases...
December 10, 2015: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26652336/moral-dilemmas-in-pediatric-orthopedics
#20
John J Mercuri, Jonathan M Vigdorchik, Norman Y Otsuka
All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines...
December 2015: Orthopedics
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