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Zixiang Wen, Ruijuan Tan, Shichen Zhang, Paul J Collins, Jiazheng Yuan, Wenyan Du, Cuihua Gu, Shujun Ou, Qijian Song, Yong-Qiang Charles An, John F Boyse, Martin I Chilvers, Dechun Wang
White mold of soybean, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a necrotrophic fungus capable of infecting a wide range of plants. To dissect the genetic architecture of resistance to white mold, a high-density customized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (52,041 SNPs) was used to genotype two soybean diversity panels. Combined with resistance variation data observed in the field and greenhouse environments, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling resistance against white mold...
March 12, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Haiying Cai, Ting Zhang, Qi Zhang, Jie Luo, Chenggang Cai, Jianwei Mao
Chinese sweet rice wine (CSRW) is a popular alcoholic drink in China. To investigate the effect of the microbial composition in CSRW starters on the final quality of the alcoholic drink, high-throughput sequencing on the fungal internal transcribed spacer II and bacterial 16S rRNA gene of the microflora in 8 starter samples was performed. The sequencing data analysis showed that 10 genera of yeasts and mold, and 11 genera of bacteria were identified. Fungal diversity analyses showed the significant variances in the fungal compositions among the starter samples...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Zhaoxian Xu, Ling Qin, Mufeng Cai, Wenbo Hua, Mingjie Jin
Bacterial systems have drawn an increasing amount of attention on lignin valorization due to their rapid growth and powerful environmental adaptability. In this study, Klebsiella pneumoniae NX-1, Pseudomonas putida NX-1, and Ochrobactrum tritici NX-1 with ligninolytic potential were isolated from leaf mold samples. Their ligninolytic capabilities were determined by measuring (1) the cell growth on kraft lignin as the sole carbon source, (2) the decolorization of kraft lignin and lignin-mimicking dyes, (3) the micro-morphology changes and transformations of chemical groups in kraft lignin, and (4) the ligninolytic enzyme activities of these three isolates...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jason C Marvin, Silvia I Gallegos, Shaida Parsaei, Danieli C Rodrigues
PURPOSE: To evaluate the biocompatibility of five dental cement compositions after directly exposing human gingival fibroblast (HGF) and MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells to cement alone and cement applied on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nanostructurally integrated bioceramic (NIB), resin (R), resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC), zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE), and zinc phosphate (ZP) compositions were prepared according to the respective manufacturer's instructions...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Ena Nielsen, David L Skaggs, Deirdre Ryan, Lindsay M Andras
BACKGROUND: Femur fractures in young children are frequently treated with spica casting. Texts recommend molding spica casts into valgus and recurvatum to counter deforming muscular forces, but how much overcorrection to aim for has not been evaluated. Our goal was to determine how much valgus and recurvatum is optimal at the time of casting to end up with anatomic alignment. METHODS: Patients 1 to 6 years old with femur fractures treated with spica casts between January 1, 2008 and January 31, 2014 who were followed until radiographic union were included in the study...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Pedro Martinez-Seijas, Luis A Díaz-Galvis, Josué Hernando, Ignacio O Leizaola-Cardesa, Antonio Aguilar-Salvatierra, Gerardo Gómez-Moreno
BACKGROUND: Over the years, many materials have been used in orbital reconstruction and cranioplasty. Among the materials in current use, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) offers a high degree of compatibility with human tissue. OBJECTIVE: This work describes a new, custom-made, 3D printing-aided, prosthetic fabrication process for orbital and/or cranial reconstruction using PMMA. METHODS: On the basis of information obtained from computerized tomography scanning processed in Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine format and exported to treatment planning software, a 3D prosthesis master model was designed and digitally printed...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Li-Fen Yang, Liang-Ming Cai, Ming Li, Jin-Tao Liu, Zhao-Ni Wang, Wei-Hao Wang, Qin-Tai Yang, Zhuang-Gui Chen
Objective: To investigate the alterative spectrum and trends of aeroallergens sensitization in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) in Guangzhou, China in the past 10 years. Participants and methods: In this retrospective study, 4,111 children with complaints of nasal hyper-reactivity who visited the Pediatric Department and/or Otolaryngology Department from January 2007 to November 2016 were enrolled. Serum specific immunoglobulin E was measured and positive detection was made in 3,328 patients, who were, therefore, diagnosed with AR...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Maeda Mayumi, Masashi Tokashiki, Midori Tokashiki, Keiko Uechi, Susumu Ito, Toki Taira
Awamori is a traditional distilled liquor in the Ryukyu Islands, made from steamed rice by the action of the black-koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the specific flavors in aged awamori kusu is vanillin, which is derived from ferulic acid (FA) in rice grains. FA is released from the cell wall material in the rice grain by ferulic acid esterase produced by A. luchuensis. Through decarboxylation of FA, 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG) is produced, which is transferred to the distilled liquor, and converted to vanillin by natural oxidization during the aging process...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Christelle El Hajj Assaf, Selma Snini, Souria Tadrist, Sylviane Bailly, Claire Naylies, Isabelle P Oswald, Sophie Lorber, Olivier Puel
Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of the blue mold disease, produces the mycotoxins patulin and citrinin among other secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolism is associated with fungal development, which responds to numerous biotic and abiotic external triggers. The global transcription factor VeA plays a key role in the coordination of secondary metabolism and differentiation processes in many fungal species. The specific role of VeA in P. expansum remains unknown. A null mutant PeΔveA strain and a complemented PeΔveA:veA strain were generated in P...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yoshiaki Takewa, Hirohito Sumikura, Satoru Kishimoto, Noritsugu Naito, Kei Iizuka, Daichi Akiyama, Ryosuke Iwai, Eisuke Tatsumi, Yasuhide Nakayama
Tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) are expected to be viable grafts. However, it is unknown whether they transit their histological structure after implantation. We developed a novel autologous TEHV (named stent biovalve) for transcatheter implantation, using in-body tissue engineering based on a tissue encapsulation phenomenon. In this study, a time-course histological transition of implanted biovalves was investigated in goats. Three types of stent biovalves were prepared by 2 month embedding of plastic molds mounted with metallic stents, in the subcutaneous spaces...
March 5, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Jinlin Peng, Yaopeng Zhao, Yulong Hong, Robert S Burkhalter, Carrie L Hogue, Elizabeth Tran, Lai Wei, Lori E Romeo, Paula Dolley-Sonneville, Zara Melkoumian, Xinmiao Liang, Ye Fang
This paper reports the chemical identity and mechanism of action and formation of a cell growth inhibitory compound leached from some single-use Erlenmeyer polycarbonate shaker flasks under routine cell culture conditions. Single-use cell culture vessels have been increasingly used for the production of biopharmaceuticals; however, they often suffer from issues associated with leachables that may interfere with cell growth and protein stability. Here, high performance liquid chromatography preparations and cell proliferation assays led to identification of a compound from the water extracts of some polycarbonate flasks, which exhibited subline- and seeding density-dependent growth inhibition of CHO cells in suspension culture...
March 8, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Qianqian Yang, Jianan Zhang, Jicheng Hu, Xue Wang, Binna Lv, Wenxing Liang
Yak1, a member of the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated protein kinases, plays an important role in diverse cellular processes in fungi. However, to date, the role of BcYak1 in Botrytis cinerea , the causal agent of gray mold diseases in various plant species, remains uncharacterized. Our previous study identified one lysine acetylation site (Lys252) in BcYak1, which is the first report of such a site in Yak1. In this study, the function of BcYak1 and its lysine acetylation site were investigated using gene disruption and site-directed mutagenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kwang-Hyun Song, Yong-Woon Im, Jung-Hwan Lee, Jonghyuk Lee, Hae-Hyoung Lee
This study aimed to evaluate the mold-enclosed shear bond strength (ME-SBS) of zirconia to veneering porcelain with different surface treatments. Colored or uncolored zirconia coupons were either highly polished or airborne-particle abraded. The specimens were divided into groups with/without application of liner. Veneering porcelain was fired into an alumina ring mold on the zirconia coupons. The assembled specimens were subjected to the ME-SBS test. The mean ME-SBS for groups ranged from 7-10 MPa with no significant difference (p>0...
March 7, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
Kaikai Che, Chao Yuan, H Jerry Qi, Julien Meaud
When an architected material with snap-through instabilities is loaded, the unit cells of the architected material snap sequentially to a series of deformed configurations. In this paper, we propose the novel concept of multimaterial viscoelastic architected materials whose snapping sequence can be tuned using temperature as a control parameter. Because different polymers have different temperature-dependent properties, it is possible that one polymer that is stiffer than another polymer at one temperature becomes softer at a higher temperature...
March 7, 2018: Soft Matter
D Gere, T Czigany
Nowadays, with the increasing amount of biopolymers used, it can be expected that biodegradable polymers (e.g. PLA, PBAT) may appear in the petrol-based polymer waste stream. However, their impact on the recycling processes is not known yet; moreover, the properties of the products made from contaminated polymer blends are not easily predictable. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the rheological and mechanical properties of synthetic and biopolymer compounds. We made different compounds from regranulates of mixed polyethylene film waste and original polylactic acid (PLA) by extruison, and injection molded specimens from the compounds...
March 3, 2018: Waste Management
Alberto Zaragoza, Jorge Espinosa, Regina Ramos, Jose Antonio Cobos, Juan Luis Aragones, Carlos Vega, Eduardo Sanz, Jorge Ramirez, Chantal Valeriani
We investigate with computer simulations the effect of applying an electric field on the water-to-ice transition. We use a combination of state-of-the-art simulation techniques to obtain phase boundaries and crystal growth rates (direct coexistence), nucleation
 rates (seeding) and interfacial free energies (seeding and mold integration). 
 First, we consider ice Ih, the most stable polymorph in the absence of a field. Its normal melting temperature, speed of crystal 
 growth and nucleation rate (for a given supercooling) diminish as the intensity of the field goes up...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Régis Trapeau, Marc Schönwiesner
Spatial hearing is a crucial capacity of the auditory system. While the encoding of horizontal sound direction has been extensively studied, very little is known about the representation of vertical sound direction in the auditory cortex. Using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured voxel-wise sound elevation tuning curves in human auditory cortex and show that sound elevation is represented by broad tuning functions preferring lower elevations as well as secondary narrow tuning functions preferring individual elevation directions...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hakan Kamalak, Aliye Kamalak, Ali Taghizadehghalehjoughi
This study was performed to evaluate possible DNA damage in cells of human origin exposed to dental composites in vitro using a cytotoxic assay. Five bulk-fill composites were filled in molds and irradiated for 20 s. DPSCs were inoculated into 24-well plates. After the insert membrane was inserted and composites were added and the experiment was continued for 24/72 hours. In order to investigate the effects of the materials on DPSCs; its effect on apoptosis-regulating Bcl-2 gene, Human Beta-Defensins (HBDs 1-2) gene, Interleukin 6, 8, 10 expression level was examined...
February 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
İlknur Polat, Ömür Baysal, Francesco Mercati, Emine Gümrükcü, Görkem Sülü, Aytül Kitapcı, Fabrizio Araniti, Francesco Carimi
Botrytis cinerea is a polyphagous fungal pathogen causing gray mold disease. Moreover, it is one of the most destructive infections of small fruit crops such as pepper (Capsicum annnum L.). C. sativum is a species belonging to the Solanaceae family and Turkey is one of the main producers in the World. In the present work, aiming to obtain information useful for pest management, fifty B. cinerea isolates collected from Turkey and a reference isolate (B05.10) were characterized using molecular markers and fungicide resistance genes...
March 2, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Victor Selin, Victoria Albright, John F Ankner, Alexander Marin, Alexander K Andrianov, Svetlana A Sukhishvili
Nonionic fluorinated polyphosphazenes, such as poly[bis(trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene] (PTFEP), display superb biocompatibility, yet their deposition to surfaces has been limited to solution casting from organic solvents or thermal molding. Herein, hydrophobic coatings of fluorinated polyphosphazenes are demonstrated through controlled deposition of ionic fluorinated polyphosphazenes (iFPs) from aqueous solutions using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. Specifically, the assemblies included poly[(carboxylatophenoxy)(trifluoroethoxy) phosphazenes] with varied content of fluorine atoms as iFPs (or poly[bis(carboxyphenoxy) phosphazene] (PCPP) as a control nonfluorinated polyphosphazene) and a variety of polycations...
March 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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