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Motion perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907934/restriction-of-postoperative-joint-loading-in-a-murine-model-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-botulinum-toxin-paralysis-and-external-fixation
#1
Amir Lebaschi, Xiang-Hua Deng, Nathan W Coleman, Christopher L Camp, Jianchun Zong, Andrew Carbone, Camila B Carballo, Guang-Ting Cong, Zoe M Album, Scott A Rodeo
Control of knee motion in small animal models is necessary to study the effect of mechanical load on the healing process. This can be especially challenging in mice, which are being increasingly used for various orthopedic reconstruction models. We explored the feasibility of botulinum toxin (Botox; Allergan, Dublin, Ireland) paralysis and a newly designed external fixator to restrict motion of the knee in mice undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Nineteen C57BL/6 mice were allocated to two groups: (1) Botox group (n = 9) and (2) external fixator group (n = 10)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903922/facilitating-effects-of-emotion-on-the-perception-of-biological-motion-evidence-for-a-happiness-superiority-effect
#2
Hannah Lee, Jejoong Kim
It has been reported that visual perception can be influenced not only by the physical features of a stimulus but also by the emotional valence of the stimulus, even without explicit emotion recognition. Some previous studies reported an anger superiority effect while others found a happiness superiority effect during visual perception. It thus remains unclear as to which emotion is more influential. In the present study, we conducted two experiments using biological motion (BM) stimuli to examine whether emotional valence of the stimuli would affect BM perception; and if so, whether a specific type of emotion is associated with a superiority effect...
November 29, 2016: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901026/perceptual-training-yields-rapid-improvements-in-visually-impaired-youth
#3
Jeffrey B Nyquist, Joseph S Lappin, Ruyuan Zhang, Duje Tadin
Visual function demands coordinated responses to information over a wide field of view, involving both central and peripheral vision. Visually impaired individuals often seem to underutilize peripheral vision, even in absence of obvious peripheral deficits. Motivated by perceptual training studies with typically sighted adults, we examined the effectiveness of perceptual training in improving peripheral perception of visually impaired youth. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of three training regimens: (1) an action video game, (2) a psychophysical task that combined attentional tracking with a spatially and temporally unpredictable motion discrimination task, and (3) a control video game...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896564/children-s-gender-typed-toy-interests-does-propulsion-matter
#4
Lisa M Dinella, Erica S Weisgram, Megan Fulcher
Children's toy play is at the foundation of child development. However, gender differentiation in early play experiences may result in gender differences in cognitive abilities, social interactions, and vocational choices. We investigated gender-typing of toys and toys' propulsive properties (e.g., wheels, forward motion) as possible factors impacting children's toy interests, perceptions of other children's interests, and children's actual toy choices during free play. In Studies 1 and 2, 82 preschool children (42 boys, 40 girls; mean age = 4...
November 28, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891684/changes-in-visibility-as-a-function-of-spatial-frequency-and-microsaccade-occurrence
#5
Francisco M Costela, Michael B McCamy, Mary Coffelt, Jorge Otero-Millan, Stephen Macknik, Susana Martinez-Conde
Fixational eye movements (FEM), including microsaccades, drift, and tremor, shift our eye position during ocular fixation, producing retinal motion that is thought to help visibility by counteracting neural adaptation to unchanging stimulation. Yet, how each FEM type influences this process is still debated. Recent studies found little to no relationship between microsaccades and visual perception of spatial frequencies (SF), and concluded that any effects microsaccades may have on vision do not extend to the SF domain...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891074/interactive-sonification-of-spontaneous-movement-of-children-cross-modal-mapping-and-the-perception-of-body-movement-qualities-through-sound
#6
Emma Frid, Roberto Bresin, Paolo Alborno, Ludvig Elblaus
In this paper we present three studies focusing on the effect of different sound models in interactive sonification of bodily movement. We hypothesized that a sound model characterized by continuous smooth sounds would be associated with other movement characteristics than a model characterized by abrupt variation in amplitude and that these associations could be reflected in spontaneous movement characteristics. Three subsequent studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between properties of bodily movement and sound: (1) a motion capture experiment involving interactive sonification of a group of children spontaneously moving in a room, (2) an experiment involving perceptual ratings of sonified movement data and (3) an experiment involving matching between sonified movements and their visualizations in the form of abstract drawings...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890325/functional-coupling-between-frontoparietal-and-occipitotemporal-pathways-during-action-and-perception
#7
R Matthew Hutchison, Jason P Gallivan
Several lines of evidence point to areas in the occipitotemporal pathway as being critical in the processes of visual perception and object recognition. Much less appreciated, however, is the role that this pathway plays in object-related processing for the purposes of visually guided action. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI) and functional connectivity (FC) measures, we examined interactions between areas in frontoparietal cortex (FPC) involved in grasping, reaching, eye movements, and tool use and areas in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) involved in object-, face-, scene-, body-, tool-, and motion-related processing, both during the performance of sensorimotor and visual-perceptual tasks, as well as during passive fixation (resting-state)...
November 9, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875880/measured-electrical-charge-of-sio2-in-polar-and-nonpolar-media
#8
G Kokot, M I Bespalova, M Krishnan
We present measurements of the net electrical surface charge of silicon dioxide (SiO2) in contact with solvents of dielectric constants between 5 and 80. Our experimental approach relies on observing the thermal motion of single silica particles confined in an electrostatic fluidic trap created by SiO2 surfaces. We compare the experimentally measured functional form of the trapping potential with that from free energy calculations and thereby determine the net surface charge in the system. Our findings clearly demonstrate that contrary to popular perception, even in the absence of surfactants, the net electrical charge of ionizable surfaces in contact with apolar solvents can be large enough to lead to significant repulsive forces...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872181/action-experience-drives-visual-processing-biases-near-the-hands
#9
Laura E Thomas
Observers experience affordance-specific biases in visual processing for objects within the hands' grasping space, but the mechanism that tunes visual cognition to facilitate action remains unknown. I investigated the hypothesis that altered vision near the hands is a result of experience-driven plasticity. Participants performed motion-detection and form-perception tasks-while their hands were either near the display, in atypical grasping postures, or positioned in their laps-both before and after learning novel grasp affordances...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871885/vestibular-signals-of-self-motion-modulate-global-motion-perception
#10
Hinze Hogendoorn, Frans A J Verstraten, Hamish MacDougall, David Alais
Certain visual stimuli can have two possible interpretations. These perceptual interpretations may alternate stochastically, a phenomenon known as bistability. Some classes of bistable stimuli, including binocular rivalry, are sensitive to bias from input through other modalities, such as sound and touch. Here, we address the question whether bistable visual motion stimuli, known as plaids, are affected by vestibular input that is caused by self-motion. In Experiment 1, we show that a vestibular self-motion signal biases the interpretation of the bistable plaid, increasing or decreasing the likelihood of the plaid being perceived as globally coherent or transparently sliding depending on the relationship between self-motion and global visual motion directions...
November 25, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866263/aperture-extent-and-stimulus-speed-affect-the-perception-of-visual-acceleration
#11
Alexandra S Mueller, Esther G González, Chris McNorgan, Martin J Steinbach, Brian Timney
Humans are generally poor at detecting the presence of visual acceleration, but it is unclear whether the extent of a field of moving objects through an aperture affects this ability. Hypothetically, the farther a stimulus can accelerate uninterrupted by an aperture's physical constraints, the easier it should be to discern its motion profile. We varied the horizontal extent of the aperture through which continuously accelerating or decelerating random dot arrays were presented at different average speeds, and measured acceleration and deceleration detection thresholds...
November 19, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857160/action-observation-the-less-explored-part-of-higher-order-vision
#12
Artem Platonov, Guy A Orban
Little is presently known about action observation, an important perceptual component of high-level vision. To investigate this aspect of perception, we introduce a two-alternative forced-choice task for observed manipulative actions while varying duration or signal strength by noise injection. We show that accuracy and reaction time in this task can be modeled by a diffusion process for different pairs of action exemplars. Furthermore, discrimination of observed actions is largely viewpoint-independent, cannot be reduced to judgments about the basic components of action: shape and local motion, and requires a minimum duration of about 150-200 ms...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853885/an-acute-session-of-roller-massage-prolongs-voluntary-torque-development-and-diminishes-evoked-pain
#13
Mark Tyler Cavanaugh, Alexander Döweling, James Douglas Young, Patrick John Quigley, Daniel David Hodgson, Joseph H D Whitten, Jonathan C Reid, Saied Jalal Aboodarda, David G Behm
INTRODUCTION: Roller massage (RM) has been reported to reduce pain associated with exercise-induced muscle soreness and increase range of motion without force or activation impairments. The objective was to examine RM effects on evoked pain and contractile properties. METHODS: Twelve men received three sets of 30-s RM at a perceived discomfort level of 7/10 on a visual analogue scale on the ipsilateral (IPSI-R) stimulated plantar flexors (PF), contralateral PF (CONTRA-R), Sham (light rolling on stimulated PF), or Control...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853842/sleep-dependent-consolidation-benefits-fast-transfer-of-time-interval-training
#14
Lihan Chen, Lu Guo, Ming Bao
Previous study has shown that short training (15 min) for explicitly discriminating temporal intervals between two paired auditory beeps, or between two paired tactile taps, can significantly improve observers' ability to classify the perceptual states of visual Ternus apparent motion while the training of task-irrelevant sensory properties did not help to improve visual timing (Chen and Zhou in Exp Brain Res 232(6):1855-1864, 2014). The present study examined the role of 'consolidation' after training of temporal task-irrelevant properties, or whether a pure delay (i...
November 16, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853427/prediction-of-biological-motion-perception-performance-from-intrinsic-brain-network-regional-efficiency
#15
Zengjian Wang, Delong Zhang, Bishan Liang, Song Chang, Jinghua Pan, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu
Biological motion perception (BMP) refers to the ability to perceive the moving form of a human figure from a limited amount of stimuli, such as from a few point lights located on the joints of a moving body. BMP is commonplace and important, but there is great inter-individual variability in this ability. This study used multiple regression model analysis to explore the association between BMP performance and intrinsic brain activity, in order to investigate the neural substrates underlying inter-individual variability of BMP performance...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853252/emergence-of-the-ability-to-perceive-dynamic-events-from-still-pictures-in-human-infants
#16
Nobu Shirai, Tomoko Imura
The ability to understand a visual scene depicted in a still image is among the abilities shared by all human beings. The aim of the present study was to examine when human infants acquire the ability to perceive the dynamic events depicted in still images (implied motion perception). To this end, we tested whether 4- and 5-month-old infants shifted their gaze toward the direction cued by a dynamic running action depicted in a still figure of a person. Results indicated that the 5- but not the 4-month-olds showed a significant gaze shift toward the direction implied by the posture of the runner (Experiments 1, 2, and 3b)...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852029/-brain-mechanisms-for-measuring-time-population-coding-of-durations
#17
Masamichi J Hayashi
Temporal processing is crucial in many aspects of our perception and action. While there is mounting evidence for the encoding mechanisms of spatial ("where") and identity ("what") information, those of temporal information ("when") remain largely unknown. Recent studies suggested that, similarly to the basic visual stimulus features such as orientation, motion direction, and numerical quantity, event durations are also represented by a population of neurons that are tuned for specific, preferred durations...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852024/-parietal-association-area-and-motion-information-processing
#18
Takanori Uka
Motion perception plays an important role in everyday life. The investigation of the neural mechanisms underlying the distinguishing of the direction of motion has broadly expanded our understanding of the neural mechanisms of not only visual motion processing but also how integration of visual information is linked with intentional behavior. The lateral intraparietal (LIP) cortex is a crucial area involved in perceptual decision making and oculomotor planning. Here, I have reviewed the neural mechanisms underlying visual motion processing and describe how intentional behavior results from motion information...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851900/residual-perception-of-biological-motion-in-cortical-blindness
#19
Ruffieux Nicolas, Ramon Meike, Lao Junpeng, Colombo Françoise, Stacchi Lisa, Borruat François-Xavier, Accolla Ettore, Annoni Jean-Marie, Caldara Roberto
From birth, the human visual system shows a remarkable sensitivity for perceiving biological motion. This visual ability relies on a distributed network of brain regions and can be preserved even after damage of high-level ventral visual areas. However, it remains unknown whether this critical biological skill can withstand the loss of vision following bilateral striate damage. To address this question, we tested the categorization of human and animal biological motion in BC, a rare case of cortical blindness after anoxia-induced bilateral striate damage...
November 13, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847346/scene-segmentation-in-early-visual-cortex-during-suppression-of-ventral-stream-regions
#20
Pablo R Grassi, Natalia Zaretskaya, Andreas Bartels
A growing body of literature suggests that feedback modulation of early visual processing is ubiquitous and central to cortical computation. In particular stimuli with high-level content that invariably activate ventral object responsive regions have been shown to suppress early visual cortex. This suppression was typically interpreted in the framework of predictive coding and feedback from ventral regions. Here we examined early visual modulation during perception of a bistable Gestalt illusion that has previously been shown to be mediated by dorsal parietal cortex rather than by ventral regions that were not activated...
November 12, 2016: NeuroImage
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