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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150028/-a-series-of-20-cases-of-endogenous-endophthalmitis
#1
T Petit, L Mahieu, C Tolou, S Hamid, V Pagot-Mathis, G Martin-Blondel, V Soler
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this case series was to evaluate both the visual and systemic prognosis of patients with endogenous endophthalmitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reported a series of 20 cases of endogenous endophthalmitis occurring between 2012 and 2015 at the university medical center in Toulouse. RESULTS: The mean age was 67 (±43.3) years with a male predominance (n=11). The site of entry was found in 14 cases (87.5%). In 11 cases (69%), the causative agent was a bacterium; a fungal infection was found in five cases...
November 14, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142237/inner-ear-otolith-asymmetry-in-late-larval-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus-perciformes-showing-kinetotic-behaviour-under-diminished-gravity
#2
Ralf Anken, Miriam Knie, Reinhard Hilbig
The inner ears of all vertebrates are designed to perceive auditory and vestibular inputs. Although a tremendous diversity in the inner ear can be found even among bony fishes, the morphologies of the utricle and of the semicircular canals are rather conservative among vertebrates. Fish show kinetoses under reduced gravity (spinning movements and looping responses) and are regarded model organisms concerning the performance of the otolithic organs. Otoliths can be analysed easily because they are compact, in contrast to the otoconial masses of other vertebrates...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141881/it-s-not-all-black-and-white-visual-scene-parameters-influence-optokinetic-reflex-performance-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#3
Céline M Gravot, Alexander G Knorr, Stefan Glasauer, Hans Straka
The maintenance of visual acuity during active and passive body motion is ensured by gaze-stabilizing reflexes that aim at minimizing retinal image slip. For the optokinetic reflex (OKR), large-field visual motion of the surround forms the essential stimulus that activates eye movements. Properties of the moving visual world influence cognitive motion perception and the estimation of visual image velocity. Therefore, the performance of brainstem-mediated visuo-motor behaviors might also depend on image scene characteristics...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137990/affective-blindsight-in-the-absence-of-input-from-face-processing-regions-in-occipital-temporal-cortex
#4
Christopher L Striemer, Robert L Whitwell, Melvyn A Goodale
Previous research suggests that the implicit recognition of emotional expressions may be carried out by pathways that bypass primary visual cortex (V1) and project to the amygdala. Some of the strongest evidence supporting this claim comes from case studies of "affective blindsight" in which patients with V1 damage can correctly guess whether an unseen face was depicting a fearful or happy expression. In the current study, we report a new case of affective blindsight in patient MC who is cortically blind following extensive bilateral lesions to V1, as well as face and object processing regions in her ventral visual stream...
November 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133819/low-perceptual-sensitivity-to-altered-video-speed-in-viewing-a-soccer-match
#5
Claudio de'Sperati, Gabriel Baud Bovy
When watching videos, our sense of reality is continuously challenged. How much can a fundamental dimension of experience such as visual flow be modified before breaking the perception of real time? Here we found a remarkable indifference to speed manipulations applied to a popular video content, a soccer match. In a condition that mimicked real-life TV watching, none of 100 naïve observers spontaneously noticed speed alterations up/down to 12%, even when asked to report motion anomalies, and showed very low sensitivity to video speed changes (Just Noticeable Difference, JND = 18%)...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129160/visual-but-not-motor-processes-predict-simple-visuomotor-reaction-time-of-badminton-players
#6
Thorben Hülsdünker, Heiko K Strüder, Andreas Mierau
The athlete's brain exhibits significant functional adaptations that facilitate visuomotor reaction performance. However, it is currently unclear if the same neurophysiological processes that differentiate athletes from non-athletes also determine performance within a homogeneous group of athletes. This information can provide valuable help for athletes and coaches aiming to optimize existing training regimes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the neurophysiological correlates of visuomotor reaction performance in a group of skilled athletes...
November 12, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124362/arthroscopic-one-tunnel-transosseous-foveal-repair-for-triangular-fibrocartilage-complex-tfcc-peripheral-tear
#7
Ji Hun Park, Dongmin Kim, Jong Woong Park
PURPOSE: Arthroscopic repair of a peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tear is a promising, minimally invasive surgical technique, especially in patients with symptomatic distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical result of arthroscopic one-tunnel transosseous foveal repair for peripheral TFCC tears. METHODS: Sixteen patients who underwent TFCC foveal repair were retrospectively evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 31...
November 9, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122610/links-between-action-perception-and-action-production-in-10-week-old-infants
#8
Vincent M Reid, Katharina Kaduk, Judith Lunn
In order to understand how experience of an action alters functional brain responses to visual information, we examined the effects of reflex walking on how 10-week-old infants processed biological motion. We gave experience of the reflex walk to half the participants, and did not give this experience to the other half of the sample. The participant's electrical brain activity in response to viewing upright and inverted walking and crawling movements indicated the detection of biological motion only for that group which experience the reflex walk, as evidenced by parietal electrode greater positivity for the upright than the inverted condition...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117288/dynamic-network-communication-in-the-human-functional-connectome-predicts-perceptual-variability-in-visual-illusion
#9
Zhiwei Wang, Kristina Zeljic, Qinying Jiang, Yong Gu, Wei Wang, Zheng Wang
Ubiquitous variability between individuals in visual perception is difficult to standardize and has thus essentially been ignored. Here we construct a quantitative psychophysical measure of illusory rotary motion based on the Pinna-Brelstaff figure (PBF) in 73 healthy volunteers and investigate the neural circuit mechanisms underlying perceptual variation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We acquired fMRI data from a subset of 42 subjects during spontaneous and 3 stimulus conditions: expanding PBF, expanding modified-PBF (illusion-free) and expanding modified-PBF with physical rotation...
November 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114806/spatiotemporal-feature-integration-shapes-approximate-numerical-processing
#10
Michele Fornaciai, Joonkoo Park
Numerosity perception involves a complex cascade of processing stages comprising an early sensory representation stage followed by a later stage providing a conceptual representation of numerical magnitude. While much recent work has focused on understanding how nonnumerical spatial features (e.g., density, area) influence numerosity perception in this processing cascade, little is known about how the spatiotemporal properties of the stimuli affect numerosity processing. Whether numerosity information is integrated over space and time in the processing cascade is an important question as it can provide insights into how the system dedicated for numerosity interacts with other perceptual systems...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114073/cellular-and-molecular-analysis-of-dendritic-morphogenesis-in-a-retinal-cell-type-that-senses-color-contrast-and-ventral-motion
#11
Jinyue Liu, Joshua R Sanes
As neuronal dendrites develop, they acquire cell type-specific features including characteristic size, shape, arborization, location and synaptic patterns. These features, in turn, are major determinants of type-specific neuronal function. Because neuronal diversity complicates the task of relating developmental programs to adult structure and function, we analyzed dendritic morphogenesis in a single retinal ganglion cell (RGC) type in mouse called J-RGC. We documented the emergence of five dendritic features that underlie J-RGC physiology: (1) dendritic field size, which approximate receptive field size; (2) dendritic complexity, which affects how J-RGCs sample space; (3) asymmetry, which contributes to direction-selectivity; (4) restricted lamination within the inner plexiform layer (IPL), which renders J-RGCs responsive to light decrements; and (5) distribution of synaptic inputs, which generate a color-opponent receptive field...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112866/insect-neurobiology-an-eye-to-forward-motion
#12
Daniel Tomsic, Jamie Theobald
For many animals, visual motion provides essential information for navigating through the environment. A new study in flies reveals novel neurons capable of multiplexing information of a visual scene and encoding relative depth perception from motion disparity.
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110946/assessment-of-the-electronic-retinal-implant-alpha-ams-in-restoring-vision-to-blind-patients-with-end-stage-retinitis-pigmentosa
#13
Thomas L Edwards, Charles L Cottriall, Kanmin Xue, Matthew P Simunovic, James D Ramsden, Eberhart Zrenner, Robert E MacLaren
PURPOSE: To report the initial efficacy results of the Retina Implant Alpha AMS (Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany) for partial restoration of vision in end-stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP). DESIGN: Prospective, single-arm, investigator-sponsored interventional clinical trial. Within-participant control comprising residual vision with the retinal implant switched ON versus OFF in the implanted eye. PARTICIPANTS: The Retina Implant Alpha AMS was implanted into the worse-seeing eye of 6 participants with end-stage RP and no useful perception of light vision...
October 27, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108895/changes-in-bowel-habits-and-patient-scored-symptoms-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-and-biliopancreatic-diversion-with-duodenal-switch
#14
Khalid Elias, Zakaria Bekhali, Jakob Hedberg, Wilhelm Graf, Magnus Sundbom
BACKGROUND: Bariatric procedures are increasingly being used, but data on bowel habits are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in gastrointestinal function and patient-scored symptoms after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS). SETTING: University hospital in Sweden. METHODS: We recruited 268 adult patients (mean age of 42.5 yr, body mass index 44.8, 67.9% female) listed for RYGB and BPD/DS...
September 28, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107970/motor-expertise-facilitates-the-accuracy-of-state-extrapolation-in-perception
#15
Nicolas Ludolph, Jannis Plöger, Martin A Giese, Winfried Ilg
Predicting the behavior of objects in the environment is an important requirement to overcome latencies in the sensorimotor system and realize precise actions in rapid situations. Internal forward models that were acquired during motor training might not only be used for efficiently controlling fast motor behavior but also to facilitate extrapolation performance in purely perceptual tasks. In this study, we investigated whether preceding virtual cart-pole balancing training facilitates the ability to extrapolate the virtual pole motion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107746/how-many-deficits-in-the-same-dyslexic-brains-a-behavioural-and-fmri-assessment-of-comorbidity-in-adult-dyslexics
#16
Laura Danelli, Manuela Berlingeri, Gabriella Bottini, Nunzio A Borghese, Mirko Lucchese, Maurizio Sberna, Cathy J Price, Eraldo Paulesu
Dyslexia can have different manifestations: this has motivated different theories on its nature, on its underlying brain bases and enduring controversies on how to best treat it. The relative weight of the different manifestations has never been evaluated using both behavioural and fMRI measures, a challenge taken here to assess the major systems called into play in dyslexia by different theories. We found that adult well-compensated dyslexics were systematically impaired only in reading and in visuo-phonological tasks, while deficits for other systems (e...
September 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104005/behavioural-evidence-for-distinct-mechanisms-related-to-global-and-biological-motion-perception
#17
Louisa Miller, Hannah C Agnew, Karin S Pilz
The perception of human motion is a vital ability in our daily lives. Human movement recognition is often studied using point-light stimuli in which dots represent the joints of a moving person. Depending on task and stimulus, the local motion of the single dots, and the global form of the stimulus can be used to discriminate point-light stimuli. Previous studies often measured motion coherence for global motion perception and contrasted it with performance in biological motion perception to assess whether difficulties in biological motion processing are related to more general difficulties with motion processing...
November 8, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097237/mismatched-summation-mechanisms-in-older-adults-for-the-perception-of-small-moving-stimuli
#18
Thomas J McDougall, Bao N Nguyen, Allison M McKendrick, David R Badcock
Previous studies have found evidence for reduced cortical inhibition in aging visual cortex. Reduced inhibition could plausibly increase the spatial area of excitation in receptive fields of older observers, as weaker inhibitory processes would allow the excitatory receptive field to dominate and be psychophysically measureable over larger areas. Here, we investigated aging effects on spatial summation of motion direction using the Battenberg summation method, which aims to control the influence of locally generated internal noise changes by holding overall display size constant...
November 8, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090316/efficiencies-for-parts-and-wholes-in-biological-motion-perception
#19
W Drew Bromfield, Jason M Gold
People can reliably infer the actions, intentions, and mental states of fellow humans from body movements (Blake & Shiffrar, 2007). Previous research on such biological-motion perception has suggested that the movements of the feet may play a particularly important role in making certain judgments about locomotion (Chang & Troje, 2009; Troje & Westhoff, 2006). One account of this effect is that the human visual system may have evolved specialized processes that are efficient for extracting information carried by the feet (Troje & Westhoff, 2006)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090315/illusory-motion-reveals-velocity-matching-not-foveation-drives-smooth-pursuit-of-large-objects
#20
Zheng Ma, Scott N J Watamaniuk, Stephen J Heinen
When small objects move in a scene, we keep them foveated with smooth pursuit eye movements. Although large objects such as people and animals are common, it is nonetheless unknown how we pursue them since they cannot be foveated. It might be that the brain calculates an object's centroid, and then centers the eyes on it during pursuit as a foveation mechanism might. Alternatively, the brain merely matches the velocity by motion integration. We test these alternatives with an illusory motion stimulus that translates at a speed different from its retinal motion...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
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