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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080111/generalized-movement-representation-in-haptic-perception
#1
Lucile Dupin, Vincent Hayward, Mark Wexler
The extraction of spatial information by touch often involves exploratory movements, with tactile and kinesthetic signals combined to construct a spatial haptic percept. However, the body has many tactile sensory surfaces that can move independently, giving rise to the source binding problem: when there are multiple tactile signals originating from sensory surfaces with multiple movements, are the tactile and kinesthetic signals bound to one another? We studied haptic signal combination by applying the tactile signal to a stationary fingertip while another body part (the other hand or a foot) or a visual target moves, and using a task that can only be done if the tactile and kinesthetic signals are combined...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072633/visual-motion-processing-subserves-faster-visuomotor-reaction-in-badminton-players
#2
Thorben Hülsdünker, Heiko K Strüder, Andreas Mierau
INTRODUCTION: Athletes participating in ball or racquet sports have to respond to visual stimuli under critical time pressure. Previous studies used visual contrast stimuli to determine visual perception and visuomotor reaction in athletes and non-athletes however, especially ball and racquet sports are characterized by motion rather than contrast visual cues. Since visual contrast and motion signals are processed in different cortical regions, this study aimed to determine differences in perception and processing of visual motion between athletes and non-athletes...
January 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071707/the-content-of-imagined-sounds-changes-visual-motion-perception-in-the-cross-bounce-illusion
#3
Christopher C Berger, H Henrik Ehrsson
Can what we imagine hearing change what we see? Whether imagined sensory stimuli are integrated with external sensory stimuli to shape our perception of the world has only recently begun to come under scrutiny. Here, we made use of the cross-bounce illusion in which an auditory stimulus presented at the moment two passing objects meet promotes the perception that the objects bounce off rather than cross by one another to examine whether the content of imagined sound changes visual motion perception in a manner that is consistent with multisensory integration...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065606/neurons-responsive-to-global-visual-motion-have-unique-tuning-properties-in-hummingbirds
#4
Andrea H Gaede, Benjamin Goller, Jessica P M Lam, Douglas R Wylie, Douglas L Altshuler
Neurons in animal visual systems that respond to global optic flow exhibit selectivity for motion direction and/or velocity. The avian lentiformis mesencephali (LM), known in mammals as the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT), is a key nucleus for global motion processing [1-4]. In all animals tested, it has been found that the majority of LM and NOT neurons are tuned to temporo-nasal (back-to-front) motion [4-11]. Moreover, the monocular gain of the optokinetic response is higher in this direction, compared to naso-temporal (front-to-back) motion [12, 13]...
December 29, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057722/causal-evidence-of-motion-signals-in-macaque-middle-temporal-area-weighted-pooled-for-global-heading-perception
#5
Xuefei Yu, Han Hou, Lothar Spillmann, Yong Gu
Accurate heading perception relies on visual information integrated across a wide field, that is, optic flow. Numerous computational studies have speculated how local visual information might be pooled by the brain to compute heading, but these hypotheses lack direct neurophysiological support. In the current study, we instructed human and monkey subjects to judge heading directions based on global optic flow. We showed that a local perturbation cue applied within only a small part of the visual field could bias the subjects' heading judgments, and shift the neuronal tuning in the macaque middle temporal (MT) area at the same time...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057581/individual-differences-in-motion-induced-blindness-the-effects-of-mask-coherence-and-depth-ordering
#6
John E Sparrow, Joseph A LaBarre, Brianna Sargent Merrill
Motion-induced blindness (MIB; Bonneh, Cooperman, & Sagi, 2001) is a visual phenomenon in which salient, stationary high-contrast targets are perceived to disappear and reappear when viewed within a moving background mask. The present study examined the effects of depth ordering (three levels) and mask motion coherence (0%, 50%, and 100% coherence of the mask elements), as well as the interaction effects between these two variables, especially taking note of between-subject variation. It is clear that individuals experience different amounts of MIB, indexed using average, cumulative, and normalized measures...
January 2, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053039/complex-visual-motion-representation-in-mouse-area-v1
#7
Ganna Palagina, Jochen F Meyer, Stelios M Smirnakis
: Rodent visual cortex has a hierarchical architecture similar to that of higher mammals (Coogan and Burkhalter, 1993; Marshel et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2012). Although notable differences exist between the species in terms or receptive field sizes and orientation map organization (Dräger, 1975; Gattass et al., 1987; Van den Bergh et al., 2010), mouse V1 is thought to respond to local orientation and visual motion elements rather than to global patterns of motion, similar to V1 in higher mammals (Niell and Stryker, 2008; Bonin et al...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044021/individual-differences-in-visual-motion-perception-and-neurotransmitter-concentrations-in-the-human-brain
#8
Tatsuto Takeuchi, Sanae Yoshimoto, Yasuhiro Shimada, Takanori Kochiyama, Hirohito M Kondo
Recent studies have shown that interindividual variability can be a rich source of information regarding the mechanism of human visual perception. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying interindividual variability in the perception of visual motion, one of the fundamental components of visual scene analysis, by measuring neurotransmitter concentrations using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. First, by psychophysically examining two types of motion phenomena-motion assimilation and contrast-we found that, following the presentation of the same stimulus, some participants perceived motion assimilation, while others perceived motion contrast...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039495/comparative-study-of-open-and-arthroscopic-coracoid-transfer-for-shoulder-anterior-instability-latarjet-clinical-results-at-short-term-follow-up
#9
Bartłomiej Kordasiewicz, Konrad Małachowski, Maciej Kicinski, Sławomir Chaberek, Stanisław Pomianowski
PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to compare early clinical results after open and arthroscopic Latarjet stabilisation in anterior shoulder instability. Our hypothesis was the results of arthroscopic stabilisation were comparable with the results of open procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The clinical results of the patients after primary Latarjet procedure were analysed. Patients operated on between 2006 and 2011 using an open technique composed the OPEN group and patients operated on arthroscopically between 2011 and 2013 composed the ARTHRO group; 48 out of 55 shoulders (87%) in OPEN and 62 out of 64 shoulders (97%) in ARTHRO were available to follow-up...
December 30, 2016: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035656/the-internal-representation-of-head-orientation-differs-for-conscious-perception-and-balance-control
#10
Brian H Dalton, Brandon G Rasman, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin
We tested perceived head-on-feet orientation and the direction of vestibular-evoked balance responses in passively- and actively-held head-turned postures The direction of vestibular-evoked balance responses was not aligned with perceived head-on-feet orientation while maintaining prolonged passively-held head-turned postures. Furthermore, static visual cues of head-on-feet orientation did not update the estimate of head posture for the balance controller A prolonged actively-held head-turned posture did not elicit a rotation in the direction of the vestibular-evoked balance response despite a significant rotation in perceived angular head posture It is proposed that conscious perception of head posture and the transformation of vestibular signals for standing balance relying on this head posture are not dependent on the same internal representation...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029067/the-relationship-between-the-implementation-and-effectiveness-of-a-nationwide-physical-activity-telephone-counseling-service-for-adults-with-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Jennifer R Tomasone, Kelly P Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Amy E Latimer-Cheung, Kathleen A Martin Ginis
PURPOSE: Get in Motion (GIM) is an evidence-based telephone counseling service that promotes leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among Canadian adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). The first phase of GIM sustained intentions for, and increased participation in, LTPA; however, it is unclear how GIM led to these outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the implementation correlates of change in LTPA intentions and behavior in the second phase of GIM. METHODS: The frequency, duration, and content of counseling sessions were tailored to meet clients' (N = 46; 50...
December 28, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028776/motion-direction-discrimination-training-reduces-perceived-motion-repulsion
#12
Ke Jia, Sheng Li
Participants often exaggerate the perceived angular separation between two simultaneously presented motion stimuli, which is referred to as motion repulsion. The overestimation helps participants differentiate between the two superimposed motion directions, yet it causes the impairment of direction perception. Since direction perception can be refined through perceptual training, we here attempted to investigate whether the training of a direction discrimination task changes the amount of motion repulsion. Our results showed a direction-specific learning effect, which was accompanied by a reduced amount of motion repulsion both for the trained and the untrained directions...
December 27, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009405/fulminant-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-and-venous-stasis-retinopathy-resulting-in-severe-bilateral-visual-impairment
#13
Alexander Voldman, Breanna Durbin, John Nguyen, Brian Ellis, Monique Leys
PURPOSE: To report a complicated case of fulminant idiopathic intracranial hypertension and concomitant venous stasis retinopathy leading to postpapilledema optic atrophy. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 34-year-old morbidly obese woman with a history of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) presented with a 1-month history of bilateral vision loss, diplopia, and left eye pain after being lost to follow-up for 6 years. Fundus examination revealed florid papilledema with venous tortuosity bilaterally...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006071/lightness-perception-for-surfaces-moving-through-different-illumination-levels
#14
Matteo Toscani, Suncica Zdravkovic, Karl R Gegenfurtner
Lightness perception has mainly been studied with static scenes so far. This study presents four experiments investigating lightness perception under dynamic illumination conditions. We asked participants for lightness matches of a virtual three-dimensional target moving through a light field while their eye movements were recorded. We found that the target appeared differently, depending on the direction of motion in the light field and its precise position in the light field. Lightness was also strongly affected by the choice of fixation positions with the spatiotemporal image sequence...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006067/motion-direction-influences-surface-segmentation-in-stereo-transparency
#15
Ross Goutcher
To perceive multiple overlapping surfaces in the same location of the visual field (transparency), the visual system must determine which surface elements belong together, and should be integrated, and which should be kept apart. Spatial relations between surfaces, such as depth order, must also be determined. This article details two experiments examining the interaction of motion direction and disparity cues on the perception of depth order and surface segmentation in transparency. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with random-dot stereograms, where transparent planes were defined by differences in motion direction and disparity...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003778/the-adjunctive-use-of-pre-operative-intravitreal-bevacizumab-in-the-setting-of-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#16
Abdullah Al-Kharashi, Tural Galbinur, Efrem D Mandelcorn, Rajeev H Muni, Mir Nabavi, Peter J Kertes
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of pre-operative intravitreal bevacizumab injection on the rate of postoperative vitreous hemorrhage in patients undergoing vitrectomy for complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Consecutive retrospective comparative cohort study. Forty eyes of 37 patients who received pre-operative intravitreal bevacizumab 1.25 mg were compared to a similar group of 44 eyes of 44 patients who had undergone vitrectomy surgery prior to the availability and widespread use of pre-operative intravitreal bevacizumab...
October 2016: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003348/the-spatiotemporal-filter-for-visual-motion-integration-from-pursuit-eye-movements-in-humans-and-monkeys
#17
Trishna Mukherjee, Bing Liu, Claudio Simoncini, Leslie C Osborne
: Despite the enduring interest in motion integration, a direct measure of the space-time filter that the brain imposes on a visual scene has been elusive. This is perhaps because of the challenge of estimating a three-dimensional function from perceptual reports in psychophysical tasks. We take a different approach. We exploit the close connection between visual motion estimates and smooth pursuit eye movements to measure stimulus-response correlations across space and time, computing the linear space-time filter for global motion direction in humans and monkeys...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000082/the-influence-of-action-observation-on-action-execution-dissociating-the-contribution-of-action-on-perception-perception-on-action-and-resolving-conflict
#18
Eliane Deschrijver, Jan R Wiersema, Marcel Brass
For more than 15 years, motor interference paradigms have been used to investigate the influence of action observation on action execution. Most research on so-called automatic imitation has focused on variables that play a modulating role or investigated potential confounding factors. Interestingly, furthermore, a number of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have tried to shed light on the functional mechanisms and neural correlates involved in imitation inhibition. However, these fMRI studies, presumably due to poor temporal resolution, have primarily focused on high-level processes and have neglected the potential role of low-level motor and perceptual processes...
December 20, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994567/subliminal-impending-collision-increases-perceived-object-size-and-enhances-pupillary-light-reflex
#19
Lihong Chen, Xiangyong Yuan, Qian Xu, Ying Wang, Yi Jiang
Fast detection of ambient danger is crucial for the survival of biological entities. Previous studies have shown that threatening information can bias human visual perception and enhance physiological reactions. It remains to be delineated whether the modulation of threat on human perceptual and physiological responses can take place below awareness. To probe this issue, we adopted visual looming stimuli and created two levels of threat by varying their motion trajectories to the observers, such that the stimuli could move in a path that either collided with the observers' heads or just nearly missed...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994538/auditory-motion-elicits-a-visual-motion-aftereffect
#20
Christopher C Berger, H Henrik Ehrsson
The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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