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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633972/the-neural-basis-of-form-and-form-motion-integration-from-static-and-dynamic-translational-glass-patterns-a-rtms-investigation
#1
Andrea Pavan, Filippo Ghin, Rita Donato, Gianluca Campana, George Mather
A long-held view of the visual system is that form and motion are independently analysed. However, there is physiological and psychophysical evidence of early interaction in the processing of form and motion. In this study, we used a combination of Glass patterns (GPs) and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to investigate in human observers the neural mechanisms underlying form-motion integration. GPs consist of randomly distributed dot pairs (dipoles) that induce the percept of an oriented stimulus...
June 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624851/acute-effects-of-constant-torque-and-constant-angle-stretching-on-the-muscle-and-tendon-tissue-properties
#2
Andreas Konrad, Francesco Budini, Markus Tilp
PURPOSE: Static stretching induces acute structural changes of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) that are related to the intensity or duration of stretching. It has been reported that stretching with a constant torque (CT) leads to greater joint range of motion changes than stretching with a constant angle (CA). Whether or not this difference is due to different structural changes of the MTUs of the lower leg and ankle plantar flexors is not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of single CA and CT stretching on various muscle and tendon mechanical properties...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623390/disturbed-cervical-proprioception-affects-perception-of-spatial-orientation-while-in-motion
#3
Eva-Maj Malmström, Per-Anders Fransson, Terese Jaxmar Bruinen, Semir Facic, Fredrik Tjernström
The proprioceptive, visual and vestibular sensory systems interact to maintain dynamic stability during movement. The relative importance and interplay between these sensory systems is still not fully understood. Increased knowledge about spatial perception and postural orientation would provide better understanding of balance disorders, and their rehabilitation. Displacement of the body in space was recorded in 16 healthy subjects performing a sequence of stepping-in-place tests without any visual or auditory cues...
June 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622700/evidence-for-long-range-spatiotemporal-interactions-in-infant-and-adult-visual-cortex
#4
Anthony M Norcia, Francesca Pei, Peter J Kohler
The development of spatiotemporal interactions giving rise to classical receptive field properties has been well studied in animal models, but little is known about the development of putative nonclassical mechanisms in any species. Here we used visual evoked potentials to study the developmental status of spatiotemporal interactions for stimuli that were biased to engage long-range spatiotemporal integration mechanisms. We compared responses to widely spaced stimuli presented either in temporal succession or at the same time...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619657/low-frequency-oscillations-employ-a-general-coding-of-the-spatio-temporal-similarity-of-dynamic-faces
#5
Nicholas Furl, Michael Lohse, Francesca Pizzorni-Ferrarese
Brain networks use neural oscillations as information transfer mechanisms. Although the face perception network in occipitotemporal cortex is well-studied, contributions of oscillations to face representation remain an open question. We tested for links between oscillatory responses that encode facial dimensions and the theoretical proposal that faces are encoded in similarity-based "face spaces". We quantified similarity-based encoding of dynamic faces in magnetoencephalographic sensor-level oscillatory power for identity, expression, physical and perceptual similarity of facial form and motion...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615328/effect-of-eye-position-during-human-visual-vestibular-integration-of-heading-perception
#6
Benjamin Thomas Crane
Visual and inertial stimuli provide heading discrimination cues. Integration of these multisensory stimuli has been demonstrated to depend on their relative reliability. However, the reference frame of visual stimuli is eye centered while inertial is head centered and it remains unclear how these are reconciled with combined stimuli. Seven human subjects completed a heading discrimination task consisting of a 2s translation with a peak velocity of 16 cm/s. Eye position was varied between 0°, and ±25° left/right...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614353/as-time-passes-by-observed-motion-speed-and-psychological-time-during-video-playback
#7
Thomas Jonathan Nyman, Eric Per Anders Karlsson, Jan Antfolk
Research shows that psychological time (i.e., the subjective experience and assessment of the passage of time) is malleable and that the central nervous system re-calibrates temporal information in accordance with situational factors so that psychological time flows slower or faster. Observed motion-speed (e.g., the visual perception of a rolling ball) is an important situational factor which influences the production of time estimates. The present study examines previous findings showing that observed slow and fast motion-speed during video playback respectively results in over- and underproductions of intervals of time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613177/walking-with-virtual-people-evaluation-of-locomotion-interfaces-in-dynamic-environments
#8
Anne-Helene Olivier, Julien Bruneau, Richard Kulpa, Julien Pettre
Navigating in virtual environments requires using some locomotion interfaces, especially when the dimensions of the environments exceed the ones of the Virtual Reality system. Locomotion interfaces induce some biases both in the perception of the self-motion or in the formation of virtual locomotion trajectories. These biases have been mostly evaluated in the context of static environments, and studies need to be revisited in the new context of populated environments where users interact with virtual characters...
June 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610816/egocentric-distance-perception-and-performance-of-direct-pointing-in-stereoscopic-displays
#9
Chiuhsiang J Lin, Bereket H Woldegiorgis
In this study, the interaction performances and spatial perceptions in stereoscopic environments were investigated. The experiment compared direct user interactions during pointing at a target, which was continuously visible or presented briefly and disappeared, in both stereoscopic and real environments, at three parallax/depth levels. The position data, collected by a motion system, were used to compute accuracy, signed error, movement time, and throughput. The results showed inaccurate egocentric distance judgment in stereoscopic displays and accurate perceptions in the real world...
October 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600968/neural-mechanisms-underlying-sound-induced-visual-motion-perception-an-fmri-study
#10
Souta Hidaka, Satomi Higuchi, Wataru Teramoto, Yoichi Sugita
Studies of crossmodal interactions in motion perception have reported activation in several brain areas, including those related to motion processing and/or sensory association, in response to multimodal (e.g., visual and auditory) stimuli that were both in motion. Recent studies have demonstrated that sounds can trigger illusory visual apparent motion to static visual stimuli (sound-induced visual motion: SIVM): A visual stimulus blinking at a fixed location is perceived to be moving laterally when an alternating left-right sound is also present...
June 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597136/tactile-motion-lacks-momentum
#11
Gianluca Macauda, Bigna Lenggenhager, Rebekka Meier, Gregory Essick, Peter Brugger
The displacement of the final position of a moving object in the direction of the observed motion path, i.e. an overestimation, is known as representational momentum. It has been described both in the visual and the auditory domain, and is suggested to be modality-independent. Here, we tested whether a representational momentum can also be demonstrated in the somatosensory domain. While the cognitive literature on representational momentum suggests that it can, previous work on the psychophysics of tactile motion perception would rather predict an underestimation of the perceived endpoint of a tactile stimulus...
June 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595392/transient-raman-spectra-structure-and-thermochemistry-of-the-thiocyanate-dimer-radical-anion-in-water
#12
Ireneusz Janik, Ian Carmichael, G N R Tripathi
Time-resolved resonance-enhanced Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectra of the thiocyanate dimer radical anion, (SCN)2(•-), prepared by pulse radiolysis in water, have been obtained and interpreted in conjunction with theoretical calculations to provide detailed information on the molecular geometry and bond properties of the species. The structural properties of the radical are used to develop a molecular perspective on its thermochemistry in an aqueous solution. Twenty-nine Stokes Raman bands of the radical observed in the 120-4200 cm(-1) region are assigned in terms of the strongly enhanced 220 cm(-1) fundamental, weakly enhanced 721 cm(-1), and moderately enhanced 2073 cm(-1) fundamentals, their overtones, and combinations...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585281/the-deep-fascia-and-retinacula-of-the-equine-forelimb-structure-and-innervation
#13
Aleksandra Skalec, Monika Egerbacher
Recent advances in human fascia research have shed new light on the role of the fascial network in movement perception and coordination, transmission of muscle force, and integrative function in body biomechanics. Evolutionary adaptations of equine musculoskeletal apparatus that assure effective terrestrial locomotion are employed in equestrianism, resulting in the wide variety of movements in performing horses, from sophisticated dressage to jumping and high-speed racing. The high importance of horse motion efficiency in the present-day equine industry indicates the significance of scientific knowledge of the structure and physiology of equine fasciae...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583057/auricular-acupressure-in-the-prevention-of-postoperative-nausea-and-emesis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Cynthia Feng, Jovan Popovic, Richard Kline, Jung Kim, Rafael Matos, Sarah Lee, Joseph Bosco
INTRODUCTION: Successful antiemesis contributes significantly to quality, safety, and patient satisfaction. Patients undergoing general anesthesia often experience postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Acupressure offers a side effect-free alternative to common first-line antiemetics. Because the patient may perceive needle acupuncture as uncomfortable, acupressure is a desirable alternative for the prevention of PONV. METHODS: This study was a randomized, prospective, double-blinded clinical trial investigating the effect of acupressure in patients with a history of PONV and motion sickness...
April 2017: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581314/intergenerational-perceptions-of-mass-trauma-s-impact-on-physical-health-and-well-being
#15
Brent Bezo, Stefania Maggi
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the perceived intergenerational impact of the 1932-1933 forced starvation-genocide of Ukrainians and reports the perceived impact of the mass trauma on physical health and well-being across three generations. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with survivors of the 1930s mass trauma and their adult children and grandchildren. In total, 45 interviews were conducted in Ukraine and a qualitative thematic method was used to analyze the interview texts...
June 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580425/ultrastretchable-transparent-triboelectric-nanogenerator-as-electronic-skin-for-biomechanical-energy-harvesting-and-tactile-sensing
#16
Xiong Pu, Mengmeng Liu, Xiangyu Chen, Jiangman Sun, Chunhua Du, Yang Zhang, Junyi Zhai, Weiguo Hu, Zhong Lin Wang
Rapid advancements in stretchable and multifunctional electronics impose the challenge on corresponding power devices that they should have comparable stretchability and functionality. We report a soft skin-like triboelectric nanogenerator (STENG) that enables both biomechanical energy harvesting and tactile sensing by hybridizing elastomer and ionic hydrogel as the electrification layer and electrode, respectively. For the first time, ultrahigh stretchability (uniaxial strain, 1160%) and transparency (average transmittance, 96...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574442/electrophysiological-indices-of-audiovisual-speech-perception-in-the-broader-autism-phenotype
#17
Julia Irwin, Trey Avery, Jacqueline Turcios, Lawrence Brancazio, Barbara Cook, Nicole Landi
When a speaker talks, the consequences of this can both be heard (audio) and seen (visual). A novel visual phonemic restoration task was used to assess behavioral discrimination and neural signatures (event-related potentials, or ERP) of audiovisual processing in typically developing children with a range of social and communicative skills assessed using the social responsiveness scale, a measure of traits associated with autism. An auditory oddball design presented two types of stimuli to the listener, a clear exemplar of an auditory consonant-vowel syllable /ba/ (the more frequently occurring standard stimulus), and a syllable in which the auditory cues for the consonant were substantially weakened, creating a stimulus which is more like /a/ (the infrequently presented deviant stimulus)...
June 2, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573074/living-with-ultra-low-vision-an-inventory-of-self-reported-visually-guided-activities-by-individuals-with-profound-visual-impairment
#18
Olukemi Adeyemo, Pamela E Jeter, Collin Rozanski, Ellen Arnold, Lauren A Dalvin, Bonnielin Swenor, Gislin Dagnelie
PURPOSE: To understand how individuals with profound visual impairment (ultra-low vision, ULV) use their remaining vision. METHODS: Forty-six participants with ULV (visual acuity ≤ 200/500 in the better seeing eye) were divided into nine focus groups (4-6 individuals per group) and met either in person (n = 2) or over the phone (n = 7). Discussions were guided by the Massof Activity Inventory. Audio recordings were transcribed and analyzed for visual activities that were then classified along two visual categorizations - functional domains and visual aspects...
May 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570621/effect-of-glaucoma-on-eye-movement-patterns-and-laboratory-based-hazard-detection-ability
#19
Samantha Sze-Yee Lee, Alex A Black, Joanne M Wood
PURPOSE: The mechanisms underlying the elevated crash rates of older drivers with glaucoma are poorly understood. A key driving skill is timely detection of hazards; however, the hazard detection ability of drivers with glaucoma has been largely unexplored. This study assessed the eye movement patterns and visual predictors of performance on a laboratory-based hazard detection task in older drivers with glaucoma. METHODS: Participants included 30 older drivers with glaucoma (71±7 years; average better-eye mean deviation (MD) = -3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567272/accuracy-and-tuning-of-flow-parsing-for-visual-perception-of-object-motion-during-self-motion
#20
Diederick C Niehorster, Li Li
How do we perceive object motion during self-motion using visual information alone? Previous studies have reported that the visual system can use optic flow to identify and globally subtract the retinal motion component resulting from self-motion to recover scene-relative object motion, a process called flow parsing. In this article, we developed a retinal motion nulling method to directly measure and quantify the magnitude of flow parsing (i.e., flow parsing gain) in various scenarios to examine the accuracy and tuning of flow parsing for the visual perception of object motion during self-motion...
May 2017: I-Perception
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