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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237813/newly-acquired-audio-visual-associations-bias-perception-in-binocular-rivalry
#1
Wolfgang Einhäuser, Philipp Methfessel, Alexandra Bendixen
When distinct stimuli are presented to the two eyes, their mental representations alternate in awareness. Here, such "binocular rivalry" was used to investigate whether audio-visual associations bias visual perception. To induce two arbitrary associations, each between a tone and a grating of a specific color and motion direction, observers were required to respond whenever this combination was presented, but not for other tone-grating combinations. After about 20 minutes of this induction phase, each of the gratings was presented to one eye to induce rivalry, while either of the two tones or no tone was played...
February 22, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237358/audio-visual-interaction-in-visual-motion-detection-synchrony-versus-asynchrony
#2
Stephanie Rosemann, Inga-Maria Wefel, Volkan Elis, Manfred Fahle
OBJECTIVE: Detection and identification of moving targets is of paramount importance in everyday life, even if it is not widely tested in optometric practice, mostly for technical reasons. There are clear indications in the literature that in perception of moving targets, vision and hearing interact, for example in noisy surrounds and in understanding speech. The main aim of visual perception, the ability that optometry aims to optimize, is the identification of objects, from everyday objects to letters, but also the spatial orientation of subjects in natural surrounds...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230085/dynamics-of-contextual-modulation-of-perceived-shape-in-human-vision
#3
Elena Gheorghiu, Frederick A A Kingdom
In biological vision, contextual modulation refers to the influence of a surround pattern on either the perception of, or the neural responses to, a target pattern. One studied form of contextual modulation deals with the effect of a surround texture on the perceived shape of a contour, in the context of the phenomenon known as the shape aftereffect. In the shape aftereffect, prolonged viewing, or adaptation to a particular contour's shape causes a shift in the perceived shape of a subsequently viewed contour...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227922/evaluation-of-effects-of-electrical-stimulation-in-the-retina-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#4
A Gonzalez-Calle, J D Weiland, A Gonzalez-Calle, J D Weiland, A Gonzalez-Calle, J D Weiland
Retinal prostheses provide the capability to blind patients to detect motion and locate large objects. To avoid activating axons of passage, which can create streak-like perceptions, long pulse stimulation can be used to bypass axons and achieve focal retinal activation. Safety is a concern because long pulses require more charge than short pulses to elicit a response from neural tissue. Future implants will require smaller electrodes to improve resolution, but increased charge density may result, which is another safety concern...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227830/an-adaptive-model-approach-for-quantitative-wrist-rigidity-evaluation-during-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery
#5
Sofia Assis, Pedro Costa, Maria Jose Rosas, Rui Vaz, Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Sofia Assis, Pedro Costa, Maria Jose Rosas, Rui Vaz, Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Maria Jose Rosas, Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Sofia Assis, Rui Vaz, Pedro Costa
Intraoperative evaluation of the efficacy of Deep Brain Stimulation includes evaluation of the effect on rigidity. A subjective semi-quantitative scale is used, dependent on the examiner perception and experience. A system was proposed previously, aiming to tackle this subjectivity, using quantitative data and providing real-time feedback of the computed rigidity reduction, hence supporting the physician decision. This system comprised of a gyroscope-based motion sensor in a textile band, placed in the patients hand, which communicated its measurements to a laptop...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227564/moving-object-detection-and-background-enhancement-for-thalamic-visual-prostheses
#6
Hossam H Abolfotuh, Amr Jawwad, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Amr Jawwad, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hani M K Mahdi, Bassem Abdullah, Seif Eldawlatly, Hossam H Abolfotuh
Visual prostheses open the door of hope to restore functional vision for the blind. One of the main challenges facing their development is the limited number of electrodes used in the stimulation process which limits the resolution of the perceived images. To improve the perception, the useful features in the scene need to be enhanced while the other features should be suppressed to achieve better resolution. This paper introduces an image processing method to enhance three main features detectable by the natural visual pathway; namely the contrast, the motion and the edges...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220883/reducing-luminance-intensity-can-improve-motion-perception-in-noise
#7
Rémy Allard, Angelo Arleo
Visual perception generally improves under brighter environments. For instance, motion sensitivity is known to improve with luminance intensity especially at high temporal frequencies. However, the current study counter-intuitively shows that increasing luminance intensity can impair motion sensitivity in noise. Motion sensitivity was measured with and without noise added to a drifting Gabor patch as a function of the temporal frequency and luminance intensity. As expected, motion sensitivity in absence of noise reached a ceiling performance at a relatively low luminance intensity (about 35 td) for low temporal frequencies and improved with luminance intensity up to the highest luminance intensity tested (353 td) for high temporal frequencies...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209526/robust-size-illusion-produced-by-expanding-and-contracting-flow-fields
#8
Xue Dong, Jianying Bai, Min Bao
A new illusion is described. Randomly positioned dots moved radially within an imaginary annular window. The dots' motion periodically changed the direction, leading to an alternating percept of expanding and contracting motion. Strikingly, the apparent size of the enclosed circular region shrank during the dots' expanding phases and dilated during the contracting phases. We quantitatively measured the illusion, and found that the presence of energy at the local kinetic edge could not account for the illusion...
February 13, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205639/biological-motion-distorts-size-perception
#9
Peter Veto, Wolfgang Einhäuser, Nikolaus F Troje
Visual illusions explore the limits of sensory processing and provide an ideal testbed to study perception. Size illusions - stimuli whose size is consistently misperceived - do not only result from sensory cues, but can also be induced by cognitive factors, such as social status. Here we investigate, whether the ecological relevance of biological motion can also distort perceived size. We asked observers to judge the size of point-light walkers (PLWs), configurations of dots whose movements induce the perception of human movement, and visually matched control stimuli (inverted PLWs)...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197836/does-direction-of-walking-impact-binocular-rivalry-between-competing-patterns-of-optic-flow
#10
Richard Paris, Bobby Bodenheimer, Randolph Blake
When dissimilar monocular images are viewed simultaneously by the two eyes, stable binocular vision gives way to unstable vision characterized by alternations in dominance between the two images in a phenomenon called binocular rivalry. These alternations in perception reveal the existence of inhibitory interactions between neural representations associated with conflicting visual inputs. Binocular rivalry has been studied since the days of Wheatstone, but one recent strategy is to investigate its susceptibility to influences caused by one's own motor activity...
February 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192443/roll-vection-in-migraine-and-controls-using-inertial-nulling-and-certainty-estimate-techniques
#11
Mark Andrew Miller, Benjamin Thomas Crane
Vection is an illusory perception of self-motion that occurs when a visual motion is presented in the majority of the visual field. We used certainty estimate (CE) and inertial nulling (IN) techniques to study the effect of visual stimuli on roll perception in 10 migraine and 9 control subjects. A visual roll stimulus was presented for 1 to 8s. For the IN method, an inertial stimulus was delivered during the final 1s of the visual stimulus during which subjects judged the direction of perceived motion. The inertial motion was varied to find the point of subjective equality (PSE) at which both responses were equally likely to be reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191990/holistic-processing-of-static-and-moving-faces
#12
Mintao Zhao, Isabelle Bülthoff
Humans' face ability develops and matures with extensive experience in perceiving, recognizing, and interacting with faces that move most of the time. However, how facial movements affect 1 core aspect of face ability-holistic face processing-remains unclear. Here we investigated the influence of rigid facial motion on holistic and part-based face processing by manipulating the presence of facial motion during study and at test in a composite face task. The results showed that rigidly moving faces were processed as holistically as static faces (Experiment 1)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188853/drifting-while-stepping-in-place-in-old-adults-association-of-self-motion-perception-with-reference-frame-reliance-and-ground-optic-flow-sensitivity
#13
Catherine P Agathos, Delphine Bernardin, Konogan Baranton, Christine Assaiante, Brice Isableu
Optic flow provides visual self-motion information and is shown to modulate gait and provoke postural reactions. We have previously reported an increased reliance on the visual, as opposed to the somatosensory-based, egocentric frame of reference (FoR) for spatial orientation with age. In this study, we evaluated FoR reliance for self-motion perception with respect to the ground surface. We examined how effects of ground optic flow direction on posture may be enhanced by an intermittent podal contact with the ground, and reliance on the visual FoR and aging...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179553/mouth-and-voice-a-relationship-between-visual-and-auditory-preference-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus
#14
Lin L Zhu, Michael S Beauchamp
Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually-presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169155/the-visual-kinetic-depth-effect-is-altered-with-parkinson-s-disease
#15
K D White, F M Skidmore, J Hammond, K M Heilman
BACKGROUND: People with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have visual-perceptual disorders. The goal of this study was to learn if they can develop a three dimensional (3D) percept that depends on the kinetic depth effect; that is, the viewer's ability to spatially integrate over time images that are moving along many trajectories. METHODS: Sixteen patients with PD and 12 healthy matched controls were presented with stimuli that were comprised of a circular region of randomly placed dots that moved as orthographic projections of a sphere...
January 6, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167905/a-possible-role-of-prolonged-whirling-episodes-on-structural-plasticity-of-the-cortical-networks-and-altered-vertigo-perception-the-cortex-of-sufi-whirling-dervishes
#16
Yusuf O Cakmak, Gazanfer Ekinci, Armin Heinecke, Safiye Çavdar
Although minutes of a spinning episode may induce vertigo in the healthy human, as a result of a possible perceptional plasticity, Sufi Whirling Dervishes (SWDs) can spin continuously for an hour without a vertigo perception.This unique long term vestibular system stimulation presents a potential human model to clarify the cortical networks underlying the resistance against vertigo. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the potential structural cortical plasticity in SWDs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 10 SWDs and 10 controls were obtained, using a 3T scanner...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165061/the-interaction-of-perceptual-biases-in-bistable-perception
#17
Xue Zhang, Qian Xu, Yi Jiang, Ying Wang
When viewing ambiguous stimuli, people tend to perceive some interpretations more frequently than others. Such perceptual biases impose various types of constraints on visual perception, and accordingly, have been assumed to serve distinct adaptive functions. Here we demonstrated the interaction of two functionally distinct biases in bistable biological motion perception, one regulating perception based on the statistics of the environment - the viewing-from-above (VFA) bias, and the other with the potential to reduce costly errors resulting from perceptual inference - the facing-the-viewer (FTV) bias...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160739/effects-of-motion-speed-in-action-representations
#18
Wessel O van Dam, Laura J Speed, Vicky T Lai, Gabriella Vigliocco, Rutvik H Desai
Grounded cognition accounts of semantic representation posit that brain regions traditionally linked to perception and action play a role in grounding the semantic content of words and sentences. Sensory-motor systems are thought to support partially abstract simulations through which conceptual content is grounded. However, which details of sensory-motor experience are included in, or excluded from these simulations, is not well understood. We investigated whether sensory-motor brain regions are differentially involved depending on the speed of actions described in a sentence...
February 1, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158960/short-term-clinical-effects-of-dry-needling-combined-with-physical-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-postsurgical-pain-following-total-knee-arthroplasty-case-series
#19
Rodrigo Núñez-Cortés, Carlos Cruz-Montecinos, Álvaro Vásquez Rosel, Orlando Paredes Molina, Antonio Cuesta-Vargas
Study Design Case series. Background The purpose of this case series is to describe a combined program of dry needling (DN) and therapeutic exercise in a small group of patients with persistent pain post total knee arthroplasty. Case Description Fourteen total knee arthroplasty patients with persistent post-surgical pain and myofascial trigger points non-responsive to treatment with conventional physical therapy or medications received dry needling treatment in combination with therapeutic exercises for four weeks...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150911/cerebellar-contributions-to-biological-motion-perception-in-autism-and-typical-development
#20
Allison Jack, Cara M Keifer, Kevin A Pelphrey
Growing evidence suggests that posterior cerebellar lobe contributes to social perception in healthy adults. However, they know little about how this process varies across age and with development. Using cross-sectional fMRI data, they examined cerebellar response to biological (BIO) versus scrambled (SCRAM) motion within typically developing (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples (age 4-30 years old), characterizing cerebellar response and BIO > SCRAM-selective effective connectivity, as well as associations with age and social ability...
February 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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