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Motion perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775466/perception-of-aesthetics-and-personality-traits-in-orthognathic-surgery-patients-a-comparison-of-still-and-moving-images
#1
Klaus Sinko, Ulrich S Tran, Arno Wutzl, Rudolf Seemann, Gabriele Millesi, Reinhold Jagsch
It is common in practicing orthognathic surgery to evaluate faces with retruded or protruded chins (dysgnathic faces) using photographs. Because motion may alter how the face is perceived, we investigated the perception of faces presented via photographs and videos. Two hundred naïve raters (lay persons, without maxillo facial surgery background) evaluated 12 subjects with varying chin anatomy [so-called skeletal Class I (normal chin), Class II (retruded chin), and Class III (protruded chin)]. Starting from eight traits, with Factor analysis we found a two-Factor solution, i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773945/predictive-factors-in-the-treatment-of-streptococcal-endophthalmitis
#2
Yosanan Yospaiboon, Kidakarn Meethongkam, Suthasinee Sinawat, Wipada Laovirojjanakul, Tanapat Ratanapakorn, Thuss Sanguansak, Chavakij Bhoomibunchoo
Objective: To evaluate visual outcomes and possible predictive factors in the treatment of infectious endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus species during 2012-2016 at a large referral eye center in northeastern Thailand. Methods: A retrospective medical record chart review of patients with culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus species was conducted. Demographic data including age, gender, occupation, duration of symptoms, time to surgery, surgical procedures, initial visual acuity at presentation, and final visual acuity after treatment were collected and analyzed...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770274/do-running-speed-and-shoe-cushioning-influence-impact-loading-and-tibial-shock-in-basketball-players
#3
Wing-Kai Lam, Jacobus Liebenberg, Jeonghyun Woo, Sang-Kyoon Park, Suk-Hoon Yoon, Roy Tsz-Hei Cheung, Jiseon Ryu
Background: Tibial stress fracture (TSF) is a common injury in basketball players. This condition has been associated with high tibial shock and impact loading, which can be affected by running speed, footwear condition, and footstrike pattern. However, these relationships were established in runners but not in basketball players, with very little research done on impact loading and speed. Hence, this study compared tibial shock, impact loading, and foot strike pattern in basketball players running at different speeds with different shoe cushioning properties/performances...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768429/virtual-reality-method-to-analyze-visual-recognition-in-mice
#4
Brent Kevin Young, Jayden Nicole Brennan, Ping Wang, Ning Tian
Behavioral tests have been extensively used to measure the visual function of mice. To determine how precisely mice perceive certain visual cues, it is necessary to have a quantifiable measurement of their behavioral responses. Recently, virtual reality tests have been utilized for a variety of purposes, from analyzing hippocampal cell functionality to identifying visual acuity. Despite the widespread use of these tests, the training requirement for the recognition of a variety of different visual targets, and the performance of the behavioral tests has not been thoroughly characterized...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766509/acceleration-and-deceleration-at-constant-speed-systematic-modulation-of-motion-perception-by-kinematic-sonification
#5
Alfred O Effenberg, Gerd Schmitz
Many domains of human behavior are based on multisensory representations. Knowledge about the principles of multisensory integration is useful to configure real-time movement information for the online support of perceptuomotor processes (motor perception, control, and learning). A powerful method for generating real-time information is movement sonification. Remarkable evidence exists on movement-acoustic real-time information being effective in behavioral domains (music training, motor rehabilitation, sports)...
May 16, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764312/angle-dependent-distortions-in-the-perceptual-topology-of-acoustic-space
#6
W Owen Brimijoin
By moving sounds around the head and asking listeners to report which ones moved more, it was found that sound sources at the side of a listener must move at least twice as much as ones in front to be judged as moving the same amount. A relative expansion of space in the front and compression at the side has consequences for spatial perception of moving sounds by both static and moving listeners. An accompanying prediction that the apparent location of static sound sources ought to also be distorted agrees with previous work and suggests that this is a general perceptual phenomenon that is not limited to moving signals...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760400/sex-related-differences-in-vision-are-heterogeneous
#7
Albulena Shaqiri, Maya Roinishvili, Lukasz Grzeczkowski, Eka Chkonia, Karin Pilz, Christine Mohr, Andreas Brand, Marina Kunchulia, Michael H Herzog
Despite well-established sex differences for cognition, audition, and somatosensation, few studies have investigated whether there are also sex differences in visual perception. We report the results of fifteen perceptual measures (such as visual acuity, visual backward masking, contrast detection threshold or motion detection) for a cohort of over 800 participants. On six of the fifteen tests, males significantly outperformed females. On no test did females significantly outperform males. Given this heterogeneity of the sex effects, it is unlikely that the sex differences are due to any single mechanism...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758189/audiovisual-perception-in-amblyopia-a-review-and-synthesis
#8
REVIEW
Michael D Richards, Herbert C Goltz, Agnes M F Wong
Amblyopia is a common developmental sensory disorder that has been extensively and systematically investigated as a unisensory visual impairment. However, its effects are increasingly recognized to extend beyond vision to the multisensory domain. Indeed, amblyopia is associated with altered cross-modal interactions in audiovisual temporal perception, audiovisual spatial and motion perception, and audiovisual speech perception. Furthermore, although the visual impairment in amblyopia is typically unilateral, the multisensory abnormalities tend to persist even when viewing with both eyes...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757212/vibro-perception-of-optical-bio-inspired-fiber-skin
#9
Tao Li, Sheng Zhang, Guo-Wei Lu, Yuta Sunami
In this research, based on the principle of optical interferometry, the Mach-Zehnder and Optical Phase-locked Loop (OPLL) vibro-perception systems of bio-inspired fiber-skin are designed to mimic the tactile perception of human skin. The fiber-skin is made of the optical fiber embedded in the silicone elastomer. The optical fiber is an instinctive and alternative sensor for tactile perception with high sensitivity and reliability, also low cost and susceptibility to the magnetic interference. The silicone elastomer serves as a substrate with high flexibility and biocompatibility, and the optical fiber core serves as the vibro-perception sensor to detect physical motions like tapping and sliding...
May 12, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755404/cognitive-rehabilitation-in-bilateral-vestibular-patients-a-computational-perspective
#10
Andrew W Ellis, Corina G Schöne, Dominique Vibert, Marco D Caversaccio, Fred W Mast
There is evidence that vestibular sensory processing affects, and is affected by, higher cognitive processes. This is highly relevant from a clinical perspective, where there is evidence for cognitive impairments in patients with peripheral vestibular deficits. The vestibular system performs complex probabilistic computations, and we claim that understanding these is important for investigating interactions between vestibular processing and cognition. Furthermore, this will aid our understanding of patients' self-motion perception and will provide useful information for clinical interventions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753019/psychophysical-and-neuroimaging-responses-to-moving-stimuli-in-a-patient-with-the-riddoch-phenomenon-due-to-bilateral-visual-cortex-lesions
#11
Michael J Arcaro, Lore Thaler, Derek J Quinlan, Simona Monaco, Sarah Khan, Kenneth F Valyear, Rainer Goebel, Gordon N Dutton, Melvyn A Goodale, Sabine Kastner, Jody C Culham
Patients with injury to early visual cortex or its inputs can display the Riddoch phenomenon: preserved awareness for moving but not stationary stimuli. We provide a detailed case report of a patient with the Riddoch phenomenon, MC. MC has extensive bilateral lesions to occipitotemporal cortex that include most early visual cortex and complete blindness in visual field perimetry testing with static targets. Nevertheless, she shows a remarkably robust preserved ability to perceive motion, enabling her to navigate through cluttered environments and perform actions like catching moving balls...
May 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752592/the-rate-of-endophthalmitis-after-pars-plana-vitrectomy-and-its-risk-factors
#12
Seyed Ali Tabatabaei, Mohammad Soleimani, Hadi Vakili, Morteza Naderan, Alireza Lashay, Houshang Faghihi, Mehdi Yaseri
PURPOSE: To study the incidence of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy, its causative organisms, and visual acuity outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective, comparative study, the medical records of patients with acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy at Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during a 12-year period between January 2004 and November 2015 were reviewed. To compare the endophthalmitis patients with other cases who underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the same day and also the same operating room, a control group was developed by gathering the data from surgical records...
May 11, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751069/extrafoveally-applied-flashing-light-affects-contrast-thresholds-of-achromatic-and-s-cone-isolating-but-not-l-m-cone-modulated-stimuli
#13
A Őze, A Puszta, P Buzás, P Kóbor, G Braunitzer, A Nagy
Flashing light stimulation is often used to investigate the visual system. However, the magnitude of the effect of this stimulus on the various subcortical pathways is not well investigated. The signals of conscious vision are conveyed by the magnocellular, parvocellular and koniocellular pathways. Parvocellular and koniocellular pathways (or more precisely, the L-M opponent and S-cone isolating channels) can be accessed by isoluminant red-green (L-M) and S-cone isolating stimuli, respectively. The main goal of the present study was to explore how costimulation with strong white extrafoveal light flashes alters the perception of stimuli specific to these pathways...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750152/automatic-myotendinous-junction-tracking-in-ultrasound-images-with-phase-based-segmentation
#14
Guang-Quan Zhou, Yi Zhang, Ruo-Li Wang, Ping Zhou, Yong-Ping Zheng, Olga Tarassova, Anton Arndt, Qiang Chen
Displacement of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) obtained by ultrasound imaging is crucial to quantify the interactive length changes of muscles and tendons for understanding the mechanics and pathological conditions of the muscle-tendon unit during motion. However, the lack of a reliable automatic measurement method restricts its application in human motion analysis. This paper presents an automated measurement of MTJ displacement using prior knowledge on tendinous tissues and MTJ, precluding the influence of nontendinous components on the estimation of MTJ displacement...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740374/the-independent-and-shared-mechanisms-of-intrinsic-brain-dynamics-insights-from-bistable-perception
#15
Teng Cao, Lan Wang, Zhouyuan Sun, Stephen A Engel, Sheng He
In bistable perception, constant input leads to alternating perception. The dynamics of the changing perception reflects the intrinsic dynamic properties of the "unconscious inferential" process in the brain. Under the same condition, individuals differ in how fast they experience the perceptual alternation. In this study, testing many forms of bistable perception in a large number of observers, we investigated the key question of whether there is a general and common mechanism or multiple and independent mechanisms that control the dynamics of the inferential brain...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740303/long-range-temporal-correlations-in-alpha-oscillations-stabilize-perception-of-ambiguous-visual-stimuli
#16
Francesca Sangiuliano Intra, Arthur-Ervin Avramiea, Mona Irrmischer, Simon-Shlomo Poil, Huibert D Mansvelder, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Ongoing brain dynamics have been proposed as a type of "neuronal noise" that can trigger perceptual switches when viewing an ambiguous, bistable stimulus. However, no prior study has directly quantified how such neuronal noise relates to the rate of percept reversals. Specifically, it has remained unknown whether individual differences in complexity of resting-state oscillations-as reflected in long-range temporal correlations (LRTC)-are associated with perceptual stability. We hypothesized that participants with stronger resting-state LRTC in the alpha band experience more stable percepts, and thereby fewer perceptual switches...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740295/temporal-resolution-needed-for-auditory-communication-measurement-with-mosaic-speech
#17
Yoshitaka Nakajima, Mizuki Matsuda, Kazuo Ueda, Gerard B Remijn
Temporal resolution needed for Japanese speech communication was measured. A new experimental paradigm that can reflect the spectro-temporal resolution necessary for healthy listeners to perceive speech is introduced. As a first step, we report listeners' intelligibility scores of Japanese speech with a systematically degraded temporal resolution, so-called "mosaic speech": speech mosaicized in the coordinates of time and frequency. The results of two experiments show that mosaic speech cut into short static segments was almost perfectly intelligible with a temporal resolution of 40 ms or finer...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737566/phosphorylated-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-the-retina-is-a-biomarker-of-parkinson-s-disease-pathology-severity
#18
Isabel Ortuño-Lizarán, Thomas G Beach, Geidy E Serrano, Douglas G Walker, Charles H Adler, Nicolás Cuenca
BACKGROUND: PD patients often have visual alterations, for example, loss of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity or motion perception, and diminished electroretinogram responses. PD pathology is mainly characterized by the accumulation of pathological α-synuclein deposits in the brain, but little is known about how synucleinopathy affects the retina. OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between α-synuclein deposits in the retina and brain of autopsied subjects with PD and incidental Lewy body disease...
May 8, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735339/distal-medial-tibial-locking-plate-for-fixation-of-extraarticular-distal-humeral-fractures-an-alternative-choice-for-fixation
#19
Ali Cagdas Yorukoglu, Ahmet Fahir Demirkan, Nihal Buker
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe an alternative fixation method for distal humeral extra-articular fractures through posterior approach using distal tibia anatomic locking plate; and to evaluate the patient's functional outcome and union condition. METHODS: Eighteen patients (11 men and 7 women; average age of 37.0 ± 17.3 years (range: 18-73 years)) with a distal humeral extra-articular fracture who were treated with distal tibial medial locking plate were included into the study...
May 4, 2018: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734504/typical-use-of-inverse-dynamics-in-perceiving-motion-in-autistic-adults-exploring-computational-principles-of-perception-and-action
#20
Shinya Takamuku, Paul A G Forbes, Antonia F de C Hamilton, Hiroaki Gomi
There is increasing evidence for motor difficulties in many people with autism spectrum condition (ASC). These difficulties could be linked to differences in the use of internal models which represent relations between motions and forces/efforts. The use of these internal models may be dependent on the cerebellum which has been shown to be abnormal in autism. Several studies have examined internal computations of forward dynamics (motion from force information) in autism, but few have tested the inverse dynamics computation, that is, the determination of force-related information from motion information...
May 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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