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Motion perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742079/the-dcdc2-deletion-is-not-a-risk-factor-for-dyslexia
#1
T S Scerri, E Macpherson, A Martinelli, W C Wa, A P Monaco, J Stein, M Zheng, C Suk-Han Ho, C McBride, M Snowling, C Hulme, M E Hayiou-Thomas, M M Y Waye, J B Talcott, S Paracchini
Dyslexia is a specific impairment in learning to read and has strong heritability. An intronic deletion within the DCDC2 gene, with ~8% frequency in European populations, is increasingly used as a marker for dyslexia in neuroimaging and behavioral studies. At a mechanistic level, this deletion has been proposed to influence sensory processing capacity, and in particular sensitivity to visual coherent motion. Our re-assessment of the literature, however, did not reveal strong support for a role of this specific deletion in dyslexia...
July 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729058/impacts-of-sensation-perception-and-motor-abilities-of-the-ipsilesional-upper-limb-on-hand-functions-in-unilateral-stroke-quantifications-from-biomechanical-and-functional-perspectives
#2
Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Chia-Wen Ke, Ta-Shen Kuan, Hsiu-Ching Yang, Ching-Liang Tsai, Li-Chieh Kuo
BACKGROUND: The presence of subtle losses in hand dexterity after stroke impacts the regaining of independence with regard to activities of daily living. Therefore, awareness of ipsilesional upper extremity (UE) function may be of importance when drafting a comprehensive rehabilitation program. However, current hand function tests seem to be unable to identify asymptomatic UE impairments. OBJECTIVES: To assess the motor coordination as well as the sensory-perception of an ipsilesional UE using biomechanical analysis of performance-oriented tasks and conducting a Manual Tactile Test (MTT)...
July 17, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727103/effects-of-dietary-calcium-fructoborate-supplementation-on-joint-comfort-and-flexibility-and-serum-inflammatory-markers-in-dogs-with-osteoarthritis
#3
A K Price, M R C de Godoy, T A Harper, K E Knap, S Joslyn, Z Pietrzkowski, B K Cross, K B Detweiler, K S Swanson
Our objective was to evaluate the short-term effects of calcium fructoborate (CFB) on gait, joint range of motion, serum inflammatory markers, and owner perception of pain in client-owned dogs. We used 59 osteoarthritic dogs with impairment, with dogs being randomly assigned to 4 treatments: placebo (60 mg fructose; = 15), low dose (69 mg CFB; = 14), high dose (127 mg CFB; = 14), or combination (69 mg CFB, 500 mg glucosamine hydrochloride and 200 mg chondroitin sulfate; = 16). Dogs up to 22.9 kg received 1 capsule/d, while dogs weighing 23 to 50 kg received 2 capsules/d...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720007/extensor-pollicis-brevis-spiral-tenodesis-for-combined-metacarpophalangeal-instability-and-trapeziometacarpal-arthritis
#4
Mark Henry
BACKGROUND: In more advanced stages of trapeziometacarpal arthritis, the thumb metacarpal may develop an adduction contracture, leading to secondary hyperextension instability of the metacarpophalangeal joint. Following trapeziometacarpal arthroplasty, uncorrected substantial metacarpophalangeal hyperextension may contribute to ongoing Z-collapse deformity, weakness of pinch and grip, and patient perception of diminished function. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed a consecutive case series of 55 trapeziometacarpal arthroplasty patients (mean age, 60 years; 7 males) who received simultaneous extensor pollicis brevis spiral tenodesis for thumb metacarpophalangeal hyperextension of at least 50°...
March 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717190/interocular-contrast-difference-drives-illusory-3d-percept
#5
Alexandre Reynaud, Robert F Hess
Any processing delay between the two eyes can result in illusory 3D percepts for moving objects because of either changes in the pure disparities over time for disparity sensors or by changes to sensors that encode motion/disparity conjointly. This is demonstrated by viewing a fronto-parallel pendulum through a neutral density (ND) filter placed over one eye, resulting in the illusory 3D percept of the pendulum following an elliptical orbit in depth, the so-called Pulfrich phenomenon. Here we use a paradigm where a cylinder rotating in depth, defined by moving Gabor patches is presented at different interocular phases, generating strong to ambiguous depth percepts...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715575/saccadic-suppression-during-voluntary-versus-reactive-saccades
#6
Svenja Gremmler, Markus Lappe
Saccades are fast eye movements that reorient gaze. They can be performed voluntarily-for example, when viewing a scene-but they can also be triggered in reaction to suddenly appearing targets. The generation of these voluntary and reactive saccades have been shown to involve partially different cortical pathways. However, saccades of either type confront the visual system with a major challenge from massive image motion on the retina. Despite the fact that the whole scene is swept across the retina, a saccade usually does not elicit a percept of motion...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704631/driver-movement-patterns-indicate-distraction-and-engagement
#7
Robert G Radwin, John D Lee, Oguz Akkas
Objective This research considers how driver movements in video clips of naturalistic driving are related to observer subjective ratings of distraction and engagement behaviors. Background Naturalistic driving video provides a unique window into driver behavior unmatched by crash data, roadside observations, or driving simulator experiments. However, manually coding many thousands of hours of video is impractical. An objective method is needed to identify driver behaviors suggestive of distracted or disengaged driving for automated computer vision analysis to access this rich source of data...
August 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701558/modulation-frequency-as-a-cue-for-auditory-speed-perception
#8
Irene Senna, Cesare V Parise, Marc O Ernst
Unlike vision, the mechanisms underlying auditory motion perception are poorly understood. Here we describe an auditory motion illusion revealing a novel cue to auditory speed perception: the temporal frequency of amplitude modulation (AM-frequency), typical for rattling sounds. Naturally, corrugated objects sliding across each other generate rattling sounds whose AM-frequency tends to directly correlate with speed. We found that AM-frequency modulates auditory speed perception in a highly systematic fashion: moving sounds with higher AM-frequency are perceived as moving faster than sounds with lower AM-frequency...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692700/noise-multisensory-integration-and-previous-response-in-perceptual-disambiguation
#9
Cesare V Parise, Marc O Ernst
Sensory information about the state of the world is generally ambiguous. Understanding how the nervous system resolves such ambiguities to infer the actual state of the world is a central quest for sensory neuroscience. However, the computational principles of perceptual disambiguation are still poorly understood: What drives perceptual decision-making between multiple equally valid solutions? Here we investigate how humans gather and combine sensory information-within and across modalities-to disambiguate motion perception in an ambiguous audiovisual display, where two moving stimuli could appear as either streaming through, or bouncing off each other...
July 10, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689980/the-contribution-of-area-mt-to-visual-motion-perception-depends-on-training
#10
Liu D Liu, Christopher C Pack
Perceptual decisions require the transformation of raw sensory inputs into cortical representations suitable for stimulus discrimination. One of the best-known examples of this transformation involves the middle temporal area (MT) of the primate visual cortex. Area MT provides a robust representation of stimulus motion, and previous work has shown that it contributes causally to performance on motion discrimination tasks. Here we report that the strength of this contribution can be highly plastic: depending on the recent training history, pharmacological inactivation of MT can severely impair motion discrimination, or it can have little detectable influence...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687327/masking-of-random-walk-motion-by-flicker-and-its-role-in-the-allocation-of-motion-in-the-on-line-jitter-illusion
#11
Adela S Y Park, Phillip A Bedggood, Andrew B Metha, Andrew J Anderson
Typically, perceptual stabilization mechanisms make us unaware of the retinal image motion produced by the small, involuntary eye movements our eyes constantly make during fixation. The breakdown of perceptual stability is demonstrated by the on-line jitter illusion, in which a circular static pattern appears to jitter coherently when surrounded by a flickering annular pattern. Although both regions of the stimulus are subject to retinal motion from eye movements, the visual system attributes this motion to the central static region in the form of visual jitter, while the surrounding flickering region remains perceptually stable...
July 13, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687325/velocity-perception-in-a-moving-observer
#12
Hinze Hogendoorn, David Alais, Hamish MacDougall, Frans A J Verstraten
Previous research has shown that when a moving stimulus is presented to a moving observer, the perceived speed of the stimulus is affected by vestibular self-motion signals (Hogendoorn, Verstraten, MacDougall, & Alais, 2017. Vision Research 130, 22-30.). This interaction was interpreted as a weighted sum of visual and vestibular motion signals. This interpretation also predicts effects of vestibular self-motion signals on perceived speed. Here, we test this prediction in two experiments. In Experiment 1, moving observers carried out a visual speed discrimination task in order to establish points of subjective equality (PSE) between stimuli presented in the same or opposite direction of self-motion...
July 20, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678113/temporal-property-of-single-cell-activity-in-response-to-motion-defined-shapes-in-monkey-dorsal-and-ventral-cortical-areas
#13
Takashi Handa, Shumpei Unno, Akichika Mikami
In the primate brain, shape and motion are considered to be separately processed in the ventral and dorsal visual cortical areas, respectively. However, to achieve shape perception with a motion cue, shape and motion cannot be processed exclusively in separate cortical areas. Interactions between ventral and dorsal cortical areas are required, and yet, the neural mechanisms underlying motion-defined shape perception remain unclear. Here, we assessed the temporal properties of single-unit activity recorded from V4, the middle temporal area, and the anterior superior temporal sulcus while monkeys discriminated shapes defined by motion and luminance cues...
July 3, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672367/pupil-dilation-to-illusory-motion-in-peripheral-drift-images-perception-versus-reality
#14
Steve Beukema, Jay A Olson, Ben J Jennings, Frederick A A Kingdom
Peripheral drift is a specific type of illusory motion that causes observers to perceive motion in a static image. We aimed to determine whether pupil dilation occurs during the perception of illusory motion. In three experiments investigating pupil-size changes to peripheral drift, pupil response differences were observed between symmetric patterns (SPs) that elicited no impression of motion and repeated asymmetric patterns (RAPs) that did. All participants reported the perception of motion in the RAP condition and showed significantly greater pupil dilation to these stimuli as compared with viewing stimuli in the SP condition...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666215/just-look-away-gaze-aversions-as-an-overt-attentional-disengagement-mechanism
#15
Dekel Abeles, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
During visual exploration of a scene, the eye-gaze tends to be directed toward more salient image-locations, containing more information. However, while performing non-visual tasks, such information-seeking behavior could be detrimental to performance, as the perception of irrelevant but salient visual input may unnecessarily increase the cognitive-load. It would be therefore beneficial if during non-visual tasks, eye-gaze would be governed by a drive to reduce saliency rather than maximize it. The current study examined the phenomenon of gaze-aversion during non-visual tasks, which is hypothesized to act as an active avoidance mechanism...
June 27, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660667/pivotal-role-of-hmt-in-long-range-disambiguation-of-interhemispheric-bistable-surface-motion
#16
João Valente Duarte, Gabriel Nascimento Costa, Ricardo Martins, Miguel Castelo-Branco
It remains an open question whether long-range disambiguation of ambiguous surface motion can be achieved in early visual cortex or instead in higher level regions, which concerns object/surface segmentation/integration mechanisms. We used a bistable moving stimulus that can be perceived as a pattern comprehending both visual hemi-fields moving coherently downward or as two widely segregated nonoverlapping component objects (in each visual hemi-field) moving separately inward. This paradigm requires long-range integration across the vertical meridian leading to interhemispheric binding...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659462/discrimination-of-curvature-from-motion-during-smooth-pursuit-and-fixation
#17
Nicholas M Ross, Alexander Göettker, Alexander C Schütz, Doris I Braun, Karl R Gegenfurtner
Smooth pursuit and motion perception have mainly been investigated with stimuli moving along linear trajectories. Here we studied the quality of pursuit movements to curved motion trajectories in human observers and examined whether the pursuit responses would be sensitive enough to discriminate various degrees of curvature. In a two interval forced choice task subjects pursued a Gaussian blob moving along a curved trajectory and then they indicated in which interval the curve was flatter. We also measured discrimination thresholds for the same curvatures during a fixation...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659418/perception-of-animacy-in-dogs-and-humans
#18
Judit Abdai, Bence Ferdinandy, Cristina Baño Terencio, Ákos Pogány, Ádám Miklósi
Humans have a tendency to perceive inanimate objects as animate based on simple motion cues. Although animacy is considered as a complex cognitive property, this recognition seems to be spontaneous. Researchers have found that young human infants discriminate between dependent and independent movement patterns. However, quick visual perception of animate entities may be crucial to non-human species as well. Based on general mammalian homology, dogs may possess similar skills to humans. Here, we investigated whether dogs and humans discriminate similarly between dependent and independent motion patterns performed by geometric shapes...
June 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654962/the-contribution-of-nonrigid-motion-and-shape-information-to-object-perception-in-pigeons-and-humans
#19
Jean-Francois Nankoo, Christopher R Madan, Jeffrey Sawalha, Douglas R Wylie, Alinda Friedman, Marcia L Spetch, Quoc C Vuong
The ability to perceive and recognize objects is essential to many animals, including humans. Until recently, models of object recognition have primarily focused on static cues, such as shape, but more recent research is beginning to show that motion plays an important role in object perception. Most studies have focused on rigid motion, a type of motion most often associated with inanimate objects. In contrast, nonrigid motion is often associated with biological motion and is therefore ecologically important to visually dependent animals...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654360/interhemispheric-binding-of-ambiguous-visual-motion-is-associated-with-changes-in-beta-oscillatory-activity-but-not-with-gamma-range-synchrony
#20
Gabriel Nascimento Costa, João Valente Duarte, Ricardo Martins, Michael Wibral, Miguel Castelo-Branco
In vision, perceptual features are processed in several regions distributed across the brain. Yet, the brain achieves a coherent perception of visual scenes and objects through integration of these features, which are encoded in spatially segregated brain areas. How the brain seamlessly achieves this accurate integration is currently unknown and is referred to as the "binding problem." Among the proposed mechanisms meant to resolve the binding problem, the binding-by-synchrony hypothesis proposes that binding is carried out by the synchronization of distant neuronal assemblies...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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