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Motion perception

Renate Brosch
Visualization is defined as the production of mental images in the process of reading (Esrock 2005: 633). This article is concerned with varieties of visualization during an absorbing reading of a fictional narrative, the mental images that range from an indistinct and largely automatic default visualization to the much more vivid images that occur at significant stages in the narrative. Neuroscientific studies of vision have collected a large and impressively varied body of experimental evidence for two major processing streams - the dorsal and the ventral-specialized for vision-for-action and vision for-perception respectively...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Rui Tang, Longfei Ma, Canhong Xiang, Xuedong Wang, Ang Li, Hongen Liao, Jiahong Dong
RATIONALE: Patients who undergo hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCAC) resection with concomitant hepatectomy have a high risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality due to surgical trauma to the hepatic and biliary vasculature. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 58-year-old Chinese man with yellowing skin and sclera, abdominal distension, pruritus, and anorexia for approximately 3 weeks. DIAGNOSES: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and enhanced computed tomography (CT) scanning revealed a mass over the biliary tree at the porta hepatis, which diagnosed to be s a hilar cholangiocarcinoma...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nathan H Heller, Nicolas Davidenko
Motion processing is thought of as a hierarchical system composed of higher and lower order components. Past research has shown that these components can be dissociated using motion priming paradigms in which the lower order system produces negative priming while the higher order system produces positive priming. By manipulating various stimulus parameters, researchers have probed these two systems using bistable test stimuli that permit only two motion interpretations. Here we employ maximally ambiguous test stimuli composed of randomly refreshing pixels in a task that allows observers to report more than just two types of motion percepts...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Léa A S Chauvigné, Michel Belyk, Steven Brown
Interpersonal coordination during joint action depends on the perception of the partner's movements. In many such situations - for example, while moving furniture together or dancing a tango - there are kinesthetic interactions between the partners due to the forces shared between them that allow them to directly perceive one another's movements. Joint action of this type often involves a contrast between the roles of leader and follower, where the leader imparts forces onto the follower, and the follower has to be responsive to these force-cues during movement...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Utku Kaya, Fazilet Zeynep Yildirim, Hulusi Kafaligonul
Accumulating evidence suggests that the timing of brief stationary sounds affects visual motion perception. Recent studies have shown that auditory time interval can alter apparent motion perception not only through concurrent stimulation but also through brief adaptation. The adaptation aftereffects for auditory time intervals were found to be similar to those for visual time intervals, suggesting the involvement of a central timing mechanism. To understand the nature of cortical processes underlying such aftereffects, we adapted observers to different time intervals by using either brief sounds or visual flashes and examined the evoked activity to the subsequently presented visual apparent motion...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Katharina Dobs, Wei Ji Ma, Leila Reddy
Human perception consists of the continuous integration of sensory cues pertaining to the same object. While it has been fairly well shown that humans use an optimal strategy when integrating low-level cues proportional to their relative reliability, the integration processes underlying high-level perception are much less understood. Here we investigate cue integration in a complex high-level perceptual system, the human face processing system. We tested cue integration of facial form and motion in an identity categorization task and found that an optimal model could successfully predict subjects' identity choices...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Cristina de la Malla, Jeroen B J Smeets, Eli Brenner
Directing our gaze towards a moving target has two known advantages for judging its trajectory: the spatial resolution with which the target is seen is maximized, and signals related to the eyes' movements are combined with retinal cues to better judge the target's motion. We here explore whether tracking a target with one's eyes also prevents factors that are known to give rise to systematic errors in judging retinal speeds from resulting in systematic errors in interception. Subjects intercepted white or patterned disks that moved from left to right across a large screen at various constant velocities while either visually tracking the target or fixating the position at which they were required to intercept the target...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Bernhard Fink, Marieke Wübker, Julia Ostner, Marina L Butovskaya, Anna Mezentseva, José Antonio Muñoz-Reyes, Yael Sela, Todd K Shackelford
Previous research documents that men and women can accurately judge male physical strength from gait, but also that the sexes differ in attractiveness judgments of strong and weak male walkers. Women's (but not men's) attractiveness assessments of strong male walkers are higher than for weak male walkers. Here, we extend this research to assessments of strong and weak male walkers in Chile, Germany, and Russia. Men and women judged videos of virtual characters, animated with the walk movements of motion-captured men, on strength and attractiveness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Hitoshi Asai, Yuito Odashiro, Pleiades Tiharu Inaoka
[Purpose] To investigate the patellar movement perception related to backward-leaning standing. [Subjects and Methods] Both the patellar range of motion during backward-leaning standing and perception related to patellar movement were analyzed using television-x irradiation images in 12 randomly selected healthy young individuals. [Results] Starting in a relaxed condition, two types of patellar movements were confirmed: those where the patella moves (patellar movement trials) and those where the patella does not move (patellar non-movement trials) during backward-leaning standing...
August 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Cléber Gimenez Corrêa, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira Machado, Edith Ranzini, Romero Tori, Fátima de Lourdes Santos Nunes
Objectives: This study shows the development and validation of a dental anesthesia-training simulator, specifically for the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). The system developed provides the tactile sensation of inserting a real needle in a human patient, using Virtual Reality (VR) techniques and a haptic device that can provide a perceived force feedback in the needle insertion task during the anesthesia procedure. Material and Methods: To simulate a realistic anesthesia procedure, a Carpule syringe was coupled to a haptic device...
July 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Myra Ps Leung, Benjamin Thompson, Joanna Black, Shuan Dai, Jane M Alsweiler
Children born very preterm are at a greater risk of abnormal visual and neurological development when compared to children born at full term. Preterm birth is associated with retinopathy of prematurity (a proliferative retinal vascular disease) and can also affect the development of brain structures associated with post-retinal processing of visual information. Visual deficits common in children born preterm, such as reduced visual acuity, strabismus, abnormal stereopsis and refractive error, are likely to be detected through childhood vision screening programs, ophthalmological follow-up or optometric care...
September 3, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Benjamin Thompson, Christopher J D McKinlay, Arijit Chakraborty, Nicola S Anstice, Robert J Jacobs, Nabin Paudel, Tzu-Ying Yu, Judith M Ansell, Trecia A Wouldes, Jane E Harding
The dorsal visual processing stream that includes V1, motion sensitive area V5 and the posterior parietal lobe, supports visually guided motor function. Two recent studies have reported associations between global motion perception, a behavioural measure of processing in V5, and motor function in pre-school and school aged children. This indicates a relationship between visual and motor development and also supports the use of global motion perception to assess overall dorsal stream function in studies of human neurodevelopment...
August 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Fabien Cignetti, Pierre-Yves Chabeauti, Jasmine Menant, Jean-Luc J J Anton, Christina Schmitz, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christine Assaiante
The present study investigated the cortical areas engaged in the perception of graviceptive information embedded in biological motion (BM). To this end, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the cortical areas active during the observation of human movements performed under normogravity and microgravity (parabolic flight). Movements were defined by motion cues alone using point-light displays. We found that gravity modulated the activation of a restricted set of regions of the network subtending BM perception, including form-from-motion areas of the visual system (kinetic occipital region, lingual gyrus, cuneus) and motor-related areas (primary motor and somatosensory cortices)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Samira Aghayee, Daniel E Winkowski, Zachary Bowen, Erin E Marshall, Matt J Harrington, Patrick O Kanold, Wolfgang Losert
The application of 2-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) techniques to measure the dynamics of cellular calcium signals in populations of neurons is an extremely powerful technique for characterizing neural activity within the central nervous system. The use of TPLSM on awake and behaving subjects promises new insights into how neural circuit elements cooperatively interact to form sensory perceptions and generate behavior. A major challenge in imaging such preparations is unavoidable animal and tissue movement, which leads to shifts in the imaging location (jitter)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Tingting Liu, Panpan Hu, Ruihua Cao, Xing Ye, Yanghua Tian, Xianwen Chen, Kai Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder pathologically characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In previous studies, greater attention was paid to impairments in motor disturbances in contrast to impairments of cognitive function in PD that was often ignored. In present study, a duration discrimination paradigm was used to assess global and local biological motion (BM) perception in healthy controls(HCs) and PD patients with and without dopamine substitution treatment (DST)...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jessica Holmin, Mark Nawrot
To successfully navigate throughout the world, observers must rapidly recover depth information. One depth cue that is especially important for a moving observer is motion parallax. To perceive unambiguous depth from motion parallax, the visual system must integrate information from two different proximal signals, retinal image motion and a pursuit eye movement. Previous research has shown that aging affects both of these necessary components for motion parallax depth perception, but no research has yet investigated how aging affects the mechanism for integrating motion and pursuit information to recover depth from motion parallax...
September 5, 2017: Vision Research
Cindy Romain, Tomás T Freitas, Francisco J Martínez-Noguera, Caroline Laurent, Sylvie Gaillet, Linda H Chung, Pedro E Alcaraz, Julien Cases
High-intensity exercises are known to provoke delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Delayed onset muscle soreness typically occurs within the first 24 h, peaks between 24 and 72 h, and can last as long as 5-7 days post-exercise. Delayed onset muscle soreness is a multifactorial process involving both mechanical and biochemical components, associated with clinical features that may limit range of motion, and athletes seek for effective recovery strategies to optimize future training sessions. TensLess(®) is a food supplement developed to help manage post-exercise recovery...
August 30, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Zhongpai Gao
In Hwang and Peli (2014), few errors occurred in computing the angular disparities. The direction of peripheral depth distortion (the angular disparity differences between what it is in real-world 3D viewing and S3D viewing) is reversed when the computational errors were corrected, making the perception of the peripheral depth to be expanded, not compressed. This reply points to the error and provides the corrected figures. Correcting these errors does not affect the general conclusion that S3D viewed on single screen display induces peripheral depth distortion which may be a cause of visually induced motion sickness...
July 2017: I-Perception
Katharina Nymo Engelstad, Kjetil S Sundet, Ole A Andreassen, Anja Vaskinn
Our aim was to explore how body language reading of emotion relates to neurocognition, symptoms and functional outcome in schizophrenia. Fifty-four individuals with schizophrenia and eighty-four healthy controls participated in the study. Emotion perception was assessed with a point-light display (PLD) task, the Emotion in Biological Motion (EmoBio) test, neurocognition was measured with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), and functioning was indexed by one measure of functional capacity and by one self-report questionnaire...
August 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Mariagrazia Benassi, Roberto Bolzani, Lea Forsman, Ulrika Ådén, Lena Jacobson, Sara Giovagnoli, Kerstin Hellgren
This population-based study evaluated motion and form perception in 71 children born extreme premature (EPT; < 27 gestational weeks), aged 6.5 years, as compared to a matched group of 79 control children born at term. Motion and form perception were evaluated by motion coherence and form coherence tests. The EPT group showed a poorer performance on both tasks as compared to the control group. However, after controlling for IQ and visual acuity, the EPT group showed only a significant deficit in motion perception...
August 22, 2017: Child Development
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