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Motion perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340915/primed-and-unprimed-rebounding-illusory-apparent-motion
#1
Nicolas Davidenko, Nathan H Heller
Although sequences of uncorrelated random dots can yield a wide range of illusorily coherent motion percepts (including translation, rotation, contraction, expansion, shear, and rebounding motion), past priming studies have relied on two-alternative forced choice tasks that only measure unidirectional (positive or negative) priming effects. In Experiment 1 we showed that when participants are primed with unidirectional motion and given an additional option to report bidirectional (rebounding) motion, they do so frequently, suggesting that unidirectional motion can "default" to a rebounding percept...
January 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332229/sociability-modifies-dogs-sensitivity-to-biological-motion-of-different-social-relevance
#2
Yuko Ishikawa, Daniel Mills, Alexander Willmott, David Mullineaux, Kun Guo
Preferential attention to living creatures is believed to be an intrinsic capacity of the visual system of several species, with perception of biological motion often studied and, in humans, it correlates with social cognitive performance. Although domestic dogs are exceptionally attentive to human social cues, it is unknown whether their sociability is associated with sensitivity to conspecific and heterospecific biological motion cues of different social relevance. We recorded video clips of point-light displays depicting a human or dog walking in either frontal or lateral view...
January 13, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325583/an-integrated-delivery-of-care-approach-to-improve-patient-reported-physical-function-and-mental-wellbeing-after-orthopedic-trauma-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Laura Zdziarski-Horodyski, MaryBeth Horodyski, Kalia K Sadasivan, Jennifer Hagen, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Matthew Patrick, Robert Guenther, Heather K Vincent
BACKGROUND: Orthopedic trauma injury impacts nearly 2.8 million people each year. Despite surgical improvements and excellent survivorship rates, many patients experience poor quality of life (QOL) outcomes years later. Psychological distress commonly occurs after injury. Distressed patients more frequently experience rehospitalizations, pain medication dependence, and low QOL. This study was developed to test whether an integrative care approach (IntCare; ten-step program of emotional support, education, customized resources, and medical care) was superior to usual care (UsCare)...
January 11, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321562/perception-during-double-step-saccades
#4
E Zimmermann, M C Morrone, P Binda
How the visual system achieves perceptual stability across saccadic eye movements is a long-standing question in neuroscience. It has been proposed that an efference copy informs vision about upcoming saccades, and this might lead to shifting spatial coordinates and suppressing image motion. Here we ask whether these two aspects of visual stability are interdependent or may be dissociated under special conditions. We study a memory-guided double-step saccade task, where two saccades are executed in quick succession...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317073/micro-calibration-of-space-and-motion-by-photoreceptors-synchronized-in-parallel-with-cortical-oscillations-a-unified-theory-of-visual-perception
#5
Ravinder Jerath, Shannon M Cearley, Vernon A Barnes, Mike Jensen
A fundamental function of the visual system is detecting motion, yet visual perception is poorly understood. Current research has determined that the retina and ganglion cells elicit responses for motion detection; however, the underlying mechanism for this is incompletely understood. Previously we proposed that retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations and photoreceptors work in parallel to process vision. Here we propose that motion could also be processed within the retina, and not in the brain as current theory suggests...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316228/perception-of-artificial-conspecifics-by-bearded-dragons-pogona-vitticeps
#6
Anna Frohnwieser, Thomas W Pike, John C Murray, Anna Wilkinson
Artificial animals are increasingly used as conspecific stimuli in animal behavior research. However, researchers often have an incomplete understanding of how the species under study perceives conspecifics, and hence which features needed for a stimulus to be perceived appropriately. To investigate the features to which bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) attend, we measured their lateralized eye use when assessing a successive range of stimuli. These ranged through several stages of realism in artificial conspecifics, to see how features such as color, the presence of eyes, body shape and motion influence behavior...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306865/binocular-stereo-acuity-affects-monocular-three-dimensional-shape-perception-in-patients-with-strabismus
#7
Hiromasa Sawamura, Céline R Gillebert, James T Todd, Guy A Orban
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the perception of three-dimensional (3D) shape in patients with strabismus and the contributions of stereopsis and monocular cues to this perception. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with strabismus with and 20 without stereo acuity as well as 25 age-matched normal volunteers performed two tasks: (1) identifying the closest vertices of 3D shapes from monocular shading (3D-SfS), texture (3D-SfT) or motion cues (3D-SfM) and from binocular disparity (3D-SfD), (2) discriminating 1D elementary features of these cues...
January 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305645/free-visual-exploration-of-natural-movies-in-schizophrenia
#8
Johanna Elisa Silberg, Ioannis Agtzidis, Mikhail Startsev, Teresa Fasshauer, Karen Silling, Andreas Sprenger, Michael Dorr, Rebekka Lencer
BACKGROUND: Eye tracking dysfunction (ETD) observed with standard pursuit stimuli represents a well-established biomarker for schizophrenia. How ETD may manifest during free visual exploration of real-life movies is unclear. METHODS: Eye movements were recorded (EyeLink®1000) while 26 schizophrenia patients and 25 healthy age-matched controls freely explored nine uncut movies and nine pictures of real-life situations for 20 s each. Subsequently, participants were shown still shots of these scenes to decide whether they had explored them as movies or pictures...
January 5, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304099/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-differences-in-brain-activation-in-response-to-thermal-stimuli-in-diabetic-patients-with-and-without-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#9
Juan Li, Wanying Zhang, Xia Wang, Tangmi Yuan, Peiyao Liu, Tao Wang, Le Shen, Yuguang Huang, Naishi Li, Hui You, Tixian Xiao, Feng Feng, Chao Ma
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The aim of this study was to explore the changes in brain activity in response to thermal stimuli in diabetic patients with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: A total of 36 right-handed volunteers were enrolled: eight patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus and DPN, 13 patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus lacking DPN (NDPN patients), and 15 healthy volunteers (HV)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300838/correlated-variability-in-the-neurons-with-the-strongest-tuning-improves-direction-coding
#10
Elizabeth Zavitz, Hsin-Hao Yu, Marcello G P Rosa, Nicholas S C Price
Sensory perception depends on neuronal populations creating an accurate representation of the external world. The amount of information that a population can represent depends on the tuning of individual neurons and the trial-by-trial variability shared among neurons. Although on average, pairwise spike-count correlations between neurons are positive, the distribution is wide, and the relationship between correlations and encoding is not straightforward. Here, we examine how single-neuron and population-level factors impact the efficacy of the neural code...
December 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295924/motion-parallax-in-electric-sensing
#11
Federico Pedraja, Volker Hofmann, Kathleen M Lucas, Colleen Young, Jacob Engelmann, John E Lewis
A crucial step in forming spatial representations of the environment involves the estimation of relative distance. Active sampling through specific movements is considered essential for optimizing the sensory flow that enables the extraction of distance cues. However, in electric sensing, direct evidence for the generation and exploitation of sensory flow is lacking. Weakly electric fish rely on a self-generated electric field to navigate and capture prey in the dark. This electric sense provides a blurred representation of the environment, making the exquisite sensory abilities of electric fish enigmatic...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289618/synchronous-and-asynchronous-perceptual-bindings-of-colour-and-motion-following-identical-stimulations
#12
Morgan E McIntyre, Derek H Arnold
When a moving surface alternates in colour and direction, perceptual couplings of colour and motion can differ from their physical correspondence. Periods of motion tend to be perceptually bound with physically delayed colours - a colour / motion perceptual asynchrony. This can be eliminated by motion transparency. Here we show that the colour / motion perceptual asynchrony is not invariably eliminated by motion transparency. Nor is it an inevitable consequence given a particular physical input. Instead, it can emerge when moving surfaces are perceived as alternating in direction, even if those surfaces seem transparent, and it is eliminated when surfaces are perceived as moving invariably...
December 28, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286560/modifying-bone-mineral-density-physical-function-and-quality-of-life-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#13
Cheryl L Cox, Liang Zhu, Sue C Kaste, Kumar Srivastava, Linda Barnes, Paul C Nathan, Robert J Wells, Kirsten K Ness
BACKGROUND: The early effects of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) include decreased physical function, bone mineral density (BMD/g/cm2 ), and health-related quality of life (HRQL). We assessed the capacity of a physical therapy and motivation-based intervention, beginning after diagnosis and continuing through the end of treatment, to positively modify these factors. PROCEDURE: A 2.5-year randomized controlled trial of 73 patients aged 4-18.99 years within 10 days of ALL diagnosis assessed BMD at baseline (T0 ) and end of therapy (T3 ), strength, range of motion, endurance, motor skills, and HRQL at baseline (T0 ), 8 (T1 ), 15 (T2 ), and 135 (T3 ) weeks...
December 29, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282652/task-irrelevant-sounds-influence-both-temporal-order-and-apparent-motion-judgments-about-tactile-stimuli-applied-to-crossed-and-uncrossed-hands
#14
Stephanie Badde, Brigitte Röder, Patrick Bruns
It has been suggested that judgments about the temporal-spatial order of successive tactile stimuli depend on the perceived direction of apparent motion between them. Here we manipulated tactile apparent-motion percepts by presenting a brief, task-irrelevant auditory stimulus temporally in-between pairs of tactile stimuli. The tactile stimuli were applied one to each hand, with varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Participants reported the location of the first stimulus (temporal order judgments: TOJs) while adopting both crossed and uncrossed hand postures, so we could scrutinize skin-based, anatomical, and external reference frames...
December 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282487/temporal-ventriloquism-along-the-path-of-apparent-motion-speed-perception-under-different-spatial-grouping-principles
#15
Cansu Ogulmus, Merve Karacaoglu, Hulusi Kafaligonul
The coordination of intramodal perceptual grouping and crossmodal interactions plays a critical role in constructing coherent multisensory percepts. However, the basic principles underlying such coordinating mechanisms still remain unclear. By taking advantage of an illusion called temporal ventriloquism and its influences on perceived speed, we investigated how audiovisual interactions in time are modulated by the spatial grouping principles of vision. In our experiments, we manipulated the spatial grouping principles of proximity, uniform connectedness, and similarity/common fate in apparent motion displays...
December 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277305/stability-of-kinesthetic-perception-in-efferent-afferent-spaces-the-concept-of-iso-perceptual-manifold
#16
Mark L Latash
The main goal of this paper is to introduce the concept of iso-perceptual manifold for perception of body configuration and related variables (kinesthetic perception) and to discuss its relation to the equilibrium-point hypothesis and the concepts of reference coordinate and uncontrolled manifold. Hierarchical control of action is postulated with abundant transformations between sets of spatial reference coordinates for salient effectors at different levels. Iso-perceptual manifold is defined in the combined space of afferent and efferent variables as the subspace corresponding to a stable percept...
December 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276499/usability-of-videogame-based-dexterity-training-in-the-early-rehabilitation-phase-of-stroke-patients-a-pilot-study
#17
Tim Vanbellingen, Suzanne J Filius, Thomas Nyffeler, Erwin E H van Wegen
Background: Approximately 70-80% of stroke survivors have limited activities of daily living, mainly due to dexterous problems. Videogame-based training (VBT) along with virtual reality seems to be beneficial to train upper limb function. Objective: To evaluate the usability of VBT using the Leap Motion Controller (LMC) to train fine manual dexterity in the early rehabilitation phase of stroke patients as an add-on to conventional therapy. Additionally, this study aimed to estimate the feasibility and potential efficacy of the VBT...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260091/poor-prognosis-of-elderly-individuals-80-years-of-age-with-acute-retinal-necrosis
#18
Ryoji Yanai, Daisuke Harada, Sho-Hei Uchi, Chiemi Yamashiro, Tomoko Orita, Koh-Hei Sonoda, Kazuhiro Kimura
Purpose: To report the clinical features and prognosis of acute retinal necrosis (ARN) in elderly (>80 years of age) individuals. Methods: Six consecutive patients with unilateral ARN who attended the Department of Ophthalmology at Yamaguchi University Hospital between 2014 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical characteristics, causative virus, time from symptom onset to physician visit, visual acuity at presentation and final visit, and treatment were evaluated and compared between the three elderly and three middle-aged (<80 years) patients...
September 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258975/public-perceptions-regarding-use-of-virtual-reality-in-health-care-a-social-media-content-analysis-using-facebook
#19
Michelle Sophie Keller, Hannah J Park, Maria Elena Cunningham, Joshua Eleazar Fouladian, Michelle Chen, Brennan Mason Ross Spiegel
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) technology provides an immersive environment that enables users to have modified experiences of reality. VR is increasingly used to manage patients with pain, disability, obesity, neurologic dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. However, public opinion regarding the use of VR in health care has not been explored. Understanding public opinion of VR is critical to ensuring effective implementation of this emerging technology. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine public opinion about health care VR using social listening, a method that allows for the exploration of unfiltered views of topics discussed on social media and online forums...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237554/feature-based-attention-potentiates-recovery-of-fine-direction-discrimination-in-cortically-blind-patients
#20
Matthew R Cavanaugh, Antoine Barbot, Marisa Carrasco, Krystel R Huxlin
Training chronic, cortically-blind (CB) patients on a coarse [left-right] direction discrimination and integration (CDDI) task recovers performance on this task at trained, blind field locations. However, fine direction difference (FDD) thresholds remain elevated at these locations, limiting the usefulness of recovered vision in daily life. Here, we asked if this FDD impairment can be overcome by training CB subjects with endogenous, feature-based attention (FBA) cues. Ten CB subjects were recruited and trained on CDDI and FDD with an FBA cue or FDD with a neutral cue...
December 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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