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Motion perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422409/validation-of-the-japanese-version-of-the-fremantle-back-awareness-questionnaire-in-patients-with-low-back-pain
#1
Tomokiko Nishigami, Akira Mibu, Katsuyoshi Tanaka, Yuh Yamashita, Michele Eisemann Shimizu, Bennedict Wand, Mark J Catley, Tasha R Stanton, G Lorimer Moseley
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in the role of disturbed body perception in people with persistent pain problems such as chronic low back pain (CLBP). A questionnaire, the Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire (FreBAQ), was recently developed as a simple and quick way of assessing disturbed perceptual awareness of the back in people with CLBP and appears to have acceptable psychometric properties. The aim of the present study was to develop a Japanese version of the FreBAQ (FreBAQ-J) and evaluate its psychometric properties in a sample of Japanese people with low back pain (LBP)...
April 18, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420952/motion-induced-position-shifts-activate-early-visual-cortex
#2
Peter J Kohler, Patrick Cavanagh, Peter U Tse
The ability to correctly determine the position of objects in space is a fundamental task of the visual system. The perceived position of briefly presented static objects can be influenced by nearby moving contours, as demonstrated by various illusions collectively known as motion-induced position shifts. Here we use a stimulus that produces a particularly strong effect of motion on perceived position. We test whether several regions-of-interest (ROIs), at different stages of visual processing, encode the perceived rather than retinotopically veridical position...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420286/probing-the-characteristics-of-colour-motion-binding-and-its-dependence-on-persistent-surface-segregation
#3
Gabriel J Vigano, Ryan T Maloney, Colin W G Clifford
Identifying the spatial and temporal characteristics of visual feature binding is a remaining challenge in the science of perception. Within the feature-binding literature, disparate findings have suggested the existence of more than one feature-binding mechanism with differing temporal resolutions. For example, one surprising result is that temporal alternations between two different feature pairings of colour and motion (e.g., orange dots moving left with blue dots moving right) support accurate conjunction discrimination at alternation frequencies of around 10 Hz and greater...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419471/spectral-analysis-of-the-stick-slip-phenomenon-in-oral-tribological-texture-evaluation
#4
Solange Sanahuja, Rutuja Upadhyay, Heiko Briesen, Jianshe Chen
"Oral" tribology has become a new paradigm in food texture studies to understand complex texture attributes, such as creaminess, oiliness, and astringency, which could not be successfully characterized by traditional texture analysis nor by rheology. Stick-slip effects resulting from intermittent sliding motion during kinetic friction of oral mucosa could constitute an additional determining factor of sensory perception where traditional friction coefficient values and their Stribeck regimes fail in predicting different lubricant (food bolus and saliva) behaviors...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417834/adaptive-changes-in-the-perception-of-fast-and-slow-movement-at-different-head-positions
#5
Roberto Panichi, Chiara Occhigrossi, Aldo Ferraresi, Mario Faralli, Marco Lucertini, Vito E Pettorossi
BACKGROUND: This paper examines the subjective sense of orientation during asymmetric body rotations in normal subjects. METHODS: Self-motion perception was investigated in 10 healthy individuals during asymmetric whole-body rotation with different head orientations. Both on-vertical axis and off-vertical axis rotations were employed. Subjects tracked a remembered earth-fixed visual target while rotating in the dark for four cycles of asymmetric rotation (two half-sinusoidal cycles of the same amplitude, but of different duration)...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414023/effect-of-spatial-and-temporal-stimulus-parameters-on-the-maturation-of-global-motion-perception
#6
Kimberly Meier, Deborah Giaschi
There are discrepancies with respect to the age at which adult-like performance is reached on tasks assessing global motion perception. This is in part because performance in children depends on stimulus parameters. We recently showed that five-year-olds demonstrated adult-like performance over a range of speeds when the speed ratio was comprised of longer spatial and temporal displacements; but displayed immature performance when the speed ratio was comprised of shorter displacements. The goal of the current study was to assess the effect of these global motion stimulus parameters across a broader age range in order to estimate the age at which mature performance is reached...
April 13, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411474/prior-expectations-modulate-unconscious-evidence-accumulation
#7
Leonardo S Barbosa, Alexandra Vlassova, Sid Kouider
Unconscious processes have been shown to affect both perception and behaviour. However, the flexibility of such processes remains unknown. Here we investigate whether unconscious decisional processes can adapt to the utility of sensory information. To this end, we had participants gradually accumulate information from noisy motion stimuli, until a decision was reached. We titrated conscious awareness of these stimuli by simultaneously presenting a dynamic dichoptic mask. Crucially, we manipulated the likelihood that the suppressed portion of each presentation would contain useful information...
April 12, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405183/abnormal-size-dependent-modulation-of-motion-perception-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#8
Olga V Sysoeva, Ilia A Galuta, Maria S Davletshina, Elena V Orekhova, Tatiana A Stroganova
Excitation/Inhibition (E/I) imbalance in neural networks is now considered among the core neural underpinnings of autism psychopathology. In motion perception at least two phenomena critically depend on E/I balance in visual cortex: spatial suppression (SS), and spatial facilitation (SF) corresponding to impoverished or improved motion perception with increasing stimuli size, respectively. While SS is dominant at high contrast, SF is evident for low contrast stimuli, due to the prevalence of inhibitory contextual modulations in the former, and excitatory ones in the latter case...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391411/empathy-engagement-entrainment-the-interaction-dynamics-of-aesthetic-experience
#9
Ingar Brinck
A recent version of the view that aesthetic experience is based in empathy as inner imitation explains aesthetic experience as the automatic simulation of actions, emotions, and bodily sensations depicted in an artwork by motor neurons in the brain. Criticizing the simulation theory for committing to an erroneous concept of empathy and failing to distinguish regular from aesthetic experiences of art, I advance an alternative, dynamic approach and claim that aesthetic experience is enacted and skillful, based in the recognition of others' experiences as distinct from one's own...
April 8, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387693/visual-vestibular-processing-deficits-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
W G Wright, R T Tierney, J McDevitt
BACKGROUND: The search for reliable and valid signs and symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly synonymous with concussion, has lead to a growing body of evidence that individuals with long-lasting, unremitting impairments often experience visual and vestibular symptoms, such as dizziness, postural and gait disturbances. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the role of visual-vestibular processing deficits following concussion. METHODS: A number of clinically accepted vestibular, oculomotor, and balance assessments as well as a novel virtual reality (VR)-based balance assessment device were used to assess adults with post-acute concussion (n = 14) in comparison to a healthy age-matched cohort (n = 58)...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384470/the-emergence-of-directional-selectivity-in-the-visual-motion-pathway-of-drosophila
#11
James A Strother, Shiuan-Tze Wu, Allan M Wong, Aljoscha Nern, Edward M Rogers, Jasmine Q Le, Gerald M Rubin, Michael B Reiser
The perception of visual motion is critical for animal navigation, and flies are a prominent model system for exploring this neural computation. In Drosophila, the T4 cells of the medulla are directionally selective and necessary for ON motion behavioral responses. To examine the emergence of directional selectivity, we developed genetic driver lines for the neuron types with the most synapses onto T4 cells. Using calcium imaging, we found that these neuron types are not directionally selective and that selectivity arises in the T4 dendrites...
April 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378436/visual-perception-skills-a-comparison-between-patients-with-noonan-syndrome-and-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#12
Giorgia Piccini, Deny Menghini, Antea D'Andrea, Cristina Caciolo, Maria Pontillo, Marco Armando, Francesca Perrino, Luca Mandolesi, Salerni Annabella, Buzzonetti Luca, Maria Cristina Digilio, Giuseppe Zampino, Marco Tartaglia, Mariagrazia Benassi, Stefano Vicari, Paolo Alfieri
Ventral and dorsal streams are visual pathways deputed to transmit information from the photoreceptors of the retina to the lateral geniculate nucleus and then to the primary visual cortex (V1). Several studies investigated whether one pathway is more vulnerable than the other during development, and whether these streams develop at different rates. The results are still discordant. The aim of the present study was to understand the functionality of the dorsal and the ventral streams in two populations affected by different genetic disorders, Noonan syndrome and 22q11...
April 5, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374760/the-role-of-motion-and-number-of-element-locations-in-mirror-symmetry-perception
#13
Rebecca J Sharman, Elena Gheorghiu
The human visual system has specialised mechanisms for encoding mirror-symmetry and for detecting symmetric motion-directions for objects that loom or recede from the observers. The contribution of motion to mirror-symmetry perception has never been investigated. Here we examine symmetry detection thresholds for stationary (static and dynamic flicker) and symmetrically moving patterns (inwards, outwards, random directions) with and without positional symmetry. We also measured motion detection and direction-discrimination thresholds for horizontal (left, right) and symmetrically moving patterns with and without positional symmetry...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365777/a-direct-demonstration-of-functional-differences-between-subdivisions-of-human-v5-mt
#14
Samantha L Strong, Edward H Silson, André D Gouws, Antony B Morland, Declan J McKeefry
Two subdivisions of human V5/MT+: one located posteriorly (MT/TO-1) and the other more anteriorly (MST/TO-2) were identified in human participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging on the basis of their representations of the ipsilateral versus contralateral visual field. These subdivisions were then targeted for disruption by the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The rTMS was delivered to cortical areas while participants performed direction discrimination tasks involving 3 different types of moving stimuli defined by the translational, radial, or rotational motion of dot patterns...
January 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361254/vestibular-cognition-the-effect-of-prior-belief-on-vestibular-perceptual-decision-making
#15
Andrew W Ellis, Manuel P Klaus, Fred W Mast
Vestibular cognition is a growing field of interest and relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We tested the effect of prior beliefs about the relative probability (50:50 vs. 80:20) of motion direction (yaw rotation) using a direction discrimination task. We analyzed choices individually with a logistic regression model and together with response times using a cognitive process model. The results show that self-motion perception is altered by prior belief, leading to a shift of the psychometric function, without a loss of sensitivity...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355631/persistent-illusory-apparent-motion-in-sequences-of-uncorrelated-random-dots
#16
Nicolas Davidenko, Nathan H Heller, Yeram Cheong, Jacob Smith
We report a novel phenomenon in which long sequences of random dot arrays refreshing at 2.5 Hz lead to persistent illusory percepts of coherent apparent motion. We term this effect illusory apparent motion (IAM). To quantify this illusion, we devised a persistence task in which observers are primed with a particular motion pattern and must indicate when the motion pattern ends. In Experiment 1 (N = 119), we induced translational apparent motion patterns and show that both drifting motion (e.g., up-up-up-up) and rebounding motion (e...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355315/bodies-in-motion-spaces-emotions-and-representations-that-de-construct-realities
#17
Jaime Alonso Caravaca-Morera, Maria Itayra Padilha
OBJECTIVE To analyze the social representations of the body among Brazilian and Costa Rican transsexual people through their life stories. METHOD Qualitative and descriptive multicenter research. The study population consisted of 70 participants. Two organizations cooperated to collect the information, one in Florianópolis, SC-Brazil and one in San José, the capital of Costa Rica. Content Analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS Based on the results, a single social representation of corporeality was unveiled: "Modeled bodies: about the elasticity of corporeality"...
2017: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352948/visual-information-from-observing-grasping-movement-in-allocentric-and-egocentric-perspectives-development-in-typical-children
#18
Francesca Tinelli, Giovanni Cioni, Giulio Sandini, Marco Turi, Maria Concetta Morrone
Development of the motor system lags behind that of the visual system and might delay some visual properties more closely linked to action. We measured the developmental trajectory of the discrimination of object size from observation of the biological motion of a grasping action in egocentric and allocentric viewpoints (observing action of others or self), in children and adolescents from 5 to 18 years of age. Children of 5-7 years of age performed the task at chance, indicating a delayed ability to understand the goal of the action...
March 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350775/postsurgical-physical-therapy-management-of-congenital-muscular-torticollis
#19
Magdalena Oledzka, Maureen Suhr
PURPOSE: To present 2 cases with severe congenital muscular torticollis and describe postsurgical physical therapy management. DESCRIPTION: Two children diagnosed with severe congenital muscular torticollis underwent surgical release of the involved sternocleidomastoid muscle with subsequent physical therapy. Presurgical examination findings, surgical technique, and postsurgical rehabilitation guidelines are described. RESULTS: Both cases achieved full range of motion and symmetrical muscle strength...
April 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350233/does-slow-motion-impact-on-the-perception-of-foul-play-in-football
#20
Jochim Spitz, Koen Put, Johan Wagemans, A Mark Williams, Werner F Helsen
OBJECTIVES: Slow-motion replays of foul play situations are now used in the education and training of sports officials. We investigated the impact of video speed on the decision-making process of association football referees and how this interacted with expertise. METHODS: Three different groups of referees, varying in level of expertise, assessed video clips from an in-game perspective. Video clips represented corner kick and open play situations in which a foul occurred or not...
March 28, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
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