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Macular pigment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792731/apr3-modulates-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-function-in-arpe-19-cells
#1
Yuan Li, Xuan Zou, Jing Gao, Ke Cao, Zhihui Feng, Jiankang Liu
Impairment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is considered a key contributor to the development of age-related macular degeneration. Apoptosis-related protein 3 (APR3) was recently discovered after treatment with all- trans retinoic acid, a pivotal molecule in RPE cells. However, the function of APR3 remains poorly understood. In the present study, we found that APR3 could interact with nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, which is a regulator of phase II enzymes, and that knockdown of APR3 promoted nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 nuclear translocation and activated expression of phase II enzymes, which was accompanied by improved redox status and mitochondrial activity...
May 24, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789660/multicolor-tm-imaging-in-combined-hamartoma-of-the-retina-and-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#2
Konstantinos Kaprinis, Hannaa Bobat, Gabriella De Salvo
PURPOSE: To describe the principle characteristics of combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium ('combined harmatoma') on MultiColorTM imaging and evaluate its role as a diagnostic and management tool. METHODS: Retrospective, observational case series comprising three patients with unilateral, juxtapapillary combined harmatoma. Complete ophthalmic examination was performed. MultiColorTM , including green reflectance (GR) and near infra-red reflectance (NIRR), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and autofluorescence (AF) imaging were obtained (Heidelberg Spectralis)...
May 23, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786830/blue-light-filtering-intraocular-lenses-iols-for-protecting-macular-health
#3
REVIEW
Laura E Downie, Ljoudmila Busija, Peter R Keller
BACKGROUND: An intraocular lens (IOL) is a synthetic lens that is surgically implanted within the eye following removal of the crystalline lens, during cataract surgery. While all modern IOLs attenuate the transmission of ultra-violet (UV) light, some IOLs, called blue-blocking or blue-light filtering IOLs, also reduce short-wavelength visible light transmission. The rationale for blue-light filtering IOLs derives primarily from cell culture and animal studies, which suggest that short-wavelength visible light can induce retinal photoxicity...
May 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786089/spectral-analysis-of-fundus-autofluorescence-pattern-as-a-tool-to-detect-early-stages-of-degeneration-in-the-retina-and-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#4
Tatiana B Feldman, Marina A Yakovleva, Andrey V Larichev, Patimat M Arbukhanova, Alexandra Sh Radchenko, Sergey A Borzenok, Vladimir A Kuzmin, Mikhail A Ostrovsky
PURPOSE: The aim of this work is the determination of quantitative diagnostic criteria based on the spectral characteristics of fundus autofluorescence to detect early stages of degeneration in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). METHODS: RPE cell suspension samples were obtained from the cadaver eyes with and without signs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Fluorescence analysis at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm was performed. The fluorescence lifetimes of lipofuscin-granule fluorophores were measured by counting time-correlated photon method...
May 22, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786008/an-unexpected-complication-in-bilateral-acute-iris-transillumination-cystoid-macular-edema
#5
Cigdem Altan, Berna Basarir, Cem Kesim
A 47-year-old male presented with bilateral 4 + circulating pigment in the anterior chamber, diffuse iris transillumination, dilated pupils unresponsive to light, and high intraocular pressure (IOP) levels in both eyes. Visual acuity and IOP improved bilaterally with topical steroid and antiglaucomatous therapy. In the 10th month, bilateral cystoid macular edema (CME) was developed and resolved after subtenon triamcinolone injections. CME recurred after cataract surgery in the right eye which was treated with intravitreal dexamethasone implant injection...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780953/micropulse-laser-for-persistent-optic-disc-pit-maculopathy-a-case-report
#6
Carlos Andrés Valdés-Lara, Nicolás Crim, Gerardo García-Aguirre, Ismael Ávila Lule, Virgilio Morales-Cantón
Purpose: Optic disc pits (ODP) are rare and congenital anomalies of the optic disc, sometimes remaining asymptomatic. However, serous macular detachment or optic disc maculopathy is the most common complication, causing significant visual deterioration, without a current consensus about treatment. We describe a case of ODP maculopathy that was treated successfully with micropulse laser. Observations: A patient with ODP maculopathy remained with macular serous detachment after nine months of follow up after pars plana vitrectomy...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780943/longitudinal-ophthalmic-findings-in-a-child-with-helsmoortel-van-der-aa-syndrome
#7
Michael J Gale, Hope E Titus, Gareth A Harman, Talal Alabduljalil, Anna Dennis, Jenny L Wilson, David M Koeller, Erika Finanger, Peter A Blasco, Pei-Wen Chiang, Daniel J Karr, Paul Yang
Purpose: We present the first detailed ophthalmic description of a child with Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome (HVDAS), including longitudinal follow-up and analysis. Observations: After extensive workup, a young child with poor visual behavior, hypotonic cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and global developmental delay was found to have a heterozygous de novo mutation in the ADNP gene and diagnosed with HVDAS. Ophthalmic findings were remarkable for progressive nystagmus, macular pigment mottling, mild foveal hypoplasia with abnormal macular laminations, persistent rod dysfunction with electronegative waveform, and progressive cone degeneration...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780916/visual-acuity-of-20-32-13-5-years-after-a-retinal-pigment-epithelium-and-choroid-graft-transplantation
#8
Elsbeth J T van Zeeburg, Kristel J M Maaijwee, Jan C van Meurs
Purpose: To present the 13.5-year-survival of an autologous retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid graft transplantation with good visual acuity results. Observations: A 72-year old patient presented with a 5-weeks-old visual acuity deterioration to excentric finger counting at half a meter. Fundoscopy showed a fibrotic macular scar, a large subretinal hemorrhage, partly recent, combined with intraretinal fluid, blood, and hard exudates. RPE-choroid graft surgery was performed, and visual acuity improved to 20/32, and maintained up until 13...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778783/intra-vitreal-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-fused-to-elastin-like-polypeptide-provides-neuroprotection-in-a-mouse-model-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#9
Parameswaran G Sreekumar, Zhe Li, Wan Wang, Christine Spee, David R Hinton, Ram Kannan, J Andrew MacKay
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe and irreversible central vision loss, and the primary site of AMD pathology is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of AMD characterized by extensive RPE cell loss, subsequent degeneration of photoreceptors, and thinning of retina. This report describes the protective potential of a peptide derived from the αB crystallin protein using a sodium iodate (NaIO3 ) induced mouse model of GA. Systemic NaIO3 challenge causes degeneration of the RPE and neighboring photoreceptors, which have similarities to retinas of GA patients...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777261/mitochondrial-quality-control-in-amd-does-mitophagy-play-a-pivotal-role
#10
REVIEW
Juha M T Hyttinen, Johanna Viiri, Kai Kaarniranta, Janusz Błasiak
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the predominant cause of visual loss in old people in the developed world, whose incidence is increasing. This disease is caused by the decrease in macular function, due to the degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. The aged retina is characterised by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), impaired autophagy, and DNA damage that are linked to AMD pathogenesis. Mitophagy, a mitochondria-specific type of autophagy, is an essential part of mitochondrial quality control, the collective mechanism responsible for this organelle's homeostasis...
May 18, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772051/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-pigmented-paravenous-retinochoroidal-atrophy
#11
Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Chiara Giuffrè, Alessandro Rabiolo, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Francesco Bandello
A 58-year-old man with bilateral pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (PPRCA) associated with macular coloboma in the right eye underwent color fundus photography and fundus autofluorescence with the California ultra-widefield retinal imaging system (Optos, Dunfermline, UK), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Heidelberg Spectralis HRA + OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and en face OCT angiography (OCTA) (AngioPlex, Cirrus HD-OCT 5000; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA)...
May 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767257/bmp%C3%A2-6-protects-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-from-oxidative-stress%C3%A2-induced-injury-by-inhibiting-the-mapk-signaling-pathways
#12
Li Chen, Ming Liu, Yan Luan, Yingfei Liu, Zhichao Zhang, Bo Ma, Xuan Liu, Yong Liu
Worldwide, neovascular age‑related macular degeneration (nAMD) is one of the most common causes of blindness in the elderly. In particular, degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells represents the main pathological process in the development of nAMD, and oxidative stress serves a major role. The present study aimed to investigate the association between bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP‑6) and nAMD. BMP‑6 concentration was significantly reduced in patients with wet nAMD compared with in the control group...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766021/transduction-patterns-of-adeno-associated-viral-vectors-in-a-laser-induced-choroidal-neovascularization-mouse-model
#13
Si Hyung Lee, Ye Seul Kim, Seung Kwan Nah, Hee Jong Kim, Ha Yan Park, Jin Young Yang, Keerang Park, Tae Kwann Park
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector is a promising platform technology for ocular gene therapy. Recently clinical successes to treat choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in wet type age-related macular degeneration have been reported. However, because pathologic conditions of the retina may alter the tropism of viral vectors, it is necessary to evaluate the transduction efficiency of different serotypes of AAV vectors in the retinas with CNVs. Here, we show the patterns and efficacy of transduction of AAV2, -5, and -8 vectors in a laser-induced CNV mouse model...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762536/proteomics-of-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium-rpe-cells
#14
REVIEW
Sarka Beranova-Giorgianni, Francesco Giorgianni
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are specialized, multifunctional cells in the retina that form a monolayer of cuboidal, polarized cells adjoining the photoreceptor cells. The RPE are a critical component of the blood-retinal barrier, and they play essential functional roles for maintenance of retinal homeostasis and for support and health of photoreceptors. Age-dependent, progressive dysfunction and death of RPE cells and the resultant loss of photoreceptors contribute significantly to the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other retinal degenerative diseases...
May 15, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758035/changes-in-macular-pigment-optical-density-after-membrane-peeling
#15
Mario R Romano, Gilda Cennamo, Piergiacomo Grassi, Federica Sparnelli, Davide Allegrini, Giovanni Cennamo
INTRODUCTION: To highlight the differences in macular pigment optical density (MPOD) between eyes with vitreoretinal interface syndrome and healthy control eyes, to assess the changes in MPOD in eyes treated with macular peeling, to investigate the relationships between MPOD changes and measures of retinal sensitivity such as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and microperimetry. METHODS: In this cross-sectional comparative study, 30 eyes affected by idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM, 15eyes) or full-thickness macular hole (FTMH, 15eyes) were compared with 60 eyes from 30 healthy age-matched patients...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753724/id2-protects-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-from-oxidative-damage-through-p-erk1-2-id2-nrf2
#16
Yuting Fan, Zixin Huang, Chongde Long, Jie Ning, Han Zhang, Xielan Kuang, Qingjiong Zhang, Huangxuan Shen
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness during aging. The degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the main pathologic characteristic of AMD. ID2 is a member of the Inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (ID) family and is involved in regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. However, currently the role of ID2 in oxidative injury response in RPE cells remains unknown. Here we showed that oxidative stress increased ID2 expression in RPE cells. Knockdown of ID2 promoted cell apoptosis and increased ROS level in RPE cells that were subjected to oxidative damage...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752877/characterization-of-rpe-melanin-and-degraded-synthetic-melanin-using-mass-spectrometry-and-in-vitro-biochemical-diagnostics
#17
Sally M Yacout, Kelsey L McIlwain, Shama P Mirza, Elizabeth R Gaillard
With increasing age, there is an observable loss of melanin in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. It is possible that degradation of the pigment contributes to the pathogenesis of retinal disease, as the cellular antioxidant material is depleted. Functionally, intact melanin maintains protective qualities, while oxidative degradation of melanin promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and formation of metabolic byproducts, such as melanolipofuscin. Understanding the structural and functional changes to RPE melanin with increasing age may contribute to a better understanding of disease progression and risk factors for conditions such as Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
May 12, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752862/nanoceria-loaded-injectable-hydrogels-for-potential-age-related-macular-degeneration-treatment
#18
Kai Wang, Rajendra Narayan Mitra, Min Zheng, Zongchao Han
The major purpose of this article is to evaluate oligochitosan coated cerium oxide nanoparticles (OCCNPs) alginate laden injectable hydrogels and their potential treatment for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The water soluble OCCNPs were loaded within injectable hydrogels as antioxidative agents. The release of OCCNPs from hydrogel, radical scavenging properties, and biocompatibility were evaluated and calculated in vitro. The effects of OCCNP laden hydrogel downregulating expression of angiogenic proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines were quantified in human retinal pigment epithlium-19 (ARPE-19) and umbilical endothelium cell lines...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748595/crispr-lbcpf1-prevents-choroidal-neovascularization-in-a-mouse-model-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#19
Taeyoung Koo, Sung Wook Park, Dong Hyun Jo, Daesik Kim, Jin Hyoung Kim, Hee-Yeon Cho, Jeungeun Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin-Soo Kim
LbCpf1, derived from Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006, is a CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease and holds promise for therapeutic applications. Here we show that LbCpf1 can be used for therapeutic gene editing in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The intravitreal delivery of LbCpf1, targeted to two angiogenesis-associated genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) and hypoxia inducing factor 1a (Hif1a), using adeno-associated virus, led to efficient gene disruption with no apparent off-target effects in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells...
May 10, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747425/glucosamine-induced-autophagy-through-ampk%C3%A2-mtor-pathway-attenuates-lipofuscin-like-autofluorescence-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-in-vitro
#20
Ching-Long Chen, Yi-Hao Chen, Chang-Min Liang, Ming-Cheng Tai, Da-Wen Lu, Jiann-Torng Chen
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a vision-threatening age-associated disease. The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells phagocytose and digest photoreceptor outer segment (POS). Incomplete digestion of POS leads to lipofuscin accumulation, which contributes to the pathology of the AMD. Autophagy could help reduce the amount of lipofuscin accumulation. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of glucosamine (GlcN), a natural supplement, on the induction of autophagy and POS-derived lipofuscin-like autofluorescence (LLAF) in ARPE-19 cells in vitro, and investigated the potential molecular pathway involved...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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