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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788219/exploiting-metamerism-to-regulate-the-impact-of-a-visual-display-on-alertness-and-melatonin-suppression-independent-of-visual-appearance
#1
Annette E Allen, Esther M Hazelhoff, Franck P Martial, Christian Cajochen, Robert J Lucas
Objectives: Artificial light sources such as visual display units (VDUs) elicit a range of subconscious and reflex light responses, including increases in alertness and suppression of pineal melatonin. Such responses employ dedicated retinal circuits encompassing melanopsin photoreceptors. Here, we aimed to determine whether this arrangement can be exploited to modulate the impact of VDUs on melatonin onset and alertness without altering visual appearance. Methods: We generated a 5-primary VDU capable of presenting metameric movies (matched for colour and luminance) but varying in melanopic-irradiance...
May 18, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776998/visual-field-shape-and-foraging-ecology-in-diurnal-raptors
#2
Simon Potier, Olivier Duriez, Gregory B Cunningham, Vincent Bonhomme, Colleen O'Rourke, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Francesco Bonadonna
Birds, particularly raptors, are believed to forage primarily using visual cues. However, raptor foraging tactics are highly diverse - from chasing mobile prey to scavenging - which may reflect adaptations of their visual systems. To investigate this, we studied the visual field configuration of 15 species of diurnal Accipitriformes that differ in such tactics, first focusing on the binocular field and blind area by using a single traits approach, and then exploring the shape of the binocular field with morphometric approaches...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774012/a-novel-enzyme-portfolio-for-red-algal-polysaccharide-degradation-in-the-marine-bacterium-paraglaciecola-hydrolytica-s66-t-encoded-in-a-sizeable-polysaccharide-utilization-locus
#3
Mikkel Schultz-Johansen, Pernille K Bech, Rosanna C Hennessy, Mikkel A Glaring, Tristan Barbeyron, Mirjam Czjzek, Peter Stougaard
Marine microbes are a rich source of enzymes for the degradation of diverse polysaccharides. Paraglaciecola hydrolytica S66T is a marine bacterium capable of hydrolyzing polysaccharides found in the cell wall of red macroalgae. In this study, we applied an approach combining genomic mining with functional analysis to uncover the potential of this bacterium to produce enzymes for the hydrolysis of complex marine polysaccharides. A special feature of P. hydrolytica S66T is the presence of a large genomic region harboring an array of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) notably agarases and carrageenases...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765641/combined-morphological-and-phylogenomic-re-examination-of-malawimonads-a-critical-taxon-for-inferring-the-evolutionary-history-of-eukaryotes
#4
Aaron A Heiss, Martin Kolisko, Fleming Ekelund, Matthew W Brown, Andrew J Roger, Alastair G B Simpson
Modern syntheses of eukaryote diversity assign almost all taxa to one of three groups: Amorphea, Diaphoretickes and Excavata (comprising Discoba and Metamonada). The most glaring exception is Malawimonadidae, a group of small heterotrophic flagellates that resemble Excavata by morphology, but branch with Amorphea in most phylogenomic analyses. However, just one malawimonad, Malawimonas jakobiformis , has been studied with both morphological and molecular-phylogenetic approaches, raising the spectre of interpretation errors and phylogenetic artefacts from low taxon sampling...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759685/evaluation-of-the-small-aperture-intracorneal-inlay-three-year-results-from-the-cohort-of-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration-clinical-trial
#5
John A Vukich, Daniel S Durrie, Jay S Pepose, Vance Thompson, Corina van de Pol, Ling Lin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Kamra small-aperture intracorneal inlay. SETTING: Centers in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial. METHODS: Patients with emmetropic presbyopia had intracorneal implantation of the inlay in the nondominant eye. RESULTS: The study comprised 507 patients with emmetropic presbyopia who were aged 45 to 60 years old...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752837/understanding-the-invisibility-of-black-nurse-leaders-using-a-black-feminist-poststructuralist-framework
#6
Keisha Jefferies, Lisa Goldberg, Megan Aston, Gail Tomblin Murphy
AIM: This paper explores the invisibility and underrepresentation of Black nurses in formal and informal leadership roles using a Black feminist poststructuralist framework. The paper describes historical and contemporary challenges experienced by Black nurses throughout their nursing education and in practice. It also highlights how social and institutional discourses continue to marginalize and oppress Black nurses as leaders and render them invisible. BACKGROUND: Diversity amongst nursing leaders is essential to inform health care delivery, develop inclusive practices and provide culturally sensitive care...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747549/-glowing-gray-does-exist-luminance-gradients-influence-on-whiteness-perception
#7
Yuki Kobayashi, Soyogu Matsushita, Kazunori Morikawa
Studies on brightness and lightness that employed luminance gradients (i.e., glare stimuli) have suggested that we can perceive luminosity even when the brightness target is darker than white. Although such studies had great impact on research in luminosity perception, whether the whiteness threshold in glare stimuli was lower or higher than the luminosity threshold remained unclear. This study indicated that it is higher than the luminosity threshold, confirming the existence of glowing gray. Moreover, we measured the luminance gradients' effect on whiteness perception but found no significant effect...
January 1, 2018: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747366/-a-multicenter-study-of-the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-toric-intraocular-lens-implantation
#8
X D Song, Y S Hao, Y Z Bao, Z H Li, H Zhang, A Y Yu, M S Zhao, Y S Huang, J Fang, Y Liu, N L Wang
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Proming(®)Toric intraocular lens (IOL) in adults with cataract combined with corneal regular astigmatism. Methods: Multicentre, randomized, open and positive parallel controlled clinical study. A total of 121 patients (121 eyes) who had cataract combined with corneal regular astigmatism and met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in 9 hospitals from May 2014 to May 2016. There were 45 males and 76 females and the median age was 71 (42-88) years old. A total of 121 patients (121 eyes) were randomly assigned to the study group and the control group through the Central Randomization System...
May 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743110/analysis-of-intraocular-positions-of-posterior-implantable-collamer-lens-by-full-scale-ultrasound-biomicroscopy
#9
Xi Zhang, Xun Chen, Xiaoying Wang, Fei Yuan, Xingtao Zhou
BACKGROUND: To analyze the positions of intraocular posterior Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) and its possible relationship with vault. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 72 patients with high myopia (134 eyes) who were followed up after phakic intraocular lens implantation. The postoperative time ranged from 1 week to 7 years. We obtained the images of ICL by using Compact Touch STS UBM and observed the position of ICL in posterior chamber and ciliary sulcus...
May 9, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723735/driver-distraction-by-smartphone-use-whatsapp-in-different-age-groups
#10
C Ortiz, S Ortiz-Peregrina, J J Castro, M Casares-López, C Salas
This paper investigates the effect that texting with WhatsApp, one of the most common applications for instant messaging, exerts on driving performance. Because distracted driving also affects older drivers, who can have seriously compromised vision, we also analysed the associations between visual-function parameters and driving performance. A total of 75 drivers, experienced in sending WhatsApp messages (≥10WhatsApp messages/week), participated in this study and were divided into four age categories. Visual-function tests included contrast sensitivity with and without glare, retinal straylight and objective assessment of optical quality...
April 30, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720113/a-randomized-open-label-study-of-guideline-driven-antiemetic-therapy-versus-single-agent-antiemetic-therapy-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer-and-nausea-not-related-to-anticancer-treatment
#11
Janet Hardy, Helen Skerman, Paul Glare, Jennifer Philip, Peter Hudson, Geoffrey Mitchell, Peter Martin, Odette Spruyt, David Currow, Patsy Yates
BACKGROUND: Nausea/vomiting (N/V) not related to anti-cancer treatment is common in patients with advanced cancer. The standard approach to management is to define a dominant cause, and treat with an antiemetic selected through pathophysiologic knowledge of emetic pathways. High rates of N/V control have been reported using both etiology-based guideline-driven antiemetic regimens and an empiric approach using single agents in uncontrolled studies. These different approaches had never been formally compared...
May 2, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718869/changes-of-corneal-high-order-aberrations-after-femtosecond-laser-assisted-in-situ-keratomileusis
#12
Jing Wang, Yanlin Ren, Kun Liang, Zhengxuan Jiang, Liming Tao
BACKGROUND: Femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) has gained widespread popularity as a safe, effective and predictable treatment for correcting myopia and myopic astigmatism.However, complications such as biomechanical changes, structural weakness, dry eye and induction of high-order aberrations (HOAs) have been associated with FS laser excision. The induction of HOAs has been reported to reduce quality of vision, leading to increased glare, halos, starburst and deterioration of contrast function corneal HOAs play a significant role in whole-eye aberration...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716333/determining-the-refractive-index-of-particles-using-glare-point-imaging-technique
#13
Rui Meng, Baozhen Ge, Qieni Lu, Xiaoxue Yu
A method of measuring the refractive index of a particle is presented from a glare-point image. The space of a doublet image of a particle can be determined with high accuracy by using auto-correlation and Gaussian interpolation, and then the refractive index is obtained from glare-point separation, and a factor that may influence the accuracy of glare-point separation is explored. Experiments are carried out for three different kinds of particles, including polystyrene latex particles, glass beads, and water droplets, whose measuring accuracy is improved by the data fitting method...
April 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713817/23g-pars-plana-vitrectomy-for-vitreal-floaters-prospective-assessment-of-subjective-self-reported-visual-impairment-and-surgery-related-risks-during-the-course-of-treatment
#14
Ursula Hahn, Frank Krummenauer, Klaus Ludwig
PURPOSE: Quantifying the subjective impairment due to floaters based on an indication-specific questionnaire and setting its change between prior to and 3/12 months after elective vitrectomy in relation to surgical risks. METHODS: Single-arm longitudinal observational multicenter study. Sixty-four floater patients underwent 23G pars plana vitrectomy; simultaneous phacoemulsification was excluded. An overall self-rated impairment index (SRI) and sub-indices SRI were calculated on the basis of a modified Visual Quality of Life questionnaire (VQoL), which addresses general vision, glare, near-sight problems and mobility of floaters...
April 30, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697436/extended-depth-of-focus-intraocular-lenses-for-presbyopia
#15
Sruti S Akella, Viral V Juthani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the various extended depth of focus (EDOF) intraocular lenses currently available to patients and to describe visual outcomes and patient satisfaction. RECENT FINDINGS: EDOF lenses are a relatively new option for presbyopic correction. Preliminary studies show high levels of spectacle independence and patient satisfaction. The only United States Federal Drug Administration-approved intraocular lens currently on market is the TECNIS Symfony (Johnson and Johnson Vision, Jacksonville, FL)...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684328/visual-outcomes-after-implantation-of-a-segmental-refractive-multifocal-intraocular-lens-following-cataract-surgery
#16
Thomas Kohnen, Eva Hemkeppler, Michael Herzog, Sabrina Schönbrunn, Nina DeLorenzo, Kerstin Petermann, Myriam Böhm
PURPOSE: To evaluate visual outcomes with particular attention to intermediate visual acuity (VA), of a segmental refractive multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) with optimized depth of focus (DoF) DESIGN: Prospective, noncomparative case series. METHODS: Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Goethe University, Frankfurt/Germany. PATIENT OR STUDY POPULATION: Fifty eyes (25 patients) were included. INCLUSION CRITERIA: bilateral cataract, age >45 years, corneal astigmatism ≤0...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651343/through-focus-vision-performance-and-light-disturbances-of-3-new-intraocular-lenses-for-presbyopia-correction
#17
Santiago Escandón-García, Filomena J Ribeiro, Colm McAlinden, António Queirós, José M González-Méijome
Purpose: To compare the through-focus visual performance in a clinical population of pseudophakic patients implanted with two new trifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) and one extended depth of focus IOL. Methods: Prospective, nonrandomized, examiner-masked case series. Twenty-three patients received the FineVision® and seven patients received the PanOptix™ trifocal IOLs. Fifteen patients received the Symfony extended depth of focus IOL. Mean age of patients was 63 ± 8 years...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643157/minimum-pupil-in-pupillary-response-to-light-and-myopia-affect-disk-halo-size-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Feng Zhao, Tian Han, Xun Chen, Zhi Chen, Ke Zheng, Xiaoying Wang, Xingtao Zhou
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between pupillary response to light, myopia and disk halo size. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Single refractive surgery centre. PARTICIPANTS: In this study, 197 right eyes of 197 patients between 20 and 35 years of age were evaluated for disk halo size and pupillary response to light with a vision monitor. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Halo radius, age, spherical equivalent (SE), axial length (AL), initial diameter, amplitude of contraction, latency of contraction, duration of contraction, velocity of contraction, latency of dilation, duration of dilation, velocity of dilation, maximum pupil, minimum pupil, average pupil and dark pupil...
April 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604000/cost-effective-way-to-improve-the-optical-properties-of-poly-methyl-methacrylate-poly-ethylene-terephthalate-light-scattering-materials-drop-coalescence
#19
Xiao Liu, Ziru Zhao, Ying Xiong, Ping Yi, Shaoyun Guo
Herein, the dependence of the dispersed phase diameter on the shear history during melt processing is verified experimentally. We fabricated different kinds of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) blends by modifying the shear rate and shear time in a torque rheometer. Light-scattering sheets (LSSs) were then prepared by compression molding with the above blends. The total transmittance of the LSS with a shear history of 8 min at 30 rpm and then 20 min at 5 rpm achieves 84...
March 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594789/outcomes-of-presbyopia-correcting-intraocular-lenses-after-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis
#20
REVIEW
Sharon S W Chow, Tommy C Y Chan, Alex L K Ng, Alvin K H Kwok
BACKGROUND: Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most common refractive surgery in young patients, which aims at providing a clear distance vision without the use of spectacles. With time, these patients develop symptomatic cataract, which affects activities of daily living, and to improve visual acuity, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation can be considered. In post-myopic LASIK patients, to allow continuation of spectacle independence, the implantation of presbyopia-correcting IOLs is a suitable option...
March 28, 2018: International Ophthalmology
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