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Marrie van der Mooren, Robert Rosén, Luuk Franssen, Linda Lundström, Patricia Piers
Purpose: To quantify the effect of induced stray light on halo size, luminance threshold, and contrast sensitivity. Methods: Retinal stray light was induced in five healthy subjects using different photographic filters. The stray light induced ranged from levels observed in intraocular lenses (IOLs) with glistenings (low) to cataract level (high). The visual impact was measured for halo size, luminance detection threshold, and contrast sensitivity with and without a glare source...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Béatrice Cochener
PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical outcomes after implantation of an extended range of vision intraocular lens (IOL), the Tecnis Symfony, in a routine clinical setting. SETTING: Forty clinical sites in Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: The study comprised 411 patients who had bilateral implantation of the extended range of vision IOL, with intended micro-monovision in 1 group (monovision group) and intended emmetropia in the other group (non-monovision group)...
September 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Alessio Bottrighi, Paolo Terenziani
CONTEXT: Several different computer-assisted management systems of computer interpretable guidelines (CIGs) have been developed by the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine community. Each CIG system is characterized by a specific formalism to represent CIGs, and usually provides a manager to acquire, consult and execute them. Though there are several commonalities between most formalisms in the literature, each formalism has its own peculiarities. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our work is to provide a flexible support to the extension or definition of CIGs formalisms, and of their acquisition and execution engines...
September 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Waleed Ali Abou Samra, Dalia Sabry El-Emam, Manal Ali Kasem
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate safety, efficacy, and comfort of a spherical hybrid contact lens design in management of the regular astigmatic cornea. METHODS: This prospective study included 18 eyes from 18 subjects with regular corneal astigmatism greater than -3.00 diopters. All patients were fitted with optimal hybrid contact lenses. Demographic data and fitting parameters were recorded. Patient refraction, visual outcomes, contrast sensitivity, and glare levels were measured 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after the start of lens use...
September 22, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Aeri Yoo, Joo Young Kwag, In Seok Song, Myoung Joon Kim, Hyerin Jeong, Jae Yong Kim, Hungwon Tchah
PURPOSE: To compare visual function after implantation of multifocal Lentis comfort LS-313 MF 15 (group 1) or Lentis M plus LS-313 MF 30 (group 2) intraocular lenses (IOLs). METHODS: Patients between 49 and 76 years of age who received monocular cataract surgery with multifocal IOL implantation were analyzed. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and for 5 months postoperatively for distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities, and static photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Emilio Pedrotti, Mattia Passilongo, Adriano Fasolo, Sara Ficial, Stefano Ferrari, Giorgio Marchini
PURPOSE: To compare the refractive outcomes following penetrating keratoplasty and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in fellow eyes in patients with keratoconus. METHODS: This is an observational retrospective review of consecutive patients with keratoconus first managed with penetrating keratoplasty in one eye and then with lamellar keratoplasty in the fellow eye, between 2002 and 2007. Data collection was based on patients' hospital records. Information related to assessment before surgery and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 months after keratoplasty were retrieved and considered in the analysis...
September 15, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Nadia Akseer, Zaid Bhatti, Arjumand Rizvi, Ahmad S Salehi, Taufiq Mashal, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Afghanistan has made considerable gains in improving maternal and child health and survival since 2001. However, socioeconomic and regional inequities may pose a threat to reaching universal coverage of health interventions and further health progress. We explored coverage and socioeconomic inequalities in key life-saving reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions at the national level and by region in Afghanistan. We also assessed gains in child survival through scaling up effective community-based interventions across wealth groups...
2016: BMC Public Health
Yoshinori Oie, Shinya Watanabe, Kohji Nishida
Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a bilateral corneal endothelial dystrophy characterized by the deposition of extracellular matrix (guttae), thickening of Descemet membrane, and progressive loss of corneal endothelial cells. Progressive endothelial cellular loss leads to corneal edema and impairs visual function. In eyes with FECD, corneal edema begins in the central cornea and expands into the periphery. FECD is the most common dystrophic reason for corneal transplantation in many countries. Some patients with FECD report visual discomfort despite the absence of corneal edema...
November 2016: Cornea
Shizuka Koh
Dry eye has been believed to be a chronic, symptomatic ocular surface disease that affects vision in a limited manner, because it is difficult to detect visual or optical changes using standard visual acuity testing. In practice, common visual complaints associated with dry eye include fluctuating vision with blinking, blurred vision, glare, and eye fatigue. This review discusses our past and current understanding of visual disturbances in dry eye and the various tools available for assessing visual function or optical quality...
November 2016: Cornea
Travis R Glare, Roma L Gwynn, Maria E Moran-Diez
Biopesticides, pesticides based on living organisms or their extracts, are increasing in sales around the world, as synthetic pesticides are less available and environmental and health issues drive new approaches. Despite the increasing sales and use, there are still limitations that restrict more widespread uptake, such as slow to kill, cost, difficulties of production, lack of appropriate formulations, and reputation based on previous poor performance of biopesticides. Regulation continues to be problematic in many countries, as the processes are designed for evaluating chemistry rather than live organisms...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Peter Cheong, Travis R Glare, Michael Rostás, Stephen R Haines
Entomopathogenic fungi produce a variety of destructive enzymes and metabolites to overcome the unique defense mechanisms of insects. In a first step, fungal chitinases and proteinases need to break down the insect's cuticle. Both enzyme classes support the infection process by weakening the chitin barrier and by producing nutritional cleavage products for the fungus. In a second step, the pathogen can now mechanically penetrate the weakened cuticle and reach the insect's hemolymph where it starts proliferating...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
María E Morán-Diez, Travis R Glare
From the ancient civilizations, agriculture has played an important socioeconomic role in the development of our current human society. Modern farming methods developed during the Green Revolution increased the production of food worldwide. Keeping a sustainable production of food supplies will impact the long-term survival of the species as well as the natural resources, so it is important to work on the establishment of new farming methodologies, such as the use of biopesticides that allow the balance between production and preservation of the environment...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
John S M Chang, Vincent K C Chan, Jack C M Ng, Antony K P Law
Background. The vision with diffractive toric multifocal intraocular lenses after cataract surgery in long eyes has not been studied previously. Objectives. To report visual performance after bilateral implantation of a diffractive toric multifocal intraocular lens in high myopes. Methods. Prospective, observational case series to include patients with axial length of ≥26 mm and corneal astigmatism of >1 dioptre who underwent bilateral AT LISA 909M implantation. Postoperative examinations included photopic and mesopic distance, intermediate, and near visual acuity; photopic contrast sensitivity; visual symptoms (0-5); satisfaction (1-5); and spectacle independence rate...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Kyeong Hwan Kim, Wan Soo Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate visual outcome and patient satisfaction following implantation of multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) with a +1.5 diopters (D) addition compared with monofocal IOLs. METHODS: This prospective, nonrandomized, comparative case series involved 48 eyes (24 patients) who underwent cataract surgery with implantation of low-power-added multifocal IOLs (LS313-MF15; multifocal group) and 48 eyes (24 patients) with conventional monofocal IOLs (CTS204; monofocal group)...
August 24, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Guilin Chen, Yongqiang Tian, Mingquan Guo
RATIONALE: Although crude Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (AAs) extracted from Lycoris radiata are reported to exhibit significant anti-cancer activity, both the specific responsible alkaloid(s) and their targets remain elusive. Screening anti-cancer AAs targeted on topoisomerase I from crude AAs could be very helpful in tackling these two challenging questions. METHODS: An ultrafiltration method combined with liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UF-LC/MS) was developed to screen for the inhibitors of topoisomerase I, which has been reported to mediate DNA unwinding during carcinoma proliferation...
August 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Daniel H Chang
PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the visual acuity and patient satisfaction at varied distances under photopic and mesopic lighting conditions in patients bilaterally implanted with aspheric diffractive multifocal one-piece intraocular lenses. METHODS: In this retrospective-prospective study, 16 patients with a mean age of 66.2±9.2 years (range: 50-81 years) who had undergone bilateral phacoemulsification surgery with implantation of a Tecnis multifocal one-piece intraocular lens (ZMB00) were evaluated...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Q Cheng, J C Lian, J Zhang, W Q Yao, S S Zhang, S Ye
OBJECTIVE: To compare visual acuity, refractive outcome, high order aberrations, contrast sensitivity and subjective symptom of myopia with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) centered on the coaxially sighted corneal light reflex (CSCLR group) and the conventional ablation of line of sight (LOS group). METHODS: With prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, the right eyes of patients were included and divided into two groups according to random stratified grouping...
July 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Bárbara Silva, Ana Sfer, Marcela A D'Urso Villar, Luis Alberto Issolio, Elisa M Colombo
The purpose of this study is to determine the pupillary dynamics with periodical flashes from a peripheral glare source, in similar conditions to night driving, while focusing on dependence with age. We measured two groups of people: youth and adults. Maximum pupil size decreases due to periodic flashes. Latency does not present significant differences. The reduction of pupil size is greater for older adults. The presence of a peripheral and periodic glare source modifies the pupil size. This leads to a reduction of retinal illuminance, which is greater for older adults...
August 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Susi Lehtola, Elvar Ö Jónsson, Hannes Jónsson
The spurious interaction of an electron with itself-self-interaction error-is one of the biggest problems in modern density-functional theory. Some of its most glaring effects, such as qualitatively incorrect charge separation upon dissociation, can be removed by an approximate self-interaction correction due to Perdew and Zunger (PZ) (Perdew, J.; Zunger, A. Phys. Rev. B 1981, 23, 5048). However, the correction introduces an explicit dependence on the occupied orbital densities, which makes proper minimization of the functional difficult...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Mario Augusto Pereira Dias Chaves, Wilson Takashi Hida, Patrick Frenzel Tzeliks, Michelle Rodrigues Gonçalves, Fernando de Bortoli Nogueira, Celso Takashi Nakano, Antonio Francisco Pimenta Motta, André Gustavo Rolim de Araújo, Milton Ruiz Alves
PURPOSE: To compare the optical performance and visual outcomes between two diffractive multifocal lenses: AMO Tecnis® ZMB00 and AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1. METHODS: This prospective, non-randomized comparative study included the assessment of 74 eyes in 37 patients referred for cataract surgery and candidates for multifocal intraocular lens implants. Exclusion criteria included existence of any other eye disease, previous eye surgery, high axial myopia, preoperative corneal astigmatism of >1...
May 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
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