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Memory reconsolidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241423/reconsolidation-of-traumatic-memories-for-ptsd-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-74-male-veterans
#1
Richard Gray, Denise Budden-Potts, Frank Bourke
DESIGN: A randomized waitlist-controlled design (n = 74) examined the efficacy of Reconsolidation of Traumatic Memories (RTM) among male veterans with current-month flashbacks and nightmares. Volunteers were randomly assigned to immediate treatment (three 120-minute sessions of RTM), or to a 3-week waiting condition before receiving the RTM treatment. Blinded psychometricians evaluated the symptoms at intake, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks post. Wait-listed participants were re-evaluated and then treated...
December 14, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225045/post-reexposure-administration-of-riluzole-attenuates-the-reconsolidation-of-conditioned-fear-memory-in-rats
#2
Kie Akagi, Misa Yamada, Akiyoshi Saitoh, Jun-Ichiro Oka, Mitsuhiko Yamada
Recently, we demonstrated that riluzole, which has been shown to block the glutamatergic system, facilitates fear extinction in rats. Here, we undertook experiments on contextual fear conditioning to clarify the actions of riluzole on the reconsolidation of fear memory in rats. We used the fast-acting benzodiazepine midazolam as a reconsolidation-inhibiting control drug. We demonstrated that riluzole (3 mg/kg) and midazolam (1 mg/kg) impaired the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory. Results from spontaneous recovery experiments also suggested that riluzole attenuated reconsolidation...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216351/1-adrenoceptor-in-the-central-amygdala-is-required-for-unconditioned-stimulus-induced-drug-memory-reconsolidation
#3
Huiwen Zhu, Yiming Zhou, Zhiyuan Liu, Xi Chen, Yanqing Li, Xing Liu, Lan Ma
Background: Drug memories become labile and reconsolidated after retrieval by presentation of environmental cues (conditioned stimulus, CS) or drugs (unconditioned stimulus, US). Whether CS- and US-retrieval trigger different memory reconsolidation processes is not clear. Methods: Protein synthesis inhibitor or β-AR antagonist was systemically administrated or intra-central amygdala (CeA) infused immediately after cocaine re-exposure in cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) or self-administration (SA) mice models...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191578/gastrin-releasing-peptide-attenuates-fear-memory-reconsolidation
#4
A Murkar, P Kent, C Cayer, J James, Z Merali
BACKGROUND: Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP) may play a role in fear learning. The GRP Receptor is expressed in the basolateral amygdala and hippocampus, and central administration of GRP mediates fear learning. The effects of GRP on reconsolidation, however, have been minimally explored. Reconsolidation, the process by which formed memories are rendered labile following recall, provides a window of opportunity for pharmacological intervention. Although evidence suggests the window of opportunity to alter reactivated consolidation memory can be as long as 6h, shorter intervals have not been extensively investigated...
November 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181814/a-high-working-memory-load-prior-to-memory-retrieval-reduces-craving-in-non-treatment-seeking-problem-drinkers
#5
Anne Marije Kaag, Anna E Goudriaan, Taco J De Vries, Tommy Pattij, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Reconsolidation-based interventions have been suggested to be a promising treatment strategy for substance use disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a working memory intervention to interfere with the reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories in a sample of non-treatment seeking heavy drinkers. METHODS: Participants were randomized to one of the two conditions that underwent a 3-day intervention: in the experimental condition, a 30-min working memory training was performed immediately after a 15-min memory retrieval session (i...
November 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178010/psychedelics-and-reconsolidation-of-traumatic-and-appetitive-maladaptive-memories-focus-on-cannabinoids-and-ketamine
#6
REVIEW
Liana Fattore, Alessandro Piva, Mary Tresa Zanda, Guido Fumagalli, Cristiano Chiamulera
RATIONALE: Clinical data with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients recently stimulated interest on the potential therapeutic use of psychedelics in disorders characterized by maladaptive memories, including substance use disorders (SUD). The rationale for the use of MDMA in PTSD and SUD is being extended to a broader beneficial "psychedelic effect," which is supporting further clinical investigations, in spite of the lack of mechanistic hypothesis...
November 25, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163309/eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-and-slow-wave-sleep-a-putative-mechanism-of-action
#7
Marco Pagani, Benedikt L Amann, Ramon Landin-Romero, Sara Carletto
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is considered highly efficacious for the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and has proved to be a valid treatment approach with a wide range of applications. However, EMDR's mechanisms of action is not yet fully understood. This is an active area of clinical and neurophysiological research, and several different hypotheses have been proposed. This paper discusses a conjecture which focuses on the similarity between the delta waves recorded by electroencephalography during Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) and those registered upon typical EMDR bilateral stimulation (eye movements or alternate tapping) during recurrent distressing memories of an emotionally traumatic event...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152159/tetris-and-word-games-lead-to-fewer-intrusive-memories-when-applied-several-days-after-analogue-trauma
#8
Muriel A Hagenaars, Emily A Holmes, Fayette Klaassen, Bernet Elzinga
Background: Intrusive trauma memories are a key symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), so disrupting their recurrence is highly important. Intrusion development was hindered by visuospatial interventions administered up to 24 hours after analogue trauma. It is unknown whether interventions can be applied later, and whether modality or working-memory load are crucial factors. Objectives: This study tested: (1) whether a visuospatial task would lead to fewer intrusions compared to a reactivation-only group when applied after memory reactivation four days after analogue trauma exposure (extended replication), (2) whether both tasks (i...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124534/anterograde-amnesia-induced-by-disruption-of-consolidation-or-reconsolidation-of-long-term-memory
#9
V P Nikitin, S V Solntseva, S A Kozyrev
Mechanisms of amnesia caused by impairment of consolidation or reconsolidation of conditioned food aversion memory with protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide were studied in Helix lucorum. Cycloheximide injection during training or memory reconsolidation in trained snails produced amnesia. In both cases, repeated training 10 days after amnesia induction led to short-term memory formation, while long-term memory was not formed, despite the fact that the number of conditioned and reinforcing stimuli combinations was higher than during initial training...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106571/retrieval-induced-upregulation-of-tet3-in-pyramidal-neurons-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-mediates-cocaine-associated-memory-reconsolidation
#10
Cao Liu, Xue Sun, Zhilin Wang, Qiumin Le, Peipei Liu, Changyou Jiang, Feifei Wang, Lan Ma
Background: Memory retrieval refers to re-exposure to information previously encoded and stored in the brain. Following retrieval, a once-consolidated memory destabilizes and undergoes reconsolidation, during which gene expression changes to restabilize memory. Investigating epigenetic regulation during reconsolidation could provide insights into normal memory formation and pathological memory associated with psychiatric disorders. Methods: We used cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) to assess the cocaine-associated memory of mice and used chemogenetic methods to manipulate the activity of the pyramidal neurons in the dHC...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054430/nmda-receptor-dependent-changes-in-c-fos-and-p-creb-signaling-following-extinction-and-reinstatement-of-morphine-place-preference
#11
Ali Siahposht-Khachaki, Somayeh Ezzatpanah, Yasaman Razavi, Abbas Haghparast
Neural circuitry comprising the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP) has a main role in reward phenomena. Previous behavioral studies indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of AP5 (NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist) and CNQX (AMPA/kainate glutamate receptor antagonist) during the extinction and before reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) reduced the extinction period and reinstatement of morphine-CPP. Therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the effect of antagonism of NMDA glutamate receptors on the p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos expression in the NAc, PFC and HIP during these two phases of morphine-CPP in male adult albino Wistar rats...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042315/il-1%C3%AE-reduces-glua1-phosphorylation-and-its-surface-expression-during-memory-reconsolidation-and-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-can-modulate-these-effects
#12
Ivana Machado, Helgi B Schiöth, Mercedes Lasaga, Teresa Scimonelli
Pro-inflammatory cytokines can affect cognitive processes such as learning and memory. Particularly, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) influences hippocampus-dependent memories. We previously reported that administration of IL-1β in dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This effect was reversed by the melanocortin alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Our results also demonstrated that IL-1β produced a significant decrease in glutamate release from dorsal hippocampus synaptosomes after reactivation of the fear memory...
October 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028150/potential-of-micrornas-as-novel-targets-in-the-alleviation-of-pathological-fear
#13
REVIEW
Conor P Murphy, Nicolas Singewald
The current treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), phobias and other anxiety disorders, remains insufficient particularly in producing long-lasting full symptom control. Dysfunctional fear processing is common in these disorders, including a deficiency in fear-inhibitory mechanisms and impairment in the ability to discriminate between safety and danger cues. Research has aimed to elucidate brain circuitries, neurotransmitters and downstream signaling pathways important in the alleviation of aberrant fear, with a specific focus on mechanisms modulating fear memory and its behavioral expression...
October 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963883/acute-physical-exercise-in-humans-enhances-reconsolidation-of-emotional-memories
#14
Dharani Keyan, Richard A Bryant
Increasing evidence suggests that when a memory is reactivated through retrieval, it becomes temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, which can consequently update or strengthen the memory. Physical exercise has been shown to modulate the maintenance of fear memories in animals following memory reactivation. This study investigated the effect of intense exercise in modulating the reconsolidation of trauma memories. Fifty-four undergraduate students watched a trauma film depicting the aftermath of a highway car crash...
December 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916448/molecular-and-synaptic-mechanisms-regulating-drug-associated-memories-towards-a-bidirectional-treatment-strategy
#15
REVIEW
Matthew T Rich, Mary M Torregrossa
The successful treatment of substance use disorders is dependent on the establishment of a long-term abstinent state. Relapse can be suppressed by interfering with memories of drug use that are evoked by re-exposure to drug-associated contexts and cues. Two strategies for accomplishing this goal are either to prevent drug-memory reconsolidation or to induce the formation of a competing, extinction memory. However, clinical attempts to prolong abstinence by behavioral modification of drug-related memories have had limited success...
September 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891529/nonsynaptic-plasticity-model-of-long-term-memory-engrams
#16
L A Cacha, J Ali, Z H Rizvi, P P Yupapin, R R Poznanski
Using steady-state electrical properties of non-ohmic dendrite based on cable theory, we derive electrotonic potentials that do not change over time and are localized in space. We hypothesize that clusters of such stationary, local and permanent pulses are the electrical signatures of enduring memories which are imprinted through nonsynaptic plasticity, encoded through epigenetic mechanisms, and decoded through electrotonic processing. We further hypothesize how retrieval of an engram is made possible by integration of these permanently imprinted standing pulses in a neural circuit through neurotransmission in the extracellular space as part of conscious recall that acts as a guiding template in the reconsolidation of long-term memories through novelty characterized by uncertainty that arises when new fragments of memories reinstate an engram by way of nonsynaptic plasticity that permits its destabilization...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887561/enhancement-of-extinction-memory-by-pharmacological-and-behavioral-interventions-targeted-to-its-reactivation
#17
Josué Haubrich, Adriano Machado, Flávia Zacouteguy Boos, Ana P Crestani, Rodrigo O Sierra, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares, Jorge A Quillfeldt
Extinction is a process that involves new learning that inhibits the expression of previously acquired memories. Although temporarily effective, extinction does not erase an original fear association. Since the extinction trace tends to fade over time, the original memory can resurge. On the other hand, strengthening effects have been described in several reconsolidation studies using different behavioral and pharmacological manipulations. In order to know whether an extinction memory can be strengthened by reactivation-based interventions in the contextual fear conditioning task, we began by replicating the classic phenomenon of spontaneous recovery to show that brief reexposure sessions can prevent the decay of the extinction trace over time in a long-lasting way...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887385/prior-learning-of-relevant-nonaversive-information-is-a-boundary-condition-for-avoidance-memory-reconsolidation-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#18
Andressa Radiske, Maria Carolina Gonzalez, Sergio A Conde-Ocazionez, Anatildes Feitosa, Cristiano A Köhler, Lia R Bevilaqua, Martín Cammarota
Reactivated memories can be modified during reconsolidation, making this process a potential therapeutic target for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by the recurring avoidance of situations that evoke trauma-related fears. However, avoidance memory reconsolidation depends on a set of still loosely defined boundary conditions, limiting the translational value of basic research. In particular, the involvement of the hippocampus in fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation remains controversial...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883499/a-reminder-before-extinction-strengthens-episodic-memory-via-reconsolidation-but-fails-to-disrupt-generalized-threat-responses
#19
Marijn C W Kroes, Joseph E Dunsmoor, Qi Lin, Michael Evans, Elizabeth A Phelps
A reminder can temporarily renew flexibility of consolidated memories, referred to as reconsolidation. Pavlovian threat-conditioning studies suggest that a reminder can renew flexibility of threat responses but that episodic memories remain stable. In contrast, outside the threat-conditioning domain, studies testing memory for word lists or stories find that a reminder can renew flexibility of episodic memory. This discrepancy in findings leaves it unclear if episodic memories reconsolidate, or only Pavlovian responses...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839217/re-stepping-into-the-same-river-competition-problem-rather-than-a-reconsolidation-failure-in-an-established-motor-skill
#20
Ella Gabitov, Arnaud Boutin, Basile Pinsard, Nitzan Censor, Stuart M Fogel, Geneviève Albouy, Bradley R King, Habib Benali, Julie Carrier, Leonardo G Cohen, Avi Karni, Julien Doyon
Animal models suggest that consolidated memories return to their labile state when reactivated and need to be restabilized through reconsolidation processes to persist. Consistent with this notion, post-reactivation pharmacological protein synthesis blockage results in mnemonic failure in hippocampus-dependent memories. It has been proposed that, in humans, post-reactivation experience with a competitive task can also interfere with memory restabilization. However, several studies failed to induce performance deficit implementing this approach...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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