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Memory extinction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677582/maternal-nicotine-exposure-effects-on-adolescent-learning-and-memory-are-abolished-in-alpha-%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-null-mutant-mice
#1
Celina Mojica, Yu Bai, Shahrdad Lotfipour
The objective of the current study is to test the hypothesis that the deletion of alpha(α)2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) (encoded by the Chrna2 gene) ablate maternal nicotine-induced learning and memory deficits in adolescent mice. We use a pre-exposure-dependent contextual fear conditioning behavioral paradigm that is highly hippocampus-dependent. Adolescent wild type and α2-null mutant offspring are exposed to vehicle or maternal nicotine exposure (200 μg/ml, expressed as base) in the drinking water throughout pregnancy until weaning...
April 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674970/hypothesis-the-psychedelic-ayahuasca-heals-traumatic-memories-via-a-sigma-1-receptor-mediated-epigenetic-mnemonic-process
#2
Antonio Inserra
Ayahuasca ingestion modulates brain activity, neurotransmission, gene expression and epigenetic regulation. N,N -Dimethyltryptamine (DMT, one of the alkaloids in Ayahuasca) activates sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1) and others. SIGMAR1 is a multi-faceted stress-responsive receptor which promotes cell survival, neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and neuroimmunomodulation. Simultaneously, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) also present in Ayahuasca prevent the degradation of DMT. One peculiarity of SIGMAR1 activation and MAOI activity is the reversal of mnemonic deficits in pre-clinical models...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672107/combined-administration-of-mk-801-and-cycloheximide-produces-a-delayed-potentiation-of-fear-discrimination-memory-extinction
#3
Daniel E Kochli, Tiffany L Campbell, Ethan W Hollingsworth, Rain S Lab, Abagail F Postle, Megan M Perry, Victoria M Mordzinski, Jennifer J Quinn
Mixed evidence exists regarding the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in memory reconsolidation. We provide no evidence that NMDA receptors are involved with memory reconsolidation, but instead demonstrate that prereactivation systemic MK-801 injection, combined with postreactivation intrabasolateral amygdala (BLA) cycloheximide infusion, produces a delayed potentiation of extinction learning. These data suggest that an interaction between NMDA antagonism and protein synthesis inhibition may enhance extinction by exerting effects outside of the intended reconsolidation manipulation window...
April 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671052/is-it-possible-to-modify-fear-memories-in-humans-with-extinction-training-within-a-single-day
#4
Jaime Redondo, Jose Fernandez-Rey, Daniel Gonzalez-Gonzalez
Extinction procedures have been used widely in the study of fear memories, and different positions have been adopted regarding the efficacy of such procedures and the mechanisms involved. It has been argued that extinction may interfere with the consolidation of the fear memory if the procedure is applied with the appropriate timing after acquisition. However, the opposite position is also held, that is, that the extinction does not achieve an elimination of the fear response. The aim of the present study is to test the short-term effects of immediate extinction in fear reduction when this extinction is preceded by a retrieval trial...
April 18, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667304/inhibition-of-alpha7-nicotinic-receptors-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-selectively-attenuates-reinstatement-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-and-associated-changes-in-ampa-receptor-binding
#5
Victoria L Wright, Polymnia Georgiou, Alexis Bailey, David J Heal, Christopher P Bailey, Susan Wonnacott
Recurrent relapse is a major problem in treating opiate addiction. Pavlovian conditioning plays a role in recurrent relapse whereby exposure to cues learned during drug intake can precipitate relapse to drug taking. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in attentional aspects of cognition and mechanisms of learning and memory. In this study we have investigated the role of α7 nAChRs in morphine-conditioned place preference (morphine-CPP). CPP provides a model of associative learning that is pertinent to associative aspects of drug dependence...
April 17, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664276/effects-of-n-n-dimethyltryptamine-dmt-on-rat-behaviors-relevant-to-anxiety-and-depression
#6
Lindsay P Cameron, Charlie J Benson, Lee E Dunlap, David E Olson
Depression and anxiety disorders are debilitating diseases resulting in substantial economic costs to society. Traditional antidepressants often take weeks to months to positively affect mood and are ineffective for about 30% of the population. Alternatives, such as ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic capable of producing hallucinations, and the psychoactive tisane ayahuasca have shown great promise due to their fast-acting nature and effectiveness in treatment-resistant populations. Here, we investigate the effects of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), the principle hallucinogenic component of ayahuasca, in rodent behavioral assays relevant to anxiety and depression using adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649583/noradrenergic-%C3%AE-receptor-antagonism-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-impairs-reconsolidation-but-not-extinction-of-alcohol-self-administration-intra-bla-propranolol-impairs-reconsolidation-of-alcohol-self-administration
#7
Rose Chesworth, Laura H Corbit
A critical barrier to recovery from alcohol addiction is relapse propensity. Alcohol cues can trigger relapse, and pharmacologically facilitating processes such as extinction, which decreases cue associations, may help prevent relapse. The noradrenergic system mediates extinction learning for alcohol; however, the neural locus of this effect is unknown. This study sought to determine whether the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a region critical for fear extinction, also mediates extinction of alcohol seeking. Hooded Wistar rats (N = 12-15 per experiment) were implanted with bilateral cannula targeting the BLA and trained to lever press for 10% ethanol during auditory or visual cues...
April 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643822/working-memory-and-reinforcement-schedule-jointly-determine-reinforcement-learning-in-children-potential-implications-for-behavioral-parent-training
#8
Elien Segers, Tom Beckers, Hilde Geurts, Laurence Claes, Marina Danckaerts, Saskia van der Oord
Introduction: Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) is often provided for childhood psychiatric disorders. These disorders have been shown to be associated with working memory impairments. BPT is based on operant learning principles, yet how operant principles shape behavior (through the partial reinforcement (PRF) extinction effect, i.e., greater resistance to extinction that is created when behavior is reinforced partially rather than continuously) and the potential role of working memory therein is scarcely studied in children...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628334/consolidative-mechanisms-of-emotional-processing-in-rem-sleep-and-ptsd
#9
REVIEW
Anthony L A Murkar, Joseph De Koninck
Research suggests sleep plays a role in the consolidation of recently acquired memories for long-term storage. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been shown to play a complex role in emotional-memory processing, and may be involved in subsequent waking-day emotional reactivity and amygdala responsivity. Interaction of the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala with the medial-prefrontal cortex is associated with sleep-dependent learning and emotional memory processing. REM is also implicated in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by sleep disturbance, heightened reactivity to fearful stimuli, and nightmares...
March 15, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593511/noradrenergic-modulation-of-fear-conditioning-and-extinction
#10
REVIEW
Thomas F Giustino, Stephen Maren
The locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) system plays a broad role in learning and memory. Here we begin with an overview of the LC-NE system. We then consider how both direct and indirect manipulations of the LC-NE system affect cued and contextual aversive learning and memory. We propose that NE dynamically modulates Pavlovian conditioning and extinction, either promoting or impairing learning aversive processes under different levels of behavioral arousal. We suggest that under high levels of stress (e...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578947/chronic-pain-impairs-cognitive-flexibility-and-engages-novel-learning-strategies-in-rats
#11
Stephen L Cowen, Caroline E Phelps, Edita Navratilova, David L McKinzie, Alec Okun, Omar Husain, Scott D Gleason, Jeffrey M Witkin, Frank Porreca
Cognitive flexibility, the ability to adapt behavior to changing outcomes, is critical for survival. The prefrontal cortex is a key site of cognitive control and chronic pain is known to lead to significant morphological changes to this brain region. Nevertheless, the effects of chronic pain on cognitive flexibility and learning remain uncertain. We used an instrumental paradigm to assess adaptive learning in an experimental model of chronic pain induced by tight ligation of the spinal nerves L5/6 (SNL model)...
March 22, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572461/dnmt3a-in-the-dorsal-dentate-gyrus-is-a-key-regulator-of-fear-renewal
#12
Zhiting Gong, Qiang Zhou
Renewal of extinguished fear memory in an altered context is widely believed to be a major limiting issue for exposure therapy in treating various psychiatric diseases. Effective prevention of fear renewal will significantly improve the efficacy of exposure therapy. DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs) mediated epigenetic processes play critical roles in long term memory, but little is known about their functions in fear memory extinction or renewal. Here we investigated whether DNMTs regulate fear renewal after extinction...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572443/a-neuronal-basis-for-fear-discrimination-in-the-lateral-amygdala
#13
Anna Grosso, Giulia Santoni, Eugenio Manassero, Annamaria Renna, Benedetto Sacchetti
In the presence of new stimuli, it is crucial for survival to react with defensive responses in the presence of stimuli that resemble threats but also to not react with defensive behavior in response to new harmless stimuli. Here, we show that in the presence of new uncertain stimuli with sensory features that produce an ambiguous interpretation, discriminative processes engage a subset of excitatory and inhibitory neurons within the lateral amygdala (LA) that are partially different from those engaged by fear processes...
March 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558743/glycyrrhizin-treatment-facilitates-extinction-of-conditioned-fear-responses-after-a-single-prolonged-stress-exposure-in-rats
#14
Shuhua Lai, Gangwei Wu, Zhixian Jiang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Impaired fear memory extinction is widely considered a key mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation after a single prolonged stress (SPS) exposure may play a critical role in the impaired fear memory extinction. Studies have shown that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) is critically involved in neuroinflammation. However, the role of HMGB-1 underlying the development of impairment of fear memory extinction is still not known...
March 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554926/interaction-of-basolateral-amygdala-ventral-hippocampus-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-the-consolidation-and-extinction-of-social-fear
#15
Chu-Chu Qi, Qing-Jun Wang, Xue-Zhu Ma, Hai-Chao Chen, Li-Ping Gao, Jie Yin, Yu-Hong Jing
BACKGROUND: Following a social defeat, the balanced establishment and extinction of aversive information is a beneficial strategy for individual survival. Abnormal establishment or extinction is implicated in the development of mental disorders. This study investigated the time course of the establishment and extinction of aversive information from acute social defeat and the temporal responsiveness of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), ventral hippocampus (vHIP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this process...
March 19, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553776/differential-effects-of-predictable-vs-unpredictable-aversive-experience-early-in-development-on-fear-memory-and-learning-in-adulthood
#16
Rheall F Roquet, Dong-Oh Seo, Carolyn E Jones, Marie-H Monfils
We examined the enduring effects of predictable versus unpredictable fear conditioning early in life on memory and relearning in adulthood. At postnatal Day 17 or 25 (P17 or P25), rats either remained naïve, or were fear conditioned using paired (predictable) or unpaired (unpredictable) presentations of white noise and foot shocks. At 2 months of age (adulthood), each group was fear conditioned (or reconditioned) with either paired or unpaired training, and then was tested for fear extinction the next day...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540322/persistent-nature-of-alterations-in-cognition-and-neuronal-circuit-excitability-after-exposure-to-simulated-cosmic-radiation-in-mice
#17
Vipan K Parihar, Mattia Maroso, Amber Syage, Barrett D Allen, Maria C Angulo, Ivan Soltesz, Charles L Limoli
Of the many perils associated with deep space travel to Mars, neurocognitive complications associated with cosmic radiation exposure are of particular concern. Despite these realizations, whether and how realistic doses of cosmic radiation cause cognitive deficits and neuronal circuitry alterations several months after exposure remains unclear. In addition, even less is known about the temporal progression of cosmic radiation-induced changes transpiring over the duration of a time period commensurate with a flight to Mars...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535045/development-of-the-fear-regulation-system-from-early-adolescence-to-young-adulthood-in-female-mice
#18
Shingo Matsuda, Daisuke Matsuzawa, Daisuke Ishii, Haruna Tomizawa, Eiji Shimizu
Onset of fear-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder is enhanced from adolescence until adulthood. However, the biological mechanisms underlying this vulnerability remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated contextual fear memory and extinction in 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, and 15-week-old female mice. We also measured phosphorylation of ERK2 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the dorsal hippocampus in the mPFC following fear conditioning or extinction in 6- and 15-week-old mice. We found that 10- and 15-week-old mice showed stronger fear memory and more resistance to fear extinction than 6-week-old mice...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529523/cortisol-increases-the-return-of-fear-by-strengthening-amygdala-signaling-in-men
#19
Valerie L Kinner, Oliver T Wolf, Christian J Merz
Relapses represent a major limitation to the long-term remission of pathological fear and anxiety. Stress modulates the acquisition and expression of fear memories and appears to promote fear recovery in patients with anxiety disorders. However, the neural correlates underlying stress hormone effects on the return of fear in humans remain unexplored. Likewise, little is known about the interactions between sex and stress hormones on return of fear phenomena. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 32 men and 32 women were exposed to a fear renewal paradigm with fear acquisition in context A and extinction in context B...
February 21, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524515/mdma-assisted-psychotherapy-for-ptsd-are-memory-reconsolidation-and-fear-extinction-underlying-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Allison A Feduccia, Michael C Mithoefer
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD has recently progressed to Phase 3 clinical trials and received Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA. MDMA used as an adjunct during psychotherapy sessions has demonstrated effectiveness and acceptable safety in reducing PTSD symptoms in Phase 2 trials, with durable remission of PTSD diagnosis in 68% of participants. The underlying psychological and neurological mechanisms for the robust effects in mitigating PTSD are being investigated in animal models and in studies of healthy volunteers...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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