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Memory extinction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204119/differential-effects-of-inactivation-of-discrete-regions-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-on-memory-consolidation-of-moderate-and-intense-inhibitory-avoidance-training
#1
María E Torres-García, Andrea C Medina, Gina L Quirarte, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá
It has been found that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in memory encoding of aversive events, such as inhibitory avoidance (IA) training. Dissociable roles have been described for different mPFC subregions regarding various memory processes, wherein the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prelimbic cortex (PL), and infralimbic cortex (IL) are involved in acquisition, retrieval, and extinction of aversive events, respectively. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that intense training impedes the effects on memory of treatments that typically interfere with memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174948/divergent-prefrontal-dopaminergic-mechanisms-mediate-drug-and-fear-associated-cue-extinction-during-adolescence-versus-adulthood
#2
REVIEW
Isabel C Zbukvic, Jee Hyun Kim
Cue-associated learning is vital to guiding behaviour for survival. Adolescence represents a key developmental stage for perturbations in cue-related learning, including a characteristic deficit in cue extinction learning. The present review summarizes evidence from animal and human literature that cue extinction is critically mediated by prefrontal dopamine, a system that undergoes dramatic reorganization during adolescence. We propose that extinction learning and memory is governed by a developmentally dynamic balance of dopamine receptors in the prefrontal cortex, which changes across adolescence into adulthood...
November 23, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174946/fluoxetine-not-donepezil-reverses-anhedonia-cognitive-dysfunctions-and-hippocampal-proteome-changes-during-repeated-social-defeat-exposure
#3
M G Gottschalk, P Mortas, M Haman, S Ozcan, B Biemans, S Bahn
While anhedonia is considered a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), less attention has been paid to cognitive dysfunctions. We evaluated the behavioural and molecular effects of a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI, fluoxetine) and an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI, donepezil) on emotional-cognitive endophenotypes of depression and the hippocampal proteome. A chronic social defeat (SD) procedure was followed up by "reminder" sessions of direct and indirect SD. Anhedonia-related behaviour was assessed longitudinally by intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS)...
November 23, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174478/amygdala-inhibitory-circuits-regulate-associative-fear-conditioning
#4
REVIEW
Sabine Krabbe, Jan Gründemann, Andreas Lüthi
Associative memory formation is essential for an animal's survival by ensuring adaptive behavioral responses in an ever-changing environment. This is particularly important under conditions of immediate threats such as in fear learning. One of the key brain regions involved in associative fear learning is the amygdala. The basolateral amygdala is the main entry site for sensory information to the amygdala complex, and local plasticity in excitatory basolateral amygdala principal neurons is considered to be crucial for learning of conditioned fear responses...
October 14, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169665/mindfulness-and-craving-effects-and-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Katy Tapper
Mindfulness meditation has a long tradition of being used to manage cravings. This paper reviews 30 experimental studies that have examined the effects of different types of mindfulness practice on cravings for food, cigarettes and alcohol. The findings are interpreted in light of relevant theories of craving. The studies show most support for the elaborated intrusion theory of desire and conditioning models. They suggest that whilst mindfulness strategies may bring about immediate reductions in craving, such effects are likely to stem from working memory load, and will not necessarily be superior to alternative strategies that also load working memory...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152674/progress-and-promise-for-the-mdma-drug-development-program
#6
REVIEW
Allison A Feduccia, Julie Holland, Michael C Mithoefer
Pharmacotherapy is often used to target symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but does not provide definitive treatment, and side effects of daily medication are often problematic. Trauma-focused psychotherapies are more likely than drug treatment to achieve PTSD remission, but have high dropout rates and ineffective for a large percentage of patients. Therefore, research into drugs that might increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy is a logical avenue of investigation. The most promising drug studied as a catalyst to psychotherapy for PTSD thus far is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as the recreational drug "Ecstasy...
November 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136108/perturbation-of-gabaergic-synapses-at-the-axon-initial-segment-of-basolateral-amygdala-induces-trans-regional-metaplasticity-at-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#7
Rinki Saha, Kuldeep Shrivastava, Liang Jing, Rachel Schayek, Mouna Maroun, Martin Kriebel, Hansjürgen Volkmer, Gal Richter-Levin
GABAergic synapses in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) play an important role in fear memory generation. We have previously reported that reduction in GABAergic synapses innervating specifically at the axon initial segment (AIS) of principal neurons of BLA, by neurofascin (NF) knockdown, impairs fear extinction. BLA is bidirectionally connected with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is a key region involved in extinction of acquired fear memory. Here, we showed that reducing AIS GABAergic synapses within the BLA leads to impairment of synaptic plasticity in the BLA-mPFC pathway, as well as in the ventral subiculum (vSub)-mPFC pathway, which is independent of BLA involvement...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136107/contextual-fear-extinction-induces-hippocampal-metaplasticity-mediated-by-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5
#8
Branden J Stansley, Nicole M Fisher, Rocco G Gogliotti, Craig W Lindsley, P Jeffrey Conn, Colleen M Niswender
Dysregulated fear memory can lead to a broad spectrum of anxiety disorders. The brain systems underlying fear memory are manifold, with the hippocampus being prominently involved by housing fear-related spatial memories as engrams, which are created and stored through neural changes such as synaptic plasticity. Although metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors contribute significantly to both fear behavior and hippocampal synaptic plasticity, the relationship between these two phenomena has not been fully elucidated...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128146/exposure-therapy-augmentation-a-review-and-extension-of-techniques-informed-by-an-inhibitory-learning-approach
#9
REVIEW
Jaclyn S Weisman, Thomas L Rodebaugh
Although exposure therapy is often considered a gold standard behavioral intervention for pathological anxiety, questions remain surrounding the mechanisms underlying exposure interventions, and some individuals are characterized by suboptimal treatment outcomes. Recently, a formulation known as the inhibitory learning theory, which is grounded in basic science principles of extinction learning and memory, has been proposed to provide a more parsimonious mechanistic explanation for the effects of exposure than previous, habituation-based models [Craske, M...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123474/brain-interleukin-1-facilitates-learning-of-a-water-maze-spatial-memory-task-in-young-mice
#10
Takako Takemiya, Kumiko Fumizawa, Kanato Yamagata, Yoichiro Iwakura, Marumi Kawakami
The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is produced by many types of cells, including immune cells in the periphery and glia and neurons in the brain. The type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1r1) is primarily responsible for transmitting the inflammatory effects of IL-1 and mediates several biological functions by binding to either IL-1α or IL-1β. IL-1β activation is associated with hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Although IL-1β impairs spatial memory under certain pathophysiological conditions, IL-1β may be required for the normal physiological regulation of hippocampal plasticity and memory...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103977/conventional-vs-reduced-field-of-view-diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-the-prostate-comparison-of-image-quality-correlation-with-histology-and-inter-reader-agreement
#11
Brent A Warndahl, Eric A Borisch, Akira Kawashima, Stephen J Riederer, Adam T Froemming
PURPOSE: To evaluate if Field of view Optimized and Constrained Undistorted Single shot (FOCUS) (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) diffusion weighted images (DWI) provide more reliable imaging than conventional DWI, with non-inferior quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: IRB approval was obtained for this study of 43 patients (44 exams, one patient with two visits) that underwent multiparametric prostate MRI with two DWI sequences and subsequent radical prostatectomy with histology as the gold standard...
November 2, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100991/cue-induced-reinstatement-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior-is-associated-with-increased-camkii-t286-phosphorylation-in-the-reward-pathway-of-mice
#12
Michael C Salling, Christopher J Hodge, Kelly E Psilos, Vallari R Eastman, Sara P Faccidomo, Clyde W Hodge
Cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking is a hallmark behavioral pathology of addiction. Evidence suggests that reinstatement (e.g., relapse), may be regulated by cell signaling systems that underlie neuroplasticity. A variety of plasticity events require activation of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in components of the reward pathway, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. We sought to determine if cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior is associated with changes in the activation state (e...
October 31, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089442/extinction-of-contextual-cocaine-memories-requires-cav1-2-within-d1r-expressing-cells-and-recruits-hippocampal-cav1-2-dependent-signaling-mechanisms
#13
Caitlin E Burgdorf, Kathryn C Schierberl, Anni S Lee, Delaney K Fischer, Tracey A Van Kempen, Vladimir Mudragel, Richard L Huganir, Teresa A Milner, Michael J Glass, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
Exposure to cocaine-associated contextual cues significantly contributes to relapse. Extinction of these contextual associations, which involves a new form of learning, reduces cocaine-seeking behavior, however the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. We report that extinction, but not acquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) in male mice increased Cav1.2 L-type Ca(2+) channel mRNA and protein in postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions of the hippocampus, a brain region involved in drug-context associations...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083204/running-wheel-exercise-reduces-renewal-of-extinguished-instrumental-behavior-and-alters-medial-prefrontal-cortex-neurons-in-adolescent-but-not-adult-rats
#14
Meghan C Eddy, John T Green
Physical exercise in rodents has repeatedly been shown to trigger positive effects on brain function, including increased neurotrophic factors and improved learning and memory. However, most of this work has focused on the adult hippocampus and hippocampal-dependent behavior. Here we examined the effect of running wheel exercise in adult and adolescent male rats on ABA renewal of extinguished instrumental conditioning, in which acquisition occurs in Context A, extinction in Context B, and renewal testing occurs back in Context A...
October 30, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079320/cognitive-dysfunction-associated-with-aluminum-hydroxide-induced-macrophagic-myofasciitis-a-reappraisal-of-neuropsychological-profile
#15
Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Paul Kauv, Anaïs Charles-Nelson, Axel Van Der Gucht, Paul Blanc-Durand, Emmanuel Itti, Romain K Gherardi, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, François Jérôme Authier
Patients with macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive disorder. Representative features of MMF-associated cognitive dysfunction include attentional dysfunction, dysexecutive syndrome, visual memory deficit and left ear extinction. Our study aims to reevaluate the neuropsychological profile of MMF. 105 unselected consecutive MMF patients were subjected to a neuropsychological battery of screen short term and long-term memory, executive functions, attentional abilities, instrumental functions and dichotic listening...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054430/nmda-receptor-dependent-changes-in-c-fos-and-p-creb-signaling-following-extinction-and-reinstatement-of-morphine-place-preference
#16
Ali Siahposht-Khachaki, Somayeh Ezzatpanah, Yasaman Razavi, Abbas Haghparast
Neural circuitry comprising the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP) has a main role in reward phenomena. Previous behavioral studies indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of AP5 (NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist) and CNQX (AMPA/kainate glutamate receptor antagonist) during the extinction and before reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) reduced the extinction period and reinstatement of morphine-CPP. Therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the effect of antagonism of NMDA glutamate receptors on the p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos expression in the NAc, PFC and HIP during these two phases of morphine-CPP in male adult albino Wistar rats...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038221/prazosin-during-threat-discrimination-boosts-memory-of-the-safe-stimulus
#17
Philipp Homan, Qi Lin, James W Murrough, Laili Soleimani, Dominik R Bach, Roger L Clem, Daniela Schiller
The α-1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin has shown promise in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, but its mechanisms are not well understood. Here we administered prazosin or placebo prior to threat conditioning (day 1) and tested subsequent extinction (day 2) and reextinction (day 3) in healthy human participants. Prazosin did not affect threat conditioning but augmented stimulus discrimination during extinction and reextinction, via lower responding to the safe stimulus. These results suggest that prazosin during threat acquisition may have influenced encoding or consolidation of safety processing in particular, subsequently leading to enhanced discrimination between the safe and threatening stimuli...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030297/impaired-extinction-of-cued-fear-memory-and-abnormal-dendritic-morphology-in-the-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortices-in-vpac2-receptor-vipr2-deficient-mice
#18
Yukio Ago, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Takuya Kawanai, Ryosuke Yamauchi, Shuto Takeuchi, Jesse D Cushman, Abha K Rajbhandari, Michael S Fanselow, Hitoshi Hashimoto, James A Waschek
The structurally related neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) have been implicated in stress regulation and learning and memory. Several bodies of research have shown the impact of the PACAP specific receptor PAC1 on fear memory, but the roles of other PACAP receptors in regulating fear stress responses remain to be elucidated. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of VIPR2 encoding the VPAC2 receptor, which binds both VIP and PACAP, on fear-related memory and on dendritic morphology in the brain regions of the fear circuitry...
November 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030219/local-infusion-of-ghrelin-into-the-lateral-amygdala-blocks-extinction-of-conditioned-taste-aversion-in-rats
#19
Ge Song, Qianqian Zhu, Fubing Han, Shuai Liu, Chenyang Zhao, Yu Zhou
Ghrelin is an orexigenic brain-gut hormone promoting feeding and regulating energy metabolism in human and rodents. Our previous study showed that ghrelin locally infused into the lateral amygdala (LA) activates its receptor GHS-R1a and blocks acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in rats. In this study, we further investigated the effect of ghrelin/GHS-R1a signaling on extinction of CTA. We found that local infusion of ghrelin (5μM, 0.5μl/side) into the LA not only interfered with CTA memory formation, but also the extinction of CTA memory...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028150/potential-of-micrornas-as-novel-targets-in-the-alleviation-of-pathological-fear
#20
REVIEW
Conor P Murphy, Nicolas Singewald
The current treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), phobias and other anxiety disorders, remains insufficient particularly in producing long-lasting full symptom control. Dysfunctional fear processing is common in these disorders, including a deficiency in fear-inhibitory mechanisms and impairment in the ability to discriminate between safety and danger cues. Research has aimed to elucidate brain circuitries, neurotransmitters and downstream signaling pathways important in the alleviation of aberrant fear, with a specific focus on mechanisms modulating fear memory and its behavioral expression...
October 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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