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Memory extinction

Takuya Yoshiike, Motoyasu Honma, Naoto Yamada, Yoshiharu Kim, Kenichi Kuriyama
Bright light (BL) not only regulates human emotion and circadian physiology but can also directly modulate emotional memories. Impaired fear extinction and enhanced fear acquisition and consolidation are hallmarks of fear-circuitry disorders; thus, we tested whether BL facilitates fear extinction and inhibits fear acquisition. We randomly exposed 29 healthy humans to high- (9000 lx) or low-intensity light (<500 lx) for 15 min, near the nadir of the phase response to light, in a single-blind manner...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Lei Zhu, Liang Zhu, Yijun Huang, Weihao Shi, Bo Yu
Re-exposure to the conditioned stimulus (CS) during which the threat was experienced leads to two different processes: brief CS presentation initiates reconsolidation to re-stabilize the original fear memory, whereas prolonged CS presentation leads to extinction to form an inhibitory memory. The two processes used distinct mechanisms, but the difference in neuronal activation during these processes still remains to be addressed. Using the auditory fear-conditioning model, we analyzed Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) expression after brief or prolonged CS presentation at several time points...
June 15, 2018: Neuroreport
Sanjay Singh, Sarfraj Ahmad Siddiqui, Sukanya Tripathy, Shiv Kumar, Sudipta Saha, Rajesh Ugale, Dinesh Raj Modi, Anand Prakash
In the last few decades, there has been exponential increase in studies aiming to trace the molecular mechanism of fear extinction with a hope to minimize the return of fear after exposure therapy required for operational treatment of anxiety disorders. The present study explored how the timing of extinction training after developing a specific fear, affects the consequent return of the extinguished fear and the role of histone acetylation in controlling the circuitry, thereof. It was found that rats undergone extinction training 10 min...
June 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Jingchu Hu, Wenqing Wang, Philipp Homan, Penggui Wang, Xifu Zheng, Daniela Schiller
Memory reminders can return a memory into an unstable state such that it will decay unless actively restabilized into long-term memory through reconsolidation. Exposure to a memory reminder, however, does not always lead to destabilization. The 'trace dominance' principle posits that the extent of exposure to memory reminders governs memory susceptibility to disruption. Here, we provide a first systematic investigation of reminder duration effects on threat memory modification in humans. Reminder duration was parametrically varied across 155 participants in a three-day protocol...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Takaaki Kawano, Hidehiro Oshibuchi, Masahiko Kawano, Hiroyuki Muraoka, Takahiro Tsutsumi, Makiko Yamada, Jun Ishigooka, Katsuji Nishimura, Ken Inada
Although the benzodiazepine class of drugs has proven useful in treating anxiety symptoms, recent studies yield no consistent empirical support for their use in treating psychiatric disorders. However, animal studies using a fear conditioning paradigm have suggested that benzodiazepines facilitate fear memory extinction, dependent on treatment timing and subject conditions. However, we have no data on the effect of subject conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effect of benzodiazepines depends on hypersensitivity to fear-memory processing...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Monica Sathyanesan, Michael J Watt, Jacob M Haiar, Jamie L Scholl, Shaydel R Davies, Riley T Paulsen, Jayme Wiederin, Pawel Ciborowski, Samuel S Newton
Cognitive deficits are widespread in psychiatric disorders and frequently as debilitating as the affective component. Widely prescribed antidepressants for treating depressive disorders have limited efficacy in normalizing cognitive function. Erythropoietin (Epo) has been shown to improve cognitive function in schizophrenia and treatment resistant depressed patients. However, the potent elevation of red blood cell counts by Epo can cause hematological complications in non-anemic patients. We investigated a chemically engineered, posttranslational modification of Epo, carbamoylation, which renders it non-erythropoietic...
June 8, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Christian Panitz, Matthias F J Sperl, Juergen Hennig, Tim Klucken, Christiane Hermann, Erik M Mueller
Individual differences in long-term stability of fear memories are of potential relevance for stable dispositions related to threat processing, such as neuroticism/anxiety and fearfulness. As previous research suggests a prominent role of dopamine for the retention of conditioned and extinguished fear, dopaminergic gene polymorphisms may also relate to individual differences in fear stability. While the COMT Val158Met polymorphism causes individual differences in prefrontal dopamine, its associations with human long-term fear extinction are currently unknown...
June 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Jose Fernandez-Rey, Daniel Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Jaime Redondo
Standard extinction procedures seem to imply an inhibition of the fear response, but not a modification of the original fear-memory trace, which remains intact (Bouton, 2002, 2004). Typically, the behavioral procedure used to modify this trace is the so-called postretrieval extinction, consisting of fear-memory reactivation followed by extinction applied within the reconsolidation window. However, the application of this technique yields mixed results, probably due to a series of boundary conditions that limit the effectiveness of postretrieval-extinction effects...
June 7, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Kevin A Corcoran, Naoki Yamawaki, Katherine Leaderbrand, Jelena Radulovic
This work summarizes evidence for the role of RSC in processing fear-inducing context memories. Specifically, we discuss molecular, cellular, and network mechanisms by which RSC might contribute the processing of contextual fear memories. We focus on glutamatergic and cholinergic mechanisms underlying encoding, retrieval, and extinction of context-dependent fear. RSC mechanisms underlying retrieval of recently and remotely acquired memories are compared to memory mechanisms of anterior cortices. Due to the strong connectivity between hippocampus and RSC, we also compare the extent to which their mechanisms of encoding, retrieval, and extinction show overlap...
June 7, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Andreas H Schweiger, Isabelle Boulangeat, Timo Conradi, Matt Davis, Jens-Christian Svenning
Increasing human pressure on strongly defaunated ecosystems is characteristic of the Anthropocene and calls for proactive restoration approaches that promote self-sustaining, functioning ecosystems. However, the suitability of novel restoration concepts such as trophic rewilding is still under discussion given fragmentary empirical data and limited theory development. Here, we develop a theoretical framework that integrates the concept of 'ecological memory' into trophic rewilding. The ecological memory of an ecosystem is defined as an ecosystem's accumulated abiotic and biotic material and information legacies from past dynamics...
June 6, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Jess D Greenwald, Keith M Shafritz
Chronic pain can result from many pain syndromes including complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), phantom limb pain and chronic low back pain, among others. On a molecular level, chronic pain syndromes arise from hypersensitization within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, a process known as central sensitization. Central sensitization involves an upregulation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) similar to that of long-term potentiation (LTP). Regions of the brain in which LTP occurs, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, are implicated in fear- and memory-related brain circuity...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Larissa Cordier, Martin Diers
This review provides an overview of learning mechanisms and memory aspects for the development of chronic pain. Pain can be influenced in important ways by an individual's personality, by family, and by the sociocultural environment in which they live. Therefore, learning mechanisms can explain why pain experience and pain behavior can increase or decrease. Linking pain with positive consequences or removing negative consequences can contribute significantly to the chronification of pain. We will provide an overview of treatment options that use the characteristics of extinction...
June 5, 2018: Biomedicines
Ran Inoue, Gourango Talukdar, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Hisashi Mori
Extinction-based exposure therapy is widely used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist at the glycine-binding site of the N -methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR), has been shown to be involved in extinction of fear memory. Recent findings suggest that the length of time between the initial learning and an extinction session is a determinant of neural mechanism involved in fear extinction. However, how D-serine is involved in extinction of fear memory at different timings remains unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Hee-Jin Oh, Minah Song, Young Ki Kim, Jae Ryong Bae, Seung-Yun Cha, Ji Young Bae, Yeongmin Kim, Minsu You, Younpyo Lee, Jieun Shim, Sungho Maeng
Coping is a strategic approach to dealing with stressful situations. Those who use proactive coping strategies tend to accept changes and act before changes are expected. In contrast, those who use reactive coping are less flexible and more likely to act in response to changes. However, little research has assessed how coping style changes with age. This study investigated age-related changes in coping strategies and stress responsiveness and the influence of age on the processing of conditioned fear memory in 2-, 12- and 23-month-old male mice...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Gabriela Vera-Rivera, María-Isabel Miranda, José Alejandro Rangel-Hernández, Dennys Badillo-Juárez, Daniela Fregoso-Urrutia, Seraid Caynas-Rojas
Food palatability and caloric content are crucial factors in guiding diet choice and amount consumed; as a result, sweet caloric tastes are associated with a positive hedonic value. Recent evidence in rodents indicates that consumption of artificial (non-caloric) sweeteners, in which sweet taste is dissociated from normal caloric consequences, could induce changes in energy and body weight regulation, suggesting that sweeteners not only modify intake and appetitive behavior, but could also change taste-learning processes...
June 4, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Jeehye Seo, Kylie N Moore, Samuel Gazecki, Ryan M Bottary, Mohammed R Milad, Huijin Song, Edward F Pace-Schott
Study Objectives: Insomnia increases risk for anxiety disorders that are also associated with fear-extinction deficits. We compared activation of fear and extinction networks between Insomnia Disorder without comorbidity (ID) and good sleepers (GS). Methods: 23 ID age- and sex-matched to 23 GS completed 14 days of actigraphy and diaries, 3 nights of ambulatory polysomnography and a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Fear Conditioning and Extinction Learning occurred on the first day, followed 24h later by Extinction Recall...
May 31, 2018: Sleep
Gretchen Hanson Gotthard, Lauren Kenney, Ariel Zucker
Reconsolidation theory has supported the notion that active memory is vulnerable to the effects of an amnesic agent. An extension of reconsolidation theory posits that active memory, while necessary for creating vulnerability in memory, is not sufficient. Prediction error (i.e., when expectation is inconsistent with reality) may be a key factor in the destabilization of memory. The present study examined the role of prediction error in appetitive memory reconsolidation. Rats learned to dig in cups of scented sand to retrieve buried sweet cereal rewards...
June 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Sílvia Fuentes, Núria Daviu, Humberto Gagliano, Xavier Belda, Antonio Armario, Roser Nadal
Exposure to electric foot-shocks can induce in rodents contextual fear conditioning, generalization of fear to other contexts and sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to further stressors. All these aspects are relevant for the study of post-traumatic stress disorder. In the present work we evaluated in rats the sex differences and the role of early life stress (ELS) in fear memories, generalization and sensitization. During the first postnatal days subjects were exposed to restriction of nesting material along with exposure to a "substitute" mother...
May 23, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Juzoh Umemori, Frederike Winkel, Giuliano Didio, Maria Llach Pou, Eero Castrén
The network hypothesis of depression proposes that mood disorders reflect problems in information processing within particular neural networks. Antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), function by gradually improving information processing within these networks. Antidepressants have been shown to induce a state of juvenile-like plasticity comparable to that observed during developmental critical periods: such critical-period-like plasticity allows brain networks to better adapt to extrinsic and intrinsic signals...
May 26, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
James W B Elsey, Vanessa A Van Ast, Merel Kindt
Research in nonhuman animals suggests that reactivation can induce a transient, unstable state in a previously consolidated memory, during which the memory can be disrupted or modified, necessitating a process of restabilization in order to persist. Such findings have sparked a wave of interest into whether this phenomenon, known as reconsolidation, occurs in humans. Translating research from animal models to human experiments and even to clinical interventions is an exciting prospect, but amid this excitement, relatively little work has critically evaluated and synthesized existing research regarding human memory reconsolidation...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
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