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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452180/the-m-maze-task-an-automated-method-for-studying-fear-memory-in-rats-exposed-to-protracted-aversive-conditioning
#1
Rimenez R Souza, Nicole M Robertson, David T Pruitt, Lindsey Noble, Eric C Meyers, Phillip A Gonzales, Nathaniel P Bleker, Holle L Carey, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Christa K McIntyre, Robert L Rennaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning (FC) in rodents is the most used animal model to investigate the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although research using FC has generated a better understanding of fear memories, studies often rely on mild or moderate FC training and behavioral analysis generally focuses on measuring freezing responses within few test sessions. NEW METHOD: We introduce the M-Maze task, a system to measures extinction of conditioned fear using suppression of operant behavior...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432803/learning-and-memory-is-modulated-by-cannabidiol-when-administered-during-trace-fear-conditioning
#2
A L Uhernik, Z T Montoya, C D Balkissoon, J P Smith
Cannabidiol (CBD) is thought to have therapeutic potential for treating psychiatric conditions that affect cognitive aspects of learning and memory, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have shown that CBD enhances extinction of fear memory when given after conditioning. This led us to hypothesize that CBD, if administered prior to fear conditioning, might modulate cognitive learning and memory processes in additional ways that would further guide its potential use for treating PTSD...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425501/homeostatic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus-facilitates-memory-extinction
#3
Pablo Mendez, Thomas Stefanelli, Carmen E Flores, Dominique Muller, Christian Lüscher
Correlated activity in the hippocampus drives synaptic plasticity that is necessary for the recruitment of neuronal ensembles underlying fear memory. Sustained neural activity, on the other hand, may trigger homeostatic adaptations. However, whether homeostatic plasticity affects memory function remains unknown. Here, we use optogenetics to induce cell autonomous homeostatic plasticity in CA1 pyramidal neurons and granule cells of the hippocampus. High-frequency spike trains applied for 10 min decreased the number of excitatory spine synapses and increased the number of inhibitory shaft synapses...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423817/characterization-of-behavioral-signaling-and-cytokine-alterations-in-a-rat-neurodevelopmental-model-for-schizophrenia-and-their-reversal-by-the-5-ht6-receptor-antagonist-sb-399885
#4
Sinead E Shortall, Ola H Negm, Maxine Fowler, Lucy C Fairclough, Patrick J Tighe, Peter M Wigmore, Madeleine V King
Post-weaning social isolation of rats produces neuroanatomical, neurochemical and behavioral alterations resembling some core features of schizophrenia. This study examined the ability of the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB-399885 to reverse isolation-induced cognitive deficits, then investigated alterations in hippocampal cell proliferation and hippocampal and frontal cortical expression of selected intracellular signaling molecules and cytokines. Male Lister hooded rats (weaned on post-natal days 21-24 and housed individually or in groups of 3-4) received six i...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408468/neuropeptide-y2-receptors-in-anteroventral-bnst-control-remote-fear-memory-depending-on-extinction-training
#5
Dilip Verma, Ramon Tasan, Guenther Sperk, Hans-Christian Pape
The anterior bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) is involved in reinstatement of extinguished fear, and neuropeptide Y2 receptors influence local synaptic signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that Y2 receptors in anteroventral BNST (BNSTav) interfere with remote fear memory and that previous fear extinction is an important variable. C57BL/6NCrl mice were fear-conditioned, and a Y2 receptor-specific agonist (NPY3-36) or antagonist (JNJ-5207787) was applied in BNSTav before fear retrieval at the following day...
February 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408273/impairment-in-extinction-of-cued-fear-memory-in-syntenin-1-knockout-mice
#6
Gourango Talukdar, Ran Inoue, Tomoyuki Yoshida, Hisashi Mori
Syntenin-1 is a PDZ domain-containing intracellular scaffold protein involved in exosome production, synapse formation, and synaptic plasticity. We tested whether syntenin-1 can regulate learning and memory through its effects on synaptic plasticity. Specifically, we investigated the role of syntenin-1 in contextual and cued fear conditioning and extinction of conditioned fear using syntenin-1 knockout (KO) mice. Genetic disruption of syntenin-1 had little effect on contextual and cued fear memory. However, syntenin-1 KO mice exhibited selective impairment in cued fear extinction retention...
February 3, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403033/hippocampus-driven-feed-forward-inhibition-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-mediates-relapse-of-extinguished-fear
#7
Roger Marek, Jingji Jin, Travis D Goode, Thomas F Giustino, Qian Wang, Gillian M Acca, Roopashri Holehonnur, Jonathan E Ploski, Paul J Fitzgerald, Timothy Lynagh, Joseph W Lynch, Stephen Maren, Pankaj Sah
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in the extinction of emotional memories, including conditioned fear. We found that ventral hippocampal (vHPC) projections to the infralimbic (IL) cortex recruited parvalbumin-expressing interneurons to counter the expression of extinguished fear and promote fear relapse. Whole-cell recordings ex vivo revealed that optogenetic activation of vHPC input to amygdala-projecting pyramidal neurons in the IL was dominated by feed-forward inhibition. Selectively silencing parvalbumin-expressing, but not somatostatin-expressing, interneurons in the IL eliminated vHPC-mediated inhibition...
February 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397283/the-metaplastic-effects-of-nmda-receptors-blockade-on-reactivation-of-instrumental-memories-in-rats
#8
Alessandro Piva, Elisabetta Gerace, Marzia Di Chio, Lisa Osanni, Laura Padovani, Lucia Caffino, Fabio Fumagalli, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Cristiano Chiamulera
Metaplasticity, defined as the plasticity of synaptic plasticity, could affect learning and memory at different neural levels. It was hypothesized that metaplasticity changes on glutamate receptors may affect memory destabilization, promoting or preventing reconsolidation. We investigated the metaplastic effect of NMDA channel blocker MK-801 on sucrose instrumental memory reconsolidation in a behavioural rat model associated to the assessment of molecular markers of metaplasticity, memory retrieval, destabilization and reconsolidation...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395984/sleep-and-emotional-processing
#9
REVIEW
Daniela Tempesta, Valentina Socci, Luigi De Gennaro, Michele Ferrara
A growing body of literature suggests that sleep plays a critical role in emotional processing. This review aims at synthesizing current evidence on the role of sleep and sleep loss in the modulation of emotional reactivity, emotional memory formation, empathic behavior, fear conditioning, threat generalization and extinction memory. Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence suggesting that rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep plays an important role in emotional processing is also discussed. Furthermore, we examine the relations between sleep and emotions by reviewing the functional neuroimaging studies that elucidated the brain mechanisms underlying these relations...
December 22, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383685/elastase-2-knockout-mice-display-anxiogenic-and-antidepressant-like-phenotype-putative-role-for-bdnf-metabolism-in-prefrontal-cortex
#10
C R A F Diniz, C Becari, A Lesnikova, C Biojone, M C O Salgado, H C Salgado, L B M Resstel, F S Guimarães, E Castrén, P C Casarotto, S R L Joca
Several pieces of evidence indicate that elastase-2 (ELA2; chymotrypsin-like ELA2) is an alternative pathway to the generation of angiotensin II (ANGII). Elastase-2 knockout mice (ELA2KO) exhibit alterations in the arterial blood pressure and heart rate. However, there is no data on the behavioral consequences of ELA2 deletion. In this study, we addressed this question, submitting ELA2KO and wild-type (WT) mice to several models sensitive to anxiety- and depression-like, memory, and repetitive behaviors. Our data indicates a higher incidence of barbering behavior in ELA2KO compared to WT, as well as an anxiogenic phenotype, evaluated in the elevated plus maze (EPM)...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383396/differential-effects-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-receptor-antagonists-and-partial-agonists-on-contextual-fear-extinction-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Jessica M Tumolo, Courtney Cann, Thomas J Gould
RATIONALE: Numerous studies have attributed the psychopathology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to maladaptive behavioral responses such as an inability to extinguish fear. While exposure therapies are mostly effective in treating these disorders by enhancing extinction learning, relapse of PTSD symptoms is common. Although several studies indicated a role for cholinergic transmission and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in anxiety and stress disorder symptomatology, very little is known about the specific contribution of nAChRs to fear extinction OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we examined the effects of inhibition and desensitization of α4β2 nAChRs via a full antagonist (Dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DhβE)) and two α4β2 nAChR partial-agonists (varenicline and sazetidine-A) on contextual fear extinction, locomotor activity, and spontaneous recovery of contextual fear in mice...
January 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378293/nmda-receptors-in-the-avian-amygdala-and-the-premotor-arcopallium-mediate-distinct-aspects-of-appetitive-extinction-learning
#12
Meng Gao, Daniel Lengersdorf, C Stüttgen Maik, Onur Güntürkün
Extinction learning is an essential mechanism that enables constant adaptation to ever-changing environmental conditions. The underlying neural circuit is mostly studied with rodent models using auditory cued fear conditioning. In order to uncover the variant and the invariant neural properties of extinction learning, we adopted pigeons as an animal model in an appetitive sign-tracking paradigm. The animals firstly learned to respond to two conditioned stimuli in two different contexts (CS-1 in context A and CS-2 in context B), before conditioned responses to the stimuli were extinguished in the opposite contexts (CS-1 in context B and CS-2 in context A)...
January 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352033/data-driven-criteria-to-assess-fear-remission-and-phenotypic-variability-of-extinction-in-rats
#13
Jason Shumake, Carolyn Jones, Allison Auchter, Marie-Hélène Monfils
Fear conditioning is widely employed to examine the mechanisms that underlie dysregulations of the fear system. Various manipulations are often used following fear acquisition to attenuate fear memories. In rodent studies, freezing is often the main output measure to quantify 'fear'. Here, we developed data-driven criteria for defining a standard benchmark that indicates remission from conditioned fear and for identifying subgroups with differential treatment responses. These analyses will enable a better understanding of individual differences in treatment responding...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352026/addictive-behaviour-in-experimental-animals-prospects-for-translation
#14
REVIEW
Barry J Everitt, Chiara Giuliano, David Belin
Since the introduction of intravenous drug self-administration methodology over 50 years ago, experimental investigation of addictive behaviour has delivered an enormous body of data on the neural, psychological and molecular mechanisms of drug reward and reinforcement and the neuroadaptations to chronic use. Whether or not these behavioural and molecular studies are viewed as modelling the underpinnings of addiction in humans, the discussion presented here highlights two areas-the impact of drug-associated conditioned stimuli-or drug cues-on drug seeking and relapse, and compulsive cocaine seeking...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341327/involvement-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-in-expression-and-extinction-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#15
Leah N Hitchcock, K Matthew Lattal
A key aspect of substance abuse is that drug taking often occurs in a specific context. As a consequence, exposure to drug-associated contexts can trigger cravings and relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Although many studies have demonstrated that the hippocampus is critical for developing and retrieving contextual and spatial memories, comparatively little is known about the role of the hippocampus in acquiring and inhibiting memories involving contexts and drugs of abuse. We examined the effects of hippocampal inactivation on expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) after initial acquisition or extinction of CPP in C57BL/6 mice...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338491/the-effect-of-ketamine-on-the-consolidation-and-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memory
#16
Nicholas E Clifton, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Ketamine, principally an antagonist of N-methyl-ᴅ-aspartate receptors, induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in adult humans, warranting its use in the investigation of psychosis-related phenotypes in animal models. Genomic studies further implicate N-methyl-ᴅ-aspartate receptor-mediated processes in schizophrenia pathology, together with more broadly-defined synaptic plasticity and associative learning processes. Strong pathophysiological links have been demonstrated between fear learning and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335846/cotinine-a-therapy-for-memory-extinction-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Cristhian Mendoza, George E Barreto, Alexandre Iarkov, Vadim V Tarasov, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that may develop after exposure to exceptionally threatening or unescapable horrifying events. Actual therapies fail to alleviate the emotional suffering and cognitive impairment associated with this disorder, mostly because they are ineffective in treating the failure to extinguish trauma memories in a great percentage of those affected. In this review, current behavioral, cellular, and molecular evidence supporting the use of cotinine for treating PTSD are reviewed...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331727/individual-variation-in-working-memory-is-associated-with-fear-extinction-performance
#18
Daniel M Stout, Dean T Acheson, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Dewleen G Baker, Mark A Geyer, Victoria B Risbrough
PTSD has been associated consistently with abnormalities in fear acquisition and extinction learning and retention. Fear acquisition refers to learning to discriminate between threat and safety cues. Extinction learning reflects the formation of a new inhibitory-memory that competes with a previously learned threat-related memory. Adjudicating the competition between threat memory and the new inhibitory memory during extinction may rely, in part, on cognitive processes such as working memory (WM). Despite significant shared neural circuits and signaling pathways the relationship between WM, fear acquisition, and extinction is poorly understood...
January 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329984/infralimbic-dopamine-d2-receptors-mediate-glucocorticoid-induced-facilitation-of-auditory-fear-memory-extinction-in-rats
#19
Masoumeh Dadkhah, Payman Raise Abdullahi, Ali Rashidy-Pour, Hamid Reza Sameni, Abbas Ali Vafaei
The infralimbic (IL) cortex of the medial prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the extinction of fear memory. Also, it has been showed that both brain glucocorticoid and dopamine receptors are involved in many processes such as fear extinction that drive learning and memory; however, the interaction of these receptors in the IL cortex remains unclear. We examined a putative interaction between the effects of glucocorticoid and dopamine receptors stimulation in the IL cortex on fear memory extinction in an auditory fear conditioning paradigm in male rats...
January 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317519/%C3%AE-arrestin-biased-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-promotes-extinction-learning-of-cocaine-reward-memory
#20
Bing Huang, Youxing Li, Deqin Cheng, Guanhong He, Xing Liu, Lan Ma
Extinction learning of cocaine-associated contextual cues can help prevent cocaine addicts from relapsing. Pharmacological manipulation of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) during extinction learning is being developed as a potential strategy to treat drug addiction. We demonstrated that the extinction learning of cocaine-associated memory was mediated by β-arrestin2-biased but not heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-dependent β-adrenergic signaling. We found that administration of the nonbiased β-AR antagonist propranolol, but not the G protein-biased β-AR antagonist carvedilol, blocked extinction learning of cocaine-conditioned place preference and the associated ERK activation in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex...
January 9, 2018: Science Signaling
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