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Memory extinction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924869/asic1a-regulates-insular-long-term-depression-and-is-required-for-the-extinction-of-conditioned-taste-aversion
#1
Wei-Guang Li, Ming-Gang Liu, Shining Deng, Yan-Mei Liu, Lin Shang, Jing Ding, Tsan-Ting Hsu, Qin Jiang, Ying Li, Fei Li, Michael Xi Zhu, Tian-Le Xu
Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) has been shown to play important roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here we identify a crucial role for ASIC1a in long-term depression (LTD) at mouse insular synapses. Genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of ASIC1a reduced the induction probability of LTD without affecting that of long-term potentiation in the insular cortex. The disruption of ASIC1a also attenuated the extinction of established taste aversion memory without altering the initial associative taste learning or its long-term retention...
December 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922638/enhancing-dopaminergic-signaling-and-histone-acetylation-promotes-long-term-rescue-of-deficient-fear-extinction
#2
N Whittle, V Maurer, C Murphy, J Rainer, D Bindreither, M Hauschild, A Scharinger, M Oberhauser, T Keil, C Brehm, T Valovka, J Striessnig, N Singewald
Extinction-based exposure therapy is used to treat anxiety- and trauma-related disorders; however, there is the need to improve its limited efficacy in individuals with impaired fear extinction learning and to promote greater protection against return-of-fear phenomena. Here, using 129S1/SvImJ mice, which display impaired fear extinction acquisition and extinction consolidation, we revealed that persistent and context-independent rescue of deficient fear extinction in these mice was associated with enhanced expression of dopamine-related genes, such as dopamine D1 (Drd1a) and -D2 (Drd2) receptor genes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala, but not hippocampus...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919830/newly-acquired-and-reactivated-contextual-fear-memories-are-more-intense-and-prone-to-generalize-after-activation-of-prelimbic-cortex-nmda-receptors
#3
Ana C Vanvossen, Marina A M Portes, Rafael Scoz-Silva, Hugo B Reichmann, Cristina A J Stern, Leandro J Bertoglio
Activity in the rodent prelimbic (PL) cortex contributes to consolidation, retrieval and reconsolidation of learned fear. The PL cortex is considered homologous to the primate dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). In patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the dACC is often reported to be hyperactive after acquisition and/or around the retrieval of the traumatic memory. It is still unknown, however, whether there is a relationship between altered dACC functioning at these time points and PTSD-associated behavioral outcomes, such as fear overgeneralization...
December 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918284/context-specificity-of-both-acquisition-and-extinction-of-a-pavlovian-conditioned-response
#4
Sarah Starosta, Metin Uengoer, Isabelle Bartetzko, Sara Lucke, Onur Güntürkün, Maik C Stüttgen
It is widely held that the extinction of a conditioned response is more context specific than its initial acquisition. One proposed explanation is that context serves to disambiguate the meaning of a stimulus. Using a procedure that equated the learning histories of the contexts, we show that the memory of an appetitive Pavlovian association can be highly context specific despite being unambiguous. This result is inconsistent with predictions of the Rescorla-Wagner model of learning but in line with configural accounts of contextual control of behavior...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918278/pi3-kinase-cascade-has-a-differential-role-in-acquisition-and-extinction-of-conditioned-fear-memory-in-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#5
Ilana Slouzkey, Mouna Maroun
The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuit, plays a crucial role in acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Extinction of aversive memories is mediated, at least in part, by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in adult rats. There is recent interest in the neural mechanisms that mediate fear and extinction in juvenile animals and whether these mechanisms are distinctive from those in adult animals. In the present study, we examined (1) changes in phosphorylation of Akt in the BLA and mPFC after fear conditioning and extinction in juvenile and adult rats and (2) the effect of BLA and mPFC localized inhibition of the PI3K following acquisition and extinction of contextual fear memory...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909401/implicit-learning-in-transient-global-amnesia-and-the-role-of-stress
#6
Frauke Nees, Martin Griebe, Anne Ebert, Michaela Ruttorf, Benjamin Gerber, Oliver T Wolf, Lothar R Schad, Achim Gass, Kristina Szabo
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder with reversible anterograde disturbance of explicit memory, frequently preceded by an emotionally or physically stressful event. By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following an episode of TGA, small hippocampal lesions have been observed. Hence it has been postulated that the disorder is caused by the stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. In experimental studies, stress has been shown to affect both explicit and implicit learning-the latter defined as learning and memory processes that lack conscious awareness of the information acquired...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888073/early-life-inflammation-with-lps-delays-fear-extinction-in-adult-rodents
#7
V M Doenni, C M Song, M N Hill, Q J Pittman
A large body of evidence has been brought forward connecting developmental immune activation to abnormal fear and anxiety levels. Anxiety disorders have extremely high lifetime prevalence, yet susceptibility factors that contribute to their emergence are poorly understood. In this research we investigated whether an inflammatory insult early in life can alter the response to fear conditioning in adulthood. Fear learning and extinction are important and adaptive behaviors, mediated largely by the amygdala and its interconnectivity with cortico-limbic circuits...
November 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884768/intact-renewal-after-extinction-of-conditioned-suppression-with-lesions-of-either-the-retrosplenial-cortex-or-dorsal-hippocampus
#8
Travis P Todd, Matthew Y Jiang, Nicole E DeAngeli, David J Bucci
Extinction of fear to a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) is known to be context-specific. When the CS is tested outside the context of extinction, fear returns, or renews. Several studies have demonstrated that renewal depends upon the hippocampus, although there are also studies where renewal was not impacted by hippocampal damage, suggesting that under some conditions context encoding and/or retrieval of extinction depends upon other regions. One candidate region is the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), which is known to contribute to contextual and spatial learning and memory...
November 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870439/estradiol-shifts-interactions-between-the-infralimbic-cortex-and-central-amygdala-to-enhance-fear-extinction-memory-in-female-rats
#9
Lisa Y Maeng, Kara K Cover, Mohamad B Taha, Aaron J Landau, Mohammed R Milad, Kelimer Lebrón-Milad
There is growing evidence that estradiol (E2) enhances fear extinction memory consolidation. However, it is unclear how E2 influences the nodes of the fear extinction network to enhance extinction memory. This study begins to delineate the neural circuits underlying the influence of E2 on fear extinction acquisition and consolidation in female rats. After fear conditioning (day 1), naturally cycling female rats underwent extinction learning (day 2) in a low-E2 state, receiving a systemic administration of either E2 or vehicle prior to extinction training...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870431/sex-differences-in-stress-effects-on-emotional-learning
#10
REVIEW
Christian J Merz, Oliver T Wolf
Stress influences emotional learning and memory processes. These effects are thought to underlie stress-associated mental disorders. Sex differences in stress reactivity and in central nervous system stress sensitivity illustrate the important modulatory role of sex hormones. This Review outlines how stress hormones influence different stages of the fear conditioning process, such as fear acquisition, extinction, and retrieval. Results will be compared with findings on the impact of stress on episodic memory...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869801/direct-dorsal-hippocampal-prelimbic-cortex-connections-strengthen-fear-memories
#11
Xiaojing Ye, Dana Kapeller-Libermann, Alessio Travaglia, M Carmen Inda, Cristina M Alberini
The ability to regulate the consolidation and strengthening of memories for threatening experiences is critical for mental health, and its dysregulation may lead to psychopathologies. Re-exposure to the context in which the threat was experienced can either increase or decrease fear response through distinct processes known, respectively, as reconsolidation or extinction. Using a context retrieval-dependent memory-enhancement model in rats, we report that memory strengthens through activation of direct projections from dorsal hippocampus to prelimbic (PL) cortex and activation of critical PL molecular mechanisms that are not required for extinction...
November 21, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865918/enhanced-cued-fear-memory-following-post-training-whole-body-irradiation-of-3-month-old-mice
#12
Reid H J Olsen, Sydney J Weber, Tunde Akinyeke, Jacob Raber
Typically, in studies designed to assess effects of irradiation on cognitive performance the animals are trained and tested for cognitive function following irradiation. Little is known about post-training effects of irradiation on cognitive performance. In the current study, 3-month-old male mice were irradiated with X-rays 24h following training in a fear conditioning paradigm and cognitively tested starting two weeks later. Average motion during the extinction trials, measures of anxiety in the elevated zero maze, and body weight changes over the course of the study were assessed as well...
November 16, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852895/ras-and-rab-interactor-1-controls-neuronal-plasticity-by-coordinating-dendritic-filopodial-motility-and-ampa-receptor-turnover
#13
Zsófia Szíber, Hanna Liliom, Carlos O Oueslati Morales, Attila Ignácz, Anikó Erika Rátkai, Kornelia Ellwanger, Gisela Link, Attila Szűcs, Angelika Hausser, Katalin Schlett
Ras and Rab interactor 1 (RIN1) is predominantly expressed in the nervous system. RIN1 knockout animals have deficits in latent inhibition and fear extinction in the amygdala, suggesting a critical role for RIN1 in preventing the persistence of unpleasant memories. At the molecular level, RIN1 signals through Rab5 GTPases that control endocytosis of cell-surface receptors and Abl non-receptor tyrosine kinases that participate in actin cytoskeleton remodelling.Here, we report that RIN1 controls the plasticity of cultured mouse hippocampal neurons...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825907/thiamine-and-benfotiamine-improve-cognition-and-ameliorate-gsk-3%C3%AE-associated-stress-induced-behaviours-in-mice
#14
Nataliia Markova, Nataliia Bazhenova, Daniel C Anthony, Julie Vignisse, Andrey Svistunov, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Lucien Bettendorff, Tatyana Strekalova
Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the brain has been implicated in the development of dementia and symptoms of depression. Indirect evidence suggests that thiamine may contribute to these pathologies by controlling the activities of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β. While decreased GSK-3β activity appears to impair memory, increased GSK-3β activity is associated with the distressed/depressed state. However, hitherto direct evidence for the effects of thiamine on GSK-3β function has not been reported...
November 4, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822751/memantine-attenuates-cognitive-impairments-after-status-epilepticus-induced-in-a-lithium-pilocarpine-model
#15
S V Kalemenev, O E Zubareva, V V Sizov, V V Lavrent'eva, N Ya Lukomskaya, K Kh Kim, A V Zaitsev, L G Magazanik
The capability of memantine, a noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptors, to prevent impairments of cognitive functions in rats was investigated in the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy. After status epilepticus, rats exhibited impaired exploratory behavior and spatial memory, and a decline of extinction of orienting behavior. Memantine administration prevented these disturbances. Thus, the blockade of the NMDA receptors immediately after status epilepticus allowed prevention of the development of the possible cognitive impairments...
September 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818625/molecular-mechanisms-of-stress-induced-increases-in-fear-memory-consolidation-within-the-amygdala
#16
Antonio V Aubry, Peter A Serrano, Nesha S Burghardt
Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818267/postnatal-development-of-neurotransmitter-systems-and-their-relevance-to-extinction-of-conditioned-fear
#17
REVIEW
Jee Hyun Kim, Christina J Perry, Despina E Ganella, Heather B Madsen
Remembering and forgetting are fundamental features of an organism. Extinction is a type of forgetting where there is a decrease in the significance and/or the meaning of an associative memory when elements of that memory no longer predict one another. The neural mechanisms underlying extinction of fear memories have been extensively studied in the laboratory because extinction processes are clinically relevant to exposure therapies that treat anxiety disorders. However, only in the last decade have we begun to unveil the similarities and differences in plasticity underlying extinction across development...
November 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815213/different-dimensions-of-the-prediction-error-as-a-decisive-factor-for-the-triggering-of-the-reconsolidation-process
#18
M Agustina López, M Jimena Santos, Santiago Cortasa, Rodrigo S Fernández, Martin Carbó Tano, María E Pedreira
The reconsolidation process is the mechanism by which strength and/or content of consolidated memories are updated. Prediction error (PE) is the difference between the prediction made and current events. It is proposed as a necessary condition to trigger the reconsolidation process. Here we analyzed deeply the role of the PE in the associative memory reconsolidation in the crab Neohelice granulata. An incongruence between the learned temporal relationship between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (CS-US) was enough to trigger the reconsolidation process...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807414/depotentiation-from-potentiated-synaptic-strength-in-a-tristable-system-of-coupled-phosphatase-and-kinase
#19
Mengjiao Chen, Wei Ren, Xingang Wang
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength is strongly implicated in learning and memory. On the other hand, depotentiation, the reversal of synaptic strength from potentiated LTP state to the pre-LTP level, is required in extinction of the obsolete memory. A generic tristable system, which couples the phosphatase and kinase switches, exclusively explains how moderate and high elevation of intracellular calcium concentration triggers long-term depression (LTD) and LTP, respectively. The present study, introducing calcium influx and calcium release from internal store into the tristable system, further show that significant elevation of cytoplasmic calcium concentration switches activation of both kinase and phosphatase to their basal states, thereby depotentiate the synaptic strength...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797830/extinction-and-latent-inhibition-involve-a-similar-form-of-inhibitory-learning-that-is-stored-in-and-retrieved-from-the-infralimbic-cortex
#20
Nura W Lingawi, R Fredrick Westbrook, Vincent Laurent
Extinction and latent inhibition each refer to a reduction in conditioned responding: the former occurs when pairings of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) are followed by repeated presentations of the CS alone; the latter occurs when CS alone presentations precede its pairings with the US. The present experiments used fear conditioning to test the hypothesis that both phenomena involve a similar form of inhibitory learning that recruits common neuronal substrates. We found that the initial inhibitory memory established by extinction is reactivated in the infralimbic (IL) cortex during additional extinction...
October 20, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
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