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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038221/prazosin-during-threat-discrimination-boosts-memory-of-the-safe-stimulus
#1
Philipp Homan, Qi Lin, James W Murrough, Laili Soleimani, Dominik R Bach, Roger L Clem, Daniela Schiller
The α-1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin has shown promise in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, but its mechanisms are not well understood. Here we administered prazosin or placebo prior to threat conditioning (day 1) and tested subsequent extinction (day 2) and reextinction (day 3) in healthy human participants. Prazosin did not affect threat conditioning but augmented stimulus discrimination during extinction and reextinction, via lower responding to the safe stimulus. These results suggest that prazosin during threat acquisition may have influenced encoding or consolidation of safety processing in particular, subsequently leading to enhanced discrimination between the safe and threatening stimuli...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030297/impaired-extinction-of-cued-fear-memory-and-abnormal-dendritic-morphology-in-the-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortices-in-vpac2-receptor-vipr2-deficient-mice
#2
Yukio Ago, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Takuya Kawanai, Ryosuke Yamauchi, Shuto Takeuchi, Jesse D Cushman, Abha K Rajbhandari, Michael S Fanselow, Hitoshi Hashimoto, James A Waschek
The structurally related neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) have been implicated in stress regulation and learning and memory. Several bodies of research have shown the impact of the PACAP specific receptor PAC1 on fear memory, but the roles of other PACAP receptors in regulating fear stress responses remain to be elucidated. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of VIPR2 encoding the VPAC2 receptor, which binds both VIP and PACAP, on fear-related memory and on dendritic morphology in the brain regions of the fear circuitry...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030219/local-infusion-of-ghrelin-into-the-lateral-amygdala-blocks-extinction-of-conditioned-taste-aversion-in-rats
#3
Ge Song, Qianqian Zhu, Fubing Han, Shuai Liu, Chenyang Zhao, Yu Zhou
Ghrelin is an orexigenic brain-gut hormone promoting feeding and regulating energy metabolism in human and rodents. Our previous study showed that ghrelin locally infused into the lateral amygdala (LA) activates its receptor GHS-R1a and blocks acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in rats. In this study, we further investigated the effect of ghrelin/GHS-R1a signaling on extinction of CTA. We found that local infusion of ghrelin (5μM, 0.5μl/side) into the LA not only interfered with CTA memory formation, but also the extinction of CTA memory...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028150/potential-of-micrornas-as-novel-targets-in-the-alleviation-of-pathological-fear
#4
REVIEW
Conor P Murphy, Nicolas Singewald
The current treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), phobias and other anxiety disorders, remains insufficient particularly in producing long-lasting full symptom control. Dysfunctional fear processing is common in these disorders, including a deficiency in fear-inhibitory mechanisms and impairment in the ability to discriminate between safety and danger cues. Research has aimed to elucidate brain circuitries, neurotransmitters and downstream signaling pathways important in the alleviation of aberrant fear, with a specific focus on mechanisms modulating fear memory and its behavioral expression...
October 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025687/serine-racemase-and-d-serine-in-the-amygdala-are-dynamically-involved-in-fear-learning
#5
Darrick T Balu, Kendall Taylor Presti, Cathy C Y Huang, Kevin Muszynski, Inna Radzishevsky, Herman Wolosker, Guia Guffanti, Kerry J Ressler, Joseph T Coyle
BACKGROUND: The amygdala is a central component of the neural circuitry that underlies fear learning. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent plasticity in the amygdala is required for pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation requires the binding of a coagonist, D-serine, which is synthesized from L-serine by the neuronal enzyme serine racemase (SR). However, little is known about SR and D-serine function in the amygdala. METHODS: We used immunohistochemical methods to characterize the cellular localization of SR and D-serine in the mouse and human amygdala...
August 26, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024752/overtraining-modifies-spatial-memory-susceptibility-to-corticosterone-administration
#6
Alejandro Múnera, Mayerli A Prado-Rivera, D Carolina Cárdenas-Poveda, Marisol R Lamprea
Even though the effects of overtraining and glucocorticoids on different phases of spatial memory are known, the interaction between these factors on the retrieval and extinction of spatial memory has not yet been described. Adult male Wistar rats received eight training trials per day in the Barnes maze for either one or two days. Twenty-four hours after the last training trial they were randomly assigned for receiving an intraperitoneal vehicle or corticosterone injection (0.125 or 0.5 mg/kg) and ten minutes later they were given a memory test, followed by seven extinction trials...
October 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022091/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-stress-differentially-modulate-spine-density-and-dendritic-morphology-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#7
Marion Rincel, Amandine L Lépinay, Yoottana Janthakhin, Gwenaëlle Soudain, Sophie Yvon, Stéphanie Da Silva, Corinne Joffre, Agnès Aubert, Alexandra Séré, Sophie Layé, Vassilia Theodorou, Guillaume Ferreira, Muriel Darnaudéry
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key area for the regulation of numerous brain functions including stress response and cognitive processes. This brain area is also particularly affected by adversity during early life. Using an animal model in rats, we recently demonstrated that maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) prevents maternal separation (MS)-induced gene expression alterations in the developing PFC and attenuates several long-term deleterious behavioral effects of MS. In the present study, we ask whether maternal HFD could protect mPFC neurons of pups exposed to early life stress by examining dendritic morphology and spine density in juvenile [postnatal day (PND) 21] and adult rats submitted to MS...
October 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018340/impaired-spatial-memory-and-enhanced-habit-memory-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#8
Jarid Goodman, Christa K McIntyre
High levels of emotional arousal can impair spatial memory mediated by the hippocampus, and enhance stimulus-response (S-R) habit memory mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). The present study was conducted to determine whether these memory systems may be similarly affected in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a "single-prolonged stress" (SPS) procedure and 1 week later received training in one of two distinct versions of the plus-maze: a hippocampus-dependent place learning task or a DLS-dependent response learning task...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017931/acute-nicotine-disrupts-consolidation-of-contextual-fear-extinction-and-alters-long-term-memory-associated-hippocampal-kinase-activity
#9
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Brendan Garrett, Sana Gadiwalla, Jessica M Tumolo, Thomas J Gould
Previous research has shown that acute nicotine, an agonist of nAChRs, impaired fear extinction. However, the effects of acute nicotine on consolidation of contextual fear extinction memories and associated cell signaling cascades are unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of acute nicotine injections before (pre-extinction) and after (post-extinction) contextual fear extinction on behavior and the phosphorylation of dorsal and ventral hippocampal ERK1/2 and JNK1 and protein levels on the 1st and 3rd day of extinction...
October 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017388/pathophysiological-bases-of-comorbidity-tbi-and-ptsd
#10
Gary B Kaplan, Kimberly A Leite-Morris, Lei Wang, Kendra K Rumbika, Stephen C Heinrichs, Xiang Zeng, Liquan Wu, Danielle T Arena, Yang D Teng
The high rates of TBI and PTSD diagnoses encountered in recent years by the U.S. Veterans Affairs Healthcare System have increased public awareness and research investigation into these conditions. In this review, we analyze the neural mechanisms underlying the TBI/PTSD comorbidity. TBI and PTSD present with common neuropsychiatric symptoms including anxiety, irritability, insomnia, personality changes and memory problems and this overlap complicates diagnostic differentiation. Interestingly, both TBI and PTSD can be produced by overlapping pathophysiological changes that disrupt neural connections termed the "connectome"...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987515/does-exercise-augment-operant-and-pavlovian-extinction-a-meta-analysis
#11
Rheall F Roquet, Marie-H Monfils
BACKGROUND: Exposure therapy, a behavioral approach to reduce symptomology in fear, anxiety, and drug-related psychiatric disorders, is based on learning and memory principles of extinction, and is subject to relapse. As such, it is important to find ways to enhance outcomes. One such way is through exercise. OBJECTIVES: Identify if exercise augments extinction behavior, and whether this depends on the experimental paradigm used (i.e. operant or Pavlovian) and/or stimulus (i...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976945/activation-of-nigrostriatal-dopamine-neurons-during-fear-extinction-prevents-the-renewal-of-fear
#12
Courtney A Bouchet, Megan A Miner, Esteban C Loetz, Adam J Rosberg, Holly S Hake, Caroline E Farmer, Mykola Ostrovskyy, Nathan Gray, Benjamin N Greenwood
Manipulations that increase dopamine (DA) signaling can enhance fear extinction, but the circuits involved remain unknown. DA neurons originating in the substantia nigra (SN) projecting to the dorsal striatum (DS) are traditionally viewed in the context of motor behavior, but growing data implicate this nigrostriatal circuit in emotion. Here we investigated the role of nigrostriatal DA in fear extinction. Activation of SN DA neurons with designer Gq-coupled receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (Gq-DREADD) during fear extinction had no effect on fear extinction acquisition, but enhanced fear extinction memory and blocked the renewal of fear in a novel context; a pattern of data paralleled by cFos expression in the central amygdala...
October 4, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967909/cellular-and-oscillatory-substrates-of-fear-extinction-learning
#13
Patrick Davis, Yosif Zaki, Jamie Maguire, Leon G Reijmers
The mammalian brain contains dedicated circuits for both the learned expression and suppression of fear. These circuits require precise coordination to facilitate the appropriate expression of fear behavior, but the mechanisms underlying this coordination remain unclear. Using a combination of chemogenetics, activity-based neuronal-ensemble labeling and in vivo electrophysiology, we found that fear extinction learning confers on parvalbumin-expressing (PV) interneurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) a dedicated role in the selective suppression of a previously encoded fear memory and BLA fear-encoding neurons...
October 2, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955225/using-the-single-prolonged-stress-model-to-examine-the-pathophysiology-of-ptsd
#14
REVIEW
Rimenez R Souza, Lindsey J Noble, Christa K McIntyre
The endurance of memories of emotionally arousing events serves the adaptive role of minimizing future exposure to danger and reinforcing rewarding behaviors. However, following a traumatic event, a subset of individuals suffers from persistent pathological symptoms such as those seen in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite the availability of pharmacological treatments and evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapy, a considerable number of PTSD patients do not respond to the treatment, or show partial remission and relapse of the symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954870/sex-and-estrus-dependent-differences-in-rat-basolateral-amygdala
#15
Shannon R Blume, Mari Freedberg, Jaime E Vantrease, Ronny Chan, Mallika Padival, Matthew J Record, M Regina DeJoseph, Janice H Urban, J Amiel Rosenkranz
Depression and anxiety are diagnosed almost twice as often in women, the symptomology differs in men and women and is sensitive to sex hormones. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) contributes to emotion-related behaviors that differ between males and females and across the reproductive cycle. This hints to sex- or estrus-dependent features of BLA function, about which very little is known. The purpose of this study was to test whether there are sex differences or estrous cyclicity in rat BLA physiology and to determine their mechanistic correlates...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948980/neural-underpinnings-of-cortisol-effects-on-fear-extinction
#16
Christian Josef Merz, Tanja Christina Hamacher-Dang, Rudolf Stark, Oliver Tobias Wolf, Andrea Hermann
Extinction of conditioned fear embodies a crucial mechanism incorporated in exposure therapy. Clinical studies demonstrated that application of the stress hormone cortisol prior to exposure sessions facilitates exposure success, but the underlying neural correlates remain unknown. Context- and stimulus-dependent cortisol effects on extinction learning will be characterized in this study and tested in the extinction and in a new context. Forty healthy men participated in a three-day fear conditioning experiment with fear acquisition in context A (day 1), extinction training in context B (day 2), and recall in context B and a new context C one week later (day 3)...
September 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943292/enhanced-fear-and-altered-neuronal-activation-in-forebrain-limbic-regions-of-cx3cr1-deficient-mice
#17
Inga Schubert, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Andrew Winter, Lauren Vollmer, Ian Lewkowich, Renu Sah
Mounting evidence supports immune dysfunction in psychiatric conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The association of immunomodulatory mechanisms with PTSD-relevant behavior and physiology is not well understood. Communication between neurons and microglia, resident immune cells of the central nervous system, is crucial for optimal regulation of behavior and physiology. In this regard, the fractalkine CX3CL1, secreted from neurons and its target, the microglial CX3CR1 receptor represent a primary neuron-microglia inter-regulatory system important for synaptic plasticity and function...
September 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916626/contextual-fear-conditioning-in-zebrafish
#18
Justin W Kenney, Ian C Scott, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development of a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using an electric shock as the aversive stimulus. We find that contextual fear conditioning is modulated by shock intensity, prevented by an established amnestic agent (MK-801), lasts at least 14 d, and exhibits extinction...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916448/molecular-and-synaptic-mechanisms-regulating-drug-associated-memories-towards-a-bidirectional-treatment-strategy
#19
REVIEW
Matthew T Rich, Mary M Torregrossa
The successful treatment of substance use disorders is dependent on the establishment of a long-term abstinent state. Relapse can be suppressed by interfering with memories of drug use that are evoked by re-exposure to drug-associated contexts and cues. Two strategies for accomplishing this goal are either to prevent drug-memory reconsolidation or to induce the formation of a competing, extinction memory. However, clinical attempts to prolong abstinence by behavioral modification of drug-related memories have had limited success...
September 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891295/localized-surface-plasmon-resonance-mediated-charge-trapping-detrapping-for-core-shell-nanorod-based-optical-memory-cells
#20
Li Zhou, Su-Ting Han, Shiwei Shu, Jiaqing Zhuang, Yan Yan, Qi-Jun Sun, Ye Zhou, V A L Roy
For following the trend of miniaturization as per Moore's law, increasing efforts have been made to develop single devices with versatile functionalities for Internet of Things (IoT). In this work, organic optical memory devices with excellent dual optoelectronic functionality including light sensing and data storage have been proposed. The Au@Ag core-shell nanorods (NRs)-based memory device exhibits large memory window up to 19.7 V due to the well-controlled morphology of Au@Ag NRs with optimum size and concentration...
October 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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