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Memory extinction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438613/stress-altered-synaptic-plasticity-and-damp-signaling-in-the-hippocampus-pfc-axis-elucidating-the-significance-of-igf-1-igf-1r-camkii%C3%AE-expression-in-neural-changes-associated-with-a-prolonged-exposure-therapy
#1
Olalekan M Ogundele, Philip J Ebenezer, Charles C Lee, Joseph Francis
Traumatic stress patients showed significant improvement in behavior after a prolonged exposure to an unrelated stimulus. This treatment method attempts to promote extinction of the fear memory associated with the initial traumatic experience. However, the subsequent prolonged exposure to such stimulus creates an additional layer of neural stress. Although the mechanism remains unclear, prolonged exposure therapy (PET) likely involve changes in synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter function and inflammation; especially in parts of the brain concerned with the formation and retrieval of fear memory (Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex: PFC)...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435979/oxytocin-system-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-old-concept-new-insights
#2
Afzal Misrani, Sidra Tabassum, Cheng Long
Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide that plays a pivotal role among species peripherally and centrally. It recently has attracted much attention for its involvement in anxiety-related behavior, stress regulation, social behavior and various neuropsychiatric disorders. OXT is one of the important mediators of emotional and social behaviors such as maternal behavior, fear extinction, social support, happiness, and trust. It is also involved in learning and memory process. The recent progresses in OXT system have put this neuropeptide as an important psychotherapeutic intervention for various psychiatric disorders such as stress, anxiety disorders, social phobia, postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, autism, and schizophrenia...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400163/stress-before-extinction-learning-enhances-and-generalizes-extinction-memory-in-a-predictive-learning-task
#3
Shira Meir Drexler, Tanja C Hamacher-Dang, Oliver T Wolf
In extinction learning, the individual learns that a previously acquired association (e.g. between a threat and its predictor) is no longer valid. This learning is the principle underlying many cognitive-behavioral psychotherapeutic treatments, e.g. 'exposure therapy'. However, extinction is often highly-context dependent, leading to renewal (relapse of extinguished conditioned response following context change). We have previously shown that post-extinction stress leads to a more context-dependent extinction memory in a predictive learning task...
April 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397861/preventing-the-return-of-fear-using-reconsolidation-updating-and-methylene-blue-is-differentially-dependent-on-extinction-learning
#4
Allison M Auchter, Jason Shumake, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Marie H Monfils
Many factors account for how well individuals extinguish conditioned fears, such as genetic variability, learning capacity and conditions under which extinction training is administered. We predicted that memory-based interventions would be more effective to reduce the reinstatement of fear in subjects genetically predisposed to display more extinction learning. We tested this hypothesis in rats genetically selected for differences in fear extinction using two strategies: (1) attenuation of fear memory using post-retrieval extinction training, and (2) pharmacological enhancement of the extinction memory after extinction training by low-dose USP methylene blue (MB)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392321/pharmacological-modulation-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-5-and-7-impairs-extinction-of-social-fear-in-a-time-point-dependent-manner
#5
David A Slattery, Inga D Neumann, Peter J Flor, Iulia Zoicas
Pharmacological modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) and 7 (mGluR7) was shown to attenuate the acquisition and to facilitate the extinction of cued and contextual, non-social, fear. Using the allosteric mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and the allosteric mGluR7 agonist N,N'-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082), we aimed to study how pharmacological blockade of mGluR5 and activation of mGluR7 influence acquisition and extinction of social fear in mice...
April 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383773/a-dissociation-between-renewal-and-contextual-fear-conditioning-in-juvenile-rats
#6
Chun Hui J Park, Despina E Ganella, Jee Hyun Kim
We investigated whether juvenile rats do not express renewal following extinction of conditioned fear due to their inability to form a long-term contextual fear memory. In experiment 1, postnatal day (P) 18 and 25 rats received 3 white-noise and footshock pairings, followed by 60 white-noise alone presentations the next day. When tested in a different context to extinction, P25 rats displayed renewal whereas P18 rats did not. Experiments 2A and 2B surprisingly showed that P18 and P25 rats do not show differences in contextual and cued fear, regardless of the conditioning-test intervals and the number of white-noise-footshock pairings received...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382015/suppress-to-forget-the-effect-of-a-mindfulness-based-strategy-during-an-emotional-item-directed-forgetting-paradigm
#7
Olga L Gamboa, Javier Garcia-Campayo, Teresa Müller, Frederic von Wegner
Forgetting is a common phenomenon in everyday life. Although it often has negative connotations, forgetting is an important adaptive mechanism to avoid loading the memory storage with irrelevant information. A very important aspect of forgetting is its interaction with emotion. Affective events are often granted special and priority treatment over neutral ones with regards to memory storage. As a consequence, emotional information is more resistant to extinction than neutral information. It has been suggested that intentional forgetting serves as a mechanism to cope with unwanted or disruptive emotional memories and the main goal of this study was to assess forgetting of emotional auditory material using the item-method directed forgetting (DF) paradigm using a forgetting strategy based on mindfulness as a means to enhance DF...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380277/targeting-memory-reconsolidation-to-prevent-the-return-of-fear-in-patients-with-fear-of-flying
#8
Jessica L Maples-Keller, Matthew Price, Tanja Jovanovic, Seth D Norrholm, Lydia Odenat, Loren Post, Liza Zwiebach, Kathryn Breazeale, Robin Gross, Sae-Jin Kim, Barbara Olasov Rothbaum
BACKGROUND: When a memory is recalled, it may again exist in a labile state and stored information becomes amenable to change, a psychobiological process known as reconsolidation. Exposure therapy for anxiety disorders involves accessing a fear memory and modifying it with less fearful information. A preclinical study reported that providing a reminder of a fear memory 10 min prior to extinction training in humans decreased fear up to 1 year later (Schiller et al., 2010). METHODS: For this pilot clinical study, we used virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE) for fear of flying (FoF) to determine if using a cue to reactivate the memory of the feared stimulus 10 min prior to exposure sessions leads to fewer anxiety-related behaviors and a more durable response compared to a neutral cue...
April 5, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379939/re-evaluation-of-learned-information-in-drosophila
#9
Johannes Felsenberg, Oliver Barnstedt, Paola Cognigni, Suewei Lin, Scott Waddell
Animals constantly assess the reliability of learned information to optimize their behaviour. On retrieval, consolidated long-term memory can be neutralized by extinction if the learned prediction was inaccurate. Alternatively, retrieved memory can be maintained, following a period of reconsolidation during which it is labile. Although extinction and reconsolidation provide opportunities to alleviate problematic human memories, we lack a detailed mechanistic understanding of memory updating. Here we identify neural operations underpinning the re-evaluation of memory in Drosophila...
April 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377177/enhancing-and-impairing-extinction-of-habit-memory-through-modulation-of-nmda-receptors-in-the-dorsolateral-striatum
#10
Jarid Goodman, Reed L Ressler, Mark G Packard
The present experiments investigated the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) in consolidation of extinction in a habit memory task. Adult male Long-Evans rats were initially trained in a food-reinforced response learning version of a plus-maze task and were subsequently given extinction training in which the food was removed from the maze. In experiment 1, immediately after the first day of extinction training, rats received bilateral intra-DLS injections of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5; 2µg/side) or physiological saline...
April 2, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374737/extinct-type-of-human-parvovirus-b19-persists-in-tonsillar-b-cells
#11
Lari Pyöriä, Mari Toppinen, Elina Mäntylä, Lea Hedman, Leena-Maija Aaltonen, Maija Vihinen-Ranta, Taru Ilmarinen, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Klaus Hedman, Maria F Perdomo
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) DNA persists lifelong in human tissues, but the cell type harbouring it remains unclear. We here explore B19V DNA distribution in B, T and monocyte cell lineages of recently excised tonsillar tissues from 77 individuals with an age range of 2-69 years. We show that B19V DNA is most frequent and abundant among B cells, and within them we find a B19V genotype that vanished from circulation >40 years ago. Since re-infection or re-activation are unlikely with this virus type, this finding supports the maintenance of pathogen-specific humoral immune responses as a consequence of B-cell long-term survival rather than continuous replenishment of the memory pool...
April 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343958/simultanagnosia-does-not-affect-processes-of-auditory-gestalt-perception
#12
Johannes Rennig, Anna Lena Bleyer, Hans-Otto Karnath
Simultanagnosia is a neuropsychological deficit of higher visual processes caused by temporo-parietal brain damage. It is characterized by a specific failure of recognition of a global visual Gestalt, like a visual scene or complex objects, consisting of local elements. In this study we investigated to what extend this deficit should be understood as a deficit related to specifically the visual domain or whether it should be seen as defective Gestalt processing per se. To examine if simultanagnosia occurs across sensory domains, we designed several auditory experiments sharing typical characteristics of visual tasks that are known to be particularly demanding for patients suffering from simultanagnosia...
March 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341611/extinction-memory-is-facilitated-by-methylphenidate-and-regulated-by-dopamine-and-noradrenaline-receptors
#13
Cristiane R G Furini, Jonny A K Behling, Carolina G Zinn, Mara Lise Zanini, Eduardo Assis Brasil, Luiza Doro Pereira, Ivan Izquierdo, Jociane de Carvalho Myskiw
Extinction is defined as the learned inhibition of retrieval and is the mainstay of exposure therapy, which is widely used to treat drug addiction, phobias and fear disorders. The psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPH) is known to increase extracellular levels of noradrenaline and dopamine by blocking their reuptake and studies have demonstrated that MPH can modulate hippocampal physiology and/or functions including long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. However, the influence of MPH on fear extinction memory has been insufficiently studied...
March 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337114/precondition-of-right-frontal-region-with-anodal-tdcs-can-restore-the-fear-memory-impairment-induced-by-acpa-in-male-mice
#14
Fariborz Manteghi, Mohammad Nasehi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Fear memory and learning cause behavioural patterns such as fight or flight responses, which increase survival probability, but unfit processing of fear memory and learning can lead to maladaptive behaviours and maladies such as phobias, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and anxiety disorders. The growing prevalence of these maladies shows the need to quest novel methods for their treatment. We used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the right frontal region as a precondition neuromodulator and arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA), a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist, as a fear memory impairing agent to assess their effects on contextual and auditory fear conditioning (reliable model for fear studies)...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329757/neural-ensemble-dynamics-underlying-a-long-term-associative-memory
#15
Benjamin F Grewe, Jan Gründemann, Lacey J Kitch, Jerome A Lecoq, Jones G Parker, Jesse D Marshall, Margaret C Larkin, Pablo E Jercog, Francois Grenier, Jin Zhong Li, Andreas Lüthi, Mark J Schnitzer
The brain's ability to associate different stimuli is vital for long-term memory, but how neural ensembles encode associative memories is unknown. Here we studied how cell ensembles in the basal and lateral amygdala encode associations between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (CS and US, respectively). Using a miniature fluorescence microscope, we tracked the Ca(2+) dynamics of ensembles of amygdalar neurons during fear learning and extinction over 6 days in behaving mice. Fear conditioning induced both up- and down-regulation of individual cells' CS-evoked responses...
March 30, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320841/prefrontal-cortex-kca2-channels-regulate-mglu5-dependent-plasticity-and-extinction-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior
#16
Reginald Cannady, Justin T McGonigal, Ryan J Newsom, John J Woodward, Patrick J Mulholland, Justin T Gass
Identifying novel treatments that facilitate extinction learning could enhance cue-exposure therapy and reduce high relapse rates in alcoholics. Activation of mGlu5 receptors in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) facilitates learning during extinction of cue-conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa2) channels have also been implicated in extinction learning of fear memories, and mGlu5 receptor activation can reduce KCa2 channel function. Using a combination of electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches, this study examined KCa2 channels as a novel target to facilitate extinction of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298552/dynamic-expression-of-fkbp5-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-resiliency-to-conditioned-fear
#17
Marangelie Criado-Marrero, Roberto J Morales Silva, Bethzaly Velazquez, Anixa Hernández, María Colon, Emmanuel Cruz, Omar Soler-Cedeño, James T Porter
The factors influencing resiliency to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain to be elucidated. Clinical studies associate PTSD with polymorphisms of the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5). However, it is unclear whether changes in FKBP5 expression alone could produce resiliency or susceptibility to PTSD-like symptoms. In this study, we used rats as an animal model to examine whether FKBP5 in the infralimbic (IL) or prelimbic (PL) medial prefrontal cortex regulates fear conditioning or extinction...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288126/manipulating-fear-associations-via-optogenetic-modulation-of-amygdala-inputs-to-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Oded Klavir, Matthias Prigge, Ayelet Sarel, Rony Paz, Ofer Yizhar
Fear-related disorders are thought to reflect strong and persistent fear memories. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) form strong reciprocal synaptic connections that play a key role in acquisition and extinction of fear memories. While synaptic contacts of BLA cells onto mPFC neurons are likely to play a crucial role in this process, the BLA connects with several additional nuclei within the fear circuit that could relay fear-associated information to the mPFC, and the contribution of direct monosynaptic BLA-mPFC inputs is not yet clear...
March 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286265/vicarious-extinction-learning-during-reconsolidation-neutralizes-fear-memory
#19
Armita Golkar, Cathelijn Tjaden, Merel Kindt
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that fear memories can be updated when recalled, a process referred to as reconsolidation. Given the beneficial effects of model-based safety learning (i.e. vicarious extinction) in preventing the recovery of short-term fear memory, we examined whether consolidated long-term fear memories could be updated with safety learning accomplished through vicarious extinction learning initiated within the reconsolidation time-window. We assessed this in a final sample of 19 participants that underwent a three-day within-subject fear-conditioning design, using fear-potentiated startle as our primary index of fear learning...
February 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274824/extinction-after-fear-memory-reactivation-fails-to-eliminate-renewal-in-rats
#20
Travis D Goode, Crystal M Holloway-Erickson, Stephen Maren
Retrieving fear memories just prior to extinction has been reported to effectively erase fear memories and prevent fear relapse. The current study examined whether the type of retrieval procedure influences the ability of extinction to impair fear renewal, a form of relapse in which responding to a conditional stimulus (CS) returns outside of the extinction context. Rats first underwent Pavlovian fear conditioning with an auditory CS and footshock unconditional stimulus (US); freezing behavior served as the index of conditioned fear...
March 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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