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Memory extinction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819056/effects-of-sublethal-doses-of-thiacloprid-and-its-formulation-calypso-%C3%A2-on-the-learning-and-memory-performance-of-honey-bees
#1
Léa Tison, Sophie Holtz, Amy Adeoye, Önder Kalkan, Nina S Irmisch, Randolf Menzel
Learning and memory play a central role in behavior and communication of foraging bees. We already showed that chronic uptake of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid affects the behavior of honey bees in the field. Foraging behavior, homing success, navigation performance, and social communication were impaired. Thiacloprid collected at a feeding site at low doses accumulates in foragers over time. Here we applied a laboratory standard procedure, the proboscis extension response (PER) conditioning, in order to assess which processes, acquisition, memory consolidation and/or memory retrieval were compromised after bees were fed either with thiacloprid or the formulation of thiacloprid named Calypso(®) at 3 different sublethal doses...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814465/the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-a-model-of-traumatic-stress-fear-inhibition-or-contextual-processing
#2
Zachary T Pennington, Austin S Anderson, Michael S Fanselow
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has consistently appeared altered in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the vmPFC is thought to support the extinction of learned fear responses, several findings support a broader role for this structure in the regulation of fear. To further characterize the relationship between vmPFC dysfunction and responses to traumatic stress, we examined the effects of pretraining vmPFC lesions on trauma reactivity and enhanced fear learning in a rodent model of PTSD...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814464/on-the-transition-from-reconsolidation-to-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memories
#3
Lindsey F Cassini, Charlotte R Flavell, Olavo B Amaral, Jonathan L C Lee
Retrieval of an associative memory can lead to different phenomena. Brief reexposure sessions tend to trigger reconsolidation, whereas more extended ones trigger extinction. In appetitive and fear cued Pavlovian memories, an intermediate "null point" period has been observed where neither process seems to be engaged. Here we investigated whether this phenomenon extends to contextual fear memory. Adult rats were subjected to a contextual fear conditioning paradigm, reexposed to the context 2 d later for 3, 5, 10, 20, or 30 min, with immediate injections of MK-801 or saline following reexposure, and tested on the following day...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802645/p2x7-purinergic-receptors-participate-in-the-expression-and-extinction-processes-of-contextual-fear-conditioning-memory-in-mice
#4
L B Domingos, S C Hott, A L B Terzian, L B M Resstel
The purinergic system consists of two large receptor families - P2X and P2Y. Both are activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), although presenting different functions. These receptors are present in several brain regions, including those involved in emotion and stress-related behaviors. Hence, they seem to participate in fear- and anxiety-related responses. However, few studies have investigated the purinergic system in threatening situations, as observed in contextual fear conditioning (CFC). Therefore, this study investigated the involvement of purinergic receptors in the expression and extinction of aversive memories...
August 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798340/predictable-chronic-mild-stress-during-adolescence-promotes-fear-memory-extinction-in-adulthood
#5
Jia-Hui Deng, Wei Yan, Ying Han, Chen Chen, Shi-Qiu Meng, Cheng-Yu Sun, Ling-Zhi Xu, Yan-Xue Xue, Xue-Jiao Gao, Na Chen, Fei-Long Zhang, Yu-Mei Wang, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Early-life stress in adolescence has a long-lasting influence on brain function in adulthood, and it is mostly recognized as a predisposing factor for mental illnesses, such as anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. Previous studies also indicated that adolescent predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) in early life promotes resilience to depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. However, the role of PCMS in associated memory process is still unclear. In the present study, we found that adolescent PCMS facilitated extinction and inhibited fear response in reinstatement and spontaneous recovery tests in adult rats, and this effect was still present 1 week later...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780734/intra-accumbal-cannabinoid-agonist-attenuated-reinstatement-but-not-extinction-period-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-evidence-for-different-characteristics-of-extinction-period-and-reinstatement
#6
Hossein Khaleghzadeh-Ahangar, Abbas Haghparast
The brain reward system consists of the ventral tegmental area that sends its dopaminergic projections to the forebrain, cortical areas, amygdala and largely to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The present study aims were to investigate the effects of bilateral intra-accumbal microinjection of WIN55,212-2, a CB1 receptor agonist, on the duration of extinction period and reinstatement to morphine by the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in the rat. Forty-six adult male albino Wistar rats received intra-accumbal WIN55,212-2 [p0...
August 5, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768158/differential-effects-of-stress-on-fear-learning-and-activation-of-the-amygdala-in-pre-adolescent-and-adult-male-rats
#7
Georgia Barbayannis, Daly Franco, Solange Wong, Josselyn Galdamez, Russell D Romeo, Elizabeth P Bauer
Adolescence is accompanied by the maturation of several stress-responsive areas of the brain including the amygdala, a key region for the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. These changes may contribute to the development of stress-related disorders in adolescence, such as anxiety and depression, and increase the susceptibility to these psychopathologies later in life. Here, we assessed the effects of acute restraint stress on fear learning and amygdala activation in pre-adolescent and adult male rats...
July 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765085/a-preregistered-direct-replication-attempt-of-the-retrieval-extinction-effect-in-cued-fear-conditioning-in-rats
#8
Laura Luyten, Tom Beckers
In 2009, Monfils and colleagues proposed a behavioral procedure that was said to result in a permanent attenuation of a previously established fear memory, thereby precluding a possible return of fear after extinction (Monfils, Cowansage, Klann, & LeDoux, 2009). By presenting a single retrieval trial one hour before standard extinction training, they found an enduring reduction of fear. The retrieval-extinction procedure holds great clinical potential, particularly for anxiety patients, but the findings are not undisputed, and several conceptual replications have failed to reproduce the effect...
July 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754373/cannabidiol-disrupts-the-consolidation-of-specific-and-generalized-fear-memories-via-dorsal-hippocampus-cb1-and-cb2-receptors
#9
Cristina A J Stern, Thiago R da Silva, Ana M Raymundi, Camila P de Souza, Vinicius A Hiroaki-Sato, Luiza Kato, Francisco S Guimarães, Roberto Andreatini, Reinaldo N Takahashi, Leandro J Bertoglio
Pharmacological interventions able to modulate a fear memory while it is consolidated could have therapeutic value in tempering those maladaptively overconsolidated. Animal and human studies have shown the intensity of unconditioned stimulus delivered during fear conditioning influences qualitative and quantitative aspects of the memory to be established. By varying the shock intensity used for contextual pairing in rats, here we induced specific and more generalized long-term fear memories to investigate whether, how and where in the brain the cannabidiol (CBD; 3...
July 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749471/pre-synaptic-trkb-in-basolateral-amygdala-neurons-mediates-bdnf-signaling-transmission-in-memory-extinction
#10
Yuan Li, Dongdong Wang, Yang Li, Hongxia Chu, Lining Zhang, Ming Hou, Xingyu Jiang, Zheyu Chen, Bo Su, Tao Sun
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high affinity receptor, TrkB, play an essential role in memory extinction. Our previous work has shown that JIP3 (JNK interacted protein 3) mediates anterograde axonal transport of TrkB through the direct binding of its coiled-coil domain 1 (CC1) with TrkB. Here, we constructed a fluorescent CC1 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused protein, CC1-EGFP, and found that CC1-EGFP could specifically interrupt TrkB anterograde axonal transport and its localization at the pre-synaptic site...
July 27, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744133/real-time-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Óscar F Gonçalves, Marcelo C Batistuzzo, João R Sato
The current literature provides substantial evidence of brain alterations associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms (eg, checking, cleaning/decontamination, counting compulsions; harm or sexual, symmetry/exactness obsessions), and emotional problems (eg, defensive/appetitive emotional imbalance, disgust, guilt, shame, and fear learning/extinction) and cognitive impairments associated with this disorder (eg, inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility). Building on this evidence, new clinical trials can now target specific brain regions/networks...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741031/inhibition-of-serotonin-transporters-disrupts-the-enhancement-of-fear-memory-extinction-by-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma
#12
Matthew B Young, Seth D Norrholm, Lara M Khoury, Tanja Jovanovic, Sheila A M Rauch, Collin M Reiff, Boadie W Dunlop, Barbara O Rothbaum, Leonard L Howell
RATIONALE: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) persistently improves symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when combined with psychotherapy. Studies in rodents suggest that these effects can be attributed to enhancement of fear memory extinction. Therefore, MDMA may improve the effects of exposure-based therapy for PTSD, particularly in treatment-resistant patients. However, given MDMA's broad pharmacological profile, further investigation is warranted before moving to a complex clinical population...
July 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739376/functional-inactivation-of-dorsal-medial-striatum-alters-behavioral-flexibility-and-recognition-process-in-mice
#13
Yanhua Qiao, Xingyue Wang, Lian Ma, Shengguang Li, Jing Liang
Deficits in behavioral flexibility and recognition memory are commonly observed in mental illnesses and neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormality of the striatum has been implicated in an association with the pathology of these diseases. However, the exact roles of striatal heterogeneous structures in these cognitive functions are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of suppressing neuronal activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMStr) and nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) on reversal learning and novelty recognition in mice...
July 21, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729826/sleep-dependent-oscillatory-synchronization-a-role-in-fear-memory-consolidation
#14
Michael S Totty, Logan A Chesney, Phillip A Geist, Subimal Datta
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation through the facilitation of neuronal plasticity; however, how sleep accomplishes this remains to be completely understood. It has previously been demonstrated that neural oscillations are an intrinsic mechanism by which the brain precisely controls neural ensembles. Inter-regional synchronization of these oscillations is also known to facilitate long-range communication and long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, we investigated how the characteristic rhythms found in local field potentials (LFPs) during non-REM and REM sleep play a role in emotional memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729064/effects-of-cannabinoid-drugs-on-aversive-and-rewarding-drug-associated-memory-extinction-and-reconsolidation
#15
REVIEW
Cristina A J Stern, Cristiane R de Carvalho, Leandro J Bertoglio, Reinaldo N Takahashi
Posttraumatic stress and drug use disorders may stem from aberrant memory formation. As the endocannabinoid (eCB) system has a pivotal role in emotional memory processing and related synaptic plasticity, here we seek to review and discuss accumulating evidence on how and where in the brain interventions targeting the eCB system would attenuate outcomes associated with traumatic events and/or drug addiction through memory extinction facilitation or memory reconsolidation disruption. Currently available data from mouse, rat, monkey and healthy human studies investigating the effects of cannabinoid drugs on the extinction and reconsolidation of aversive memories are more consistent than those related to rewarding drug-associated memories...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720521/increased-entrances-to-side-compartments-indicate-incubation-of-craving-in-morphine-induced-rat-and-tree-shrew-cpp-models
#16
Yongmei Sun, Zijiao Pan, Yuanye Ma
In humans, cues associated with the rewarding effect of drugs of abuse induce drug craving and activate drug-associated memories after prolonged abstinence. In animal studies with the self-administration (SA) paradigm, responses to drug-associated cues increase within time after extinction, a phenomenon described as incubation of craving. Conditioned place preference (CPP) is widely used to measure the rewarding effect of drugs and the reward memory thereof. However, little is known whether responses to drug associated cues progressively increase after abstinence from the drugs in the CPP paradigm...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720520/neural-systems-mediating-the-inhibition-of-cocaine-seeking-behaviors
#17
REVIEW
Victória A Ewald, Ryan T LaLumiere
Over the past decades, research has targeted the neurobiology regulating cocaine-seeking behaviors, largely in the hopes of identifying potential targets for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Although much of this work has focused on those systems driving cocaine seeking, recently, studies examining the inhibition of cocaine-related behaviors have made significant progress in uncovering the neural systems that attenuate cocaine seeking. Such systems include the infralimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and hypothalamus...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720405/persistent-cognitive-and-morphological-alterations-induced-by-repeated-exposure-of-adolescent-rats-to-the-abused-inhalant-toluene
#18
K M Braunscheidel, J T Gass, P J Mulholland, S B Floresco, J J Woodward
While thepsychoactive inhalant toluene causes behavioral effects similarto those produced by other drugs of abuse, the persistent behavioral and anatomical abnormalities induced by toluene exposure are not well known. To mimic human "binge-like" inhalant intoxication, adolescent, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene vapor (5700ppm) twice daily for five consecutive days. These rats remained in their home cages until adulthood (P60), when they were trained in operant boxes to respond to a palatable food reward and then challenged with several different cognitive tasks...
July 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719827/mixed-evidence-for-the-potential-of-non-invasive-transcutaneous-vagal-nerve-stimulation-to-improve-the-extinction-and-retention-of-fear
#19
A M Burger, B Verkuil, H Fenlon, L Thijs, L Cools, H C Miller, B Vervliet, I Van Diest
Extinction memories are fragile and their formation has been proposed to partially rely on vagus nerve activity. We tested whether stimulating the auricular branch of the vagus (transcutaneous VNS; tVNS) accelerates extinction and reduces spontaneous recovery of fear. Forty-two healthy students participated in a 3-day fear conditioning study, where we tested fear acquisition (day 1), fear extinction (day 2) and the retention of the extinction memory (day 3). During extinction, participants were randomly allocated to receive tVNS or sham stimulation concurrently with each CS presentation...
July 8, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716957/ampa-receptors-control-fear-extinction-through-an-arc-dependent-mechanism
#20
Simon Trent, Philip Barnes, Jeremy Hall, Kerrie L Thomas
Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) supports fear memory through synaptic plasticity events requiring actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. We have previously shown that reducing hippocampal Arc levels through antisense knockdown leads to the premature extinction of contextual fear. Here we show that the AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX elevates hippocampal Arc levels during extinction and blocks extinction that can be rescued by reducing Arc. Increasing Arc levels with CNQX also overcomes the actin-destabilizing properties of cytochalasin D and promotes extinction...
August 2017: Learning & Memory
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