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Memory consolidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103267/retro-active-emotion-do-negative-emotional-stimuli-disrupt-consolidation-in-working-memory
#1
Güven Kandemir, Elkan G Akyürek, Mark R Nieuwenstein
While many studies have shown that a task-irrelevant emotionally arousing stimulus can interfere with the processing of a shortly following target, it remains unclear whether an emotional stimulus can also retro-actively interrupt the ongoing processing of an earlier target. In two experiments, we examined whether the presentation of a negative emotionally arousing picture can disrupt working memory consolidation of a preceding visual target. In both experiments, the effects of negative emotional pictures were compared with the effects of neutral pictures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103200/depressive-symptoms-influence-global-cognitive-impairment-indirectly-by-reducing-memory-and-executive-function-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Chathuri Yatawara, Levinia Lim, Russell Chander, Juan Zhou, Nagaendran Kandiah
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms negatively influence global cognition in the elderly; however, the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether depressive symptoms influence global cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) by impeding specific neuropsychological abilities and under what conditions this effect might occur. METHOD: A sample of 259 participants (104 cognitively normal elderly controls, 66 patients with MCI and 89 patients with mild AD) underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment...
December 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100737/selectivity-in-postencoding-connectivity-with-high-level-visual-cortex-is-associated-with-reward-motivated-memory
#3
Vishnu P Murty, Alexa Tompary, R Alison Adcock, Lila Davachi
: Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems-level consolidation. Although high-reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for high value information is prioritized. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that postencoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of postencoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100730/sleep-to-remember
#4
Susan J Sara
Scientific investigation into the possible role of sleep in memory consolidation began with the early studies of Jenkins and Dallenbach (1924). Despite nearly a century of investigation with a waxing and waning of interest, the role of sleep in memory processing remains controversial and elusive. This review provides the historical background for current views and considers the relative contribution of two sleep states, rapid eye movement sleep and slow-wave sleep, to offline memory processing. The sequential hypothesis, until now largely ignored, is discussed, and recent literature supporting this view is reviewed...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100032/sequential-learning-during-contextual-fear-conditioning-guides-the-rate-of-systems-consolidation-implications-for-consolidation-of-multiple-memory-traces
#5
Lizeth K Pedraza, Rodrigo O Sierra, Ana P Crestani, Jorge A Quillfeldt, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares
Systems consolidation has been described as a time-dependent reorganization process involving the neocortical and hippocampal networks underlying memory storage and retrieval. Previous studies of our lab were able to demonstrate that systems consolidation is a dynamic process, rather than a merely passive, time-dependent phenomenon. Here, we studied the influence of sequential learning in contextual fear conditioning (CFC) with different training intensities in the time-course of hippocampal dependency and contextual specificity...
January 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093507/mosaic-expression-of-atrx-in-the-central-nervous-system-causes-memory-deficits
#6
Renee J Tamming, Jennifer R Siu, Yan Jiang, Marco A M Prado, Frank Beier, Nathalie G Bérubé
The rapid modulation of chromatin organization is thought to play a critical role in cognitive processes such as memory consolidation. This is supported in part by the dysregulation of many chromatin remodeling proteins in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. A key example is ATRX, an X-linked gene commonly mutated in individuals with syndromic and non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID). The consequences of Atrx inactivation on learning and memory have been difficult to evaluate due to the early lethality of hemizygous-null animals...
January 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092659/rem-sleep-selectively-prunes-and-maintains-new-synapses-in-development-and-learning
#7
Wei Li, Lei Ma, Guang Yang, Wen-Biao Gan
The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087764/accumulation-of-polyribosomes-in-dendritic-spine-heads-but-not-bases-and-necks-during-memory-consolidation-depends-on-cap-dependent-translation-initiation
#8
Linnaea E Ostroff, Benjamin Botsford, Sofya Gindina, Kiriana K Cowansage, Joseph E LeDoux, Eric Klann, Charles Hoeffer
: Translation in dendrites is believed to support synaptic changes during memory consolidation. Although translational control mechanisms are fundamental mediators of memory, little is known about their role in local translation. We previously found that polyribosomes accumulate in dendritic spines of the adult rat lateral amygdala (LA) during consolidation of aversive Pavlovian conditioning, and that this memory requires cap-dependent initiation, a primary point of translational control in eukaryotic cells...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087334/the-short-and-long-term-proteomic-effects-of-sleep-deprivation-on-the-cortical-and-thalamic-synapses
#9
Attila Simor, Balázs András Györffy, Péter Gulyássy, Katalin Völgyi, Vilmos Tóth, Mihail Ivilinov Todorov, Viktor Kis, Zsolt Borhegyi, Zoltán Szabó, Tamás Janáky, László Drahos, Gábor Juhász, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi
Acute total sleep deprivation (SD) impairs memory consolidation, attention, working memory and perception. Structural, electrophysiological and molecular experimental approaches provided evidences for the involvement of sleep in synaptic functions. Despite the wide scientific interest on the effects of sleep on the synapse, there is a lack of systematic investigation of sleep-related changes in the synaptic proteome. We isolated parietal cortical and thalamic synaptosomes of rats after 8 h of total SD by gentle handling and 16 h after the end of deprivation to investigate the short- and longer-term effects of SD on the synaptic proteome, respectively...
January 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072410/pre-trauma-methylphenidate-in-rats-reduces-ptsd-like-reactions-one-month-later
#10
G Ritov, G Richter-Levin
In basic research, the etiology of fear-related pathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is conceptualized using fear-conditioning protocols that pair environmental stimuli (that is, a conditioned stimulus-CS) with an aversive, unconditioned stimulus (US) to elicit an assessable conditioned fear response. Although pathophysiological models agree that regulatory dysfunctions in this associative process may instigate fear-related pathology, current opinions differ in regard to the nature of these dysfunctions...
January 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070686/turn-left-where-you-felt-unhappy-how-affect-influences-landmark-based-wayfinding
#11
Ceylan Z Balaban, Harun Karimpur, Florian Röser, Kai Hamburger
The present work investigated the impact of affect in landmark-based wayfinding. We assumed that affect-laden landmarks improve wayfinding performance and have an impact on later landmark recognition. To investigate our hypotheses, we ran two experiments in a virtual maze. In Experiment 1, we investigated how affect-laden landmarks influence wayfinding and recognition in comparison with neutral landmarks. The aim of Experiment 2 was to focus on the affective valence of a landmark. The memory tasks of both experiments were repeated after 1 week in order to assess memory consolidation...
January 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068640/transient-medial-prefrontal-perturbation-reduces-false-memory-formation
#12
Ruud M W J Berkers, Marieke van der Linden, Rafael F de Almeida, Nils C J Müller, Leonore Bovy, Martin Dresler, Richard G M Morris, Guillén Fernández
Knowledge extracted across previous experiences, or schemas, benefit encoding and retention of congruent information. However, they can also reduce specificity and augment memory for semantically related, but false information. A demonstration of the latter is given by the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, where the studying of words that fit a common semantic schema are found to induce false memories for words that are congruent with the given schema, but were not studied. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been ascribed the function of leveraging prior knowledge to influence encoding and retrieval, based on imaging and patient studies...
December 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068565/retinal-thinning-is-uniquely-associated-with-medial-temporal-lobe-atrophy-in-neurologically-normal-older-adults
#13
Kaitlin B Casaletto, Michael E Ward, Nicholas S Baker, Brianne M Bettcher, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Yaqiao Li, Robert Chen, Shubir Dutt, Bruce Miller, Joel H Kramer, Ari J Green
Given the converging pathologic and epidemiologic data indicating a relationship between retinal integrity and neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), we aimed to determine if retinal structure correlates with medial temporal lobe (MTL) structure and function in neurologically normal older adults. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, verbal and visual memory testing, and 3T-magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were performed in 79 neurologically normal adults enrolled in a healthy aging cohort study...
December 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067617/role-of-protein-synthesis-and-dna-methylation-in-the-consolidation-and-maintenance-of-long-term-memory-in-aplysia
#14
Kaycey Pearce, Diancai Cai, Adam C Roberts, David L Glanzman
Previously, we reported that long-term memory (LTM) in Aplysia can be reinstated by truncated (partial) training following its disruption by reconsolidation blockade and inhibition of PKM (Chen et al., 2014). Here, we report thatLTM can be induced by partial training after disruption of original consolidation by protein synthesis inhibition (PSI) begun shortly after training. But when PSI occurs during training, partial training cannot subsequently establish LTM. Furthermore, we find that inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), whether during training or shortly afterwards, blocks consolidation of LTM and prevents its subsequent induction by truncated training; moreover, later inhibition of DNMT eliminates consolidated LTM...
January 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065806/-tagging-along-memories-in-aging-synaptic-tagging-and-capture-mechanisms-in-the-aged-hippocampus
#15
REVIEW
Mahesh Shivarama Shetty, Sreedharan Sajikumar
Aging is accompanied by a general decline in the physiological functions of the body with the deteriorating organ systems. Brain is no exception to this and deficits in cognitive functions are quite common in advanced aging. Though a variety of age-related alterations are observed in the structure and function throughout the brain, certain regions show selective vulnerability. Medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is one such preferentially vulnerable region and is a crucial structure involved in the learning and long-term memory functions...
January 5, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062924/memory-formation-orchestrates-the-wiring-of-adult-born-hippocampal-neurons-into-brain-circuits
#16
Petnoi Petsophonsakul, Kevin Richetin, Trinovita Andraini, Laurent Roybon, Claire Rampon
During memory formation, structural rearrangements of dendritic spines provide a mean to durably modulate synaptic connectivity within neuronal networks. New neurons generated throughout the adult life in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus contribute to learning and memory. As these neurons become incorporated into the network, they generate huge numbers of new connections that modify hippocampal circuitry and functioning. However, it is yet unclear as to how the dynamic process of memory formation influences their synaptic integration into neuronal circuits...
January 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057528/role-of-d2-dopamine-receptors-of-the-ventral-pallidum-in-inhibitory-avoidance-learning
#17
László Lénárd, Tamás Ollmann, Kristóf László, Anita Kovács, Rita Gálosi, Veronika Kállai, Tóth Attila, Erika Kertes, Olga Zagoracz, Zoltán Karádi, László Péczely
In our present experiments, the role of D2 dopamine (DA) receptors of the ventral pallidum (VP) was investigated in one trial step-through inhibitory avoidance paradigm. Animals were shocked 3 times in the conditioning trial, with 0.5mA current for 1s. Subsequently bilateral microinjection of the D2 DA receptor agonist quinpirole was administered into the VP in three doses (0.1μg, 1.0μg or 5.0μg in 0.4μl saline). We also applied the D2 DA receptor antagonist sulpiride (0.4μg in 0.4μl saline) alone or 15min prior to the agonist treatment to elucidate whether the agonist effect was specific for the D2 DA receptors...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051993/serotonergic-synergy-in-the-pharmacotherapy-of-acute-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-exacerbation-a-case-report
#18
J Gibson Pennington, Jeffrey Guina
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often associated with acute panic, dissociation, suicidality, and aggression. However, pharmacologic interventions for such acute exacerbations are understudied. In this article, we report a case of combat-related PTSD with severe panic, suicidality, and agitation which responded favorably to a combination of ziprasidone, propranolol, and hydroxyzine. METHODS: An extensive literature search did not reveal any use of this combination, and there were few studies about each medication individually, with regard to PTSD...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051138/prior-knowledge-is-essential-for-the-beneficial-effect-of-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep
#19
Sabine Groch, Thomas Schreiner, Björn Rasch, Reto Huber, Ines Wilhelm
Prior knowledge speeds up system consolidation and accelerates integration of newly acquired memories into existing neocortical knowledge networks. By using targeted memory reactivations, we demonstrate that prior knowledge is also essential for successful reactivation and consolidation of memories during sleep, both on the behavioral and oscillatory level (i.e., theta and fast spindle activity). Thus, prior knowledge is a prerequisite for new memories to enter processes of system consolidation during sleep...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049026/memory-consolidation-of-socially-relevant-stimuli-during-sleep-in-healthy-children-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-oppositional-defiant-disorder-what-you-can-see-in-their-eyes
#20
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Ina Molzow, Alexandra Förster, Nadine Siebenhühner, Maxime Gesch, Christian D Wiesner, Lioba Baving
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display deficits in sleep-dependent memory consolidation, and being comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), results in deficits in face processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sleep in recognizing faces in children with ADHD+ODD. Sixteen healthy children and 16 children diagnosed with ADHD+ODD participated in a sleep and a wake condition. During encoding (sleep condition at 8p.m.; wake condition at 8a.m...
December 31, 2016: Biological Psychology
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