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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821677/disruption-of-m1-activity-during-performance-plateau-impairs-consolidation-of-motor-memories
#1
Raphaël Hamel, Maxime Trempe, Pierre-Michel Bernier
Upon exposure to a new sensorimotor relationship, motor behaviors iteratively change early in adaptation, but eventually stabilize as adaptation proceeds. Behavioral work suggests that motor memory consolidation is initiated upon the attainment of asymptotic levels of performance. Separate lines of evidence point to a critical role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in consolidation. However, a causal relationship between M1 activity during asymptote and consolidation has yet to be demonstrated. The present study investigated this issue in male and female participants using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere with post-movement activity in M1 in two behavioral phases of a ramp-and-hold visuomotor adaptation paradigm...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821659/stim1-regulates-somatic-ca-2-signals-and-intrinsic-firing-properties-of-cerebellar-purkinje-neurons
#2
Changhyeon Ryu, Dong Cheol Jang, Dayoon Jung, Yong Gyu Kim, Hyun Geun Shim, Hyun-Hee Ryu, Yong-Seok Lee, David J Linden, Paul F Worley, Sang Jeong Kim
Control of Ca(2+) flux between the cytosol and intracellular Ca(2+) stores is essential for maintaining normal cellular function. It has been well established in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells that stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) initiates and regulates refilling Ca(2+) into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we describe a novel, additional role for STIM1, regulation of free cytosolic Ca(2+) and consequent control of spike firing in neurons. Among central neurons, cerebellar Purkinje neurons express the highest level of STIM1 and they fire continuously in the absence of stimulation, making somatic Ca(2+) homeostasis of particular importance...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821652/calpain-grip-signaling-in-nucleus-accumbens-core-mediates-the-reconsolidation-of-drug-reward-memory
#3
Jie Liang, Jia-Li Li, Ying Han, Yi-Xiao Luo, Yan-Xue Xue, Yàn Zhang, Yán Zhang, Li-Bo Zhang, Man-Li Chen, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Exposure to drug-paired cues causes drug memories to be in a destabilized state, and interfering with memory reconsolidation can inhibit relapse. Calpain, a calcium-dependent neutral cysteine protease, is involved in synaptic plasticity and the formation of long-term fear memory. However, the role of calpain in the reconsolidation of drug reward memory is still unknown. In the present study, using conditioned place preference (CPP) model, we found that exposure to drug-paired contextual stimuli induced the activation of calpain and decreased the expression of glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core but not shell of male rats...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821446/diet-induced-obesity-alters-memory-consolidation-in-female-rats
#4
P Zanini, B D Arbo, G Niches, D Czarnabay, F Benetti, M F Ribeiro, A L Cecconello
Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which is caused by an energy imbalance between consumed and expended calories. Obesity leads to an inflammatory response that may result in peripheral and central metabolic changes, including insulin and leptin resistance. Insulin and leptin resistance have been associated with metabolic and cognitive dysfunctions. Obesity and some neurodegenerative diseases that lead to dementia affect mainly women. However, the effects of diet-induced obesity on memory consolidation in female rats are poorly understood...
August 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819056/effects-of-sublethal-doses-of-thiacloprid-and-its-formulation-calypso-%C3%A2-on-the-learning-and-memory-performance-of-honey-bees
#5
Léa Tison, Sophie Holtz, Amy Adeoye, Önder Kalkan, Nina S Irmisch, Randolf Menzel
Learning and memory play a central role in behavior and communication of foraging bees. We already showed that chronic uptake of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid affects the behavior of honey bees in the field. Foraging behavior, homing success, navigation performance, and social communication were impaired. Thiacloprid collected at a feeding site at low doses accumulates in foragers over time. Here we applied a laboratory standard procedure, the proboscis extension response (PER) conditioning, in order to assess which processes, acquisition, memory consolidation and/or memory retrieval were compromised after bees were fed either with thiacloprid or the formulation of thiacloprid named Calypso(®) at 3 different sublethal doses...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818702/the-effects-of-cannabinoid-receptors-activation-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-deactivation-in-the-amygdala-and-hippocampus-on-the-consolidation-of-a-traumatic-event
#6
Noa Shoshan, Irit Akirav
Ample evidence demonstrates that fear learning contributes significantly to many anxiety pathologies including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The endocannabinoid (eCB) system may offer therapeutic benefits for PTSD and it is a modulator of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Here we compared the separated and combined effects of blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) using the GR antagonist RU486 and enhancing CB1r signaling using the CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 in the CA1 and basolateral amygdala (BLA) on the consolidation of traumatic memory...
August 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818692/suppression-of-irrelevant-sounds-during-auditory-working-memory
#7
Jyrki Ahveninen, Larry J Seidman, Wei-Tang Chang, Matti Hämäläinen, Samantha Huang
Auditory working memory (WM) processing in everyday acoustic environments depends on our ability to maintain relevant information online in our minds, and to suppress interference caused by competing incoming stimuli. A challenge in communication settings is that the relevant content and irrelevant inputs may emanate from a common source, such as a talkative conversationalist. An open question is how the WM system deals with such interference. Will the distracters become inadvertently filtered before processing for meaning because the primary WM operations deplete all available processing resources? Or are they suppressed post perceptually, through an active control process? We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring magnetoencephalography (MEG), EEG, and functional MRI (fMRI) during a phonetic auditory continuous performance task...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814473/breaking-boundaries-optimizing-reconsolidation-based-interventions-for-strong-and-old-memories
#8
James W B Elsey, Merel Kindt
Recent research has demonstrated that consolidated memories can enter a temporary labile state after reactivation, requiring restabilization in order to persist. This process, known as reconsolidation, potentially allows for the modification and disruption of memory. Much interest in reconsolidation stems from the possibility that maladaptive memory traces-a core feature of several psychiatric conditions-could be tackled by disrupting their reconsolidation. However, research has indicated a range of supposed boundary conditions on the induction of reconsolidation...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802836/neocortical-prodynorphin-expression-is-transiently-increased-with-learning-implications-for-time-and-learning-dependent-neocortical-kappa-opioid-receptor-activation
#9
Ryan Loh, Sean Collins, Roberto Galvez
There are several lines of evidence that indicate a prominent role for the opioid system in the acquisition and consolidation of learned associations. Specifically, kappa opioid receptor (KOR) modulation has been demonstrated to alter various behavioral tasks including whisker trace eyeblink conditioning (WTEB). WTEB is an associative conditioning paradigm in which a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; Whisker stimulation) is paired following a short stimulus free trace interval with a salient unconditioned stimulus that elicits a blink response (US; Eye shock)...
August 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790905/task-complexity-modulates-sleep-related-offline-learning-in-sequential-motor-skills
#10
Klaus Blischke, Andreas Malangré
Recently, a number of authors have advocated the introduction of gross motor tasks into research on sleep-related motor offline learning. Such tasks are often designed to be more complex than traditional key-pressing tasks. However, until now, little effort has been undertaken to scrutinize the role of task complexity in any systematic way. Therefore, the effect of task complexity on the consolidation of gross motor sequence memory was examined by our group in a series of three experiments. Criterion tasks always required participants to produce unrestrained arm movement sequences by successively fitting a small peg into target holes on a pegboard...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790901/reversible-inactivation-of-the-higher-order-auditory-cortex-during-fear-memory-consolidation-prevents-memory-related-activity-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-during-remote-memory-retrieval
#11
Marco Cambiaghi, Annamaria Renna, Luisella Milano, Benedetto Sacchetti
Recent findings have shown that the auditory cortex, and specifically the higher order Te2 area, is necessary for the consolidation of long-term fearful memories and that it interacts with the amygdala during the retrieval of long-term fearful memories. Here, we tested whether the reversible blockade of Te2 during memory consolidation may affect the activity changes occurring in the amygdala during the retrieval of fearful memories. To address this issue, we blocked Te2 in a reversible manner during memory consolidation processes...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790188/noradrenergic-activation-of-the-basolateral-amygdala-maintains-hippocampus-dependent-accuracy-of-remote-memory
#12
Erika Atucha, Vanja Vukojevic, Raquel V Fornari, Giacomo Ronzoni, Philippe Demougin, Fabian Peter, Piray Atsak, Marcel W Coolen, Andreas Papassotiropoulos, James L McGaugh, Dominique J-F de Quervain, Benno Roozendaal
Emotional enhancement of memory by noradrenergic mechanisms is well-described, but the long-term consequences of such enhancement are poorly understood. Over time, memory traces are thought to undergo a neural reorganization, that is, a systems consolidation, during which they are, at least partly, transferred from the hippocampus to neocortical networks. This transfer is accompanied by a decrease in episodic detailedness. Here we investigated whether norepinephrine (NE) administration into the basolateral amygdala after training on an inhibitory avoidance discrimination task, comprising two distinct training contexts, alters systems consolidation dynamics to maintain episodic-like accuracy and hippocampus dependency of remote memory...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790020/prenatal-choline-supplementation-attenuates-mk-801-induced-deficits-in-memory-motor-function-and-hippocampal-plasticity-in-adult-male-rats
#13
Chelsea A Nickerson, Alexandra L Brown, Waylin Yu, Yoona Chun, Melissa J Glenn
Choline is essential to the development and function of the central nervous system and supplemental choline during development is neuroprotective against a variety of insults, including neurotoxins like dizocilpine (MK-801). MK-801 is an NMDA receptor antagonist that is frequently used in rodent models of psychological disorders, particularly schizophrenia. At low doses, it causes cognitive impairments, and at higher doses it induces motor deficits, anhedonia, and neuronal degeneration. The primary goals of the present study were to investigate whether prenatal choline supplementation protects against the cognitive impairments, motor deficits, and neuropathologies that are precipitated by MK-801 administration in adulthood...
August 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789932/the-effects-of-anandamide-and-oleamide-on-cognition-depend-on-diurnal-variations
#14
Pavel E Rueda-Orozco, Corinne J Montes-Rodriguez Cj, Alejandra E Ruiz-Contreras, Monica Mendez-Diaz, Oscar Prospero-Garcia
Cannabinergic receptor 1 (CB1r) is highly expressed in almost the entire brain; hence, its activation affects diverse functions, including cognitive processes such as learning and memory. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that CB1r expression fluctuates along the light-dark cycle. In this context, the objective of this work was to characterize the cannabinergic influence over cognitive processes and its relationship with the light-dark cycle. To this aim we studied the effects of two endogenous cannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and oleamide (ODA), on the consolidation of memory and event-related potentials (ERPs) depending on the light-dark cycle...
August 5, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777180/sleep-wake-disorders-of-childhood
#15
Suresh Kotagal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep-wake disorders occur in 10% to 28% of children and differ somewhat in pathophysiology and management from sleep-wake disorders in adults. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of key childhood sleep disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of sleep in memory consolidation and in the facilitation of learning has been increasingly recognized, even at the toddler stage. Cataplexy, a key feature of narcolepsy type 1, may be subtle in childhood and characterized by transient muscle weakness isolated to the face...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777057/what-you-see-is-what-you-remember-visual-chunking-by-temporal-integration-enhances-working-memory
#16
Elkan G Akyürek, Nils Kappelmann, Marc Volkert, Hedderik van Rijn
Human memory benefits from information clustering, which can be accomplished by chunking. Chunking typically relies on expertise and strategy, and it is unknown whether perceptual clustering over time, through temporal integration, can also enhance working memory. The current study examined the attentional and working memory costs of temporal integration of successive target stimulus pairs embedded in rapid serial visual presentation. ERPs were measured as a function of behavioral reports: One target, two separate targets, or two targets reported as a single integrated target...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772119/the-biology-of-forgetting-a-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Ronald L Davis, Yi Zhong
Pioneering research studies, beginning with those using Drosophila, have identified several molecular and cellular mechanisms for active forgetting. The currently known mechanisms for active forgetting include neurogenesis-based forgetting, interference-based forgetting, and intrinsic forgetting, the latter term describing the brain's chronic signaling systems that function to slowly degrade molecular and cellular memory traces. The best-characterized pathway for intrinsic forgetting includes "forgetting cells" that release dopamine onto engram cells, mobilizing a signaling pathway that terminates in the activation of Rac1/Cofilin to effect changes in the actin cytoskeleton and neuron/synapse structure...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769066/long-term-memory-requires-sequential-protein-synthesis-in-three-subsets-of-mushroom-body-output-neurons-in-drosophila
#18
Jie-Kai Wu, Chu-Yi Tai, Kuan-Lin Feng, Shiu-Ling Chen, Chun-Chao Chen, Ann-Shyn Chiang
Creating long-term memory (LTM) requires new protein synthesis to stabilize learning-induced synaptic changes in the brain. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, aversive olfactory learning forms several phases of labile memory to associate an odor with coincident punishment in the mushroom body (MB). It remains unclear how the brain consolidates early labile memory into LTM. Here, we survey 183 Gal4 lines containing almost all 21 distinct types of MB output neurons (MBONs) and show that sequential synthesis of learning-induced proteins occurs at three types of MBONs...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768717/formin-2-links-neuropsychiatric-phenotypes-at-young-age-to-an-increased-risk-for-dementia
#19
Roberto Carlos Agís-Balboa, Paulo Pinhero, Nelson Rebola, Cemil Kerimoglu, Eva Benito, Michael Gertig, Sanaz Bahari-Javan, Gaurav Jain, Susanne Burkhardt, Ivana Delalle, Alexander Jatzko, Markus Dettenhofer, Patricia A Zunszain, Andrea Schmitt, Peter Falkai, Julius C Pape, Elisabeth B Binder, Christophe Mulle, Andre Fischer, Farahnaz Sananbenesi
Age-associated memory decline is due to variable combinations of genetic and environmental risk factors. How these risk factors interact to drive disease onset is currently unknown. Here we begin to elucidate the mechanisms by which post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a young age contributes to an increased risk to develop dementia at old age. We show that the actin nucleator Formin 2 (Fmn2) is deregulated in PTSD and in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Young mice lacking the Fmn2 gene exhibit PTSD-like phenotypes and corresponding impairments of synaptic plasticity, while the consolidation of new memories is unaffected...
August 2, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766463/long-term-effects-of-directed-forgetting
#20
Almut Hupbach
The intention to forget reduces the accessibility of information in memory, which is commonly explained with temporary retrieval difficulties. Long-term effects have rarely been studied, and results are inconsistent. The present study re-assessed the long-term effects of directed forgetting (DF). Participants encoded a first list of items (L1), and were then instructed to forget or to remember this list. Immediately afterwards, all participants were presented with a second list to remember. In Experiment 1, memory for L1 and L2 was assessed after a 24-h delay...
August 2, 2017: Memory
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