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Memory consolidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909312/the-association-between-physical-activity-during-the-day-and-long-term-memory-stability
#1
Matthew B Pontifex, Kathryn L Gwizdala, Andrew C Parks, Karin A Pfeiffer, Kimberly M Fenn
Despite positive associations between chronic physical activity and memory; we have little understanding of how best to incorporate physical activity during the day to facilitate the consolidation of information into memory, nor even how time spent physically active during the day relates to memory processes. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relation between physical activity during the day and long-term memory. Ninety-two young adults learned a list of paired-associate items and were tested on the items after a 12-hour interval during which heart rate was recorded continuously...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905080/a-neural-model-of-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-consolidation-adaptively-timed-conditioning-hippocampus-amnesia-neurotrophins-and-consciousness
#2
Daniel J Franklin, Stephen Grossberg
How do the hippocampus and amygdala interact with thalamocortical systems to regulate cognitive and cognitive-emotional learning? Why do lesions of thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex have differential effects depending on the phase of learning when they occur? In particular, why is the hippocampus typically needed for trace conditioning, but not delay conditioning, and what do the exceptions reveal? Why do amygdala lesions made before or immediately after training decelerate conditioning while those made later do not? Why do thalamic or sensory cortical lesions degrade trace conditioning more than delay conditioning? Why do hippocampal lesions during trace conditioning experiments degrade recent but not temporally remote learning? Why do orbitofrontal cortical lesions degrade temporally remote but not recent or post-lesion learning? How is temporally graded amnesia caused by ablation of prefrontal cortex after memory consolidation? How are attention and consciousness linked during conditioning? How do neurotrophins, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), influence memory formation and consolidation? Is there a common output path for learned performance? A neural model proposes a unified answer to these questions that overcome problems of alternative memory models...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903731/memory-transformation-enhances-reinforcement-learning-in-dynamic-environments
#3
Adam Santoro, Paul W Frankland, Blake A Richards
: Over the course of systems consolidation, there is a switch from a reliance on detailed episodic memories to generalized schematic memories. This switch is sometimes referred to as "memory transformation." Here we demonstrate a previously unappreciated benefit of memory transformation, namely, its ability to enhance reinforcement learning in a dynamic environment. We developed a neural network that is trained to find rewards in a foraging task where reward locations are continuously changing...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903437/the-impact-of-sleep-on-true-and-false-memory-across-long-delays
#4
Enmanuelle Pardilla-Delgado, Jessica D Payne
While the influence of sleep on memory has a long history, sleep's role in the formation of false memories is less clear. Moreover, virtually nothing is known about the development of false memories beyond delays of about 12 hours. Here, for the first time, we assess post-sleep development of true and false memories across longer delay intervals of 24 and 48 hours. Although technically a false memory, remembering information that is related to the theme, or gist, of an experience can be considered an adaptive process...
November 26, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898050/memory-consolidation-reconfigures-neural-pathways-involved-in-the-suppression-of-emotional-memories
#5
Yunzhe Liu, Wanjun Lin, Chao Liu, Yuejia Luo, Jianhui Wu, Peter J Bayley, Shaozheng Qin
The ability to suppress unwanted emotional memories is crucial for human mental health. Through consolidation over time, emotional memories often become resistant to change. However, how consolidation impacts the effectiveness of emotional memory suppression is still unknown. Using event-related fMRI while concurrently recording skin conductance, we investigated the neurobiological processes underlying the suppression of aversive memories before and after overnight consolidation. Here we report that consolidated aversive memories retain their emotional reactivity and become more resistant to suppression...
November 29, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897969/satb2-determines-mirna-expression-and-long-term-memory-in-the-adult-central-nervous-system
#6
Clemens Jaitner, Chethan Reddy, Andreas Abentung, Nigel Whittle, Dietmar Rieder, Andrea Delekate, Martin Korte, Gaurav Jain, Andre Fischer, Farahnaz Sananbenesi, Isabella Cera, Nicolas Singewald, Georg Dechant, Galina Apostolova
SATB2 is a risk locus for schizophrenia and encodes a DNA-binding protein that regulates higher-order chromatin configuration. In the adult brain Satb2 is almost exclusively expressed in pyramidal neurons of two brain regions important for memory formation, the cerebral cortex and the CA1-hippocampal field. Here we show that Satb2 is required for key hippocampal functions since deletion of Satb2 from the adult mouse forebrain prevents the stabilization of synaptic long-term potentiation and markedly impairs long-term fear and object discrimination memory...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897671/high-intensity-interval-exercise-promotes-motor-cortex-disinhibition-and-early-motor-skill-consolidation
#7
Ellen L Stavrinos, James P Coxon
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition shapes motor cortex output, gates synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation, and plays an important role in motor learning. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that acute cardiovascular exercise can improve motor memory, but the cortical mechanisms are not completely understood. We investigated whether an acute bout of lower-limb high-intensity interval (HIT) exercise could promote motor memory formation in humans through changes in cortical inhibition within the hand region of the primary motor cortex...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895562/brain-computation-is-organized-via-power-of-two-based-permutation-logic
#8
Kun Xie, Grace E Fox, Jun Liu, Cheng Lyu, Jason C Lee, Hui Kuang, Stephanie Jacobs, Meng Li, Tianming Liu, Sen Song, Joe Z Tsien
There is considerable scientific interest in understanding how cell assemblies-the long-presumed computational motif-are organized so that the brain can generate intelligent cognition and flexible behavior. The Theory of Connectivity proposes that the origin of intelligence is rooted in a power-of-two-based permutation logic (N = 2 (i) -1), producing specific-to-general cell-assembly architecture capable of generating specific perceptions and memories, as well as generalized knowledge and flexible actions. We show that this power-of-two-based permutation logic is widely used in cortical and subcortical circuits across animal species and is conserved for the processing of a variety of cognitive modalities including appetitive, emotional and social information...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890324/motor-skill-learning-and-offline-changes-in-tga-patients-with-acute-hippocampal-ca1-lesions
#9
Juliane Döhring, Anne Stoldt, Karsten Witt, Robby Schönfeld, Günther Deuschl, Jan Born, Thorsten Bartsch
Learning and the formation of memory are reflected in various memory systems in the human brain such as the hippocampus based declarative memory system and the striatum-cortex based system involved in motor sequence learning. It is a matter of debate how both memory systems interact in humans during learning and consolidation and how this interaction is influenced by sleep. We studied the effect of an acute dysfunction of hippocampal CA1 neurons on the acquisition (on-line condition) and off-line changes of a motor skill in patients with a transient global amnesia (TGA)...
October 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888044/motor-memory-consolidation-processes-in-young-female-adults-with-adhd-may-be-less-susceptible-to-interference
#10
Orly Fox, Esther Adi-Japha, Avi Karni
Young adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may have an atypical procedural ("how to") memory consolidation phase, after practicing a movement sequence, with smaller gains in speed and some costs in accuracy, compared to typical peers, at 24h post-training. Here we tested the susceptibility of performance gains retained after motor practice by young female adults with (N=16) and without (N=16) ADHD to post-training interference. Participants were trained on the finger-to-thumb opposition sequence learning task with performance speed and accuracy recorded before training, immediately after, and at 24h post-training...
November 22, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887994/tactile-stimulation-during-sleep-alters-slow-oscillation-and-spindle-densities-but-not-motor-skill
#11
Sofia Isabel Ribeiro Pereira, Felipe Beijamini, Frederik D Weber, Roberta Almeida Vincenzi, Felipe Augusto Cini da Silva, Fernando Mazzilli Louzada
Studies using targeted memory reactivation have shown that presentation of auditory or olfactory contextual cues during sleep can bias hippocampal reactivations towards the preferential replay of the cue-associated material, thereby resulting in enhanced consolidation of that information. If the same cortical ensembles are indeed used for encoding and storage of a given piece of information, forcing the sleeping brain to re-engage in task-intrinsic information processing should disturb the natural ongoing consolidation processes and therefore impair possible sleep benefits...
November 23, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885550/neural-activity-patterns-underlying-spatial-coding-in-the-hippocampus
#12
Marielena Sosa, Anna K Gillespie, Loren M Frank
The hippocampus is well known as a central site for memory processing-critical for storing and later retrieving the experiences events of daily life so they can be used to shape future behavior. Much of what we know about the physiology underlying hippocampal function comes from spatial navigation studies in rodents, which have allowed great strides in understanding how the hippocampus represents experience at the cellular level. However, it remains a challenge to reconcile our knowledge of spatial encoding in the hippocampus with its demonstrated role in memory-dependent tasks in both humans and other animals...
November 25, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882455/memory-consolidation-effects-on-memory-stabilization-and-item-integration-in-older-adults
#13
Helen Brown, Elizabeth A Maylor
This study examined the differential effects of aging on consolidation processes that strengthen newly acquired memory traces in veridical form (memory stabilization) versus consolidation processes that are responsible for integrating these memory traces into an existing body of knowledge (item integration). Older adults learned 13 nonwords and were tested on their memory for the nonwords, and on whether these nonwords impacted upon processing of similar-sounding English words immediately and 24 hours later...
November 23, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881856/stress-glucocorticoids-and-memory-implications-for-treating-fear-related-disorders
#14
Dominique de Quervain, Lars Schwabe, Benno Roozendaal
Glucocorticoid stress hormones are crucially involved in modulating mnemonic processing of emotionally arousing experiences. They enhance the consolidation of new memories, including those that extinguish older memories, but impair the retrieval of information stored in long-term memory. As strong aversive memories lie at the core of several fear-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias, the memory-modulating properties of glucocorticoids have recently become of considerable translational interest...
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871996/the-role-of-glucocorticoids-in-emotional-memory-reconsolidation-review
#15
REVIEW
Shira Meir Drexler, Oliver T Wolf
Glucocorticoids are secreted following exposure to stressful events. Their modulating role on memory reconsolidation, a post-retrieval process of re-stabilization, has been investigated only recently, at times with conflicting results. The goal of this review is twofold. First, to establish the modulating role of glucocorticoids on memory reconsolidation. Second, to point the potential factors and confounds that might explain the seemingly paradoxical findings. Here we review recent pharmacological studies, conducted in rodents and humans, which suggest a critical role of glucocorticoids in this post-retrieval process...
November 18, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870439/estradiol-shifts-interactions-between-the-infralimbic-cortex-and-central-amygdala-to-enhance-fear-extinction-memory-in-female-rats
#16
Lisa Y Maeng, Kara K Cover, Mohamad B Taha, Aaron J Landau, Mohammed R Milad, Kelimer Lebrón-Milad
There is growing evidence that estradiol (E2) enhances fear extinction memory consolidation. However, it is unclear how E2 influences the nodes of the fear extinction network to enhance extinction memory. This study begins to delineate the neural circuits underlying the influence of E2 on fear extinction acquisition and consolidation in female rats. After fear conditioning (day 1), naturally cycling female rats underwent extinction learning (day 2) in a low-E2 state, receiving a systemic administration of either E2 or vehicle prior to extinction training...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869801/direct-dorsal-hippocampal-prelimbic-cortex-connections-strengthen-fear-memories
#17
Xiaojing Ye, Dana Kapeller-Libermann, Alessio Travaglia, M Carmen Inda, Cristina M Alberini
The ability to regulate the consolidation and strengthening of memories for threatening experiences is critical for mental health, and its dysregulation may lead to psychopathologies. Re-exposure to the context in which the threat was experienced can either increase or decrease fear response through distinct processes known, respectively, as reconsolidation or extinction. Using a context retrieval-dependent memory-enhancement model in rats, we report that memory strengthens through activation of direct projections from dorsal hippocampus to prelimbic (PL) cortex and activation of critical PL molecular mechanisms that are not required for extinction...
November 21, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866796/interplay-between-hippocampal-sharp-wave-ripple-events-and-vicarious-trial-and-error-behaviors-in-decision-making
#18
Andrew E Papale, Mark C Zielinski, Loren M Frank, Shantanu P Jadhav, A David Redish
Current theories posit that memories encoded during experiences are subsequently consolidated into longer-term storage. Hippocampal sharp-wave-ripple (SWR) events have been linked to this consolidation process during sleep, but SWRs also occur during awake immobility, where their role remains unclear. We report that awake SWR rates at the reward site are inversely related to the prevalence of vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors, thought to be involved in deliberation processes. SWR rates were diminished immediately after VTE behaviors and an increase in the rate of SWR events at the reward site predicted a decrease in subsequent VTE behaviors at the choice point...
November 5, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866004/attention-capture-without-awareness-in-a-non-spatial-selection-task
#19
Chris Oriet, Mamata Pandey, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
Distractors presented prior to a critical target in a rapid sequence of visually-presented items induce a lag-dependent deficit in target identification, particularly when the distractor shares a task-relevant feature of the target. Presumably, such capture of central attention is important for bringing a target into awareness. The results of the present investigation suggest that greater capture of attention by a distractor is not accompanied by greater awareness of it. Moreover, awareness tends to be limited to superficial characteristics of the target such as colour...
November 17, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865867/d1-like-dopamine-receptor-dysfunction-in-the-lateral-habenula-nucleus-increased-anxiety-like-behavior-in-rat
#20
Jiangping Chan, Yiling Ni, Pengyue Zhang, Yanmei Chen, Jichuan Zhang
Lateral habenula (LHb) is important for emotional processing. It is a link node between forebrain and midbrain. LHb is reciprocally connected with ventral tegmental area, acting as a regulatory center for the dopaminergic system. However, the role of dopamine receptors in the LHb in emotional processing is less clear. In the present study, the expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in LHb was testified by western blot. In addition, D1- or D2-like receptor agonist or antagonist was bilaterally administered into the LHb, anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors were tested 15min later in rats...
November 16, 2016: Neuroscience
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