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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346076/ultrasensitive-electrochemical-immuno-sensing-platform-based-on-gold-nanoparticles-triggering-chlorpyrifos-detection-in-fruits-and-vegetables
#1
Anita Talan, Annu Mishra, Sergei A Eremin, Jagriti Narang, Ashok Kumar, Sonu Gandhi
Chlorpyrifos (chl) is an organophosphate pesticide extensively used in agriculture and highly toxic for human health. Fluorine doped tin-oxide (FTO) based electrochemical nanosensor was developed for chlorpyrifos detection with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and anti-chlorpyrifos antibodies (chl-Ab). AuNPs provides high electrical conductivity and specific resistivity, thus increases the sensitivity of immunoassay. High electrical conductivity of AuNPs reveals that it promotes the redox reaction for better cyclic voltammetry...
January 9, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345934/zein-nanoparticles-as-eco-friendly-carrier-systems-for-botanical-repellents-aiming-sustainable-agriculture
#2
Jhones Luiz Oliveira, Estefania Vangelie Ramos Campos, Anderson do Espirito Santo Pereira, Tatiane Pasquoto, Renata Lima, Renato Grillo, Daniel Junior de Andrade, Fabiano Aparecido Dos Santos, Leonardo F Fraceto
Botanical repellents represent one of the main ways of reducing the use of synthetic pesticides and the contamination of soil and hydric resources. However, the poor stability and rapid degradation of these compounds in the environment hinders their effective application in the field. Zein nanoparticles can be used as eco-friendly carrier systems to protect these substances against premature degradation, provide desirable release characteristics, and reduce toxicity in the environment and to humans. In this study, we describe the preparation and characterization of zein nanoparticles loaded with the main constituents of the essential oil of citronella (geraniol and R-citronellal)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345919/using-isomeric-and-metabolic-ratios-of-ddt-to-identify-the-sources-and-fate-of-ddt-in-chinese-agricultural-topsoil
#3
Chong Zhang, Li Liu, Yan Ma, Fasheng Li
The metabolic ratio of (p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD)/p,p'-DDT or p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT has been used previously to estimate the approximate half-life of p,p'-DDT, with a relatively unclear concept of "old" and "new" sources of p,p'-DDT and without paying attention to the influence by dicofol-type DDT contributed from the more recent usage of dicofol. Based on the isomeric ratio of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT to distinguish the sources of DDT, this study used the corrected metabolic ratio of (p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD)/p,p'-DDT to estimate a more accurate half-life of p,p'-DDT using a model-based approach...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345735/landscape-simplification-reduces-classical-biological-control-and-crop-yield
#4
Heather Grab, Bryan Danforth, Katja Poveda, Greg Loeb
Agricultural intensification resulting in the simplification of agricultural landscapes is known to negatively impact the delivery of key ecosystem services such as the biological control of crop pests. Both conservation and classical biological control may be influenced by the landscape context in which they are deployed; yet studies examining the role of landscape structure in the establishment and success of introduced natural enemies and their interactions with native communities are lacking. In this study, we investigated the relationship between landscape simplification, classical and conservation biological control services and importantly, the outcome of these interactions for crop yield...
January 18, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345533/daily-bicycling-in-older-adults-may-be-effective-to-reduce-fall-risks-a-case-control-study
#5
Shani Batcir, Itshak Melzer
Older adults gain many health benefits from riding bicycles regularly. We aimed to explore whether older persons who ride bicycles regularly have better balance than controls. Balance control and voluntary stepping were assessed in 20 older adults aged 65 to 85 who live in an agricultural community village who regularly ride bicycles (BR), and 30 age- and gender-matched non-bicycle riders (NBR). Self-reported function and fear of fall were also assessed. Bicycle riders showed significantly better balance, faster voluntary stepping, and better self-reported advanced lower extremity function compared with NBR...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345105/modulates-brassinosteroids-mediated-growth-regulation-and-influences-architecture-and-grain-shape
#6
Yan-Jie Zhang, Yu Zhang, Liang-Li Zhang, Hui-Ya Huang, Bao-Jun Yang, Sheng Luan, Hong-Wei Xue, Wen-Hui Lin
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important crop and feeds more than half of the world population. The architecture of rice, including height, leaf inclination, and tiller number, is important for rice planting and yield. Plant hormone, brassinosteroids (BR), plays crucial roles in modulating plant architecture and seed yield. But BR cannot be applied in agriculture production directly because BR regulated multiple processes and could not be transcriptional regulated in different tissues. This article is protected by copyright...
January 18, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343882/can-productivity-and-profitability-be-enhanced-in-intensively-managed-cereal-systems-while-reducing-the-environmental-footprint-of-production-assessing-sustainable-intensification-options-in-the-breadbasket-of-india
#7
Virender Kumar, Hanuman S Jat, Parbodh C Sharma, Balwinder-Singh, Mahesh K Gathala, Ram K Malik, Baldev R Kamboj, Arvind K Yadav, Jagdish K Ladha, Anitha Raman, D K Sharma, Andrew McDonald
In the most productive area of the Indo-Gangetic Plains in Northwest India where high yields of rice and wheat are commonplace, a medium-term cropping system trial was conducted in Haryana State. The goal of the study was to identify integrated management options for further improving productivity and profitability while rationalizing resource use and reducing environmental externalities (i.e., "sustainable intensification", SI) by drawing on the principles of diversification, precision management, and conservation agriculture...
January 15, 2018: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343832/infection-dynamics-of-insecticide-degrading-symbionts-from-soil-to-insects-in-response-to-insecticide-spraying
#8
Hideomi Itoh, Tomoyuki Hori, Yuya Sato, Atsushi Nagayama, Kanako Tago, Masahito Hayatsu, Yoshitomo Kikuchi
Insecticide resistance is a serious concern in modern agriculture, and an understanding of the underlying evolutionary processes is pivotal to prevent the problem. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris, a notorious pest of leguminous crops, acquires a specific Burkholderia symbiont from the environment every generation, and harbors the symbiont in the midgut crypts. The symbiont's natural role is to promote insect development but the insect host can also obtain resistance against the insecticide fenitrothion (MEP) by acquiring MEP-degrading Burkholderia from the environment...
January 17, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343796/integrated-climate-chemical-indicators-of-diffuse-pollution-from-land-to-water
#9
Per-Erik Mellander, Phil Jordan, Marianne Bechmann, Ophélie Fovet, Mairead M Shore, Noeleen T McDonald, Chantal Gascuel-Odoux
Management of agricultural diffuse pollution to water remains a challenge and is influenced by the complex interactions of rainfall-runoff pathways, soil and nutrient management, agricultural landscape heterogeneity and biogeochemical cycling in receiving water bodies. Amplified cycles of weather can also influence nutrient loss to water although they are less considered in policy reviews. Here, we present the development of climate-chemical indicators of diffuse pollution in highly monitored catchments in Western Europe...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343239/calcium-dependent-protein-kinases-in-cotton-insights-into-early-plant-responses-to-salt-stress
#10
Wei Gao, Fu-Chun Xu, Dan-Dan Guo, Jing-Ruo Zhao, Ji Liu, Ya-Wei Guo, Prashant Kumar Singh, Xiao-Nan Ma, Lu Long, Jose Ramon Botella, Chun-Peng Song
BACKGROUND: Soil salinization is one of the major environmental constraints to plant growth and agricultural production worldwide. Signaling components involving calcium (Ca2+) and the downstream calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) play key roles in the perception and transduction of stress signals. However, the study of CPKs in cotton and their functions in response to salt stress remain unexplored. RESULTS: A total of 98 predicted CPKs were identified from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L...
January 17, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342899/smartphone-spectrometers
#11
REVIEW
Andrew J S McGonigle, Thomas C Wilkes, Tom D Pering, Jon R Willmott, Joseph M Cook, Forrest M Mims, Alfio V Parisi
Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a 'lab in a phone' capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera...
January 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342451/decadal-changes-in-the-edible-supply-of-seafood-and-methylmercury-exposure-in-the-united-states
#12
Elsie M Sunderland, Miling Li, Kurt Bullard
BACKGROUND: Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure is associated with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and cardiovascular health. Previous work indicates most MeHg is from marine fish sold in the commercial market, but does not fully resolve supply regions globally. This information is critical for linking changes in environmental MeHg levels to human exposure in the U.S. population. OBJECTIVES: We used available data to estimate the geographic origins of seafood consumed in the United States (major ocean basins, coastal fisheries, aquaculture, freshwater) and how shifts in edible supply affected MeHg exposures between 2000-2002 and 2010-2012...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342241/ipat-intelligent-prediction-and-association-tool-for-genomic-research
#13
Chunpeng James Chen, Zhiwu Zhang
Summary: The ultimate goal of genomic research is to effectively predict phenotypes from genotypes so that medical management can improve human health and molecular breeding can increase agricultural production. Genomic prediction or selection (GS) plays a complementary role to genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which is the primary method to identify genes underlying phenotypes. Unfortunately, most computing tools cannot perform data analyses for both GWAS and GS. Furthermore, the majority of these tools are executed through a command-line interface (CLI), which requires programming skills...
January 11, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342183/identification-of-volatiles-released-by-diapausing-brown-marmorated-stink-bug-halyomorpha-halys-hemiptera-pentatomidae
#14
Laura J Nixon, William R Morrison, Kevin B Rice, Eckehard G Brockerhoff, Tracy C Leskey, Filadelfo Guzman, Ashot Khrimian, Stephen Goldson, Michael Rostás
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an agricultural and urban pest that has become widely established as an invasive species of major concern in the USA and across Europe. This species forms large aggregations when entering diapause, and it is often these aggregations that are found by officials conducting inspections of internationally shipped freight. Identifying the presence of diapausing aggregations of H. halys using their emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be a potential means for detecting and intercepting them during international freight inspections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342168/reduction-in-musca-domestica-fecundity-by-dsrna-mediated-gene-knockdown
#15
Neil D Sanscrainte, Hanayo Arimoto, Christy M Waits, Lucy Y Li, Dana Johnson, Chris Geden, James J Becnel, Alden S Estep
House flies (Musca domestica) are worldwide agricultural pests with estimated control costs at $375 million annually in the U.S. Non-target effects and widespread resistance challenge the efficacy of traditional chemical control. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been suggested as a biopesticide for M. domestica but a phenotypic response due to the induction of the RNAi pathway has not been demonstrated in adults. In this study female house flies were injected with dsRNA targeting actin-5C or ribosomal protein (RP) transcripts RPL26 and RPS6...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342167/effects-of-ammonium-based-ionic-liquids-and-2-4-dichlorophenol-on-the-phospholipid-fatty-acid-composition-of-zebrafish-embryos
#16
Aleksandra Piotrowska, Anna Syguda, Bogdan Wyrwas, Lukasz Chrzanowski, Till Luckenbach, Hermann J Heipieper
Ionic liquids consisting of a combination of herbicidal anions with a quaternary ammonium cation act as efficient herbicides, which are under consideration to be used in the agriculture. In the present study, we used embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model to assess the toxic potential of ammonium-based ionic liquids for aquatic organisms. As we assumed interference of the partially hydrophobic ionic liquid cation with lipids, we investigated the adaptation response in the lipid composition of the zebrafish embryos, triggered by the ionic compound...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341950/clinical-characteristics-of-ulceroglandular-tularemia-in-two-bulgarian-regions-2014-2015-a-report-of-five-cases
#17
Liliya M Pekova, Magdalena P Baymakova, Pavlina O Parousheva, Mariya D Fartunova, Nikolay E Dimitrov, Iskra A Tomova
We present here the first five human cases with tularemia from two regions in South Bulgaria in which there had been no previous report of the infection. The cases occurred over a period of 8 months (December 2014 - August 2015). They were treated at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Stara Zagora University Hospital, Bulgaria. We present the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data for four men and one woman (age range 52 to 73 years). Three men were hunters, four patients took part in handling, preparing/skinning and cooking the game animals...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341449/digging-deeper-a-holistic-perspective-of-factors-affecting-soil-organic-carbon-sequestration-in-agroecosystems
#18
Rattan Lal
The global magnitude (Pg) of soil organic carbon (SOC) is 677 to 0.3-m, 993 to 0.5-m, and 1505 to 1-m depth. Thus, ~55% of SOC to 1-m lies below 0.3-m depth. Soils of agroecosystems are depleted of their SOC stock and have a low use efficiency of inputs of agronomic yield. This review is a collation and synthesis of articles published in peer-reviewed journals. The rates of SOC sequestration are scaled up to the global level by linear extrapolation. Soil C sink capacity depends on depth, clay content and mineralogy, plant available water holding capacity, nutrient reserves, landscape position, and the antecedent SOC stock...
January 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340863/effects-of-urease-and-nitrification-inhibitors-on-the-soil-mineral-nitrogen-dynamics-and-nitrous-oxide-n2o-emissions-on-calcareous-soil
#19
Rui Tao, Jun Li, Yu Guan, Yongchao Liang, Baowei Hu, Jun Lv, Guixin Chu
Urease inhibitors and nitrification inhibitors can reduce nitrogen (N) loss in agriculture soil. However, the effect of inhibitors on soil N2O emissions under the drip irrigation system remains unclear. A pot and a field experiment with two inhibitors were conducted to explore how inhibitors regulate soil nitrogen transformation and N2O emissions. In the pot experiment, three treatments included control, urea, and urea + N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT, urease inhibitor). In the field experiment, three treatments included control, urea, and urea + NBPT + 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)pyridine (nitrapyrin, nitrification inhibitor)...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340862/effect-of-brewery-wastewater-obtained-from-different-phases-of-treatment-plant-on-seed-germination-of-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-maize-zea-mays-and-pigeon-pea-cajanus-cajan
#20
Rupa Salian, Suhas Wani, Ramamohan Reddy, Mukund Patil
Brewing industry releases large quantities of wastewater after product generation. Brewery wastewater contains organic compounds which are biodegradable in nature. These biodegradable wastes can be recycled and reused and hence considered as suitable products for agriculture. But before using wastewater for agriculture, it is better to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of wastewater on crops. Hence, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of brewery effluent on seed germination and growth parameters of selected crop species like chickpea (Cicer arietinum), maize (Zea mays), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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