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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438815/new-onset-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-previous-split-thickness-skin-graft-donor-site
#1
Vincent J Noori, Kanika Trehan, Alisa Savetamal, Damien W Carter
INTRODUCTION: Marjolin' s ulcer, an aggressive ulcerating squamous cell carcinoma, is a well-known phenomenon that occurs in chronically inflamed or scarred tissue; however, squamous cell carcinoma arising in the acute setting after tissue trauma - specifically autograft donor harvest sites for burns - is a rare, but notable event. METHODS: This case series describes three instances of squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed in split-thickness skin graft donor sites in the immediate post-operative period...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436395/myeloid-targeted-immunotherapies-act-in-synergy-to-induce-inflammation-and-antitumor-immunity
#2
Curtis J Perry, Andrés R Muñoz-Rojas, Katrina M Meeth, Laura N Kellman, Robert A Amezquita, Durga Thakral, Victor Y Du, Jake Xiao Wang, William Damsky, Alexandra L Kuhlmann, Joel W Sher, Marcus Bosenberg, Kathryn Miller-Jensen, Susan M Kaech
Eliciting effective antitumor immune responses in patients who fail checkpoint inhibitor therapy is a critical challenge in cancer immunotherapy, and in such patients, tumor-associated myeloid cells and macrophages (TAMs) are promising therapeutic targets. We demonstrate in an autochthonous, poorly immunogenic mouse model of melanoma that combination therapy with an agonistic anti-CD40 mAb and CSF-1R inhibitor potently suppressed tumor growth. Microwell assays to measure multiplex protein secretion by single cells identified that untreated tumors have distinct TAM subpopulations secreting MMP9 or cosecreting CCL17/22, characteristic of an M2-like state...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435321/the-gut-microbiota-bile-acids-and-their-correlation-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-associated-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
J Torres, C Palmela, H Brito, X Bao, H Ruiqi, P Moura-Santos, J Pereira da Silva, A Oliveira, C Vieira, K Perez, S H Itzkowitz, J F Colombel, L Humbert, D Rainteau, M Cravo, C M Rodrigues, J Hu
Background: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD) have a very high risk of developing colorectal neoplasia. Alterations in the gut microbiota and/or gut bile acids could account for the increase in this risk. However, no studies have yet investigated the net result of cholestasis and a potentially altered bile acid pool interacting with a dysbiotic gut flora in the inflamed colon of PSC-IBD. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the gut microbiota and stool bile acid profiles, as well as and their correlation in patients with PSC-IBD and inflammatory bowel disease alone...
February 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435109/clinical-and-molecular-features-of-innate-and-acquired-resistance-to-anti-pd-1-pd-l1-therapy-in-lung-cancer
#4
Shalin Shah, Kevin Wood, Brian Labadie, Brian Won, Ryan Brisson, Theodore Karrison, Thomas Hensing, Mark Kozloff, Riyue Bao, Jyoti D Patel, Jason J Luke
Hypothesis: The majority of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy develop either innate or acquired resistance. Across tumor types, the "T cell-inflamed" tumor microenvironment correlates with clinical response to immunotherapy. We hypothesize that clinical characteristics may be predictive of resistance and that "T cell-inflamed" NSCLC tumors can be identified by gene expression profiling. Results: Of 93 patients, 36 (38...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434730/clinical-and-pathological-characteristics-of-igg4-related-interstitial-lung-disease
#5
Xiaoting Lv, Feng Gao, Qicai Liu, Sheng Zhang, Zhihua Huang, Yongping Zhu, Haiyang Zong, Quwen Li, Sanyan Li
IgG4-related interstitial lung disease (IgG4-RILD), which is characterized by increased IgG4 levels, IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration and irregular whorled fibrosis, is a recently described lung disorder that belongs to the group of systemic fibroinflammatory IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RD). The aim of the present study was to improve the current knowledge regarding the specific clinical and histopathological characteristics of IgG4-RILD and to investigate its underlying immune mechanism in vivo. A total of 7 patients newly diagnosed with IgG4-RILD were enrolled in the present study (4 men and 3 women; mean age, 57 years; range, 29-71 years)...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434584/tlr3-ligand-poly-i-c-exerts-distinct-actions-in-synovial-fibroblasts-when-delivered-by-extracellular-vesicles
#6
Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, David S Pisetsky, Christoph Kolling, Beat A Michel, Renate E Gay, Astrid Jüngel, Steffen Gay
Extracellular vesicles (EV) can modulate the responses of cells to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation; conversely, TLR ligands such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can enhance the release of EV and influence of the composition and functions of EV cargos. Inflamed synovial joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are rich in EV and extracellular RNA; besides, RNA released from necrotic synovial fluid cells can activate the TLR3 signaling in synovial fibroblasts (SFs) from patients with RA. Since EV occur prominently in synovial joints in RA and may contribute to the pathogenesis, we questioned whether EV can interact with dsRNA, a TLR3 ligand, and modify its actions in arthritis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433832/microbes-are-off-the-menu-defective-macrophage-phagocytosis-in-copd
#7
EDITORIAL
Emma Louise Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn about the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and how defective macrophage phagocytosis may lead to the build up of microbes and pollutants in inflamed lungs. We also focus on new findings that may take us a step closer to full automation in diagnostic bacteriology laboratories. Finally, we highlight the anti-tumor properties of microalgae and the application of algorithms to predict human emotion from electrocardiogram.
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433399/death-caused-by-appendicular-knotting-and-small-bowel-strangulation-in-a-child-a-case-report-and-review
#8
Andres Rodriguez Zorro, Jairo Hernando Vivas Diaz
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies in paediatrics. However, acute appendicitis in early infancy is an uncommon condition. Furthermore, strangulation of the small intestine through appendicular knotting is described as very unusual in the literature and is generally not well-diagnosed in the clinical context. This article reports the case of a 23-month-old girl who entered the emergency department with a three-day history of abdominal symptoms and who died in less than 24 hours without receiving surgical intervention...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431694/ildr2-is-a-novel-b7-like-protein-that-negatively-regulates-t-cell-responses
#9
Iris Hecht, Amir Toporik, Joseph R Podojil, Ilan Vaknin, Gady Cojocaru, Anat Oren, Elizabeta Aizman, Spencer C Liang, Ling Leung, Yosef Dicken, Amit Novik, Nadav Marbach-Bar, Aziza Elmesmari, Clare Tange, Ashley Gilmour, Donna McIntyre, Mariola Kurowska-Stolarska, Kay McNamee, Judith Leitner, Shirley Greenwald, Liat Dassa, Zurit Levine, Peter Steinberger, Richard O Williams, Stephen D Miller, Iain B McInnes, Eyal Neria, Galit Rotman
The B7-like protein family members play critical immunomodulatory roles and constitute attractive targets for the development of novel therapies for human diseases. We identified Ig-like domain-containing receptor (ILDR)2 as a novel B7-like protein with robust T cell inhibitory activity, expressed in immune cells and in immune-privileged and inflamed tissues. A fusion protein, consisting of ILDR2 extracellular domain with an Fc fragment, that binds to a putative counterpart on activated T cells showed a beneficial effect in the collagen-induced arthritis model and abrogated the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in autologous synovial-like cocultures of macrophages and cytokine-stimulated T cells...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431516/does-a-histologically-inflamed-resection-margin-increase-postoperative-complications-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#10
Gisele Aaltonen, Ari Ristimäki, Ilona Keränen, Monika Carpelan-Holmström, Anna Lepistö
OBJECTIVES: Our study assessed whether the presence of histologically inflamed resection margins increased postoperative anastomotic complications in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. We also examined the influence of other risk factors for postoperative complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Presence of chronic inflammation and activity of inflammation was scored from the resection margin specimens of 70 patients undergoing surgery due to CD. Anastomotic complications were recorded with a one-month follow-up...
February 12, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430981/the-diabetic-foot-attack-tis-too-late-to-retreat
#11
Prashanth R J Vas, Michael Edmonds, Venu Kavarthapu, Hisham Rashid, Raju Ahluwalia, Christian Pankhurst, Nikolaos Papanas
The "diabetic foot attack" is one of the most devastating presentations of diabetic foot disease, typically presenting as an acutely inflamed foot with rapidly progressive skin and tissue necrosis, at times associated with significant systemic symptoms. Without intervention, it may escalate over hours to limb-threatening proportions and poses a high amputation risk. There are only best practice approaches but no international protocols to guide management. Immediate recognition of a typical infected diabetic foot attack, predominated by severe infection, with prompt surgical intervention to debride all infected tissue alongside broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is vital to ensure both limb and patient survival...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429793/soluble-toll-like-receptor-4-a-new-player-in%C3%A2-subclinical-inflammation-and-malnutrition-in-hemodialysis-patients
#12
Pasquale Esposito, Edoardo La Porta, Maria Antonietta Grignano, Daniela Verzola, Samantha Milanesi, Francesca Ansaldo, Marilena Gregorini, Carmelo Libetta, Giacomo Garibotto, Teresa Rampino
OBJECTIVE: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) promotes inflammation in hemodialysis patients (HD). A soluble form of extracellular TLR4 (sTLR4) has been recently characterized, which showed the ability to attenuate TLR4 signalling. In this study, we describe the sTLR4 profile in regular HD patients. SUBJECTS: In a cross-sectional study we enrolled forty prevalent HD patients (68.2 ± 16.3 years, twenty-five males) with a median dialysis vintage of 41 months. Nineteen patients were undergoing standard bicarbonate HD (BHD) and 21 patients on-line hemodiafiltration (HDF)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428806/tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-cd3-cd4-cd8-double-negative-t-cells-in-autoimmunity
#13
REVIEW
D Brandt, C M Hedrich
TCRαβ+CD3+CD4-CD8-"double negative" (DN) T cells comprise a small subset of mature peripheral T cells. The origin and function of DN T cells are somewhat unclear and discussed controversially. While DN T cells resemble a rare and heterogeneous T cell subpopulation in healthy individuals, numbers of TCRαβ+DN T cells are expanded in several inflammatory conditions, where they also exhibit distinct effector phenotypes and infiltrate inflamed tissues. Thus, DN T cells may be involved in systemic inflammation and tissue damage in autoimmune/inflammatory conditions, including SLE, Sjögren's syndrome, and psoriasis...
February 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428555/the-inflammatory-molecule-sphingosine-1-phosphate-is-not-effective-to-evoke-or-sensitize-cough-in-na%C3%A3-ve-guinea-pigs
#14
Simona Svajdova, Lenka Mazurova, Mariana Brozmanova
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an inflammatory mediator increased in the tissue in the number of inflammatory conditions. Preliminary data indicate that the vagal afferent neurons express several S1P receptors including S1PR2-3. We therefore evaluated the hypothesis that S1P induces cough and/or enhances the cough evoked by other tussive stimuli (TRPA1 and TRPV1 activators) in naïve guinea pigs. Inhalation of S1P in the concentrations of 0.1 mM and 1 mM did not evoke cough. Preinhalation and continuing inhalation of S1P (1 mM) during citric acid (0...
February 8, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426968/clinical-experience-with-urgent-tube-shunt-implantation-through-the-ciliary-sulcus-in-phakic-eyes
#15
Adam J Weiner, Yotam Weiner, Melissa L Severson, Asher Weiner
PURPOSE: To review the clinical course and outcomes of 3 phakic, ischemic, and inflamed eyes in which we performed urgent tube shunt implantation through the ciliary sulcus without lensectomy. METHODS: This is a retrospective interventional case series. Three eyes of 3 diabetic patients with uncontrolled severe neovascular glaucoma, shallow anterior chambers with closed angles and poor view to the posterior segment, where concomitant lensectomy was not recommended due to uncontrolled uveitis and ischemia, underwent tube shunt implantation through the ciliary sulcus...
February 9, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426013/celecoxib-mediated-reduction-of-prostanoid-release-in-hoffa-s-fat-pad-from-donors-with-cartilage-pathology-results-in-an-attenuated-inflammatory-phenotype
#16
Ufuk Tan Timur, Marjolein M J Caron, Yvonne M Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Tim J M Welting, L W van Rhijn, Gerjo J V M van Osch, Pieter J Emans
OBJECTIVE: The Hoffa's fat pad (HFP) is an intra-articular adipose tissue which is situated under and behind the patella. It contains immune cells next to adipocytes and secretes inflammatory factors during osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, we compared the release profile of prostanoids, which are involved in inflammation, of HFP from OA patients versus patients with a focal cartilage defect without evidence for OA on MRI and investigated the prostanoid modulatory anti-inflammatory action of celecoxib on HFP...
February 6, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424657/extracellular-vesicles-regulate-immune-responses-and-cellular-function-in-intestinal-inflammation-and-repair
#17
Triet M Bui, Lorraine A Mascarenhas, Ronen Sumagin
Tightly controlled communication among the various resident and recruited cells in the intestinal tissue is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis, re-establishment of the barrier function and healing responses following injury. Emerging evidence convincingly implicates extracellular vesicles (EVs) in facilitating this important cell-to-cell crosstalk by transporting bioactive effectors and genetic information in healthy tissue and disease. While many aspects of EV biology, including release mechanisms, cargo packaging, and uptake by target cells are still not completely understood, EVs contribution to cellular signaling and function is apparent...
February 2, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419802/neurotropin%C3%A2-accelerates-the-differentiation-of-schwann-cells-and-remyelination-in-a-rat-lysophosphatidylcholine-induced-demyelination-model
#18
Hozo Matsuoka, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Junichi Sayanagi, Toru Iwahashi, Koji Suzuki, Shunsuke Nishimoto, Kiyoshi Okada, Tsuyoshi Murase, Hideki Yoshikawa
Neurotropin® (NTP), a non-protein extract of inflamed rabbit skin inoculated with vaccinia virus, is clinically used for the treatment of neuropathic pain in Japan and China, although its effect on peripheral nerve regeneration remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of NTP on Schwann cells (SCs) in vitro and in vivo, which play an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. In SCs, NTP upregulated protein kinase B (AKT) activity and Krox20 and downregulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 activity under both growth and differentiation conditions, enhanced the expression of myelin basic protein and protein zero under the differentiation condition...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417177/stem-cells-from-human-apical-papilla-decrease-neuro-inflammation-and-stimulate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-differentiation-via-activin-a-secretion
#19
Pauline De Berdt, Pauline Bottemanne, John Bianco, Mireille Alhouayek, Anibal Diogenes, Amy Llyod, Jose Gerardo-Nava, Gary A Brook, Véronique Miron, Giulio G Muccioli, Anne des Rieux
Secondary damage following spinal cord injury leads to non-reversible lesions and hampering of the reparative process. The local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α can exacerbate these events. Oligodendrocyte death also occurs, followed by progressive demyelination leading to significant tissue degeneration. Dental stem cells from human apical papilla (SCAP) can be easily obtained at the removal of an adult immature tooth. This offers a minimally invasive approach to re-use this tissue as a source of stem cells, as compared to biopsying neural tissue from a patient with a spinal cord injury...
February 7, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416985/posterior-tibial-tendon-endoscopic-debridement-for-stage-i-and-ii-posterior-tibial-tendon-dysfunction
#20
Jeffrey Wake, Kevin Martin
Adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD), formerly known as posterior tibial tendon (PTT) dysfunction, is one of the most common problems of the foot and ankle. It was first described as tendon failure but has since been revealed as ligamentous failure in addition. AAFD is a spectrum of deformities that ranges from tenosynovitis (stage I) to AAFD (stages II-IV). Regarding mild stage I and stage II disease, it was once standard to perform an open synovectomy completely removing the inflamed synovium; this procedure required a large 6-cm medial ankle incision...
October 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
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