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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683202/placental-inflammation-in-pre-eclampsia-by-nod-like-receptor-protein-nlrp-3-inflammasome-activation-in-trophoblasts
#1
G S Stødle, G B Silva, L H Tangerås, L M Gierman, I Nervik, U E Dahlberg, C Sun, M H Aune, L C V Thomsen, L Bjørge, A-C Iversen
Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased levels of cholesterol and uric acid and an inflamed placenta expressing danger-sensing pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Crystalline cholesterol and uric acid activate the PRR Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)3 inflammasome to release interleukin (IL)-1β and result in vigorous inflammation. We aimed to characterize crystal-induced NLRP3 activation in placental inflammation and examine its role in pre-eclampsia. We confirmed that serum total cholesterol and uric acid were elevated in pre-eclamptic compared to healthy pregnancies and correlated positively to high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and the pre-eclampsia marker soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1)...
April 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682667/self-assembly-of-affinity-controlled-nanoparticles-via-host-guest-interactions-for-drug-delivery
#2
Fangchao Xue, Yuquan Wang, Qixiong Zhang, Songling Han, Fuzhong Zhang, Taotao Jin, Chenwen Li, Houyuan Hu, Jianxiang Zhang
There has been increasing interest in constructing affinity-based drug delivery systems via different non-covalent interactions. Herein we report a host-guest interaction-based strategy to develop effective drug delivery systems using cyclodextrin-containing copolymers. Hydrophilic copolymers with one polyethylene glycol block and another block containing either α-cyclodextrin or β-cyclodextrin were synthesized. Using poly(β-benzyl l-aspartate) and pyrene as model guest compounds, we demonstrated the nanoparticle formation by host-guest interaction-mediated self-assembly...
April 23, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682323/granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-negatively-regulates-early-il-10-mediated-responses
#3
Ruud Hp Wilbers, Lotte B Westerhof, Debbie R van Raaij, Jaap Bakker, Geert Smant, Arjen Schots
Aim: Treatment of inflammatory disorders relies on the intervention in immune responses thereby restoring homeostasis. IL-10 is a cytokine with therapeutic potential, but until now has not been as successful as previously anticipated. A reason for this may be that IL-10 responsiveness depends on the environment of the inflamed tissue. In this study we investigated whether GM-CSF is able to influence IL-10-mediated responses. Methodology: Dendritic cells and macrophages were differentiated from mouse bone marrow and treated or depleted from GM-CSF prior to analyze their response to IL-10...
April 2018: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681426/tumor-inherent-interferons-impact-on-immune-reactivity-and-immunotherapy
#4
Natasha K Brockwell, Belinda S Parker
Immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment, with sustained responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors reported in a number of malignancies. Such therapeutics are now being trialed in aggressive or advanced cancers that are heavily reliant on untargeted therapies, such as triple negative breast cancer. However, responses have been underwhelming to date and are very difficult to predict, leading to an inability to accurately weigh up the benefit-to-risk ratio for their implementation. The tumor immune microenvironment has been closely linked to immunotherapeutic response, with superior responses observed in patients with T cell-inflamed or 'hot' tumors...
April 19, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679725/achyranthis-bidentatae-radix-enhanced-articular-distribution-and-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-berberine-in-sanmiao-wan-using-an-acute-gouty-arthritis-rat-model
#5
Juan Wu, Jingya Li, Wei Li, Bei Sun, Jin Xie, Wenming Cheng, Qunlin Zhang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sanmiao Wan (SMW) has been a basic prescription employed for the treatment for gout in the clinic since Yuan dynasty. Achyranthis bidentatae radix (ABR) is designed as a lower-guiding drug in SMW to augment the articular accumulation of active ingredients and improve the anti-inflammatory effect. AIM OF THE STUDY: Present study was undertaken to investigate the dose-response relationship of berberine in SMW between the articular concentration and anti-inflammatory effect in the knee joint under the lower-guiding of ABR...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677388/engulfment-of-hb-activated-platelets-differentiates-monocytes-into-pro-inflammatory-macrophages-in-pnh-patients
#6
Rashi Singhal, Sheetal Chawla, Harish Batra, Sameer Gupta, Amrita Ojha, Deepak K Rathore, Tulika Seth, Prasenjit Guchhait
The distinct response shown by different phenotypes of macrophages and monocytes under various clinical conditions have put the heterogeneity of these cells into focus of investigation for several diseases. Recently we have described that after engulfing Hb-activated platelets, classical monocytes differentiated into pro-inflammatory phenotypes, which were abundant in the circulation of PNH and SCD patients. Our current study shows that upon engulfment of Hb-activated platelets, monocytes differentiate into M1-macrophages under M1-polarization stimulus (GM-CSF, IFN-γ+LPS)...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676593/icos-costimulation-differentially-affects-t-cells-in-secondary-lymphoid-organs-and-inflamed-tissues
#7
Dana Vu Van, Laura Bauer, Richard A Kroczek, Andreas Hutloff
B cell interaction with follicular helper T cells and their subsequent differentiation into high-affinity antibody producing cells normally takes place in secondary lymphoid organs. The costimulator ICOS plays a key role in this process and is therefore considered as an attractive target to modulate exaggerated B cell responses in autoimmune or allergic diseases. Inflamed tissues were recently recognized as additional sites of active T cell/B cell interaction. To analyze whether ICOS costimulation is also important there, we employed a mouse airway inflammation model which allows to directly compare immune reactions in the lung-draining lymph node and the lung tissue and also to assess the relative importance of dendritic cells versus B cells as antigen-presenting cells...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675294/multispectral-non-contact-diffuse-optical-tomography-of-healthy-human-finger-joints
#8
Daniel Lighter, James Hughes, Iain Styles, Andrew Filer, Hamid Dehghani
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disease often affecting the hands, which if untreated causes disability. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides information about the underlying functional properties of biological tissue. To detect pathophysiological changes in inflamed RA joints, a good understanding of the baseline values for healthy subjects is first required. Finger joints from healthy subjects were imaged using a non-contact, multispectral, continuous wave DOT system, recovering physiological parameters of oxygen saturation, total haemoglobin, water concentration and scatter amplitude...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674697/metabolic-disease-liver-enzyme-inflames-fat
#9
Sarah Crunkhorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673365/human-central-nervous-system-astrocytes-support-survival-and-activation-of-b-cells-implications-for-ms-pathogenesis
#10
Hanane Touil, Antonia Kobert, Nathalie Lebeurrier, Aja Rieger, Philippe Saikali, Caroline Lambert, Lama Fawaz, Craig S Moore, Alexandre Prat, Jennifer Gommerman, Jack P Antel, Yasuto Itoyama, Ichiro Nakashima, Amit Bar-Or
BACKGROUND: The success of clinical trials of selective B cell depletion in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) indicates B cells are important contributors to peripheral immune responses involved in the development of new relapses. Such B cell contribution to peripheral inflammation likely involves antibody-independent mechanisms. Of growing interest is the potential that B cells, within the MS central nervous system (CNS), may also contribute to the propagation of CNS-compartmentalized inflammation in progressive (non-relapsing) disease...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673066/total-pancreaticoduodenectomy-with-autologous-islet-transplantation-fourteen-years-after-liver-contained-composite-visceral-transplantation
#11
Ahmed Nassar, Cristiano Quintini, Guilherme Costa, Elizabeth Lennon, Rita Bottino, Betul Hatipoglu, Koji Hashimoto, Masato Fujiki, Fouad Kandeel, R Matthew Walsh, Kareem Abu-Elmagd
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a severely disabling disorder with potential detrimental effects on quality of life, gut function, and glucose homeostasis. Disease progression often results in irreversible morphological and functional abnormalities with development of chronic pain, mechanical obstruction, and pancreatic insufficiency. Along with comprehensive medical management, the concept of total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation (TP-AIT) was introduced forty years ago for patients with intractable pain and preserved beta-cell function...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672811/novel-imaging-techniques-in-rheumatic-diseases
#12
Robert Hemke, Vasco Mascarenhas, Mario Maas
Since the introduction of new MR imaging techniques within the past two decades, the imaging assessment of joints in rheumatic diseases has changed considerably. MRI enables to evaluate both the inflamed synovial membrane as well as early structural damage. In the last few years, several new functional/metabolic MR imaging techniques have applied in rheumatic diseases, making it possible to evaluate the pathophysiology of the disease in greater detail. Moreover, they permit a more quantitative approach for the evaluation of disease activity and damage...
April 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672662/fibrostenotic-phenotype-of-myofibroblasts-in-crohn-s-disease-is-dependent-on-tissue-stiffness-and-reversed-by-lox-inhibition
#13
Jessica R de Bruyn, Gijs R van den Brink, Jessica Steenkamer, Christianne J Buskens, Willem A Bemelman, Sander Meisner, Vanesa Muncan, Anje A Te Velde, Geert R D'Haens, Manon E Wildenberg
Background and Aims: Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine and often leads to fibrosis, characterized by excess extracellular matrix [ECM] deposition, increased tissue stiffness, and stricture formation. Here we evaluated the contribution of myofibroblast-ECM interactions to the development of intestinal fibrosis in Crohn's disease. Methods: Matched primary human myofibroblasts were isolated from stenotic, inflamed and normal-appearing small intestine within the same Crohn's disease patient [n = 10]...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672174/th9-cells-probable-players-in-ulcerative-colitis-pathogenesis
#14
Mojtaba Shohan, Shokrollah Elahi, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Nader Bagheri, Emad Soltani
T lymphocytes represent an important part of adaptive immune system undertaking different functions to regulate immune responses. CD4+ T cells are the most important activator cells in inflammatory conditions. Depending on the type of induced cells and inflamed sites, expression and activity of different subtypes of helper T cells are changed. Recent studies have confirmed the existence of a new subset of helper T lymphocytes called Th9. Naive T cells can differentiate into Th9 subtypes if they are exposed simultaneously by interleukin (IL) 4 and transforming growth factor β and also secondary activation of a complicated network of transcription factors such as interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and Smads which are essential for adequate induction of this phenotype...
April 19, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671873/t-cell-derived-ifn-%C3%AE-downregulates-protective-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-murine-lupus-erythematosus
#15
Mathis Düster, Martina Becker, Ann-Christin Gnirck, Malte Wunderlich, Ulf Panzer, Jan-Eric Turner
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important regulators of the immune response and play a crucial role in the restoration of tissue homeostasis after injury. GATA-3+ IL-13- and IL-5-producing group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been shown to promote tissue repair in barrier organs, but despite extensive research on ILCs in the recent years, their potential role in autoimmune diseases is still incompletely understood. In the present study, we investigate the role of ILC2s in the MRL/MpJ-Faslpr (MRL-lpr) mouse model for severe organ manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670622/immune-reconstitution-after-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-crohn-s-disease-current-status-and-future-directions-a-review-on-behalf-of-the-ebmt-autoimmune-diseases-working-party-and-the-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-in-refractory
#16
REVIEW
Alan Graham Pockley, James O Lindsay, Gemma A Foulds, Sergio Rutella, John G Gribben, Tobias Alexander, John A Snowden
Patients with treatment refractory Crohn's disease (CD) suffer debilitating symptoms, poor quality of life, and reduced work productivity. Surgery to resect inflamed and fibrotic intestine may mandate creation of a stoma and is often declined by patients. Such patients continue to be exposed to medical therapy that is ineffective, often expensive and still associated with a burden of adverse effects. Over the last two decades, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) has emerged as a promising treatment option for patients with severe autoimmune diseases (ADs)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670222/stem-cells-in-middle-ear-cholesteatoma-contribute-to-its-pathogenesis
#17
Julia Nagel, Saskia Wöllner, Matthias Schürmann, Viktoria Brotzmann, Janine Müller, Johannes Fw Greiner, Peter Goon, Barbara Kaltschmidt, Christian Kaltschmidt, Holger Sudhoff
Cholesteatoma is a potentially life-threatening middle ear lesion due to the formation of an inflamed ectopic mass of keratinizing squamous epithelium. Surgical removal remains the only treatment option, emphasizing the need to gain a better understanding of this severe disease. We show for the first time that stem cells residing in cholesteatoma tissue contribute to disease progression. Cells expressing the "stemness" markers Nestin and S100B were detected in middle ear cholesteatoma and auditory canal skin...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669836/cd4-t-cell-epitope-specificity-and-cytokine-potential-are-preserved-as-cells-transition-from-the-lung-vasculature-to-lung-tissue-following-influenza-infection
#18
Anthony DiPiazza, Nathan Laniewski, Anuj Rattan, David J Topham, Jim Miller, Andrea J Sant
Pulmonary CD4 T cells are critical in respiratory virus control, both by delivering direct effector function and through coordinating responses of other immune cells. Recent studies have shown that following influenza infection, virus-specific CD4 T cells are partitioned between pulmonary vasculature and lung tissue. However, very little is known about the peptide specificity or functional differences of CD4 T cells within these two compartments. Using a mouse model of influenza infection in conjunction with intravascular labeling in vivo , the cell surface phenotype, epitope specificity, and functional potential of the endogenous polyclonal CD4 T cell response was examined by tracking nine independent CD4 T cell epitope specificities...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666259/shared-epitope-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-crosstalk-underlies-the-mechanism-of-gene-environment-interaction-in-autoimmune-arthritis
#19
Jiaqi Fu, Sarah V Nogueira, Vincent van Drongelen, Patrick Coit, Song Ling, Edward F Rosloniec, Amr H Sawalha, Joseph Holoshitz
The susceptibility to autoimmune diseases is affected by genetic and environmental factors. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the shared epitope (SE), a five-amino acid sequence motif encoded by RA-associated HLA-DRB1 alleles, is the single most significant genetic risk factor. The risk conferred by the SE is increased in a multiplicative way by exposure to various environmental pollutants, such as cigarette smoke. The mechanism of this synergistic interaction is unknown. It is worth noting that the SE has recently been found to act as a signal transduction ligand that facilitates differentiation of Th17 cells and osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665880/post-operative-course-prediction-during-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-in-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#20
K Tsuzuki, K Hashimoto, K Okazaki, M Sakagami
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyse findings of functional endoscopic sinus surgery to estimate the post-operative course of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. METHODS: From 2007 to 2015, 291 adult patients with bilateral chronic rhinosinusitis, divided into eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (n = 210) and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (n = 81) groups, who underwent primary functional endoscopic sinus surgery were enrolled. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery findings, scored as operating score, were analysed in relation to pre-operative olfactory recognition threshold and sinonasal computed tomography imaging score, as well as post-operative endoscopic appearance...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
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