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Fluid kinetic

Alex F Rosenthal, James S Griffin, Michael Wagner, Aaron I Packman, Oluwaseyi Balogun, George F Wells
Morphological parameters are commonly used to predict transport and metabolic kinetics in biofilms. Yet, quantification of biofilm morphology remains challenging due to imaging technology limitations and lack of robust analytical approaches. We present a novel set of imaging and image analysis techniques to estimate internal porosity, pore size distributions, and pore network connectivity to a depth of 1 mm at a resolution of 10 µm in a biofilm exhibiting both heterotrophic and nitrifying activity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans revealed an extensive pore network with diameters as large as 110 µm directly connected to the biofilm surface and surrounding fluid...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Wilhelmus E A de Witte, Vivi Rottschäfer, Meindert Danhof, Piet H van der Graaf, Lambertus A Peletier, Elizabeth C M de Lange
Drug-target binding kinetics (as determined by association and dissociation rate constants, k on and k off ) can be an important determinant of the kinetics of drug action. However, the effect compartment model is used most frequently instead of a target binding model to describe hysteresis. Here we investigate when the drug-target binding model should be used in lieu of the effect compartment model. The utility of the effect compartment (EC), the target binding kinetics (TB) and the combined effect compartment-target binding kinetics (EC-TB) model were tested on either plasma (ECPL , TBPL and EC-TBPL ) or brain extracellular fluid (ECF) (ECECF , TBECF and EC-TBECF ) morphine concentrations and EEG amplitude in rats...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Michele Drigo, Enrico Giacomini, Massimiliano Lazzaro, Daniela Pasotto, Dania Bilato, Jessica Ruggeri, Maria Beatrice Boniotti, Giovani Loris Alborali, Massimo Amadori
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is an elusive model of host/virus relationship in which disease is determined by virus pathogenicity, pig breed susceptibility and phenotype, microbial infectious pressure and environmental conditions. Successful disease control in PRRS-endemic Countries corresponds to "stability", i.e. a condition with no clinical signs of PRRS in the breeding-herd population and no viremia in weaning-age pigs. The aim of this work was to compare the profile and time-course of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in stable and unstable herds, respectively...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Alexandre Lima, Tom van Rooij, Bulent Ergin, Michele Sorelli, Yasin Ince, Patricia A C Specht, Egbert G Mik, Leonardo Bocchi, Klazina Kooiman, Nico de Jong, Can Ince
OBJECTIVES: We developed quantitative methods to analyze microbubble kinetics based on renal contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging combined with measurements of sublingual microcirculation on a fixed area to quantify early microvascular alterations in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. DESIGN: Prospective controlled animal experiment study. SETTING: Hospital-affiliated animal research institution. SUBJECTS: Fifteen female pigs...
May 15, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
R J Seager, Andrew J Acevedo, Fabian Spill, Muhammad H Zaman
The processes of dissolution and fragmentation have high relevance in pharmaceutical research, medicine, digestive physiology, and engineering design. Experimentally, dissolution and fragmentation are observed to occur simultaneously, yet little is known about the relative importance of each of these processes and their impact on the dissolution process as a whole. Thus, in order to better explain these phenomena and the manner in which they interact, we have developed a novel mathematical model of dissolution, based on partial differential equations, taking into consideration the two constituent processes of surface area-dependent diffusive mass removal and physical fragmentation of the solid particles, and the basic physical laws governing these processes...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mosab Ali Abureesh, Akeem Adeyemi Oladipo, Zirar M Mizwari, Ersan Berksel
Here, pH-responsive engineered polymeric composites were fabricated from sodium alginate and mixed Cu/Zn oxides. The resulting alginate-Cux Zn1-x O composites were characterized by FTIR, SEM and XRD, then used as an efficient carrier for the antiretroviral drug (zidovudine, AZT) and exhibited remarkable antibacterial properties. The resulting polymeric composites had specific surface areas of 185.2-198.6 m2 /g as confirmed by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The metal oxide distribution within the alginate matrix was confirmed from the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Andrey Rasskazov, Roman Chertovskih, Vladislav Zheligovsky
We introduce six families of three-dimensional space-periodic steady solenoidal flows, whose kinetic helicity density is zero at any point. Four families are analytically defined. Flows in four families have zero helicity spectrum. Sample flows from five families are used to demonstrate numerically that neither zero kinetic helicity density nor zero helicity spectrum prohibit generation of large-scale magnetic field by the two most prominent dynamo mechanisms: the magnetic α-effect and negative eddy diffusivity...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Manash Pratim Borthakur, Gautam Biswas, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay
A computational fluid dynamic investigation has been carried out to study the dynamics of a moving compound droplet inside a tube. The motions associated with such a droplet is uncovered by solving the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations in which the spatiotemporal evolution of a pair of twin-deformable interfaces has been tracked employing the volume-of-fluid approach. The deformations at the interfaces and their subsequent dynamics are found to be stimulated by the subtle interplay between the capillary and viscous forces...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Mais Olabi, Matthias Stein, Hermann Wätzig
Affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) analyzes noncovalent interactions between ligands and analytes based on changes in their electrophoretic mobility. This technique has been widely used to investigate various biomolecules, mainly proteins, polysaccharides and hormones. ACE is becoming a technique of choice to validate high throughput screening results, since it is very predictively working in realistic and relevant media, e.g. in body fluids. It is highly recommended to incorporate ACE as a powerful analytical tool to properly prepare animal testing and preclinical studies...
May 10, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Laura Hesse, Uilke Brouwer, Arjen H Petersen, Renée Gras, Lisette Bosman, Jens Brimnes, Joanne N G Oude Elberink, Antoon J M van Oosterhout, Martijn C Nawijn
BACKGROUND: Both subcutaneous and sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SCIT and SLIT) have been shown to effectively suppress allergic manifestations upon allergen exposure, providing long term relief from symptoms in allergic disorders including allergic asthma. Clinical studies directly comparing SCIT and SLIT report a different kinetics and magnitude of immunological changes induced during treatment. Comparative studies into the mechanisms underlying immune suppression in SCIT and SLIT are lacking...
May 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yuichi Ikeda, Mehrnoosh Neshatian, James Holcroft, Bernhard Ganss
Purpose/aim of the study: Odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM) is predominantly expressed during the maturation stage of enamel formation and interacts strongly with amelotin (AMTN). AMTN is involved in enamel mineralization, but the effect of ODAM on mineralization has not been investigated. This study determined whether ODAM was able to induce hydroxyapatite (HA) mineralization in modified simulated body fluid (SBF) and in a collagen matrix in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To monitor the kinetics of calcium phosphate mineralization, recombinant human (rh) ODAM protein in SBF buffer was incubated at 37°C and a light-scattering assay was conducted at intervals...
December 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Xiao-Bo Chen, Chuanqiang Li, Daokui Xu
High corrosion kinetics and localised corrosion progress are the primary concerns arising from the clinical implementation of magnesium (Mg) based implantable devices. In this study, a binary Mg-lithium (Li) alloy consisting a record high Li content of 14% (in weight) was employed as model material aiming to yield homogenous and slow corrosion behaviour in a simulated body fluid, i.e. minimum essential medium (MEM), in comparison to that of generic Mg alloy AZ31 and biocompatible Mg-0.5Zn-0.5Ca counterparts...
March 2018: Bioactive Materials
Daniele L Marchisio, Miquel Galan, Antonello A Barresi
This manuscript shows how computational models, mainly based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), can be used to simulate different parts of an industrial freeze-drying equipment and to properly design them; in particular in this part the duct connecting the chamber with the condenser, with its valves, is considered, while the chamber design and its effect on drying kinetics have been investigated in Part 1. Such an approach allows a much deeper process understanding and assessment of the critical aspects of lyophilisation...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Shan Liang, Yu Huang, Youn Young Shim, Xiang Ma, Martin John Tarsisius Reaney, Yong Wang
Nanocomposites, based on iron salts and soluble flaxseed gum (FG), were prepared as potential treatments of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). FG was extracted, characterized, and formulated into iron-loading nanocomposites via ion-exchange against FeCl3, Fe2(SO4)3, FeCl2 and FeSO4·7H2O. FG-iron nanocomposites preparation condition was optimized, and physicochemical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. In vitro release kinetics of iron in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) were also evaluated. FG heteropolysaccharide consisting of rhamnose (33...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Willem van IJperen, Damien Van Quickenborne, Ronald Buyl, Thierry Scheerlinck
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the in vivo gentamicin elution kinetics of Hi-Fatigue Gentamicin Bone Cement (AAP Biomaterials GmbH) in serum and drain fluid after hybrid hip arthroplasty and the relationship with cement mantle thickness. METHODS: We compared in a randomised, non-blinded prospective study, the local and systemic gentamicin concentrations in 2 groups. The thin cement mantle group ( n = 16) received a stem implanted line-to-line with the broach, whereas the thick group ( n = 14) had an undersized stem...
May 1, 2018: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
Eric Brown, Conor J Mc Veigh, Leilani Santos, Martina Gogarty, Heidi Kaastrup Müller, Betina Elfving, David J Brayden, Jana Haase
The serotonin transporter (SERT) facilitates high affinity reuptake of 5-HT from the extracellular fluid and dysregulation of transporter function has been implicated in a range of mood disorders including depression. Recent studies have linked immune system activation to depression as well as to altered serotonin transporter activity. Advancing previous studies, which have mainly focussed on acute effects of immune system activation, in this study we used collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice as a model of chronic inflammatory disease, to investigate the effect of prolonged inflammation on brain SERT function and behaviour...
April 30, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Dorota Wójcik-Pastuszka, Anna M Biedrawa, Dorota Haznar-Garbacz, Witold S Musiał
Tablets are often used in splitting process when the appropriated, registered dose is not available on the market or patients exhibit swallowing difficulties caused by the size of the tablet. The aim of the work was to assess the impact of physical division of tablets on the kinetics of in vitro gliclazide release from the intact and divided tablets. Gliclazide was released from prolonged release tablets containing 30 or 60 mg of the drug into a phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 and the amount of the drug in acceptor fluid was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry...
2018: Monatshefte Für Chemie
Qirong Xiong, Chun Yee Lim, Jinghua Ren, Jiajing Zhou, Kanyi Pu, Mary B Chan-Park, Hui Mao, Yee Cheong Lam, Hongwei Duan
Microfluidic biochips hold great potential for liquid analysis in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. However, the lack of integrated on-chip liquid mixing, bioseparation and signal transduction presents a major challenge in achieving rapid, ultrasensitive bioanalysis in simple microfluidic configurations. Here we report magnetic nanochain integrated microfluidic chip built upon the synergistic functions of the nanochains as nanoscale stir bars for rapid liquid mixing and as capturing agents for specific bioseparation...
May 1, 2018: Nature Communications
Aurélie Bellemans, Alessandro Parente, Thierry Magin
The present work introduces a novel approach for obtaining reduced chemistry representations of large kinetic mechanisms in strong non-equilibrium conditions. The need for accurate reduced-order models arises from compression of large ab initio quantum chemistry databases for their use in fluid codes. The method presented in this paper builds on existing physics-based strategies and proposes a new approach based on the combination of a simple coarse grain model with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The internal energy levels of the chemical species are regrouped in distinct energy groups with a uniform lumping technique...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Masaki Sato, Kazuhiro Ogura, Maki Kimura, Koichi Nishi, Masayuki Ando, Masakazu Tazaki, Yoshiyuki Shibukawa
INTRODUCTION: Various stimuli to the dentin surface elicit dentinal pain by inducing dentinal fluid movement causing cellular deformation in odontoblasts. Although odontoblasts detect deformation by the activation of mechanosensitive ionic channels, it is still unclear whether odontoblasts are capable of establishing neurotransmission with myelinated A delta (Aδ) neurons. Additionally, it is still unclear whether these neurons evoke action potentials by neurotransmitters from odontoblasts to mediate sensory transduction in dentin...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
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