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Fluid kinetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810751/communication-on-the-diffusion-tensor-in-macroscopic-theory-of-cavitation
#1
Vitaly A Shneidman
The classical description of nucleation of cavities in a stretched fluid relies on a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) in the space of their sizes r, with the diffusion coefficient D(r) constructed for all r from macroscopic hydrodynamics and thermodynamics, as shown by Zeldovich. When additional variables (e.g., vapor pressure) are required to describe the state of a bubble, a similar approach to construct a diffusion tensor D^ generally works only in the direct vicinity of the thermodynamic saddle point corresponding to the critical nucleus...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809101/a-microsphere-supported-lipid-bilayer-platform-for-dna-reactions-on-a-fluid-surface
#2
Aurora Fabry-Wood, Madalyn Elise Fetrow, Carl W Brown Iii, Nicholas A Baker, Nadiezda Fernandez Oropeza, Andrew P Shreve, Gabriel A Montano, Darko Stefanovic, Matthew R Lakin, Steven W Graves
We report a versatile microsphere-supported lipid bilayer system that can serve as a general-purpose platform for implementing DNA nanotechnologies on a fluid surface. To demonstrate our platform, we implemented both toehold-mediated strand displacement (TMSD) and DNAzyme reactions, which are typically performed in solution and which are the cornerstone of DNA-based molecular logic and dynamic DNA nanotechnology, on the surface. We functionalized microspheres bearing supported lipid bilayers (µSLBs) with membrane-bound nucleic acid components...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802218/pharmaceutical-and-biomedical-applications-of-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction
#3
REVIEW
Fotouh R Mansour, Mostafa A Khairy
Sample treatment is so crucial in pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. Proper sample preparation protects the analytical instrument, increases the sensitivity, and enhances the selectivity by removing probable interfering substances. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) is one of the most important approaches in sample treatment. In normal DLLME, the organic droplet of the extractant is mixed with a dispersing solvent before being injected into the sample. After manual or mechanical shaking, the cloudy solution is centrifuged to break the formed emulsion...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799354/focus-article-theoretical-aspects-of-vapor-gas-nucleation-at-structured-surfaces
#4
Simone Meloni, Alberto Giacomello, Carlo Massimo Casciola
Heterogeneous nucleation is the preferential means of formation of a new phase. Gas and vapor nucleation in fluids under confinement or at textured surfaces is central for many phenomena of technological relevance, such as bubble release, cavitation, and biological growth. Understanding and developing quantitative models for nucleation is the key to control how bubbles are formed and to exploit them in technological applications. An example is the in silico design of textured surfaces or particles with tailored nucleation properties...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796620/transport-of-liposome-encapsulated-drugs-in-voxelized-computational-model-of-human-brain-tumors
#5
A Bhandari, A Bansal, A Singh, N Sinha
There are many obstacles to transport of chemotherapeutic drugs to tumor cells that lead to irregular and non-uniform uptake of drugs inside tumors. Study of these transport problems will help in accurate prediction of drug transport and optimizing treatment strategy. To this end, liposome mediated drug delivery has emerged as an excellent anticancer therapy due to its ability to deliver drugs at site of action and reducing the chances of side effects to the healthy tissues. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on realistic vasculature of human brain tumor is presented...
August 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793765/electrokinetic-lattice-boltzmann-solver-coupled-to-molecular-dynamics-application-to-polymer-translocation
#6
Adwait V Datar, Maria Fyta, Umberto Marini Bettolo Marconi, Simone Melchionna
We develop a theoretical and computational approach to deal with systems that involve a disparate range of spatio-temporal scales, such as those comprised of colloidal particles or polymers moving in a fluidic molecular environment. Our approach is based on a multiscale modeling that combines the slow dynamics of the large particles with the fast dynamics of the solvent into a unique framework. The former is numerically solved via Molecular Dynamics and the latter via a multi-component Lattice Boltzmann. The two techniques are coupled together to allow for a seamless exchange of information between the descriptions...
August 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789543/temperature-extrapolation-of-multicomponent-grand-canonical-free-energy-landscapes
#7
Nathan A Mahynski, Jeffrey R Errington, Vincent K Shen
We derive a method for extrapolating the grand canonical free energy landscape of a multicomponent fluid system from one temperature to another. Previously, we introduced this statistical mechanical framework for the case where kinetic energy contributions to the classical partition function were neglected for simplicity [N. A. Mahynski et al., J. Chem. Phys. 146, 074101 (2017)]. Here, we generalize the derivation to admit these contributions in order to explicitly illustrate the differences that result. Specifically, we show how factoring out kinetic energy effects a priori, in order to consider only the configurational partition function, leads to simpler mathematical expressions that tend to produce more accurate extrapolations than when these effects are included...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782813/incorporating-lsrk-ai-2-quorum-quenching-capability-in-a-functionalized-biopolymer-capsule
#8
Melissa K Rhoads, Pricila Hauk, Jessica Terrell, Chen-Yu Tsao, Hyuntaek Oh, Srinivasa R Raghavan, Sheref S Mansy, Gregory F Payne, William E Bentley
Antibacterial resistance is an issue of increasing severity as current antibiotics are losing their effectiveness and fewer antibiotics are being developed. New methods for combating bacterial virulence are required. Modulating molecular communication among bacteria can alter phenotype, including attachment to epithelia, biofilm formation and even toxin production. Intercepting and modulating communication networks provide a means to attenuate virulence without directly interacting with the bacteria of interest...
August 7, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780853/inhibition-of-biodegradation-of-hydraulic-fracturing-compounds-by-glutaraldehyde-groundwater-column-and-microcosm-experiments
#9
Jessica D Rogers, Imma Ferrer, Shantal S Tummings, Angela Bielefeldt, Joseph N Ryan
The rapid expansion of unconventional oil and gas development has raised concerns about the potential contamination of aquifers; however, the groundwater fate and transport of hydraulic fracturing fluid compounds and mixtures remains a significant data gap. Degradation kinetics of five hydraulic fracturing compounds (2-propanol, ethylene glycol, propargyl alcohol, 2-butoxyethanol, and 2-ethylhexanol) in the absence and presence of the biocide glutaraldehyde were investigated under a range of redox conditions using sediment-groundwater microcosms and flow-through columns...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780040/long-term-direct-visualization-of-passively-transferred-fluorophore-conjugated-antibodies
#10
Jeffrey R Schneider, Ann M Carias, Arangaserry R Bastian, Gianguido C Cianci, Patrick F Kiser, Ronald S Veazey, Thomas J Hope
The use of therapeutic antibodies, delivered by intravenous (IV) instillation, is a rapidly expanding area of biomedical treatment for a variety of conditions. However, little is known about how the antibodies are anatomically distributed following infusion and the underlying mechanism mediating therapeutic antibody distribution to specific anatomical sites remains to be elucidated. Current efforts utilize low resolution and sensitivity methods such as ELISA and indirect labeling imaging techniques, which often leads to high background and difficulty in assessing biodistribution...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778053/release-behavior-and-signaling-effect-of-vitamin-d3-in-layered-double-hydroxides-hydroxyapatite-gelatin-bone-tissue-engineering-scaffold-an-in-vitro-evaluation
#11
Fateme Fayyazbakhsh, Mehran Solati-Hashjin, Abbas Keshtkar, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Mohammad Mehdi Dehghan, Bagher Larijani
Incorporating the controlled release of vitamin D3 (VD3) into biodegradable porous scaffolds is a new approach to equipping multifunctional therapeutics for osteoporosis. The current investigation involves the encapsulation of VD3 into gelatin through the one-step desolvation method. The layered double hydroxides-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite (LDH-HAp) and pure LDH were combined with the gelatin-VD3 complex to reinforce the porous biodegradable structure and enhance the biological response. Afterwards, glutaraldehyde was used to form crosslinks within the gelatin chains...
July 3, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776022/smart-nanocatalysts-with-streamline-shapes
#12
Guowu Zhan, Hua Chun Zeng
Particulate catalysts with streamline shapes have important impacts on fluid-related reactions, and they need to be properly characterized. However, utilization of streamline-shaped catalysts for heterogeneous catalysis has remained an unexplored area due to the lack of easy-to-use techniques to produce such shaped catalysts, especially at the small length scale of the submicron to micron regime. Herein, we report our recent development of a class of prototype nanocatalysts with streamline shapes. In this research, the kinetic control is adapted to obtain streamline-shaped supports, followed by functionalizing such supports with catalytically active metal nanoclusters (e...
July 26, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774840/multi-kinetics-and-site-specific-release-of-gabapentin-and-flurbiprofen-from-oral-fixed-dose-combination-in-vitro-release-and-in-vivo-food-effect
#13
Fabio Sonvico, Chiara Conti, Gaia Colombo, Francesca Buttini, Paolo Colombo, Ruggero Bettini, Marco Barchielli, Barbara Leoni, Luca Loprete, Alessandra Rossi
In this work, a fixed-dose combination of gabapentin and flurbiprofen formulated as multilayer tablets has been designed, developed and studied in vitro and in vivo. The aim was to construct a single dosage form of the two drugs, able to perform a therapeutic program involving three release kinetics and two delivery sites, i.e., immediate release of gabapentin, intra-gastric prolonged release of gabapentin and intestinal (delayed) release of flurbiprofen. An oblong three-layer tablet was manufactured having as top layer a floating hydrophilic polymeric matrix for gastric release of gabapentin, as middle layer a disintegrating formulation for immediate release of a gabapentin loading dose and as bottom layer, an uncoated hydrophilic polymeric matrix, swellable but insoluble in gastric fluids, for delayed and prolonged release of flurbiprofen in intestinal environment...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774604/impact-of-combining-chlorine-dioxide-and-chlorine-on-dbp-formation-in-simulated-indoor-swimming-pools
#14
Daekyun Kim, Nuray Ates, Sehnaz Sule Kaplan Bekaroglu, Meric Selbes, Tanju Karanfil
The main objective of this study was to assess the combined use of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and chlorine (Cl2) on the speciation and kinetics of disinfection by-product (DBP) formation in swimming pools using synthetic pool waters prepared with a body fluid analog (BFA) and/or fresh natural water. At 1:25 (mass ratio) of ClO2 to Cl2, there was no significant reduction in the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) for both BFA solution and natural water compared to the application of Cl2 alone...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774079/synthesis-and-in-vitro-activity-assessment-of-novel-silicon-oxycarbide-based-bioactive-glasses
#15
Isabel Gonzalo-Juan, Rainer Detsch, Sanjay Mathur, Emanuel Ionescu, Aldo R Boccaccini, Ralf Riedel
Novel bioactive glasses based on a Ca- and Mg-modified silicon oxycarbide (SiCaMgOC) were prepared from a polymeric single-source precursor, and their in vitro activity towards hydroxyapatite mineralization was investigated upon incubating the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C. The as-prepared materials exhibit an outstanding resistance against devitrification processes and maintain their amorphous nature even after exposure to 1300 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the SiCaMgOC samples after the SBF test showed characteristic reflections of apatite after only three days, indicating a promising bioactivity...
November 24, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772831/preparation-characterization-and-application-of-a-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-for-selective-recognition-of-sulpiride
#16
Wei Zhang, Xuhui She, Liping Wang, Huajun Fan, Qing Zhou, Xiaowen Huang, James Z Tang
A novel molecular imprinting polymer (MIP) was prepared by bulk polymerization using sulpiride as the template molecule, itaconic acid (ITA) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the crosslinker. The formation of the MIP was determined as the molar ratio of sulpiride-ITA-EGDMA of 1:4:15 by single-factor experiments. The MIP showed good adsorption property with imprinting factor α of 5.36 and maximum adsorption capacity of 61.13 μmol/g, and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and surface area analysis...
April 28, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766914/skeletal-muscle-dispersion-400-1000-nm-and-kinetics-at-optical-clearing
#17
REVIEW
Luís Oliveira, M Inês Carvalho, Elisabete Nogueira, Valery V Tuchin
Skeletal muscle dispersion and optical clearing kinetics were studied experimentally to prove the existence of the refractive index (RI) matching mechanism of optical clearing. Sample thickness and collimated transmittance spectra were measured during treatments with glucose (40%) and ethylene glycol (99%) solutions and used to obtain the time dependence of the RI of tissue fluids basing on the proposed theoretical model. Calculated results demonstrated an increase of RI of tissue fluids and consequently proved the occurrence of the RI matching mechanism...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766157/transport-effects-on-multiple-component-reactions-in-optical-biosensors
#18
Ryan M Evans, David A Edwards
Optical biosensors are often used to measure kinetic rate constants associated with chemical reactions. Such instruments operate in the surface-volume configuration, in which ligand molecules are convected through a fluid-filled volume over a surface to which receptors are confined. Currently, scientists are using optical biosensors to measure the kinetic rate constants associated with DNA translesion synthesis-a process critical to DNA damage repair. Biosensor experiments to study this process involve multiple interacting components on the sensor surface...
August 1, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765581/oropharyngeal-mucosal-transmission-of-zika-virus-in-rhesus-macaques
#19
Christina M Newman, Dawn M Dudley, Matthew T Aliota, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Mariel S Mohns, Meghan E Breitbach, Laurel M Stewart, Connor R Buechler, Michael E Graham, Jennifer Post, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Eric Peterson, Wendy Newton, Emma L Mohr, Saverio Capuano, David H O'Connor, Thomas C Friedrich
Zika virus is present in urine, saliva, tears, and breast milk, but the transmission risk associated with these body fluids is currently unknown. Here we evaluate the risk of Zika virus transmission through mucosal contact in rhesus macaques. Application of high-dose Zika virus directly to the tonsils of three rhesus macaques results in detectable plasma viremia in all animals by 2 days post-exposure; virus replication kinetics are similar to those observed in animals infected subcutaneously. Three additional macaques inoculated subcutaneously with Zika virus served as saliva donors to assess the transmission risk from contact with oral secretions from an infected individual...
August 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765175/e-selectin-mediated-rolling-facilitates-pancreatic-cancer-cell-adhesion-to-hyaluronic-acid
#20
Daniel J Shea, Yi W Li, Kathleen J Stebe, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos
Tumor cell extravasation is a multistep process preceded by cell rolling and arrest on the vessel wall via the formation of specific receptor-ligand bonds. The strength, availability, and number of receptor-ligand bonds regulate the rate by which tumor cells tether, roll, and adhere to vascular walls. Although the mechanics of selectin-mediated rolling have been extensively studied, little is known regarding how tumor cell rolling on selectins facilitates adhesion to a distinct substrate-bound protein with different kinetic properties...
August 1, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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