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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319844/a-comparative-study-of-casson-fluid-with-homogeneous-heterogeneous-reactions
#1
Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Muhammad Waqas, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow of Casson fluid towards a stretching sheet is addressed. Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions together with homogeneous heat effect subject to a resistive force of electromagnetic origin is discussed. It is assumed that the homogeneous process in the ambient fluid is governed by first order kinetics and the heterogeneous process on the wall surface is given by isothermal cubic autocatalator kinetics. Ordinary differential systems have been considered. Solutions of the problems are presented via a numerical technique namely built in shooting method...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315356/the-effect-of-angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor-sacubitril-valsartan-on-central-nervous-system-amyloid-%C3%AE-concentrations-and-clearance-in-the-cynomolgus-monkey
#2
Heidi A Schoenfeld, Tim West, Philip B Verghese, Mary Holubasch, Neeta Shenoy, David Kagan, Chiara Buono, Wei Zhou, Marc DeCristofaro, Julie Douville, Geoffrey G Goodrich, Keith Mansfield, Chandra Saravanan, Frederic Cumin, Randy L Webb, Randall J Bateman
Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is the first angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor approved to reduce cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. As neprilysin (NEP) is one of several enzymes known to degrade amyloid-β (Aβ), there is a theoretical risk of Aβ accumulation following long-term NEP inhibition. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of sacubitril/valsartan on central nervous system clearance of Aβ isoforms in cynomolgus monkeys using the sensitive Stable Isotope Labeling Kinetics (SILK™)-Aβ methodology...
March 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297918/energy-partition-scale-by-scale-in-magnetic-archimedes-coriolis-weak-wave-turbulence
#3
A Salhi, F S Baklouti, F Godeferd, T Lehner, C Cambon
Magnetic Archimedes Coriolis (MAC) waves are omnipresent in several geophysical and astrophysical flows such as the solar tachocline. In the present study, we use linear spectral theory (LST) and investigate the energy partition, scale by scale, in MAC weak wave turbulence for a Boussinesq fluid. At the scale k^{-1}, the maximal frequencies of magnetic (Alfvén) waves, gravity (Archimedes) waves, and inertial (Coriolis) waves are, respectively, V_{A}k,N, and f. By using the induction potential scalar, which is a Lagrangian invariant for a diffusionless Boussinesq fluid [Salhi et al...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257385/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-drug-reservoir-function-of-human-amniotic-membrane-using-moxifloxacin-as-a-model-drug
#4
Madhavi Latha Yelchuri, Bhagyashree Madhavi, Nilam Gohil, Hitha Sara Sajeev, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh Prajna, Senthilkumari Srinivasan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vitro, extended drug reservoir function of human amniotic membrane (HAM) of different thicknesses impregnated with moxifloxacin. METHODS: HAM buttons (12 mm) were soaked with freshly prepared 0.5% wt/vol topical moxifloxacin at different soaking time intervals: 3 hours (group I), 6 hours (group II), 12 hours (group III), 24 hours (group IV), and 48 hours (group V). They were then transferred into 1 mL of fresh simulated tear fluid (pH-7...
March 1, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257333/recent-advances-for-measurement-of-protein-synthesis-rates-use-of-the-virtual-biopsy-approach-and-measurement-of-muscle-mass
#5
Marc Hellerstein, William Evans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Flux-rate measurements of protein synthesis and breakdown (turnover) in muscle represent an ideal class of mechanism-based biomarkers for conditions of altered muscle mass and function. We describe here new metabolic labeling techniques for flux-rate measurements in humans, focusing on skeletal muscle. RECENT FINDINGS: Dynamics of the muscle proteome are accurately measured in humans by combining long-term heavy water labeling with tandem mass spectrometry...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256884/generalized-knudsen-number-for-unsteady-fluid-flow
#6
V Kara, V Yakhot, K L Ekinci
We explore the scaling behavior of an unsteady flow that is generated by an oscillating body of finite size in a gas. If the gas is gradually rarefied, the Navier-Stokes equations begin to fail and a kinetic description of the flow becomes more appropriate. The failure of the Navier-Stokes equations can be thought to take place via two different physical mechanisms: either the continuum hypothesis breaks down as a result of a finite size effect or local equilibrium is violated due to the high rate of strain...
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256860/emergent-structures-in-an-active-polar-fluid-dynamics-of-shape-scattering-and-merger
#7
Kabir Husain, Madan Rao
Spatially localized defect structures emerge spontaneously in a hydrodynamic description of an active polar fluid comprising polar "actin" filaments and "myosin" motor proteins that (un)bind to filaments and exert active contractile stresses. These emergent defect structures are characterized by distinct textures and can be either static or mobile-we derive effective equations of motion for these "extended particles" and analyze their shape, kinetics, interactions, and scattering. Depending on the impact parameter and propulsion speed, these active defects undergo elastic scattering or merger...
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251425/a-review-of-disintegration-mechanisms-and-measurement-techniques
#8
REVIEW
Daniel Markl, J Axel Zeitler
Pharmaceutical solid dosage forms (tablets or capsules) are the predominant form to administer active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to the patient. Tablets are typically powder compacts consisting of several different excipients in addition to the API. Excipients are added to a formulation in order to achieve the desired fill weight of a dosage form, to improve the processability or to affect the drug release behaviour in the body. These complex porous systems undergo different mechanisms when they come in contact with physiological fluids...
March 1, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245362/comparative-research-on-stability-of-baicalin-and-baicalein-administrated-in-monomer-and-total-flavonoid-fraction-form-of-radix-scutellariae-in-biological-fluids-in-vitro
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Zhiqiang Feng, Jie Zhou, Xueying Shang, Guojun Kuang, Jian Han, Liping Lu, Lei Zhang
CONTEXT: Baicalin (BL) and baicalein (B) as the major flavonoids of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Lamiaceae) have been investigated intensively, and shown to possess a multitude of pharmacological activities. OBJECTIVE: This study systematically evaluates the stability of BL and B in monomer and total flavonoid fraction (FSR) form in vitro, and further studies whether the protective measures are effective to make B and BL stable enough to meet the requirement of quantitative analysis in various biological samples...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245257/cross-linked-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-and-carboxymethyl-cellulose-hydrogels-for-controlled-drug-delivery-of-acyclovir
#10
Nadia Shamshad Malik, Mahmood Ahmad, Muhammad Usman Minhas
To explore the potential role of polymers in the development of drug-delivery systems, this study investigated the use of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), acrylic acid (AA) and N' N'-methylenebis-acrylamide (MBA) in the synthesis of hydrogels for controlled drug delivery of acyclovir (ACV). Different proportions of β-CD, CMC, AA and MBA were blended with each other to fabricate hydrogels via free radical polymerization technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed successful grafting of components into the polymeric network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245114/thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-in-o-b-o-and-n-b-o-strapped-boron-dipyrromethene-derivatives
#11
Patrycja Stachelek, Abdulrahman A Alsimaree, Rua B Alnoman, Anthony Harriman, Julian G Knight
A small series of boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes has been synthesized whereby the boron atom is constrained in a five-membered ring formed from either o-dihydroxypyridine or o-aminophenol. In the latter case, the amino group has been converted into the corresponding amide derivative so as to curtail the possibility for light-induced charge transfer from strap to BODIPY. These compounds are weakly emissive in fluid solution but cleavage of the strap, by treatment with a photoacid generator, restores strong fluorescence...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244144/synthesis-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-acrylate-based-gastrosparing-nsaid-prodrugs
#12
Arun Rasheed, Prasanna Raju Yalavarthi, Haseena Cheramparambil, Jaya Preethi Peesa, Azeem Abdul Khareem
Dexibuprofen and aceclofenac are well-known NSAID molecules, their oral use leads to gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. To circumvent that GI toxicity, the prodrug approach is a better alternative. Hence, this research was undertaken to synthesize prodrugs of dexibuprofen and aceclofenac using acrylic polymers with degradable ester bonds. Dexibuprofen was linked to 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate by an activated ester technique. The resulting material was copolymerized with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate (in 1:3 mole ratios) by the free radical polymerization method, utilizing azoisobutyronitrile at 65-70°C...
February 28, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243475/kinetics-of-rituximab-excretion-into-urine-and-peritoneal-fluid-in-two-patients-with-nephrotic-syndrome
#13
Klaus Stahl, Michelle Duong, Anke Schwarz, A D Wagner, Hermann Haller, Mario Schiffer, Roland Jacobs
Clinical observations suggest that treatment of Rituximab might be less effective in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria when compared to nonnephrotic patients. It is conceivable that the reason for this is that significant amounts of Rituximab might be lost in the urine in a nephrotic patient and that these patients require a repeated or higher dosage. However, this has not been systematically studied. In this case report we describe two different patients with nephrotic range proteinuria receiving Rituximab...
2017: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242061/patient-specific-in-vitro-models-for-hemodynamic-analysis-of-congenital-heart-disease-additive-manufacturing-approach
#14
Rafael Medero, Sylvana García-Rodríguez, Christopher J François, Alejandro Roldán-Alzate
Non-invasive hemodynamic assessment of total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is challenging due to the complex anatomy. Additive manufacturing (AM) is a suitable alternative for creating patient-specific in vitro models for flow measurements using four-dimensional (4D) Flow MRI. These in vitro systems have the potential to serve as validation for computational fluid dynamics (CFD), simulating different physiological conditions. This study investigated three different AM technologies, stereolithography (SLA), selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), to determine differences in hemodynamics when measuring flow using 4D Flow MRI...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241393/preparation-and-characterization-of-45s5-bioactive-glass-based-scaffolds-loaded-with-phbv-microspheres-with-daidzein-release-function
#15
Víctor I Macías-Andrés, Wei Li, Ena A Aguilar-Reyes, Yaping Ding, Judith A Roether, Leila Harhaus, Carlos A León-Patiño, A R Boccaccini
PHBV microsphere loaded 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) based scaffolds with drug releasing capability have been developed. PHBV microspheres with a mean particle size 4 ± 2 μm loaded with daidzein were obtained by oil-in-water single emulsion solvent evaporation method and applied to the surface of BG scaffolds by dip coating technique. The morphology, in vitro bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), mechanical properties and drug release kinetics of microsphere loaded scaffolds were studied. The microspheres were shown to be homogeneously dispersed on the scaffold surfaces...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231305/effects-of-vasoactive-drugs-on-crystalloid-fluid-kinetics-in-septic-sheep
#16
Yuhong Li, Zheng Xiaozhu, Ru Guomei, Ding Qiannan, Robert G Hahn
PURPOSE: Crystalloid fluid and vasoactive drugs are used in the early treatment of sepsis. The purpose of the present study was to examine how these drugs alter plasma volume expansion, peripheral edema, and urinary excretion. METHODS: Twenty-five anesthetized sheep were made septic by cecal puncture and a short infusion of lipopolysaccharide. After 50 min, a slow infusion of isotonic saline was initiated: the saline either contained no drug, norepinephrine (1 μg/kg/min), phenylephrine (3 μg/kg/min), dopamine (50 μg/kg/min), or esmolol (50 μg/kg/min)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220319/cfd-assessment-of-the-effect-of-convective-mass-transport-on-the-intracellular-clearance-of-intracellular-triglycerides-in-macrosteatotic-hepatocytes
#17
Gabriel Yarmush, Lucas Santos, Joshua Yarmush, Srivathsan Koundinyan, Mubasher Saleem, Nir I Nativ, Martin L Yarmush, Francois Berthiaume, Timothy J Maguire, Chris Guaghan
Donor livers available to transplant for patients with end-stage liver disease are in severe shortage. One possible avenue to expand the donor pool is to recondition livers that would be otherwise discarded due to excessive fat content. Severely steatotic livers (also known as fatty livers) are highly susceptible to ischemia-reperfusion injury and as a result, primary liver non-function post-transplantation. Prior studies in isolated perfused rat livers suggest that "defatting" may be possible in a timeframe of a few hours; thus, it is conceivable that fatty liver grafts could be recovered by machine perfusion to clear stored fat from the organ prior to transplantation...
February 20, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218823/review-of-the-development-of-methods-for-characterization-of-microspheres-for-use-in-embolotherapy-translating-bench-to-cathlab
#18
REVIEW
Marcus Caine, Dario Carugo, Xunli Zhang, Martyn Hill, Matthew R Dreher, Andrew L Lewis
Therapeutic embolotherapy is the deliberate occlusion of a blood vessel within the body, which can be for the prevention of internal bleeding, stemming of flow through an arteriovenous malformation, or occlusion of blood vessels feeding a tumor. This is achieved using a wide selection of embolic devices such as balloons, coils, gels, glues, and particles. Particulate embolization is often favored for blocking smaller vessels, particularly within hypervascularized tumors, as they are available in calibrated sizes and can be delivered distally via microcatheters for precise occlusion with associated locoregional drug delivery...
February 20, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213251/on-line-monitoring-of-in-vitro-oral-bioaccessibility-tests-as-front-end-to-liquid-chromatography-for-determination-of-chlorogenic-acid-isomers-in-dietary-supplements
#19
Daniel Kremr, David J Cocovi-Solberg, Petra Bajerová, Karel Ventura, Manuel Miró
A novel fully automated in-vitro oral dissolution test assay as a front-end to liquid chromatography has been developed and validated for on-line chemical profiling and monitoring of temporal release profiles of three caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) isomers, namely, 3-CQA,4-CQA and 5-CQA, known as chlorogenic acids, in dietary supplements. Tangential-flow filtration is harnessed as a sample processing approach for on-line handling of CQA containing extracts of hard gelatin capsules and introduction of protein-free samples into the liquid chromatograph...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213218/dynamic-flow-through-approach-to-evaluate-readily-bioaccessible-antioxidants-in-solid-food-samples
#20
Miguel A Maia, Tânia R P Soares, Ana I P Mota, María Rosende, Luís M Magalhães, Manuel Miró, Marcela A Segundo
Release of bioactive compounds from food matrices is regarded as the first step towards their human bioavailability. The objective of this work was the implementation of an affordable and robust flow-through device for expedient dynamic leaching experiments aiming at the assessment of readily bioaccessible antioxidant compounds in solid food commodities. A simple configuration is proposed using commercially available devices containing regenerated cellulose filters placed in polypropylene holders to entrap the solid sample, featuring a disposable, single use extraction chamber...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
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