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Fluid kinetic

Ivan U Vakarelski, Rogerio Manica, Er Qiang Li, Elka S Basheva, Derek Y C Chan, Sigurdur T Thoroddsen
Coalescence dynamics between deformable bubbles and droplets can be dramatically affected by the mobility of the interfaces with fully tangentially mobile bubble-liquid or droplet-liquid interfaces expected to accelerate the coalescence by orders of magnitudes. However, there is a lack of systematic experimental investigations that quantify this effect. By using high speed camera imaging we examine the free rise and coalescence of small air-bubbles (100 to 1300 μm in diameter) with a liquid interface. A perfluorocarbon liquid, PP11 is used as a model liquid to investigate coalescence dynamics between fully-mobile and immobile deformable interfaces...
January 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Aristidis S Veskoukis, Vassilis Paschalis, Antonios Kyparos, Michalis G Nikolaidis
Maximal velocity (Vmax) is a well established biomarker for the assessment of tissue redox status. There is scarce evidence, though, that it does not probably reflect sufficiently in vivo tissue redox profile. Instead, the Michaelis constant (Km) could more adequately image tissue oxidative stress and, thus, be a more physiologically relevant redox biomarker. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to side-by-side compare Vmax and Km of an antioxidant enzyme after implementing an in vivo set up that induces alterations in tissue redox status...
January 3, 2018: Redox Biology
Y Gorbanev, C C W Verlackt, S Tinck, E Tuenter, K Foubert, P Cos, A Bogaerts
The vast biomedical potential of cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPs) is governed by the formation of reactive species. These biologically active species are formed upon the interaction of CAPs with the surroundings. In biological milieu, water plays an essential role. The development of biomedical CAPs thus requires understanding of the sources of the reactive species in aqueous media exposed to the plasma. This is especially important in case of the COST RF plasma jet, which is developed as a reference microplasma system...
January 11, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Santiago A Endara, Fernando J Terán, Armando J Serrano, Manuela J Castillo, Gabriel A Molina
Esophageal fistulas in the cervical region are usually difficult to manage and carry a high morbidity. We report a case of an esophago-colonic fistula after colonic interposition, successfully managed with vacuum-assisted closure 'V.A.C. system', (Kinetic Concepts Inc., San Antonio, TX, USA). The patient initially presented with purulent fluid from the cervical wound 13 days after surgery. Esophagogram confirmed a leak. Since the patient had a history of anastomotic leaks, a surgical intervention was not the treatment of choice...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Parth N Shah, Kimberly R Marshall-Batty, Justin A Smolen, Jasur A Tagaev, Qingquan Chen, Christopher A Rodesney, Henry H Le, Vernita D Gordon, David E Greenberg, Carolyn L Cannon
Clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of ibuprofen therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, an effect that is currently attributed to ibuprofen's anti-inflammatory properties. Yet, a few previous reports demonstrate an antimicrobial activity of ibuprofen as well, although none investigate its direct effects on the pathogens found in the CF lung, which is the focus of this work. Determination of ibuprofen's in vitro antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia spp. strains through measurements of endpoint colony-forming units (CFU) and growth kinetics showed that ibuprofen reduces the growth rate and bacterial burden of tested strains in a dose-dependent fashion...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ian M Williams, Francisco A Valenzuela, Steven D Kahl, Doraiswami Ramkrishna, Adam R Mezo, Jamey D Young, K Sam Wells, David H Wasserman
Before insulin can stimulate myocytes to take up glucose, it must first move from the circulation to the interstitial space. The continuous endothelium of skeletal muscle (SkM) capillaries restricts insulin's access to myocytes. The mechanism by which insulin crosses this continuous endothelium is critical to understand insulin action and insulin resistance; however, methodological obstacles have limited understanding of endothelial insulin transport in vivo. Here, we present an intravital microscopy technique to measure the rate of insulin efflux across the endothelium of SkM capillaries...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Masayuki Kyomoto, Toru Moro, Shihori Yamane, Kenichi Watanabe, Masami Hashimoto, Sakae Tanaka, Kazuhiko Ishihara
Manipulating the surface and substrate of cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) is an essential approach for obtaining life-long orthopedic bearings. We therefore proposed a bearing material comprised of an antioxidative substrate generated by vitamin E blending (HD-CLPE[VE]) with a poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC)-grafted surface, and investigated its wear resistance and oxidative stability under accelerated aging and load bearing conditions. Neither the hydration nor friction kinetics of the molecular network structure of the PMPC-grafted surface or the HD-CLPE(VE) substrate were influenced by accelerated aging but rather exhibited high stability even under high oxidation conditions...
December 30, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Xiao-Xing Wang, Yang-Bing Li, Meihua R Feng, David E Smith
PURPOSE: To develop a semi-mechanistic population pharmacokinetic (PK) model to quantitate the disposition kinetics of L-histidine, a peptide-histidine transporter 1 (PHT1) substrate, in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma of wildtype (WT) and Pht1 knockout (KO) mice. METHODS: L-[14C]Hisidine (L-His) was administrated to WT and KO mice via tail vein injection, after which plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain parenchyma samples were collected...
January 5, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Kristin Lehmkemper, Samuel O Kyeremateng, Matthias Degenhardt, Gabriele Sadowski
PURPOSE: The oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can be improved by the preparation of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) where the API is dissolved in polymeric excipients. Desired properties of such ASDs like storage stability, dissolution behavior, and processability can be optimized by additional excipients. In this work, the influence of so-called low-molecular-weight excipients (LMWEs) on the phase behavior of ASDs was investigated...
January 5, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Bo Zhi Chen, Mohammad Ashfaq, Xiao Peng Zhang, Jia Nan Zhang, Xin Dong Guo
Microneedles (MNs) system for transdermal drug delivery has the potential to improve therapeutic efficacy, proving an approach that is more convenient and acceptable than traditional medication systems. The present study systematically researched dissolving polymer MNs fabricated from various common FDA-approved biocompatible materials, including gelatin, chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Upon application of MN patches to the porcine cadaver skin, the MNs effectively perforated the skin and delivered drugs to subcutaneous tissue on contact with the interstitial fluid...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
Michael Grimm, Mirko Koziolek, Marwa Saleh, Felix Schneider, Grzegorz Garbacz, Jens Peter Kuhn, Werner Weitschies
Grapefruit juice (GFJ) is known to affect the bioavailability of drugs in different ways. Despite the influence on gastrointestinal enzymes and transporters, the influence on gastrointestinal fluid kinetics is regarded to be relevant for the absorption of several drugs. Thus, it was the aim of this pilot study to investigate the gastric and intestinal volumes after intake of GFJ compared to isocaloric fructose and glucose solutions and water. The gastric and small intestinal volume kinetics after intake of 240 mL of GFJ, 10...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Sara Llamas, Laura Fernández-Peña, Andrew Akanno, Eduardo Guzmán, Víctor Ortega, Francisco Ortega, Aurelio G Csaky, Richard A Campbell, Ramón G Rubio
Polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures and their interactions with fluid interfaces are an important research field due to their use in technological applications. Most of the existing knowledge on these systems is based on models in which the polyelectrolyte concentration is around 50 times lower than that used in commercial formulations. The present work marks a step to close the gap on the understanding of their behavior under more practically-relevant conditions. The adsorption of concentrated mixtures of poly(diallyldimethyl-ammonium) chloride and sodium N-lauroyl-N-methyltaurate at the water/vapor interface with a crude mixing protocol has been studied by different surface tension techniques, Brewster angle microscopy, neutron reflectometry, and several bulk characterization techniques...
January 3, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
F Grandl, A Schwarm, S Ortmann, M Furger, M Kreuzer, M Clauss
The digestive physiology of cattle is characterised by comparatively long digesta mean retention times (MRTs), a particle sorting mechanism (difference in MRTs of large vs. small particles) and a distinct digesta washing (difference in MRTs between particles and fluids) in the reticulorumen (RR). How these processes mature during ontogeny, and how they link to other digestion characteristics and methane production, is largely unknown. We used a set of passage markers (Co-EDTA for fluids and hay particles of 2, 5 and 8 mm length mordanted with Cr, La and Ce, respectively) to measure MRTs in 12 heifers (0...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Jaya P Peesa, Lakshmana R Atmakuri, Prasanna R Yalavarthi, Basaveswara R Mandava Venkata, Arun Rasheed, Vengalrao Pachava
Oxaprozin is a popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and its chronic oral use is clinically restricted due to its gastrointestinal (GI) complications. In order to circumvent the GI complications, oxaprozin was amended as a prodrug in a one-pot reaction using N,N-carbonyldiimidazole as an activating agent. Dextran of average molecular weight (60,000-90,000 Da) was exploited as a carrier in the process of oxaprozin prodrug production by esterification. The structural profiles of the synthesized oxaprozin prodrug were characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy...
December 28, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
Alexandra Gavala, Despoina Manou, Vasiliki Psalida, Maria Nystatzaki, Christos Mavrogiannis, George Alevizopoulos, Pavlos Myrianthefs
A 43-year-old psychiatric patient was transferred in coma and hypercapnic respiratory failure at the emergency department. He was intubated for airway protection and transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Abdominal X-ray revealed a radiopaque mass; a pharmacobezoar was suspected and confirmed by gastroscopy; one large in the stomach fundus and a smaller one in the pylorus. Gastric lavage through the gastroscope and administration of gastro-kinetic drugs and laxatives were able to dilute the bezoars. Tablets retrieved from the stomach identified as methadone and toxicological tests of the gastric fluid confirmed the presence of methadone as the only organic chemical compound...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Sharif Md Abuzara, Sang-Min Hyun, Jun-Hee Kim, Hee Jun Park, Min-Soo Kim, Jeong-Sook Park, Sung-Joo Hwang
Poor water solubility and poor bioavailability are problems with many pharmaceuticals. Increasing surface area by micronization is an effective strategy to overcome these problems, but conventional techniques often utilize solvents and harsh processing, which restricts their use. Newer, green technologies, such as supercritical fluid (SCF)-assisted particle formation, can produce solvent-free products under relatively mild conditions, offering many advantages over conventional methods. The antisolvent properties of the SCFs used for microparticle and nanoparticle formation have generated great interest in recent years, because the kinetics of the precipitation process and morphologies of the particles can be accurately controlled...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Heping Wang, Duyang Zang, Xiaoguang Li, Xingguo Geng
This paper presents an exploration of the phase separation behavior and pattern formation in a binary fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity via a coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). By introducing a viscosity-temperature relation into the LBM, the coupling effects of the viscosity-temperature coefficient [Formula: see text] , initial viscosity [Formula: see text] and thermal diffusion coefficient [Formula: see text] , on the phase separation were successfully described. The calculated results indicated that an increase in initial viscosity and viscosity-temperature coefficient, or a decrease in the thermal diffusion coefficient, can lead to the orientation of isotropic growth fronts over a wide range of viscosity...
December 27, 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Andrew Lucas, Kin Chung Fong
Generic interacting many-body quantum systems are believed to behave as classical fluids on long time and length scales. Due to rapid progress in growing exceptionally pure crystals, we are now able to experimentally observe this collective motion of electrons in solid-state systems, including graphene. We present a review of recent progress in understanding the hydrodynamic limit of electronic motion in graphene, written for physicists from diverse communities. We begin by discussing the ``phase diagram" of graphene, and the inevitable presence of impurities and phonons in experimental systems...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Alien Blanco-Flores, Nubia Arteaga-Larios, Víctor Pérez-García, José Martínez-Gutiérrez, María Ojeda-Escamilla, Israel Rodríguez-Torres
A SSW/Al-Cu formed from an industrial solid waste and Al-Cu Nps are utilized for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions. The SSW/Al-Cu was obtained by a chemical reduction method. The SSW/Al-Cu was characterized by TEM, SEM, FT-IR, XRD, BET, and pHzpc techniques. The Nps were formed as bimetallic oxides and deposited in the form of spheroidal particles forming agglomerations. The sizes of these particles range from 1 to 3 nm. The surface area and average pore width of SSW/Al-Cu were 2.99 m2/g and 17...
December 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Raju Prasad Sharma, Marta Schuhmacher, Vikas Kumar
Recent studies suggest universal fetal exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and its association with the adverse birth outcomes. Estimation of the fetal plasma BPA concentration from the maternal plasma BPA would be highly useful to predict its associated risk to this specific population. The objective of current work is to develop a pregnancy-physiologically based pharmacokinetic (P-PBPK) model to predict the toxicokinetic profile of BPA in the fetus during gestational growth, and to evaluate the developed model using biomonitoring data obtained from different pregnancy cohort studies...
December 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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