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Fluid kinetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106997/time-and-nanoparticle-concentration-affect-the-extractability-of-cu-from-cuo-np-amended-soil
#1
Xiaoyu Gao, Eleanor Spielman-Sun, Sónia Morais Rodrigues, Elizabeth A Casman, Gregory V Lowry
We assess the effect of CuO nanoparticle (NP) concentration and soil aging time on the extractability of Cu from a standard sandy soil (Lufa 2.1). The soil was dosed with CuO NP or Cu(NO3)2 at 10 mg Cu kg-1 soil (mg/kg) or 100 mg/kg total copper, then extracted using either 0.01M CaCl2 or 0.005M DTPA (pH 7.6) extraction fluids at selected times over 31 days. For 100 mg/kg CuO NP, the amount of DTPA-extractable Cu in soil increased from 3 wt% immediately after mixing to 38 wt% after 31 days. In contrast, the extractability of Cu(NO3)2 was highest initially, decreasing with time...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106399/-1-h-nmr-shows-slow-phospholipid-flip-flop-in-gel-and-fluid-bilayers
#2
Drew Marquardt, Frederick A Heberle, Tatiana Miti, Barbara Eicher, Erwin London, John Katsaras, Georg Pabst
We measured the transbilayer diffusion of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) in large unilamellar vesicles in both the gel (Lβ') and fluid (Lα) phases. The choline resonance of headgroup-protiated DPPC exchanged into the outer leaflet of headgroup-deuterated DPPC-d13 vesicles was monitored using (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with the addition of a paramagnetic shift reagent. This allowed us to distinguish between the inner and outer leaflet DPPC, and determine the flip-flop rate as a function of temperature...
January 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089499/the-stability-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-in-human-serum-a-reanalysis-of-literature-data-and-association-with-clinical-outcomes
#3
John P Prybylski, Richard C Semelka, Michael Jay
PURPOSE: To reanalyze literature data of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in plasma with a kinetic model of dissociation to provide a comprehensive assessment of equilibrium conditions for linear GBCAs. METHODS: Data for the release of Gd from GBCAs in human serum was extracted from a previous report in the literature and fit to a kinetic dissociation/association model. The conditional stabilities (logKcond) and percent intact over time were calculated using the model rate constants...
January 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088133/droplet-growth-during-vapor-liquid-transition-in-a-2d-lennard-jones-fluid
#4
Jiarul Midya, Subir K Das
Results for the kinetics of vapor-liquid phase transition have been presented from the molecular dynamics simulations of a single component two-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid. The phase diagram for the model, primary prerequisite for this purpose, has been obtained via the Monte Carlo simulations. Our focus is on the region very close to the vapor branch of the coexistence curve. Quenches to such region provide morphology that consists of disconnected circular clusters in the vapor background. We identified that these clusters exhibit diffusive motion and grow via sticky collisions among them...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087408/effects-of-loading-concentration-blood-and-synovial-fluid-on-antibiotic-release-and-anti-biofilm-activity-of-bone-cement-beads
#5
Devendra H Dusane, Scott M Diamond, Cory S Knecht, Nicholas R Farrar, Casey W Peters, Robert P Howlin, Matthew C Swearingen, Jason H Calhoun, Roger D Plaut, Tanya M Nocera, Jeffrey F Granger, Paul Stoodley
Antibiotic loaded cement beads are commonly used for the treatment of biofilm related orthopaedic periprosthetic infections; however the effects of antibiotic loading and exposure of beads to body fluids on release kinetics are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of (i) antibiotic loading density (ii) loading amount (iii) material type and (iv) exposure to body fluids (blood or synovial fluid) on release kinetics and efficacy of antibiotics against planktonic and lawn biofilm bacteria...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081355/oral-delivery-of-probiotics-in-poultry-using-ph-sensitive-tablets
#6
Tao Jiang, Hui-Shan Li, Geon Goo Han, Bijay Singh, Sang-Kee Kang, Jin-Duck Bok, Dae-Duk Kim, Zhong-Shan Hong, Yun-Jaie Choi, Chong-Su Cho
As alternatives to antibiotics in live stocks, probiotics have been used although most of them in the form of liquid or semisolid formulations which show low cell viability after oral administration. Therefore, suitable dry dosage forms should be developed for live stocks to protect probiotics against the low pH in the stomach such that the products have higher probiotics survivability. Here, in order to develop a dry dosage forms of probiotics for poultry, we used hydroxyproyl methylcellulose phthalate 55 (HPMCP 55) as a tablet forming matrix to develop probiotics in a tablet form for poultry...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069165/on-the-quantification-and-visualization-of-transient-periodic-instabilities-in-pulsatile-flows
#7
Muhammad Owais Khan, Christophe Chnafa, Diego Gallo, Filippo Molinari, Umberto Morbiducci, David A Steinman, Kristian Valen-Sendstad
Turbulent-like flows without cycle-to-cycle variations are more frequently being reported in studies of cardiovascular flows. The associated stimuli might be of mechanobiological relevance, but how to quantify them objectively is not obvious. Classical Reynolds decomposition, where the flow is separated into mean and fluctuating velocity components, is not applicable as the phase-average is zero. We therefore expanded on established techniques and present the idea, analogous to Reynolds decomposition, to decompose a flow with transient instabilities into low- versus high frequency components, respectively, to discriminate flow instabilities from the underlying cardiac pulsatility...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068904/long-term-kinetics-of-zika-virus-rna-and-antibodies-in-body-fluids-of-a-vasectomized-traveller-returning-from-martinique-a-case-report
#8
Guenter Froeschl, Kristina Huber, Frank von Sonnenburg, Hans-Dieter Nothdurft, Gisela Bretzel, Michael Hoelscher, Lothar Zoeller, Matthias Trottmann, Francisco Pan-Montojo, Gerhard Dobler, Silke Woelfel
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has led to a declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the WHO. Findings of viable viral particles in semen for several weeks are corroborating reports of sexual transmission of ZIKV. Serious consequences of a positive diagnostic result particularly in the pregnant patient are calling for precise diagnostic tools also at later time points after infection. Currently, recommendations suggest a diagnostic period of direct viral detection of 5 to 7 days after onset of symptoms in serum or plasma, and up to 3 weeks in urine samples...
January 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067087/oral-delivery-of-allopurinol-niosomes-in-treatment-of-gout-in-animal-model
#9
Neelu Singh, Poonam Parashar, Chandra Bhushan Tripathi, Jovita Kanoujia, Gaurav Kaithwas, Shubhini A Saraf
CONTEXT: Gout is a painful disorder which does not have an efficient delivery system for its treatment. OBJECTIVE: Development and in vitro, in vivo evaluation of allopurinol loaded nonionic surfactant based niosomes was envisaged. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Niosomes were prepared with Span 20 and Tween 20(1:1 molar ratio) using ether injection method. The formulations were screened for entrapment efficiency, particle size analysis, zeta potential, release kinetics, in vivo activity and stability studies...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059218/statistical-properties-of-a-radially-polarized-twisted-gaussian-schell-model-beam-in-an-underwater-turbulent-medium
#10
Xiaofeng Peng, Lin Liu, Yangjian Cai, Yahya Baykal
Average intensity and the normalized powers of the completely polarized and the completely unpolarized portions of a radially polarized twisted Gaussian Schell-model (TGSM) beam propagating in underwater turbulence are examined. In our formulation, our previously obtained atmospheric turbulence solution for the same radially polarized TGSM beam using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle is utilized, with the inclusion of our recently derived expression for the atmospheric turbulence structure constant in terms of underwater turbulence parameters...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054967/expression-purification-and-biophysical-characterization-of-a-secreted-anthrax-decoy-fusion-protein-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#11
Kalimuthu Karuppanan, Sifti Duhra-Gill, Muchena J Kailemia, My L Phu, Carlito B Lebrilla, Abhaya M Dandekar, Raymond L Rodriguez, Somen Nandi, Karen A McDonald
Anthrax toxin receptor-mediated drug development for blocking anthrax toxin action has received much attention in recent decades. In this study, we produced a secreted anthrax decoy fusion protein comprised of a portion of the human capillary morphogenesis gene-2 (CMG2) protein fused via a linker to the fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain of human immunoglobulin G1 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using a transient expression system. Using the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and co-expression with the p19 gene silencing suppressor, we were able to achieve a high level of recombinant CMG2-Fc-Apo (rCMG2-Fc-Apo) protein accumulation...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054600/stochastic-kinetics-reveal-imperative-role-of-anisotropic-interfacial-tension-to-determine-morphology-and-evolution-of-nucleated-droplets-in-nematogenic-films
#12
Amit Kumar Bhattacharjee
For isotropic fluids, classical nucleation theory predicts the nucleation rate, barrier height and critical droplet size by ac- counting for the competition between bulk energy and interfacial tension. The nucleation process in liquid crystals is less understood. We numerically investigate nucleation in monolayered nematogenic films using a mesoscopic framework, in par- ticular, we study the morphology and kinetic pathway in spontaneous formation and growth of droplets of the stable phase in the metastable background...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041916/preparation-and-characterization-of-oxidized-starch-poly-n-n-dimethylaminoethyl-methacrylate-semi-ipn-cryogels-and-in-vitro-controlled-release-evaluation-of-indomethacin
#13
Diana Felicia Apopei Loghin, Gabriela Biliuta, Sergiu Coseri, Ecaterina Stela Dragan
Fabrication of novel semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) cryogels by cross-linking polymerization of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEM) in the presence of either oxidized potato starch (OPS) or oxidized wheat starch (OWS) and their characterization are presented in the paper. The influence of the nature of entrapped polymer on the properties of the composite cryogels was evaluated by the swelling kinetics, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and response at external stimuli such as temperature, pH, and ionic strength...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040945/compressed-tube-pressure-cell-for-optical-studies-at-ocean-pressures-application-to-glucose-mutarotation-kinetics
#14
F J Lamelas
A self-contained compressed-tube pressure cell is tested to 25 MPa. The cell is very simple to construct and offers stable pressure control with optical access to fluid samples. The physical path length of light through the cell is large enough to measure optical activity. The entire system is relatively small and portable, and it is vibration-free, since a compressor is not used. Operation of the cell is demonstrated by measuring the mutarotation rate of aqueous glucose solutions at 25 °C. A logarithmic plot of the rate constant vs...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038947/ph-sensitive-polymeric-micelles-for-targeted-delivery-to-inflamed-joints
#15
Chunhong Li, Hanmei Li, Qin Wang, Meiling Zhou, Man Li, Tao Gong, Zhirong Zhang, Xun Sun
Effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis is hindered by the lack of drugs that selectively target inflamed joints. Liposomes, nanoparticles and conventional micelles loaded with limited amounts of drugs may be unstable in the circulation and result in uncontrolled drug release kinetics. Here we developed a new drug delivery system of pH-sensitive polymeric micelles based on an acid-labile hydrazone bond. Amphiphilic conjugates of a PEG-based derivative and the hydrophobic drug prednisolone (PD) self-assembled into PD micelles with a drug loading of 19...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024351/understanding-the-kinetics-of-protein-nanoparticle-corona-formation
#16
Oriol Vilanova, Judith J Mittag, Philip M Kelly, Silvia Milani, Kenneth A Dawson, Joachim O Rädler, Giancarlo Franzese
When a pristine nanoparticle (NP) encounters a biological fluid, biomolecules spontaneously form adsorption layers around the NP, called "protein corona". The corona composition depends on the time-dependent environmental conditions and determines the NP's fate within living organisms. Understanding how the corona evolves is fundamental in nanotoxicology as well as medical applications. However, the process of corona formation is challenging due to the large number of molecules involved and to the large span of relevant time scales ranging from 100 μs, hard to probe in experiments, to hours, out of reach of all-atoms simulations...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012206/uptake-and-efflux-kinetics-and-intracellular-activity-of-voriconazole-against-a-fumigatus-in-human-pulmonary-epithelial-cells-a-new-application-for-the-prophylaxis-and-early-treatment-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#17
Taotao Wang, Qianting Yang, Lu Chen, Ying Li, Ti Meng, Yan Wang, Tao Zhang, Jin'e Lei, Jianfeng Xing, Yalin Dong
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), most caused by A. fumigatus, is a serious life-threating infection in immunocompromised patients. Voriconazole is used to prevent and treat IPA. However, little is known about the pharmacological characteristics of voriconazole in pulmonary epithelial cells, which are the target site for the prophylaxis and early treatment of IPA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the kinetics and activity of voriconazole against A. fumigatus in A549 cells. High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and time-kill method was used to study the cellular pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics of voriconazole...
December 23, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011763/systematic-development-of-small-molecules-to-inhibit-specific-microscopic-steps-of-a%C3%AE-42-aggregation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Johnny Habchi, Sean Chia, Ryan Limbocker, Benedetta Mannini, Minkoo Ahn, Michele Perni, Oskar Hansson, Paolo Arosio, Janet R Kumita, Pavan Kumar Challa, Samuel I A Cohen, Sara Linse, Christopher M Dobson, Tuomas P J Knowles, Michele Vendruscolo
The aggregation of the 42-residue form of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42) is a pivotal event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The use of chemical kinetics has recently enabled highly accurate quantifications of the effects of small molecules on specific microscopic steps in Aβ42 aggregation. Here, we exploit this approach to develop a rational drug discovery strategy against Aβ42 aggregation that uses as a read-out the changes in the nucleation and elongation rate constants caused by candidate small molecules...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010081/analysis-of-the-lattice-kinetic-monte-carlo-method-in-systems-with-external-fields
#19
Young Ki Lee, Talid Sinno
The lattice kinetic Monte Carlo (LKMC) method is studied in the context of Brownian particles subjected to drift forces, here principally represented by external fluid flow. LKMC rate expressions for particle hopping are derived that satisfy detailed balance at equilibrium while also providing correct dynamical trajectories in advective-diffusive situations. Error analyses are performed for systems in which collections of particles undergo Brownian motion while also being advected by plug and parabolic flows...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009188/structure-of-plasma-heating-in-gyrokinetic-alfv%C3%A3-nic-turbulence
#20
Alejandro Bañón Navarro, Bogdan Teaca, Daniel Told, Daniel Groselj, Paul Crandall, Frank Jenko
We analyze plasma heating in weakly collisional kinetic Alfvén wave turbulence using high resolution gyrokinetic simulations spanning the range of scales between the ion and the electron gyroradii. Real space structures that have a higher than average heating rate are shown not to be confined to current sheets. This novel result is at odds with previous studies, which use the electromagnetic work in the local electron fluid frame, i.e., J·(E+v_{e}×B), as a proxy for turbulent dissipation to argue that heating follows the intermittent spatial structure of the electric current...
December 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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