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Fluid kinetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161509/variation-in-the-supersaturation-and-phase-behavior-of-ezetimibe-amorphous-solid-dispersions-upon-dissolution-in-different-biorelevant-media
#1
Ahmed Elkhabaz, Sreya Sarkar, Janny K Dinh, Garth J Simpson, Lynne S Taylor
The delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs using amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) has been widely acknowledged as a promising strategy for enhancing oral bioavailability. Upon dissolution, ASDs have accelerated dissolution rates and yield supersaturated solutions leading to higher apparent solubilities. Understanding the complex phase behavior of ASDs during dissolution is crucial for developing an effective formulation. Since the absorption of a lipophilic, high permeability drug is determined primarily by the intraluminal dissolution process and the final concentration achieved, there is a need for evaluation in biorelevant dissolution media that simulate both fasting and fed gastrointestinal states...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156541/effect-of-alumina-incorporation-on-the-surface-mineralization-and-degradation-of-a-bioactive-glass-cao-mgo-sio%C3%A2-na%C3%A2-o-p%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-caf%C3%A2-glycerol-paste
#2
Dilshat Tulyaganov, Khasan Abdukayumov, Olim Ruzimuradov, Mirabbos Hojamberdiev, Emanuel Ionescu, Ralf Riedel
This study investigates the dissolution behavior as well as the surface biomineralization in simulated body fluid (SBF) of a paste composed of glycerol (gly) and a bioactive glass in the system CaO-MgO-SiO₂-Na₂O-P₂O₅-CaF₂ (BG). The synthesis of the bioactive glass in an alumina crucible has been shown to significantly affect its bioactivity due to the incorporation of aluminum (ca. 1.3-1.4 wt %) into the glass network. Thus, the kinetics of the hydroxyapatite (HA) mineralization on the glass prepared in the alumina crucible was found to be slower than that reported for the same glass composition prepared in a Pt crucible...
November 18, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156307/gum-xanthan-psyllium-cl-poly-acrylic-acid-co-itaconic-acid-based-adsorbent-for-effective-removal-of-cationic-and-anionic-dyes-adsorption-isotherms-kinetics-and-thermodynamic-studies
#3
Sukriti Chaudhary, Jitender Sharma, Balbir S Kaith, Satender Yadav, Ashish Kumar Sharma, Aayushi Goel
The present work highlights the synthesis of the adsorbent based on Gum xanthan-psyllium hybrid backbone graft co-polymerized with polyacrylic acid-co-polyitaconic acid chains for the rapid sequestration of auramine-O (Aur-O) and eriochrome black-T (EBT) dyes from the aqueous fluid. The excellent dye removal efficiency of 90.53% for EBT and 95.63% for Aur-O was found at initial dye concentration of 30mgL(-1) (EBT) and 15 mgL(-1) (Aur-O) 40mL(-1) with an adsorbent dose of 600mg within time duration of 5h and 323K temp...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148130/a-pseudo-one-compartment-model-of-phosphorus-kinetics-during-hemodialysis-further-supporting-evidence
#4
John K Leypoldt, Baris U Agar, Alfred K Cheung, Angelito A Bernardo
A pseudo-one compartment model has been proposed to describe phosphorus kinetics during hemodialysis and the immediate post-dialysis period. This model assumes that phosphorus mobilization from tissues is proportional to the difference between the pre-dialysis serum concentration (a constant) and the instantaneous serum concentration. The current study is exploratory and evaluated the ability of a pseudo-one compartment model to describe the kinetics of phosphorus during two short hemodialysis treatments separated by a 60-min inter-treatment period without dialysis; the latter is the post-dialysis rebound period for the first short hemodialysis treatment...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146542/development-of-a-mucoadhesive-delivery-system-for-control-release-of-doxepin-with-application-in-vaginal-pain-relief-associated-with-gynecological-surgery
#5
Roser Sanz, Beatriz Clares, Mireia Mallandrich, Joaquim Suñer-Carbó, María Jesús Montes, Ana C Calpena
The main purpose of this study was to develop a semisolid mucoadhesive formulation for the non-invasive vaginal administration of doxepin (DOX) for pain relief derived from the scarring process after surgery. An orafix(®) platform loading DOX was tested for adequate stability, rheology and vaginal mucoadhesion capacity. The formulation exhibited appropriate pH and was microbiologically stable. The rheological studies confirmed its pseudoplastic and thixotropic nature with prevalence of the elastic behavior component over the viscous one...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142152/indirect-proton-mr-imaging-and-kinetic-analysis-of-17-o-labeled-water-tracer-in-the-brain
#6
Kohsuke Kudo, Taisuke Harada, Hiroyuki Kameda, Ikuko Uwano, Fumio Yamashita, Satomi Higuchi, Kunihiro Yoshioka, Makoto Sasaki
PURPOSE: The feasibility of steady-state sequences for (17)O imaging was evaluated based on a kinetic analysis of the brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this prospective study with written informed consent. Dynamic 2D or 3D steady-state sequences were performed in five and nine participants, respectively, with different parameters using a 3T scanner. During two consecutive dynamic scans, saline was intravenously administered for control purposes in the first scan, and 20% (17)O-labeled water (1 mL/Kg) was administered in the second scan...
November 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141440/explaining-the-t-v-dependent-dynamics-of-glass-forming-liquids-the-cooperative-free-volume-model-tested-against-new-simulation-results
#7
Ronald P White, Jane E G Lipson
In this article, we derive a rate model, the "cooperative free volume" (CFV) model, to explain relaxation dynamics in terms of a system's free volume, Vfree, and its temperature, T, over widely varied pressure dependent conditions. In the CFV model, the rate a molecule moves a distance on the order of its own size is dependent on the cooperation of surrounding molecules to open up enough free space. To test CFV, we have generated extensive T,V dependent simulation data for structural relaxation times, τ, on a Kob and Andersen type Lennard-Jones (KA-LJ) fluid...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140606/mr-textural-analysis-on-t2-flair-images-for-the-prediction-of-true-oligodendroglioma-by-the-2016-who-genetic-classification
#8
Wenting Rui, Yan Ren, Yin Wang, Xinyi Gao, Xiao Xu, Zhenwei Yao
BACKGROUND: The genetic status of 1p/19q is important for differentiating oligodendroglioma, isocitrate-dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant, and 1p/19q-codeleted from diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant according to the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. PURPOSE: To assess the value of magnetic resonance textural analysis (MRTA) on T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images for making a genetically integrated diagnosis of true oligodendroglioma by WHO guidelines...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134555/ciprofloxacin-loaded-calcium-alginate-wafers-prepared-by-freeze-drying-technique-for-potential-healing-of-chronic-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#9
Asif Ahmed, Giulia Getti, Joshua Boateng
Calcium alginate (CA) wafer dressings were prepared by lyophilization of hydrogels to deliver ciprofloxacin (CIP) directly to the wound site of infected diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). The dressings were physically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), texture analysis (for mechanical and in vitro adhesion properties), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Further, functional properties essential for wound healing, i.e., porosity, in vitro swelling index, water absorption (Aw), equilibrium water content (EWC), water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), evaporative water loss (EWL), moisture content, in vitro drug release and kinetics, antimicrobial activity, and cell viability (MTT assay) were investigated...
November 13, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132020/separation-of-aflatoxin-b1-from-synthetic-physiological-fluids-using-talc-and-diatomite-kinetic-and-isotherm-aspects
#10
Myroslav Sprynskyy, Iwona Krzemień-Konieczka, Renata Gadzała-Kopciuch, Bogusław Buszewski
The objective of the study was to examine adsorption of the aflatoxin B1 from synthetic gastric fluid and synthetic intestinal fluid by talc, raw and calcined diatomite. The kinetic and equilibrium adsorption processes were studied in the batch adsorption experiments applying high performance liquid chromatography for the aflatoxin B1 determination. The kinetic study showed a very fast adsorption of the aflatoxin B1 onto the selected adsorbents from the both physiological fluids with reaching equilibrium within 1-15min...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127067/understanding-the-structural-drivers-governing-glass-water-interactions-in-borosilicate-based-model-bioactive-glasses
#11
Nicholas Stone-Weiss, Eric M Pierce, Randall E Youngman, Ozgur Gulbiten, Nicholas J Smith, Jincheng Du, Ashutosh Goel
The past decade has witnessed a significant upsurge in the development of borate and borosilicate based resorbable bioactive glasses owing to their faster degradation rate in comparison to their silicate counterparts. However, due to our lack of understanding about the fundamental science governing the aqueous corrosion of these glasses, most of the borate/borosilicate based bioactive glasses reported in the literature have been designed by "trial-and-error" approach. With an ever-increasing demand for their application in treating a broad spectrum of non-skeletal health problems, it is becoming increasingly difficult to design advanced glass formulations using the same conventional approach...
November 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123436/development-and-retrospective-clinical-assessment-of-a-patient-specific-closed-form-integro-differential-equation-model-of-plasma-dilution
#12
Glen Atlas, John K-J Li, Shawn Amin, Robert G Hahn
A closed-form integro-differential equation (IDE) model of plasma dilution (PD) has been derived which represents both the intravenous (IV) infusion of crystalloid and the postinfusion period. Specifically, PD is mathematically represented using a combination of constant ratio, differential, and integral components. Furthermore, this model has successfully been applied to preexisting data, from a prior human study, in which crystalloid was infused for a period of 30 minutes at the beginning of thyroid surgery...
2017: Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120719/supercritical-impregnation-and-optical-characterization-of-loaded-foldable-intraocular-lenses-using-supercritical-fluids
#13
Abir Bouledjouidja, Yasmine Masmoudi, Yanfeng Li, Wei He, Elisabeth Badens
PURPOSE: To prepare drug-loaded intraocular lenses (IOLs) used to combine cataract surgery with postoperative complication treatment through supercritical impregnation while preserving their optical properties. SETTING: Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Laboratoire de Mécanique, Modélisation & Procédés Propres, Marseille, France, and He University Eye Hospital, Liaoning Province, China. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Supercritical impregnations of commercial foldable IOLs used in cataract surgery with ciprofloxacin (an antibiotic) and dexamethasone 21-phosphate disodium salt (an antiinflammatory drug) were performed in a noncontinuous mode...
October 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115349/triplet-sensitized-photon-upconversion-in-deep-eutectic-solvents
#14
Yoichi Murakami, Sudhir Kumar Das, Yuki Himuro, Satoshi Maeda
Photon upconversion (UC) is a technology that can increase solar utilization efficiencies in broad photoenergy conversion systems by converting lower-energy photons into usable higher-energy photons. Recently, UC using triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) of organic molecules has drawn attention because it is presently the only method applicable to weak and noncoherent light. To date, many attempts have been made to realize this UC technology in forms suitable for applications, but they typically suffer from either high cost or insufficient stability and/or safety of materials...
November 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109453/a-multi-component-discrete-boltzmann-model-for-nonequilibrium-reactive-flows
#15
Chuandong Lin, Kai Hong Luo, Linlin Fei, Sauro Succi
We propose a multi-component discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) for premixed, nonpremixed, or partially premixed nonequilibrium reactive flows. This model is suitable for both subsonic and supersonic flows with or without chemical reaction and/or external force. A two-dimensional sixteen-velocity model is constructed for the DBM. In the hydrodynamic limit, the DBM recovers the modified Navier-Stokes equations for reacting species in a force field. Compared to standard lattice Boltzmann models, the DBM presents not only more accurate hydrodynamic quantities, but also detailed nonequilibrium effects that are essential yet long-neglected by traditional fluid dynamics...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106979/development-of-a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-to-predict-brain-distribution-and-dopamine-d2-receptor-occupancy-of-raclopride-in-non-anesthetized-rat
#16
Yin Cheong Wong, Trayana Ilkova, Rob C van Wijk, Robin Hartman, Elizabeth C M de Lange
BACKGROUND: Raclopride is a selective antagonist of the dopamine D2 receptor. It is one of the most frequently used in vivo D2 tracers (at low doses) for assessing drug-induced receptor occupancy (RO) in animals and humans. It is also commonly used as a pharmacological blocker (at high doses) to occupy the available D2 receptors and antagonize the action of dopamine or drugs on D2 in preclinical studies. The aims of this study were to comprehensively evaluate its pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in different brain compartments and to establish a PK-RO model that could predict the brain distribution and RO of raclopride in the freely moving rat using a LC-MS based approach...
November 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104421/a-prospectus-on-kinetic-heliophysics
#17
Gregory G Howes
Under the low density and high temperature conditions typical of heliospheric plasmas, the macroscopic evolution of the heliosphere is strongly affected by the kinetic plasma physics governing fundamental microphysical mechanisms. Kinetic turbulence, collisionless magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration, and kinetic instabilities are four poorly understood, grand-challenge problems that lie at the new frontier of kinetic heliophysics. The increasing availability of high cadence and high phase-space resolution measurements of particle velocity distributions by current and upcoming spacecraft missions and of massively parallel nonlinear kinetic simulations of weakly collisional heliospheric plasmas provides the opportunity to transform our understanding of these kinetic mechanisms through the full utilization of the information contained in the particle velocity distributions...
May 2017: Physics of Plasmas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104419/verification-of-long-wavelength-electromagnetic-modes-with-a-gyrokinetic-fluid-hybrid-model-in-the-xgc-code
#18
Robert Hager, Jianying Lang, C S Chang, S Ku, Y Chen, S E Parker, M F Adams
As an alternative option to kinetic electrons, the gyrokinetic total-f particle-in-cell (PIC) code XGC1 has been extended to the MHD/fluid type electromagnetic regime by combining gyrokinetic PIC ions with massless drift-fluid electrons analogous to Chen and Parker [Phys. Plasmas 8, 441 (2001)]. Two representative long wavelength modes, shear Alfvén waves and resistive tearing modes, are verified in cylindrical and toroidal magnetic field geometries.
May 2017: Physics of Plasmas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098182/topological-liquid-diode
#19
Jiaqian Li, Xiaofeng Zhou, Jing Li, Lufeng Che, Jun Yao, Glen McHale, Manoj K Chaudhury, Zuankai Wang
The last two decades have witnessed an explosion of interest in the field of droplet-based microfluidics for their multifarious applications. Despite rapid innovations in strategies to generate small-scale liquid transport on these devices, the speed of motion is usually slow, the transport distance is limited, and the flow direction is not well controlled because of unwanted pinning of contact lines by defects on the surface. We report a new method of microscopic liquid transport based on a unique topological structure...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095790/direct-contact-test-for-evaluating-bacterial-growth-on-machined-and-rough-surface-implants-an-in-vitro-study
#20
Shimshon Slutzkey, Ofer Moses, Haim Tal, Avi Meirowitz, Shlomo Matalon
OBJECTIVE: To use a modified direct contact test (DCT) to evaluate the bacterial growth on 3 commercially available implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Streptococcus salivarius growth was tested on 1 machined surface and 2 commercial rough surface implants. Seven implants from each group were fixed to the cover of a 96-well microtiter plate. Bacterial suspension was placed on each implant, and the plate was incubated at 37°C for 1 hour to allow the suspension fluid to evaporate...
November 1, 2017: Implant Dentistry
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