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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525624/early-and-asymptomatic-cardiac-dysfunction-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Shanmugakumar Chinnappa, Edward White, Nigel Lewis, Omer Baldo, Yu-Kang Tu, Griet Glorieux, Raymond Vanholder, Meguid El Nahas, Andrew Mooney
Background: . Heart failure (HF) is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the pathophysiology of cardiac dysfunction in CKD, especially in the early asymptomatic stage, is not well understood. We studied subclinical cardiac dysfunction in asymptomatic CKD patients without comorbid cardiac disease or diabetes mellitus by evaluating peak cardiac performance. Methods.: In a cross-sectional study ( n  = 130) we investigated 70 male non-diabetic CKD patients (21 CKD stage 2-3a, 27 CKD stage 3b-4 and 22 CKD stage 5) employing specialized cardiopulmonary exercise testing to measure peak cardiac output and cardiac power output non-invasively...
May 19, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525390/microrna-155-attenuates-late-sepsis-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-through-jnk-and-%C3%AE-arrestin-2
#2
Yu Zhou, Yan Song, Zahir Shaikh, Hui Li, Haiju Zhang, Yi Caudle, Shouhua Zheng, Hui Yan, Dan Hu, Charles Stuart, Deling Yin
Cardiac dysfunction is correlated with detrimental prognosis of sepsis and contributes to a high risk of mortality. After an initial hyperinflammatory reaction, most patients enter a protracted state of immunosuppression (late sepsis) that alters both innate and adaptive immunity. The changes of cardiac function in late sepsis are not yet known. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is previously found to play important roles in both regulations of immune activation and cardiac function. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were operated to develop into early and late sepsis phases, and miR-155 mimic was injected through the tail vein 48 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523609/cardiorespiratory-responses-and-myocardial-function-within-incremental-exercise-in-healthy-unmedicated-older-vs-young-men-and-women
#3
Paulo Farinatti, Walace Monteiro, Ricardo Oliveira, Antonio Crisafulli
BACKGROUND: Age-related differences concerning cardiorespiratory responses and myocardial function during exercise have not been extensively investigated in healthy populations. AIMS: To compare cardiorespiratory performance and myocardial function during maximal exercise in healthy/unmedicated men (older, n = 24, 63-75 years; young, n = 22, 19-25 years) and women (older, n = 18, age = 63-74 years; young, n = 23, 19-25 years). METHODS: Oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation minute (V E), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (Q), O2 pulse (O2p), preejection period (PEP), and left ventricular ejection time (LVET) were assessed during cycle incremental exercise...
May 18, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523563/assessment-of-endothelial-cell-function-and-physiological-microcirculatory-reserve-by-video-microscopy-using-a-topical-acetylcholine-and-nitroglycerin-challenge
#4
Matthias Peter Hilty, Jacqueline Pichler, Bulent Ergin, Urs Hefti, Tobias Michael Merz, Can Ince, Marco Maggiorini
BACKGROUND: Assessment of the microcirculation is a promising target for the hemodynamic management of critically ill patients. However, just as the sole reliance on macrocirculatory parameters, single static parameters of the microcirculation may not represent a sufficient guide. Our hypothesis was that by serial topical application of acetylcholine (ACH) and nitroglycerin (NG), the sublingual microcirculation can be challenged to determine its endothelial cell-dependent and smooth muscle-dependent physiological reserve capacity...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522756/influence-of-sex-menstrual-cycle-and-oral-contraceptives-on-cerebrovascular-resistance-and-cardiorespiratory-function-during-valsalva-or-standing
#5
Syed Abidi, Misha Nili, Stephania Serna, Simon Kim, Christopher Hazlett, Heather Edgell
Women experience orthostatic intolerance more than men, and experience faintness more in the early follicular (i.e. low hormone (LH)) compared to the luteal (i.e. high hormone (HH)) phase of the menstrual cycle. Men (n=13, age: 25.8±1.8) and women in the LH (day 2-5; placebo) and HH) (day 18-24; high dose) phases of the menstrual cycle with (OC; n=14, age: 22.0±0.8) or without oral contraceptives (NOC; n=12, age: 21.8±0.5) underwent the Valsalva maneuver and a supine-sit-stand protocol. Blood pressure, normalized stroke volume (SVi), cardiac output index (Qi), heart rate (HR), end-tidal carbon dioxide (ET-CO2), and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCA) were measured...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522095/the-reduction-of-central-sleep-apnoea-severity-in-the-left-lateral-position-is-not-due-to-an-improvement-in-cardiac-haemodynamics-in%C3%A2-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#6
Egidio Traversi, Davide Rossi, Roberto Maestri, Francesca Olmetti, Maria Teresa La Rovere, Gian Domenico Pinna
OBJECTIVE: The severity of central sleep apnoea (CSA), a common comorbidity in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and reduced ejection fraction, markedly decreases from the supine to the lateral sleeping position, with no difference between the left and right positions. The mechanisms responsible for this beneficial effect have not yet been elucidated. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that CSA attenuation in the left lateral position is due, at least in part, to an improvement in cardiac haemodynamics...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521602/dynamic-alterations-in-cerebral-celiac-and-renal-flows-resulting-from-ascending-aorta-subclavian-artery-and-femoral-artery-cannulations-of-extracorporeal-devices
#7
Sahin Iscan, Habib Cakir, Bortecin Eygi, Ismail Yurekli, Koksal Donmez, Pınar Unde Ayvat, Derya Sarıkaya Pekel, Mert Kestelli
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the relationships among cardiac output, extracorporeal blood flow, cannulation site, right (RCa) and left carotid (LCa), celiac (Ca) and renal artery (Ra) flows during extracorporeal circulation. METHODS: A mock circulatory circuit was assembled, based on a compliant anatomical aortic model. The ascending aorta, right subclavian and femoral artery cannulations were created and flow was provided by a centrifugal pump (Cp); cardiac output was provided by a roller pump (Rp)...
May 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520687/3-nacl-adenosine-lidocaine-mg2-alm-bolus-and-4-hours-drip-infusion-reduces-noncompressible-hemorrhage-by-60-in-a-rat-model
#8
Hayley L Letson, Geoffrey P Dobson
BACKGROUND: Noncompressible torso hemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially survivable trauma in far-forward combat environments. Our aim was to examine the effect of small-volume 3% NaCl adenosine, lidocaine, and Mg (ALM) bolus and 0.9% NaCl/ALM "drip" on survivability and cardiac/gut/kidney function in a rat model of hepatic hemorrhage and shock. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (428 ± 4 g) were anesthetized and randomly assigned to one of five groups (n = 16): (1) Sham, (2) No treatment, (3) Saline controls, (4) ALM therapy, and (5) Hextend...
June 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520545/hemodynamic-profile-of-acute-kidney-injury-following-the-fontan-procedure-impact-of-renal-perfusion-pressure
#9
Taylor Patterson, David A Hehir, Matthew Buelow, Pippa M Simpson, Michael E Mitchell, Liyun Zhang, Mehdi Eslami, Kathleen Murkowski, John P Scott
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common following cardiopulmonary bypass. Fontan completion may result in systemic venous hypertension and low cardiac output, reducing renal perfusion pressure (RPP) and further increasing the risk of AKI. We investigated the incidence and risk factors for post-Fontan AKI. METHODS: Single-center retrospective study of children undergoing Fontan completion from 2005 to 2012. Demographic and hemodynamic variables were assessed for association with AKI...
May 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515693/rolipram-improves-outcome-in-a-rat-model-of-infant-sepsis-induced-cardiorenal-syndrome
#10
Clark R Sims, Sharda P Singh, Shengyu Mu, Neriman Gokden, Dala Zakaria, Trung C Nguyen, Philip R Mayeux
While the mortality rate associated with sepsis in children has fallen over the years, it still remains unacceptably high. The development of both acute cardiac dysfunction and acute kidney injury during severe sepsis is categorized as type 5 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and is poorly understood in infants. To address this lack of understanding and the need for an appropriate animal model in which to conduct relevant preclinical studies, we developed a model of infant sepsis-induced CRS in rat pups then evaluated the therapeutic potential of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor, rolipram...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515119/pulse-wave-velocity-predicts-response-to-renal-denervation-in-isolated-systolic-hypertension
#11
Karl Fengler, Karl-Philipp Rommel, Robert Hoellriegel, Stephan Blazek, Christian Besler, Steffen Desch, Gerhard Schuler, Axel Linke, Philipp Lurz
BACKGROUND: Renal sympathetic denervation seems to be less effective as a treatment for hypertension in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, a condition associated with elevated central arterial stiffness. Because isolated systolic hypertension can also be caused by wave reflection or increased cardiac output, a more differentiated approach might improve patient preselection for renal sympathetic denervation. We sought to evaluate the additional predictive value of invasive pulse wave velocity for response to renal sympathetic denervation in patients with combined versus isolated systolic hypertension...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514936/evaluation-of-an-indirect-oscillometric-blood-pressure-monitor-in-anaesthetised-dogs-at-three-different-anatomical-locations
#12
M Fujiyama, H Sano, J P Chambers, M Gieseg
AIMS: To evaluate the agreement between invasive and non-invasive measurements of blood pressure (BP) using an oscillometer (PetTrust) at three different anatomical locations in anaesthetised dogs under different haemodynamic conditions. METHODS: Eight adult Greyhounds weighing 23.5-36.5 kg were anaesthetised with isoflurane and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured invasively via a dorsal pedal artery and non-invasively using the oscillometer with cuffs placed above the carpus, above the tarsus and around the tail base...
July 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514324/use-of-the-fluid-challenge-in-critically-ill-adult-patients-a-systematic-review
#13
Antonio Messina, Federico Longhini, Corinne Coppo, Aline Pagni, Ramona Lungu, Chiara Ronco, Marco Ambrogio Cattaneo, Simone Dore, Giovanni Sotgiu, Paolo Navalesi
The fluid challenge (FC) aims at identifying patients in whom fluid administration improves hemodynamics. Although the FC has been extensively studied, the implementation and definition of improvement are not standardized. This systematic review of studies published between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2014 characterizes these key components of the FC for critically ill adult patients, as described in the medical literature in the last 20 years. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane...
May 12, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514318/cerebral-oxygen-saturation-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease-and-chronic-hypoxemia
#14
Barry D Kussman, Peter C Laussen, Paul B Benni, Francis X McGowan, Doff B McElhinney
BACKGROUND: Increased hemoglobin (Hb) concentration accompanying hypoxemia is a compensatory response to maintain tissue oxygen delivery. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used clinically to detect abnormalities in the balance of cerebral tissue oxygen delivery and consumption, including in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Although NIRS-measured cerebral tissue O2 saturation (ScO2) correlates with arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), jugular bulb O2 saturation (SjbO2), and Hb, little data exist on the interplay between these factors and cerebral O2 extraction (COE)...
May 12, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514266/pulmonary-vascular-function-and-aerobic-exercise-capacityat-moderate-altitude
#15
Vitalie Faoro, Gael Deboeck, Marco Vicenzi, Anne-Fleur Gaston, Bamodi Simaga, Grégory Doucende, Ilona Hapkova, Emma Roca, Enric Subirats, Fabienne Durand, Robert Naeije
PURPOSE: There has been suggestion that a greater "pulmonary vascular reserve" defined by a low pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and a high lung diffusing capacity (DL) allows for a superior aerobic exercise capacity. How pulmonary vascular reserve might affect exercise capacity at moderate altitude is not known. METHODS: Thirty-eight healthy subjects underwent an exercise stress echocardiography of the pulmonary circulation, combined with measurements of DL for nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) and a cardio-pulmonary exercise test at sea level and at the altitude of 2250m...
May 17, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512680/a-novel-idea-to-improve-cardiac-output-of-mechanical-circulatory-support-devices-by-optimizing-kinetic-energy-transfer-available-in-forward-moving-aortic-blood-flow
#16
Muhammad B Qureshi, Jacob Glower, Daniel L Ewert, Steven C Koenig
Mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs) have gained widespread clinical acceptance as an effective heart failure (HF) therapy. The concept of harnessing the kinetic energy (KE) available in the forward aortic flow (AOF) is proposed as a novel control strategy to further increase the cardiac output (CO) provided by MCSDs. A complete mathematical development of the proposed theory and its application to an example MCSDs (two-segment extra-aortic cuff) are presented. To achieve improved device performance and physiologic benefit, the example MCSD timing is regulated to maximize the forward AOF KE and minimize retrograde flow...
May 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511716/retraction-note-to-inotropic-therapy-for-cardiac-low-output-syndrome-comparison-of-hemodynamic-effects-of-dopamine-dobutamine-versus-dopamine-dopexamine
#17
EDITORIAL
N E El Mokhtari, A Arlt, A Meissner, M Lins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509668/norepinephrine-in-septic-shock-when-and-how-much
#18
Olfa Hamzaoui, Thomas W L Scheeren, Jean-Louis Teboul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norepinephrine is the first-line agent recommended during resuscitation of septic shock to correct hypotension because of depressed vascular tone. Important clinical issues are the best timing to start norepinephrine, the optimal blood pressure target, and the best therapeutic options to face refractory hypotension of when high doses of norepinephrine are required to reach the target. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature has reported benefits of early administration of norepinephrine because of the following reasons: profound and durable hypotension is an independent factor of increased mortality, early administration of norepinephrine increases cardiac output, improves microcirculation and avoid fluid overload...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508801/adaptive-pump-speed-algorithms-to-improve-exercise-capacity-in-patients-supported-with-a-left-ventricular-assist-device
#19
Thomas Schmidt, Nils Reiss, Ezin Deniz, Christina Feldmann, Andreas Hein, Jan-Dirk Hoffmann, Jenny Inge Röbesaat, Jan Dieter Schmitto, Detlev Willemsen, Frerk Müller-von Aschwege
For the treatment of terminal heart failure, the therapy with left-ventricular assist devices has already been established. In the systems used today, pump speed does not adjust during physical activity so that cardiac output and exercise capacity remain markedly limited. It is the aim of this study to develop an automatic pump speed control based on filling pressure values in order to improve exercise capacity and quality of life in these patients. Different approaches are planned, to be tested in an in vitro patient simulator...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508270/the-impact-of-combined-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-and-spect-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-on-downstream-evaluation-and-management
#20
Georgios Christopoulos, John Bois, Thomas G Allison, Martin Rodriguez-Porcel, Panithaya Chareonthaitawee
OBJECTIVE: The diagnostic yield of combined cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients referred for stress testing has received limited study. METHODS: We evaluated consecutive patients who underwent combined CPET-MPI at a single tertiary referral center between 2011 and 2015. An abnormal CPET was defined as any of the following: reduced oxygen consumption, cardiac output impairment, or pulmonary impairment. Normal MPI was defined as the absence of resting or stress perfusion defect...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
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