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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215409/imaging-of-acquired-demyelinating-syndrome-with-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#1
Caroline Malo-Pion, Raymond Lambert, Jean-Claude Décarie, Sophie Turpin
Acquired demyelinating syndromes include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis and may progress to multiple sclerosis (MS). Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is characterized by impairment of level of consciousness and multifocal neurological deficits and transverse myelitis by back pain, weakness and sphincter dysfunction. Only a few cases of acquired demyelinating syndrome have been imaged with F-FDG PET/CT. We present two such cases.
December 5, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196574/clinical-biomarkers-differentiate-myelitis-from-vascular-and-other-causes-of-myelopathy
#2
Paula Barreras, Kathryn C Fitzgerald, Maureen A Mealy, Jorge A Jimenez, Daniel Becker, Scott D Newsome, Michael Levy, Philippe Gailloud, Carlos A Pardo
OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value of the initial clinical and paraclinical features in the differentiation of inflammatory myelopathies from other causes of myelopathy in patients with initial diagnosis of transverse myelitis (TM). METHODS: We analyzed the clinical presentation, spinal cord MRI, and CSF features in a cohort of 457 patients referred to a specialized myelopathy center with the presumptive diagnosis of TM. After evaluation, the myelopathies were classified as inflammatory, ischemic/stroke, arteriovenous malformations/fistulas, spondylotic, or other...
December 1, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181601/acute-flaccid-myelitis-etiologic-challenges-diagnostic-and-management-considerations
#3
REVIEW
Sarah E Hopkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Purpose of review Acute flaccid myelitis is a polio-like illness defined by the acute onset of flaccid paralysis in the setting spinal MRI demonstrating a longitudinal lesion in the gray matter of the cord. This paper aims to review the current state of knowledge and key clinical points for the diagnosis and management of acute flaccid myelitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings There were clusters of AFM noted in California and Colorado in 2014, with additional cases across the USA that year, and another spike in cases in 2016...
November 28, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147884/ocular-flutter-following-zika-virus-infection
#4
Emely Karam, Jose Giraldo, Flor Rodriguez, Carlos E Hernandez-Pereira, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Gabriela M Blohm, Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus which has been linked to a number of neurologic manifestations such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis, and meningo-encephalitis. Ophthalmologic manifestations are increasingly being reported; however, ocular dyskinesias have not been described in this context to date. Herein, we report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with ocular flutter and associated Guillain-Barré syndrome following acute ZIKV infection. We speculate that although such symptoms may have originated from a direct viral insult, a post-infectious autoimmune mechanism may not be excluded...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143293/acute-motor-axonal-neuropathy-and-transverse-myelitis-overlap-the-importance-of-history-taking
#5
Diana Degan, Cindy Tiseo, Raffaele Ornello, Francesca Notturno
In young adults, acute motor axonal neuropathy and transverse myelitis rarely occur as associated conditions. Clinical reasoning, symptoms, laboratory and ancillary investigations (electroneurographic and radiological findings), should properly address the physician to the correct diagnosis.
November 15, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142145/clinical-course-therapeutic-responses-and-outcomes-in-relapsing-mog-antibody-associated-demyelination
#6
Sudarshini Ramanathan, Shekeeb Mohammad, Esther Tantsis, Tina Kim Nguyen, Vera Merheb, Victor S C Fung, Owen Bruce White, Simon Broadley, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Steve Vucic, Andrew P D Henderson, Michael Harry Barnett, Stephen W Reddel, Fabienne Brilot, Russell C Dale
OBJECTIVE: We characterised the clinical course, treatment and outcomes in 59 patients with relapsing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated demyelination. METHODS: We evaluated clinical phenotypes, annualised relapse rates (ARR) prior and on immunotherapy and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), in 218 demyelinating episodes from 33 paediatric and 26 adult patients. RESULTS: The most common initial presentation in the cohort was optic neuritis (ON) in 54% (bilateral (BON) 32%, unilateral (UON) 22%), followed by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (20%), which occurred exclusively in children...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141797/diagnosis-and-management-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-in-iran-a-consensus-guideline-and-recommendations
#7
REVIEW
Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Amir Reza Azimi, Nasrin Asgari, Fahimeh H Akhoundi, Roya Abolfazli, Shekoofeh Alaie, Fereshteh Ashtari, Hormoz Ayromlou, Seyed Mohammad Baghbanian, Nahid Beladi Moghadam, Farzad Fatehi, Mohsen Foroughipour, Hamidreza Ghalyanchi Langroodi, Nastaran Majdinasab, Alireza Nickseresht, Abbas Nourian, Vahid Shaygannejad, Hamid Reza Torabi
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is a relapsing neuro inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that typically presents with optic neuritis or myelitis and may cause severe disability. The diagnostic criteria have been updated and several immunosuppressive agents have been demonstrated to prevent acute exacerbations. As the disease rarely develops in a progressive course, management of acute attacks and proper prevention of exacerbations may change the long term out-come and prevent future disability...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141794/short-term-outcome-of-adem-results-from-a-retrospective-cohort-study-from-south-india
#8
Mary Iype, P A Mohammed Kunju, Geetha Saradakutty, T S Anish, Mini Sreedharan, Shahanaz M Ahamed
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), an immune mediated inflammatory disease is common in children. The profile and immediate outcome of children hospitalized with ADEM is scarce in the available literature. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the clinical profile of children with ADEM and to look for prognostic factors for outcome at discharge from hospital METHODS: We chose a retrospective cohort study of all children diagnosed with ADEM at our institution between January 2006 and December 2015, and they were evaluated, after excluding other diagnoses when they were summoned for a follow up visit...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141789/a-case-of-seropositive-neuromyelitis-optica-in-a-paediatric-patient-with-co-existing-acute-nephrotic-syndrome
#9
Thomas Volkman, Cheryl Hemingway
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare relapsing autoimmune disease of the central nervous system constituting less than 1% of demyelinating diseases (Jeffery and Buncic, 1996). It preferentially affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, with the brain parenchyma generally spared. Demyelinating lesions are characterised by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and often longitudinally extensive optic neuritis. Following the discovery of a novel pathogenic antibody, Aquaporin 4 in 2004 (Lennon et al...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136091/clinical-presentation-and-prognosis-in-mog-antibody-disease-a-uk-study
#10
Maciej Jurynczyk, Silvia Messina, Mark R Woodhall, Naheed Raza, Rosie Everett, Adriana Roca-Fernandez, George Tackley, Shahd Hamid, Angela Sheard, Gavin Reynolds, Saleel Chandratre, Cheryl Hemingway, Anu Jacob, Angela Vincent, M Isabel Leite, Patrick Waters, Jacqueline Palace
A condition associated with an autoantibody against MOG has been recently recognized as a new inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, but the disease course and disability outcomes are largely unknown. In this study we investigated clinical characteristics of MOG-antibody disease on a large cohort of patients from the UK. We obtained demographic and clinical data on 252 UK patients positive for serum immunoglobulin G1 MOG antibodies as tested by the Autoimmune Neurology Group in Oxford. Disability outcomes and disease course were analysed in more detail in a cohort followed in the Neuromyelitis Optica Oxford Service (n = 75), and this included an incident cohort who were diagnosed at disease onset (n = 44)...
November 9, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108750/new-spectrum-of-the-neurologic-consequences-of-zika
#11
EDITORIAL
Marco T Medina, Marco Medina-Montoya
Zika virus infection represents a new neuropathological agent with association to a wide spectrum of neurological complications: a) Congenital Zika Syndrome by affecting the neural stem cells of the human fetal brain; b) Guillain-Barré Syndrome by an autoimmune response against peripheral myelin and/or axonal components or probable direct inflammatory reaction; c) Encephalitis/meningoencephalitis and myelitis by a direct viral inflammatory process on the central nervous system; d) Sensory neuropathy by infecting directly the peripheral neurons and causing substantial cell death and pathogenic transcriptional dysregulation; e) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and optic neuropathy; f) Seizures and Epilepsy and g) childhood arterial ischemic stroke by probable inflammatory reaction and endothelial injury...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103426/the-spectrum-of-inflammatory-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes-in-children
#12
Rinze Neuteboom, Colin Wilbur, Danielle Van Pelt, Moses Rodriguez, Ann Yeh
Acquired demyelinating syndromes in childhood comprise a spectrum of monophasic and recurrent inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system. Examples of monophasic conditions include, clinically isolated syndromes such as optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, as well as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, whereas recurrent disorders include entities such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Knowledge about these disorders has expanded due to rigorously evaluated diagnostic criteria, magnetic resonance imaging features, outcomes, and serum biomarkers in these disorders...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102045/-myelitis-as-a-differential-diagnosis-of-spinal-cord-tumors
#13
P Vermersch, O Outteryck, D Ferriby, H Zéphir
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myelitis is common, related to multiple aetiologies and constitute in some cases a differential diagnosis for spinal cord tumors. Our objective was to review the clinical and paraclinical aspects of the main aetiologies of myelitis. METHODS: These aetiologies will be reviewed based on data not only from the scientific literature but also from our personal experience reported in different cohorts of patients. RESULTS: Multiple sclerosis is the main cause of partial myelitis in young adults...
November 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061244/neuromyelitis-optica
#14
REVIEW
Sarah L Patterson, Sarah E Goglin
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), formerly known as Devic disease, is an autoimmune astrocytopathic disease characterized by transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. Most patients demonstrate a relapsing course with incomplete recovery between attacks, resulting in progressive disability. The pathogenesis involves production of aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-IgG) by plasmablasts in peripheral circulation, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, complement-mediated astrocyte injury, and secondary demyelination. The diagnosis relies on characteristic clinical manifestations in the presence of serum AQP4-IgG positivity or specific neuroimaging findings, and exclusion of alternative etiologies...
November 2017: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055474/gender-differences-among-chinese-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#15
Hui Sun, Xuan Sun, Jie Li, Yunyun Huo, Lei Wu, Dehui Huang, Shengyuan Yu, Weiping Wu
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are autoimmune, inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system, which have established variations in prevalence across different ethnicities and genders. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in clinical features among men and women with NMOSD, according to the 2015 diagnostic criteria. METHODS: A total of 97 patients with NMOSD were recruited from inpatient neurology clinics in this retrospective study...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049805/health-related-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-patients-with-demyelinating-diseases-relevance-of-disability-relapsing-presentation-and-fatigue
#16
Mariella M Self, Aaron Fobian, Katherine Cutitta, Arianne Wallace, Timothy E Lotze
Decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis is established, but little research has examined HRQOL in the broader pediatric demyelinating disease population, and predictors of reduced HRQOL are largely unexplored. We sought to (1) compare generic HRQOL and fatigue of pediatric patients with relapsing (i.e., multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica) versus monophasic demyelinating diseases (i.e., acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, clinically isolated syndrome) and (2) examine the extent to which disability, relapsing disease, and fatigue predict HRQOL...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034989/neurological-presentations-revealing-acquired-copper-deficiency-diagnosis-features-etiologies-and-evolution-in-seven-patients
#17
Aurélia Poujois, Nouzha Djebrani-Oussedik, Fabienne Ory-Magne, France Woimant
BACKGROUND: acquired copper deficiency (ACD) is a rare condition usually diagnosed from haematological changes. AIMS: characterize the diagnosis features and the evolution of patients with ACD revealed by neurological symptoms. METHODS: clinical, biological and MRI data were prospectively analysed at diagnosis and during follow-up under copper supplementation. RESULTS: seven patients were studied over a 5-year period...
October 16, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028962/clinical-features-of-acute-flaccid-myelitis-temporally-associated-with-an-enterovirus-d68-outbreak-results-of-a-nationwide-survey-of-acute-flaccid-paralysis-in-japan-august-december-2015
#18
Pin Fee Chong, Ryutaro Kira, Harushi Mori, Akihisa Okumura, Hiroyuki Torisu, Sawa Yasumoto, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Nozomu Hanaoka, Susumu Kusunoki, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Kazunori Oishi, Keiko Tanaka-Taya
Backgroud: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) syndrome with spinal motor neuron involvement of unknown etiology. We investigated the characteristics and prognostic factors of AFM clusters coincident with an enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) outbreak in Japan during autumn 2015. Methods: An AFM case series study was conducted following a nationwide survey from August to December 2015. Radiographic and neurophysiologic data were subjected to centralized review, and virology studies were conducted for available specimens...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025172/-anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-in-paediatric-patients-with-optic-neuritis
#19
Helmut Tegetmeyer, Andreas Merkenschlager
Background Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is located on the surface of oligodendrocytes and myelin in the central nervous system. MOG-IgG is associated with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), relapsing and bilateral optic neuritis (NNO), and transverse myelitis (TM) in both paediatric and adult patients. The combination of NNO and TM or other inflammatory brain lesions is a typical feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) which are associated with specific pathogenic autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG)...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017268/the-spectrum-and-burden-of-influenza-associated-neurological-disease-in-children-combined-encephalitis-and-influenza-sentinel-site-surveillance-from-australia-2013-2015
#20
Philip N Britton, Christopher C Blyth, Kristine Macartney, Russell C Dale, Jean Li-Kim-Moy, Gulam Khandaker, Nigel W Crawford, Helen Marshall, Julia E Clark, Elizabeth J Elliott, Robert Booy, Allen C Cheng, Cheryl A Jones
Background: There are few longitudinal studies of seasonal influenza-associated neurological disease (IAND) and none from the Southern Hemisphere. Methods: We extracted prospectively acquired Australian surveillance data from 2 studies nested within the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) study and the Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) study between 2013 and 2015. We described the clinical features and severity of IAND in children, including influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE)...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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