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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436588/reduced-erg-dosage-impairs-survival-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#1
Ying Xie, Mia Lee Koch, Xin Zhang, Melanie J Hamblen, Frank J Godinho, Yuko Fujiwara, Huafeng Xie, Jan-Henning Klusmann, Stuart H Orkin, Zhe Li
ERG, an ETS family transcription factor frequently overexpressed in human leukemia, has been implicated as a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cells. However, how ERG controls normal hematopoiesis, particularly at the stem and progenitor cell level, and how it contributes to leukemogenesis remain incompletely understood. Using homologous recombination, we generated an Erg knockdown allele (Erg(kd) ) in which Erg expression can be conditionally restored by Cre recombinase. Erg(kd/kd) animals die at E10.5-E11...
April 24, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430618/t-2-mycotoxin-toxicological-effects-and-decontamination-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Manish Adhikari, Bhawana Negi, Neha Kaushik, Anupriya Adhikari, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik, Eun Ha Choi
Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenes mycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites with the hydroxy trichothecenes-2 toxin being the major metabolite. Trichothecene is hazardously intoxicating due to their additional potential to be topically absorbed, and their metabolites affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin, kidney, liver, and immune and hematopoietic progenitor cellular systems...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428537/human-cytomegalovirus-induces-cellular-and-humoral-virus-specific-immune-responses-in-humanized-blt-mice
#3
Lindsey B Crawford, Rebecca Tempel, Daniel N Streblow, Craig Kreklywich, Patricia Smith, Louis J Picker, Jay A Nelson, Patrizia Caposio
The strict species specificity of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has impeded our understanding of antiviral adaptive immune responses in the context of a human immune system. We have previously shown that HCMV infection of human hematopoietic progenitor cells engrafted in immune deficient mice (huNSG) results in viral latency that can be reactivated following G-CSF treatment. In this study, we characterized the functional human adaptive immune responses in HCMV latently-infected huBLT (humanized Bone marrow-Liver-Thymus) mice...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424480/ketogenic-diet-attenuates-hepatopathy-in-mouse-model-of-respiratory-chain-complex-iii-deficiency-caused-by-a-bcs1l-mutation
#4
Janne Purhonen, Jayasimman Rajendran, Matthias Mörgelin, Kristiina Uusi-Rauva, Shintaro Katayama, Kaarel Krjutskov, Elisabet Einarsdottir, Vidya Velagapudi, Juha Kere, Matti Jauhiainen, Vineta Fellman, Jukka Kallijärvi
Mitochondrial disorders are among the most prevalent inborn errors of metabolism but largely lack treatments and have poor outcomes. High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KDs) have shown beneficial effects in mouse models of mitochondrial myopathies, with induction of mitochondrial biogenesis as the suggested main mechanism. We fed KD to mice with respiratory chain complex III (CIII) deficiency and progressive hepatopathy due to mutated BCS1L, a CIII assembly factor. The mutant mice became persistently ketotic and tolerated the KD for up to 11 weeks...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423321/hepatocellular-carcinomas-originate-predominantly-from-hepatocytes-and-benign-lesions-from-hepatic-progenitor-cells
#5
Krishna S Tummala, Marta Brandt, Ana Teijeiro, Osvaldo Graña, Robert F Schwabe, Cristian Perna, Nabil Djouder
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive primary liver cancer. However, its origin remains a debated question. Using human data and various hepatocarcinogenesis mouse models, we show that, in early stages, transformed hepatocytes, independent of their proliferation status, activate hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) expansion. Genetic lineage tracing of HPCs and hepatocytes reveals that, in all models, HCC originates from hepatocytes. However, whereas in various models tumors do not emanate from HPCs, tracking of progenitors in a model mimicking human hepatocarcinogenesis indicates that HPCs can generate benign lesions (regenerative nodules and adenomas) and aggressive HCCs...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406475/depletion-of-polycomb-repressive-complex-2-core-component-eed-impairs-fetal-hematopoiesis
#6
Wenhua Yu, Fang Zhang, Shiyan Wang, Yi Fu, Jiahuan Chen, Xiaodong Liang, Huangying Le, William T Pu, Bing Zhang
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), a H3K27me3 methyltransferase complex, promotes the development of many organs by silencing ectopic transcription program. However, currently little is known about the role of PRC2 in blood and vascular development. In this study, we interrogated the function of embryonic ectoderm development (EED), a core PRC2 component, in both endothelial and hematopoietic tissues by inactivating a floxed murine EED allele with Tie2Cre, which catalyzes recombination in endothelial and hematopoietic lineages...
April 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404920/noncanonical-wnt-signaling-plays-an-important-role-in-modulating-canonical-wnt-regulated-stemness-proliferation-and-terminal-differentiation-of-hepatic-progenitors
#7
Jiaming Fan, Qiang Wei, Junyi Liao, Yulong Zou, Dongzhe Song, Dongmei Xiong, Chao Ma, Xue Hu, Xiangyang Qu, Liqun Chen, Li Li, Yichun Yu, Xinyi Yu, Zhicai Zhang, Chen Zhao, Zongyue Zeng, Ruyi Zhang, Shujuan Yan, Tingting Wu, Xingye Wu, Yi Shu, Jiayan Lei, Yasha Li, Wenwen Zhang, Rex C Haydon, Hue H Luu, Ailong Huang, Tong-Chuan He, Hua Tang
The liver provides vital metabolic, exocrine and endocrine functions in the body as such pathological conditions of the liver lead to high morbidity and mortality. The liver is highly regenerative and contains facultative stem cells that become activated during injury to replicate to fully recover mass and function. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an important role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of liver progenitor cells during liver regeneration. However, possible roles of noncanonical Wnts in liver development and regeneration remain undefined...
February 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401096/regulation-of-the-embryonic-erythropoietic-niche-a-future-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Ayako Yumine, Stuart T Fraser, Daisuke Sugiyama
The production of red blood cells, termed erythropoiesis, occurs in two waves in the developing mouse embryo: first primitive erythropoiesis followed by definitive erythropoiesis. In the mouse embryo, both primitive and definitive erythropoiesis originates in the extra-embryonic yolk sac. The definitive wave then migrates to the fetal liver, fetal spleen and fetal bone marrow as these organs form. The fetal liver serves as the major organ for hematopoietic cell expansion and erythroid maturation after mid-gestation...
March 2017: Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397810/hepatocytic-parental-progenitor-cells-of-rat-small-hepatocytes-maintain-self-renewal-capability-after-long-term-culture
#9
Masayuki Ishii, Junichi Kino, Norihisa Ichinohe, Naoki Tanimizu, Takafumi Ninomiya, Hiromu Suzuki, Toru Mizuguchi, Koichi Hirata, Toshihiro Mitaka
The liver has a variety of functions for maintaining homeostasis, and hepatocytes play a major role. In contrast with the high regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes (MHs) in vivo, they have not been successfully expanded ex vivo. Here we demonstrate that CD44-positive cells sorted from small hepatocyte (SH) colonies derived from a healthy adult rat liver can proliferate on a Matrigel-coated dish in serum-free chemically defined medium; in addition, a subpopulation of the cells can divide more than 50 times in a period of 17 weeks every 4-week-passage...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389020/seeds-in-the-liver
#10
REVIEW
Hongjie Ji, Yanrong Lu, Yujun Shi
The liver is a crucial organ for homeostasis and has a tremendous self-renewal and regenerative capacity. It has long been believed that the self-renewal and repair of the liver within a given physiological condition or its repopulation in chronic liver diseases, when hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, will primarily be conducted by the proliferating duct cells, termed "oval cells" or hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs). In addition, numerous studies have revealed that HPCs are the initial tumor cells of liver cancer under certain micro-environments...
April 4, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388653/expression-and-localization-of-sterile-alpha-motif-domain-containing-5-is-associated-with-cell-type-and-malignancy-of-biliary-tree
#11
Tomoki Yagai, Satoshi Matsui, Kenichi Harada, Fuyuki F Inagaki, Eiko Saijou, Yasushi Miura, Yasuni Nakanuma, Atsushi Miyajima, Minoru Tanaka
Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a type of relatively rare neoplasm in adenocarcinoma. The characteristics of CCs as well as biliary epithelial cells are heterogeneous at the different portion of the biliary tree. There are two candidate stem/progenitor cells of the biliary tree, i.e., biliary tree stem/progenitor cell (BTSC) at the peribiliary gland (PBG) of large bile ducts and liver stem/progenitor cell (LPC) at the canals of Hering of peripheral small bile duct. Although previous reports suggest that intrahepatic CC (ICC) can arise from such stem/progenitor cells, the characteristic difference between BTSC and LPC in pathological process needs further investigation, and the etiology of CC remains poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387022/systemic-iron-homeostasis-and-erythropoiesis
#12
REVIEW
George Papanikolaou, Kostas Pantopoulos
Iron is an essential nutrient that is potentially toxic due to its redox reactivity. Insufficient iron supply to erythroid cells, the major iron consumers in the body, leads to various forms of anemia. On the other hand, iron overload (hemochromatosis) is associated with tissue damage and diseases of liver, pancreas, and heart. Physiological iron balance is tightly controlled at the cellular and systemic level by iron regulatory proteins (IRP1, IRP2) and the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, respectively. Underlying mechanisms often intersect to achieve optimal iron utilization, to control immune responses, and to prevent iron toxicity...
April 6, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386637/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-tcdd-mediated-deregulation-of-myeloid-and-sebaceous-gland-stem-progenitor-cell-homeostasis
#13
REVIEW
Karl Walter Bock
Studies of TCDD toxicity stimulated identification of the responsible aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a multifunctional, ligand-activated transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim family. Accumulating evidence suggests a role of this receptor in homeostasis of stem/progenitor cells, in addition to its known role in xenobiotic metabolism. (1) Regulation of myelopoiesis is complex. As one example, AHR-mediated downregulation of human CD34+ progenitor differentiation to monocytes/macrophages is discussed...
April 6, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386382/protective-effects-of-an-ethanol-extract-of-angelica-keiskei-against-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-hepg2-and-heparg-cells
#14
Yoon-Hee Choi, Hyun Sook Lee, Cha-Kwon Chung, Eun Ji Kim, Il-Jun Kang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Although Angelica keiskei (AK) has widely been utilized for the purpose of general health improvement among Asian, its functionality and mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of ethanol extract of AK (AK-Ex) on acute hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen (AAP) in HepG2 human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells and HepaRG human hepatic progenitor cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: AK-Ex was prepared HepG2 and HepaRG cells were cultured with various concentrations and 30 mM AAP...
April 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386338/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-pedf-peptide-promotes-the-expansion-of-hepatic-stem-progenitor-cells-via-erk-and-stat3-dependent-signaling
#15
Shou-Chuan Shih, Tsung-Chuan Ho, Show-Li Chen, Yeou-Ping Tsao
Hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HPC) have been considered as a potential cell source of an alternative to liver transplantation. Production of large numbers of autologous HPC from small pieces of live tissue is crucial for the application of HPC-based liver therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that a synthetic 44-amino acid peptide (44-mer) derived from pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) can facilitate the production of a large number of actively dividing HPC from normal adult rat livers in a 35-day culture period...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385575/intersecting-worlds-of-transfusion-and-transplantation-medicine-an-international-symposium-organized-by-the-canadian-blood-services-centre-for-innovation
#16
REVIEW
Kendra M Hodgkinson, Jeffrey Kiernan, Andrew W Shih, Ziad Solh, William P Sheffield, Nicolas Pineault
The principal theme of the symposium was centered on how the world of regenerative medicine intersects with that of transfusion medicine, with a particular focus on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and stem cell therapies. The symposium highlighted several exciting developments and identified areas where additional research is needed. A revised map of human hematopoietic hierarchy was presented based on the functional and phenotypic analysis of thousands of single stem and progenitor cells from adult bone marrow and fetal liver...
March 22, 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377509/genetic-tracing-of-hepatocytes-in-liver-homeostasis-injury-and-regeneration
#17
Yue Wang, Xiuzhen Huang, Lingjuan He, Wenjuan Pu, Yan Li, Qiaozhen Liu, Yi Li, Libo Zhang, Wei Yu, Huan Zhao, Yingqun Zhou, Bin Zhou
The liver possesses a remarkable capacity to regenerate after damage. There is a heated debate on the origin of new hepatocytes following injuries in adult liver. Hepatic stem/progenitor cells have been proposed to produce functional hepatocytes after injury. Recent studies have argued against this model and suggested that pre-existing hepatocytes, rather than stem cells, contribute new hepatocytes. This hepatocyte-to-hepatocyte model is mainly based on labeling of hepatocytes with Cre-recombinase delivered by adeno-associated virus (AAV)...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372287/organ-reconstruction-dream-or-reality-for%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-future
#18
J-F Stoltz, L Zhang, J S Ye, N De Isla
The relevance of research on reconstructed organs is justified by the lack of organs available for transplant and the growing needs for the ageing population. The development of a reconstructed organ involves two parallel complementary steps: de-cellularization of the organ with the need to maintain the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix and vascular network and re-cellularization of the scaffold with stem cells or resident cells.Whole organ engineering for liver, heart, lung or kidneys, is particularly difficult because of the structural complexity of organs and heterogeneity of cells...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366764/in%C3%A2-vivo-excision-of-hiv-1-provirus-by-sacas9-and-multiplex-single-guide-rnas-in-animal-models
#19
Chaoran Yin, Ting Zhang, Xiying Qu, Yonggang Zhang, Raj Putatunda, Xiao Xiao, Fang Li, Weidong Xiao, Huaqing Zhao, Shen Dai, Xuebin Qin, Xianming Mo, Won-Bin Young, Kamel Khalili, Wenhui Hu
CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated genome editing provides a promising cure for HIV-1/AIDS; however, gene delivery efficiency in vivo remains an obstacle to overcome. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of excising the HIV-1 provirus in three different animal models using an all-in-one adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to deliver multiplex single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) plus Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (saCas9). The quadruplex sgRNAs/saCas9 vector outperformed the duplex vector in excising the integrated HIV-1 genome in cultured neural stem/progenitor cells from HIV-1 Tg26 transgenic mice...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364348/analysis-of-soluble-factors-in-conditioned-media-derived-from-primary-cultures-of-cirrhotic-liver-of-biliary-atresia
#20
Taisuke Yamazaki, Mariko Wakai, Shin Enosawa, Takayoshi Tokiwa
Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare and serious liver disease in newborn infants. Previously, we reported that non-parenchymal cell (NPC) fractions from cirrhotic liver of BA may contain hepatic stem/progenitor cells in primary culture of NPC fractions. In this study, NPC fractions were subjected to primary or passage culture and found that clusters of hepatocyte-like cells appear even without adding hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) to the culture medium, but not in their passage culture used as a control. Based on these findings, conditioned media (CMs) were collected and soluble factors in the CMs were analyzed in order to elucidate the mechanism of the appearance of hepatocyte-like cells or their clusters...
March 31, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
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