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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100887/production-of-a-health-beneficial-food-emulsifier-by-enzymatic-partial-hydrolysis-of-phospholipids-obtained-from-the-head-of-autumn-chum-salmon
#1
A K M Azad Shah, Toshihiro Nagao, Hideyuki Kurihara, Koretaro Takahashi
Phospholipids and their partial hydrolysates, namely lysophospholipids (LPLs), have been widely used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic products as highly efficient emulsifiers. This study was conducted to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-esterified LPLs by enzymatic modification of phospholipids obtained from the head of autumn chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). The emulsifying properties of the obtained LPLs were also evaluated. Two different types of substrates of salmon head phospholipids were prepared via silica gel and cold acetone precipitation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099023/computational-models-of-the-gastrointestinal-environment-1-the-effect-of-digestion-on-the-phase-behaviour-of-intestinal-fluids
#2
Woldeamanuel A Birru, Dallas B Warren, Stephen J Headey, Hassan Benameur, Christopher J H Porter, Colin W Pouton, David K Chalmers
Improved models of the gastrointestinal environment have great potential to assist the complex process of drug formulation. Molecular dynamics (MD) is a powerful method for investigating phase behaviour at a molecular level. In this study we use multiple MD simulations to calculate phase diagrams for bile before and after digestion. In these computational models, undigested bile is represented by mixtures of palmitoyl-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDX) and water. Digested bile is modelled using a 1:1 mixture of oleic acid and palmitoylphosphatidylcholine (lyso-phosphatidylcholine, LPC), GDX and water...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097516/are-event-related-potentials-to-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-emotion-related-to-individual-differences-in-the-accuracy-of-processing-facial-expressions-and-identity
#3
Guillermo Recio, Oliver Wilhelm, Werner Sommer, Andrea Hildebrandt
Despite a wealth of knowledge about the neural mechanisms behind emotional facial expression processing, little is known about how they relate to individual differences in social cognition abilities. We studied individual differences in the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by dynamic facial expressions. First, we assessed the latent structure of the ERPs, reflecting structural face processing in the N170, and the allocation of processing resources and reflexive attention to emotionally salient stimuli, in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive complex (LPC)...
January 17, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088582/ripk1-protects-hepatocytes-from-kupffer-cells-mediated-tnf-induced-apoptosis-in-mouse-models-of-pamp-induced-hepatitis
#4
Aveline Filliol, Claire Piquet-Pellorce, Céline Raguénès-Nicol, Sarah Dion, Muhammad Farooq, Catherine Lucas-Clerc, Peter Vandenabeele, Mathieu J M Bertrand, Jacques Le Seyec, Michel Samson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The severity of liver diseases is exacerbated by the death of hepatocytes, which can be induced by the sensing of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) derived from the gut microbiota. The molecular mechanisms regulating these cell death pathways are poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the role of the Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 1 (RIPK1), a protein known to regulate cell fate decisions, in the death of hepatocytes using two in vivo models of PAMP-induced hepatitis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069421/optogenetic-control-of-cell-differentiation-in-channelrhodopsin-2-expressing-os3-a-bipotential-glial-progenitor-cell-line
#5
Kenji Ono, Hiromi Suzuki, Ryusei Yamamoto, Hideki Sahashi, Yuhei Takido, Makoto Sawada
Alterations in the intracellular ion environment have been identified as one of the signals playing a critical role in the control of cellular proliferation and differentiation; however, the mechanisms responsible for signal transduction remain unclear. Recent studies have reported that channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a rapidly gated blue light (BL)-sensitive cation channel suitable for the non-invasive control of ion influx. We herein examined the expression of differentiation-associated markers by photo-activation and its signal transduction in ChR2-expressing OS3 (OS3ChR2) cells, which are clonal bipotential glial progenitor cells...
January 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065927/the-composite-water-and-solute-transport-of-barley-hordeum-vulgare-roots-effect-of-suberized-barriers
#6
Kosala Ranathunge, Yangmin X Kim, Friedrich Wassmann, Tino Kreszies, Viktoria Zeisler, Lukas Schreiber
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Roots have complex anatomical structures, and certain localized cell layers develop suberized apoplastic barriers. The size and tightness of these barriers depend on the growth conditions and on the age of the root. Such complex anatomical structures result in a composite water and solute transport in roots. METHODS: Development of apoplastic barriers along barley seminal roots was detected using various staining methods, and the suberin amounts in the apical and basal zones were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS)...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064014/gpr55-agonist-lysophosphatidylinositol-and-lysophosphatidylcholine-inhibit-endothelial-cell-hyperpolarization-via-gpr-independent-suppression-of-na-ca-2-exchanger-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-refilling
#7
Alexander I Bondarenko, Fabrizio Montecucco, Olga Panasiuk, Vadim Sagach, Nataliya Sidoryak, Karim J Brandt, François Mach
Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) are lipid signaling molecules that induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In addition, LPC suppresses acetylcholine (Ach)-induced responses. We aimed to determine the influence of LPC and LPI on hyperpolarizing responses in vitro and in situ endothelial cells (EC) and identify the underlying mechanisms. Using patch-clamp method, we show that LPI and LPC inhibit EC hyperpolarization to histamine and suppress Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanged (NCX) currents in a concentration-dependent manner...
January 4, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049030/pregabalin-enhances-myelin-repair-and-attenuates-glial-activation-in-lysolecithin-induced-demyelination-model-of-rat-optic-chiasm
#8
Danyal Daneshdoust, Mohsen Khalili-Fomeshi, Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman, Davoud Ghorbanian, Mona Hashemian, Mohammad Gholami, Aliakbar Moghadamnia, Amir Shojaei
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which more than 70% of patients experience visual disturbance as the earliest symptoms. Lysolecithin (LPC)-induced focal demyelination model has been developed to evaluate the effects of different therapies on myelin repair improvement. In this study, the effects of pregabalin administration on myelin repair and glial activation were investigated. Local demyelination was induced by administration of LPC (1%, 2μL) into the rat optic chiasm. Rats underwent daily injection of pregabalin (30mg/kg, i...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043366/semen-cryopreservation-and-radical-reduction-capacity-of-seminal-fluid-in-captive-african-lion-panthera-leo
#9
I Luther, U Jakop, I Lueders, A Tordiffe, C Franz, J Schiller, A Kotze, K Müller
Optimizing cryopreservation protocols for nondomestic felids contributes to the successful development of assisted reproduction techniques and genetic resource banking. In this study, we describe a simple cryopreservation procedure for African lion (Panthera leo) ejaculates, which was tested with different packaging options and different sperm numbers per dose. By applying urethral catheterization and electroejaculation, 17 ejaculates with greater than 20% motile and greater than 5% progressively motile sperm were collected...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041983/basic-discriminative-and-semantic-processing-in-patients-in-the-vegetative-and-minimally-conscious-state
#10
Helena Erlbeck, Ruben G L Real, Boris Kotchoubey, Donatella Mattia, Jakob Bargak, Andrea Kübler
Patients who survive injuries to the brain following accidents or diseases often acquire a disorder of consciousness (DOC). Assessment of the state of consciousness in these patients is difficult since they are usually incapable of reproducible motor movements. The application of event-related potentials (ERP) recorded via EEG constitutes one promising approach to complement the assessment of cognitive functions in DOC patients. For these assessments, a hierarchical approach was suggested which means that paradigms aiming at higher order ERPs are only presented if early responses were found...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034917/active-surveillance-for-low-risk-localized-prostate-cancer-what-do-men-and-their-partners-think
#11
Arun Mallapareddi, Julie Ruterbusch, Elyse Reamer, Susan Eggly, Jinping Xu
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance (AS) is recognized as a reasonable treatment option for low-risk localized prostate cancer (LPC) but continues to be chosen by a minority of men. To date, limited data are available regarding reasons why men with low-risk LPC adopt AS. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to better understand conceptualizations, experiences and reasons why men with low-risk LPC and their partners adopt AS. METHODS: We conducted five focus groups (FGs), three among men with low-risk LPC who had chosen AS and two with their partners...
December 29, 2016: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028754/alteration-of-lysophosphatidylcholine-related-metabolic-parameters-in-the-plasma-of-mice-with-experimental-sepsis
#12
Won-Gyun Ahn, Jun-Sub Jung, Hyeok Yil Kwon, Dong-Keun Song
Plasma concentration of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) was reported to decrease in patients with sepsis. However, the mechanisms of sepsis-induced decrease in plasma LPC levels are not currently well known. In mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model of polymicrobial peritoneal sepsis, we examined alterations in LPC-related metabolic parameters in plasma, i.e., the plasma concentration of LPC-related substances (i.e., phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)), and activities or levels in the plasma of some enzymes that can be involved in the regulation of plasma LPC concentration (i...
December 28, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017818/neural-cascade-of-conflict-processing-not-just-time-on-task
#13
Cameron C McKay, Berry van den Berg, Marty G Woldorff
In visual conflict tasks (e.g., Stroop or flanker), response times (RTs) are generally longer on incongruent trials relative to congruent ones. Two event-related-potential (ERP) components classically associated with the processing of stimulus conflict are the fronto-central, incongruency-related negativity (Ninc) and the posterior late-positive complex (LPC), which are derived from the ERP difference waves for incongruent minus congruent trials. It has been questioned, however, whether these effects, or other neural measures of incongruency (e...
December 22, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017612/ripk1-suppresses-a-traf2-dependent-pathway-to-liver-cancer
#14
Anne T Schneider, Jérémie Gautheron, Maria Feoktistova, Christoph Roderburg, Sven H Loosen, Sanchari Roy, Fabian Benz, Peter Schemmer, Markus W Büchler, Ueli Nachbur, Ulf P Neumann, Rene Tolba, Mark Luedde, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Diana Panayotova-Dimitrova, Martin Leverkus, Christian Preisinger, Frank Tacke, Christian Trautwein, Thomas Longerich, Mihael Vucur, Tom Luedde
Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) represents an essential signaling node in cell death and inflammation. Ablation of Ripk1 in liver parenchymal cells (LPC) did not cause a spontaneous phenotype, but led to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-dependent hepatocyte apoptosis and liver injury without affecting inducible nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Loss of Ripk1 induced the TNF-dependent proteasomal degradation of the E3-ligase, TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), in a kinase-independent manner, thereby activating caspase-8...
January 9, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004749/colours-impact-on-morality-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#15
Tian Gan, Wei Fang, Liezhong Ge
Black and white have been shown to be representations of moral concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether colours other than black and white have similar effects on words related to morality and to determine the time course of these effects. We presented moral and immoral words in three colours (red, green and blue) in a Moral Stroop task and used the event-related potential (ERP) technique to identify the temporal dynamics of the impact of colours on moral judgement. The behavioural results showed that it took longer for people to judge immoral words than moral words when the words were coloured green than when they were red or blue...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002964/asymmetric-hydroboration-approach-to-the-scalable-synthesis-of-1r-3s-1-amino-3-r-6-hexyl-5-6-7-8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl-cyclopentyl-methanol-bms-986104-as-a-potent-s1p1-receptor-modulator
#16
Michael G Yang, Zili Xiao, T G Murali Dhar, Hai-Yun Xiao, John L Gilmore, David Marcoux, Jenny H Xie, Kim W McIntyre, Tracy L Taylor, Virna Borowski, Elizabeth Heimrich, Yu-Wen Li, Jianlin Feng, Alda Fernandes, Zheng Yang, Praveen Balimane, Anthony M Marino, Georgia Cornelius, Bethanne M Warrack, Arvind Mathur, Dauh-Rurng Wu, Peng Li, Anuradha Gupta, Bala Pragalathan, Ding Ren Shen, Mary Ellen Cvijic, Lois D Lehman-McKeeman, Luisa Salter-Cid, Joel C Barrish, Percy H Carter, Alaric J Dyckman
We describe a highly efficient route for the synthesis of 4a (BMS-986104). A key step in the synthesis is the asymmetric hydroboration of trisubstituted alkene 6. Particularly given the known difficulties involved in this type of transformation (6 → 7), the current methodology provides an efficient approach to prepare this class of compounds. In addition, we disclose the efficacy of 4a in a mouse EAE model, which is comparable to 4c (FTY720). Mechanistically, 4a exhibited excellent remyelinating effects on lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) induced demyelination in a three-dimensional brain cell culture assay...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991764/high-troughput-lipidomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-to-compare-sp2-0-cho-and-hek-293-mammalian-cell-lines
#17
Yue Zhang, Deniz Baycin Hizal, Amit Kumar, Joseph Priola, Michelle Bahri, Kelley M Heffner, Miao Wang, Xianlin Han, Michael A Bowen, Michael J Betenbaugh
A combined lipidomics and transcriptomics analysis was performed on mouse myeloma SP2/0, Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells in order to compare widely used mammalian expression systems. Initial thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) were the major lipid components with lower amounts of sphingomyelin (SM) in SP2/0 compared to CHO and HEK, which was subsequently confirmed and expounded upon following mass spectrometry (MS) analysis...
December 19, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991029/the-electrophysiological-signature-of-remember-know-is-confounded-with-memory-strength-and-cannot-be-interpreted-as-evidence-for-dual-process-theory-of-recognition
#18
Noam Brezis, Zohar Z Bronfman, Galit Yovel, Yonatan Goshen-Gottstein
The quantity and nature of the processes underlying recognition memory remains an open question. A majority of behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain studies have suggested that recognition memory is supported by two dissociable processes: recollection and familiarity. It has been conversely argued, however, that recollection and familiarity map onto a single continuum of mnemonic strength and hence that recognition memory is mediated by a single process. Previous electrophysiological studies found marked dissociations between recollection and familiarity, which have been widely held as corroborating the dual-process account...
February 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982588/structure-activity-relationships-of-small-molecule-autotaxin-inhibitors-with-a-discrete-binding-mode
#19
Lisa M Miller, Willem-Jan Keune, Diana Castagna, Louise C Young, Emma L Duffy, Frances Potjewyd, Fernando Salgado-Polo, Paloma Engel García, Dima Semaan, John M Pritchard, Anastassis Perrakis, Simon J F Macdonald, Craig Jamieson, Allan J B Watson
Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to the bioactive lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and choline. The ATX-LPA signaling pathway is implicated in cell survival, migration, and proliferation; thus, the inhibition of ATX is a recognized therapeutic target for a number of diseases including fibrotic diseases, cancer, and inflammation, among others. Many of the developed synthetic inhibitors for ATX have resembled the lipid chemotype of the native ligand; however, a small number of inhibitors have been described that deviate from this common scaffold...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982022/how-types-of-premises-modulate-the-typicality-effect-in-category-based-induction-diverging-evidence-from-the-p2-p3-and-lpc-effects
#20
Xiuling Liang, Qingfei Chen, Yi Lei, Hong Li
Behavioural studies have indicated that semantic typicality influences processing time and accuracy during the performance of inductive reasoning (i.e., the typicality effect). The present study examines this effect by manipulating the types of premises and conclusions (i.e., general, typical, or atypical) at an electrophysiological level using a semantic category-based induction task. With regard to behavioural results, higher inductive strength was found in typical conclusions in all premise conditions, whereas a longer response time for atypical conclusions was only found in general and typical premise conditions...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
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