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Gema Rebolleda, Beatriz Puerto, Victoria de Juan, Marta Gómez-Mariscal, Francisco José Muñoz-Negrete, Alfonso Casado
Purpose: We investigated the early effects of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) on optic nerve head (ONH) morphology. Methods: All of the participants underwent applanation tonometry and enhanced depth imaging by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography immediately before injection, and within 5 and 30 minutes after IAI. Changes in the anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth, prelaminar tissue thickness (PTT), optic cup width, optic cup depth, and Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) were assessed...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Elise G Elliott, Pauline Trinh, Xiaomei Ma, Brian P Leaderer, Mary H Ward, Nicole C Deziel
The widespread distribution of unconventional oil and gas (UO&G) wells and other facilities in the United States potentially exposes millions of people to air and water pollutants, including known or suspected carcinogens. Childhood leukemia is a particular concern because of the disease severity, vulnerable population, and short disease latency. A comprehensive review of carcinogens and leukemogens associated with UO&G development is not available and could inform future exposure monitoring studies and human health assessments...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Colin H Brown
The posterior pituitary gland secretes oxytocin and vasopressin (the antidiuretic hormone) into the blood system. Oxytocin is required for normal delivery of the young and for delivery of milk to the young during lactation. Vasopressin increases water reabsorption in the kidney to maintain body fluid balance and causes vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure. Oxytocin and vasopressin secretion occurs from the axon terminals of magnocellular neurons whose cell bodies are principally found in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Chung-Sheng Shi, Tzu-Hsiung Huang, Chin-Kuo Lin, Jhy-Ming Li, Mei-Hsin Chen, Mei-Ling Tsai, Chih-Ching Chang
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving procedure for patients with acute respiratory failure, although it may cause pulmonary vascular inflammation and leakage, leading to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Ly6C+high monocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of VILI. In this study, we investigated whether pulmonary infiltrated Ly6C+high monocytes produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and contribute to VILI. METHODS: A clinically relevant two-hit mouse model of VILI, with intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 20 ng/mouse) immediately before high tidal volume (HTV, 20 mL/kg) ventilation (LPS+HTV), was established...
2016: PloS One
Eva Wiberg-Itzel, Andrea B Pembe, Hans Järnbert-Pettersson, Margareta Norman, Anna-Carin Wihlbäck, Irene Hoesli, Monya Todesco Bernasconi, Elie Azria, Helena Åkerud, Elisabet Darj
BACKGROUND: One of the major complications related to delivery is labor dystocia, or an arrested labor progress. Many dystocic deliveries end vaginally after administration of oxytocin, but a large numbers of women with labor dystocia will undergo a long and unsafe parturition. As a result of the exertion required in labor, the uterus produces lactate. The uterine production of lactate is mirrored by the level of lactate in amniotic fluid (AFL). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the level of AFL, analysed in a sample of amniotic fluid collected vaginally at arrested labor when oxytocin was needed, could predict labor outcome in nulliparous deliveries...
2016: PloS One
Tongtong Tian, Qiongzheng Hu, Yi Wang, Yanan Gao, Li Yu
A series of imidazolium-based surface active ionic liquids (IM-SAILs), viz. single-chained IM-SAILs, 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Cnmim]Br, n=12, 14, 16), 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium salicylate ([C12mim]Sal), 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate ([C12mim]HNC), 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium cinnamate ([C12mim]CA), 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium para-hydroxy-cinnamate ([C12mim]PCA); gemini IM-SAIL, 1,2-bis(3-dodecylimidazolium-1-yl) ethane bromide ([C12-2-C12im]Br2), along with three short-chained ionic liquids (ILs), ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), propylammonium nitrate (PAN) and butylammonium nitrate (BAN), were synthesized and applied to nematic liquid crystal (LC)-fluid interfaces...
October 26, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Pablo Blanco, Giovanni Volpicelli
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) is a widely used tool in emergency and critical care settings, useful in the decision-making process as well as in interventional guidance. While having an impressive diagnostic accuracy in the hands of highly skilled operators, inexperienced practitioners must be aware of some common misinterpretations that may lead to wrong decisions at the bedside. OBJECTIVES: This article provides a revision list of common POCUS misdiagnoses usually found in practice and offers useful tips to recognize and avoid them...
December 2016: Critical Ultrasound Journal
Laura M Tanner, Johanna Kurko, Maaria Tringham, Heikki Aho, Juha Mykkänen, Kirsti Näntö-Salonen, Harri Niinikoski, Heikki Lukkarinen
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a potentially fatal complication of lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), an inherited disorder of cationic amino acid transport. The patients often present with mild respiratory symptoms, which may rapidly progress to acute respiratory failure responding poorly to conventional treatment with steroids and bronchoalveolar lavations (BALs). The pathogenesis of PAP in LPI is still largely unclear. In previous studies, we have shown disturbances in the function and activity of alveolar macrophages of these patients, suggesting that increasing the activity and the number of macrophages by recombinant human GM-CSF (rhuGM-CSF) might be beneficial in this patient group...
October 26, 2016: JIMD Reports
Masaaki Nakayama, Yoshindo Kawaguchi, Takashi Akiba, Masao Kim, Hidemune Naito, Shigeko Hara, Teruhiko Maeba, Noriaki Yorioka, James A Sloand, Mark R Marshall
BACKGROUND: We report here two new peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) for Japan [BLR 250, BLR 350 (Baxter Limited, Japan)]. The PDFs use two-chamber systems, and have bicarbonate and lactate buffer to a total of 35 mmol/L. In separate trials, the new PDFs were compared to two "standard" systems [PD-4, PD-2 (Baxter Limited, Japan)]. The trials aimed to demonstrate non-inferiority of peritoneal creatinine clearance (pCcr), peritoneal urea clearance (pCurea) and ultrafiltration volume (UF), and compare acid-base and electrolyte balance...
October 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Wang Heping, Geng Xingguo, Li Xiaoguang, Zang Duyang
This paper presents an exploration of the separation behavior and pattern formation in a shear binary fluid with dynamic temperature after slow cooling via coupled lattice Boltzmann method. The phase separation procedure can be divided into three different stages: spinodal decomposition, domain growth, and domain stretch. The effect of thermal diffusion was observed to be more significant than that of shear convection in the spinodal decomposition stage, while the opposite was observed in the domain growth stage...
October 2016: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Cristine E A Carneiro, Antonio C Stabile, Frederico P Gomes, Antonio C S da Costa, Cássia T B V Zaia, Dimas A M Zaia
Probably one of the most important roles played by minerals in the origin of life on Earth was to pre-concentrate biomolecules from the prebiotic seas. There are other ways to pre concentrate biomolecules such as wetting/drying cycles and freezing/sublimation. However, adsorption is most important. If the pre-concentration did not occur-because of degradation of the minerals-other roles played by them such as protection against degradation, formation of polymers, or even as primitive cell walls would be seriously compromised...
October 25, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Claire K Muro, Igor K Lednev
Traces of body fluids can be present at a variety of crime scenes. It is important that forensic investigators have a reliable and nondestructive method of identifying these traces. Of equal importance is establishing the limitations of any method in use, including its detection limit. We have previously reported on the use of Raman microspectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to identify and differentiate body fluids. While many studies use serial dilutions to establish limits of detection, we utilized a different approach and demonstrated that a single red blood cell is sufficient to be correctly identified as blood...
October 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
W Reith, S Roumia, P Dietrich
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Cerebellar syndromes result in distinct clinical symptoms, such as ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria, intention tremor and eye movement disorders. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: In addition to the medical history and clinical examination, imaging is particularly important to differentiate other diseases, such as hydrocephalus and multi-infarct dementia from degenerative cerebellar diseases. Degenerative diseases with cerebellar involvement include Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy as well as other diseases including spinocerebellar ataxia...
October 25, 2016: Der Radiologe
Lauren Tracy Daly, David M Tsai, Mansher Singh, Kristo Nuutila, Raquel A Minasian, Cameron C Y Lee, Elizabeth Kiwanuka, Florian Hackl, Andrew B Onderdonk, Johan P E Junker, Elof Eriksson, Edward J Caterson
BACKGROUND: Wound infection can impair postoperative healing. Topical antibiotics have potential to treat wound infection and inflammation and minimize the adverse effects associated with systemic antibiotics. METHODS: Full-thickness porcine wounds were infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Using polyurethane wound enclosure devices, wounds were treated with topical 100 μg/ml minocycline, topical 1000 μg/ml minocycline, topical saline control, or 4 mg/kg intravenous minocycline...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Patrick Kellner, Mattia Müller, Tobias Piegeler, Philipp Eugster, Christa Booy, Martin Schläpfer, Beatrice Beck-Schimmer
BACKGROUND: Patients experiencing acute lung injury (ALI) often need mechanical ventilation for which sedation may be required. In such patients, usually the first choice an intravenously administered drug. However, growing evidence suggests that volatile anesthetics such as sevoflurane are a valuable alternative. In this study, we evaluate pulmonary and systemic effects of long-term (24-hour) sedation with sevoflurane compared with propofol in an in vivo animal model of ALI. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to ALI by intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application, mechanically ventilated and sedated for varying intervals up to 24 hours with either sevoflurane or propofol...
October 24, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Lior Weizman, Yonina C Eldar, Dafna Ben Bashat
PURPOSE: In many clinical MRI scenarios, existing imaging information can be used to significantly shorten acquisition time or to improve Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In this paper the authors present a framework, referred to as FASTMER, for fast MRI by exploiting a reference image. METHODS: The proposed approach utilizes the possible similarity of the reference image to the acquired image, which exists in many clinical MRI imaging scenarios. Examples include similarity between adjacent slices in high resolution MRI, similarity between various contrasts in the same scan and similarity between different scans of the same patient...
October 2016: Medical Physics
G Schooneveldt, H P Kok, E Balidemaj, E D Geijsen, F van Ommen, J Sijbrands, A Bakker, J J M C H de la Rosette, M C C M Hulshof, T M de Reijke, J Crezee
PURPOSE: Hyperthermia is an established (neo)adjuvant treatment modality for a number of pelvic malignancies. Optimal treatment of these tumors requires robust treatment planning, but up until now, the urinary bladder was not modeled accurately, making current simulations less reliable. The authors improved the dielectric and thermophysical model of the urinary bladder in their treatment planning system, and showed the improvements using phantom experiments. METHODS: The authors suspended a porcine bladder in muscle tissue equivalent gel and filled it with 120 ml 0...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Florent Goujon, Aziz Ghoufi, Patrice Malfreyt, Dominic J Tildesley
In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to approach the gas-liquid critical point of the Lennard-Jones fluid by performing simulations in a slab geometry using a cut-off potential. In the slab simulation geometry, it is essential to apply an accurate tail correction to the potential energy, applied during the course of the simulation, to study the properties of states close to the critical point. Using the Janeček slab-based method developed for two-phase Monte Carlo simulations [J. Janec̆ek, J...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Vasileios Prymidis, Siddharth Paliwal, Marjolein Dijkstra, Laura Filion
We study a three-dimensional system of self-propelled Lennard-Jones particles using Brownian dynamics simulations. Using recent theoretical results for active matter, we calculate the pressure and report equations of state for the system. Additionally, we chart the vapour-liquid coexistence and show that the coexistence densities can be well described using simple power laws. Lastly, we demonstrate that our out-of-equilibrium system shows deviations from both the law of rectilinear diameters and the law of corresponding states...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mingren Shen, Fangfu Ye, Rui Liu, Ke Chen, Mingcheng Yang, Marisol Ripoll
Chemical gradients maintained along surfaces can drive fluid flows by diffusio-osmosis, which become significant at micro- and nano-scales. Here, by means of mesoscopic simulations, we show that a concentration drop across microchannels with periodically inhomogeneous boundary walls can laterally transport fluids over arbitrarily long distances along the microchannel. The driving field is the secondary local chemical gradient parallel to the channel induced by the periodic inhomogeneity of the channel wall...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
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