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Perioperative evaluation in noncardiac surgery

Emmanuelle Duceppe, Joel Parlow, Paul MacDonald, Kristin Lyons, Michael McMullen, Sadeesh Srinathan, Michelle Graham, Vikas Tandon, Kim Styles, Amal Bessissow, Daniel I Sessler, Gregory Bryson, P J Devereaux
The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines Committee and key Canadian opinion leaders believed there was a need for up to date guidelines that used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system of evidence assessment for patients who undergo noncardiac surgery. Strong recommendations included: 1) measuring brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal fragment of proBNP (NT-proBNP) before surgery to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation in patients who are 65 years of age or older, are 45-64 years of age with significant cardiovascular disease, or have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥ 1; 2) against performing preoperative resting echocardiography, coronary computed tomography angiography, exercise or cardiopulmonary exercise testing, or pharmacological stress echocardiography or radionuclide imaging to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation; 3) against the initiation or continuation of acetylsalicylic acid for the prevention of perioperative cardiac events, except in patients with a recent coronary artery stent or who will undergo carotid endarterectomy; 4) against α2 agonist or β-blocker initiation within 24 hours before surgery; 5) withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker starting 24 hours before surgery; 6) facilitating smoking cessation before surgery; 7) measuring daily troponin for 48 to 72 hours after surgery in patients with an elevated NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery or if there is no NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery, in those who have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥1, age 45-64 years with significant cardiovascular disease, or age 65 years or older; and 8) initiating of long-term acetylsalicylic acid and statin therapy in patients who suffer myocardial injury/infarction after surgery...
October 4, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Wilton A van Klei, Judith A R van Waes, Wietze Pasma, Teus H Kappen, Leo van Wolfswinkel, Linda M Peelen, Cor J Kalkman
BACKGROUND: For outcomes research where changes in intraoperative blood pressure are a possible causative factor, it is important to determine an appropriate source for a reference value. We studied to what extent preinduction blood pressure values in the operating room differ from those obtained during preoperative evaluation outside the operating room. METHODS: Cohort study including 4408 patients aged 60 years or older undergoing noncardiac surgery. The outcome was the difference between the preinduction mean blood pressure (MBP) and the MBP obtained during preoperative evaluation...
October 11, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Andrés M Bur, Jason A Brant, Carolyn L Mulvey, Elizabeth A Nicolli, Robert M Brody, John P Fischer, Steven B Cannady, Jason G Newman
Importance: Unplanned hospital readmission is costly and in recent years has become a focus of health care legislation intended to reduce health care expenditures. Greater understanding of which perioperative complications are associated with hospital readmission after surgery for head and neck cancer is needed to reduce unplanned readmissions. Objective: To determine which clinical risk factors and complications are associated with 30-day unplanned readmission after surgery for malignant neoplasms of the head and neck...
October 13, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
John W Eikelboom, Clive Kearon, Gordon Guyatt, Daniel I Sessler, Salim Yusuf, Deborah Cook, James Douketis, Ameen Patel, Andrea Kurz, Rene Allard, Philip M Jones, Rodolfo J Dennis, Thomas W Painter, Sergio D Bergese, Kate Leslie, Duminda N Wijeysundera, Kumar Balasubramanian, Emmanuelle Duceppe, Scott Miller, Johan Diedericks, P J Devereaux
BACKGROUND: The PeriOperative ISchemia Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) trial compared aspirin with placebo after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: The authors randomly assigned 10,010 patients undergoing noncardiac surgery to receive 200 mg aspirin or placebo 2 to 4 h before surgery and then 100 mg aspirin daily or placebo daily for up to 30 days after surgery. Herein, the authors report the effect of aspirin on venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, as well as an updated pooled analysis of randomized trials of antiplatelet therapy for VTE prevention in noncardiac surgery patients...
September 14, 2016: Anesthesiology
Adriana D Oprea, Frederick W Lombard, Wen-Wei Liu, William D White, Jörn A Karhausen, Yi-Ju Li, Timothy E Miller, Solomon Aronson, Tong J Gan, Manuel L Fontes, Miklos D Kertai
BACKGROUND: Increased pulse pressure (PP) is an important independent predictor of cardiovascular outcome and acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery. The objective of this study was to determine whether elevated baseline PP is associated with postoperative AKI and 30-day mortality after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We evaluated 9125 adult patients who underwent noncardiac surgery at Duke University Medical Center between January 2006 and December 2009. Baseline arterial blood pressure was defined as the mean of the first 5 measurements recorded by the automated record keeping system before inducing anesthesia...
December 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Alejandro Velasco, Eliana Reyes, Fadi G Hage
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Alparslan Turan, Rovnat Babazade, Andrea Kurz, Phillip J Devereaux, Nicole M Zimmerman, Matthew T Hutcherson, Amanda J Naylor, Wael Ali Sakr Esa, Joel Parlow, Ian Gilron, Hooman Honar, Vafi Salmasi, Daniel I Sessler
BACKGROUND: Clonidine is an α2-adrenoceptor agonist, which has analgesic properties. However, the analgesic efficacy of perioperative clonidine remains unclear. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that clonidine reduces both pain scores and cumulative opioid consumption during the initial 72 hours after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: Six hundred twenty-four patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery under general and spinal anesthesia were included in this substudy of the PeriOperative ISchemia Evaluation-2 trial...
September 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
David R Skvarc, Olivia M Dean, Linda K Byrne, Laura J Gray, Kathryn Ives, Stephen E Lane, Matthew Lewis, Cameron Osborne, Richard Page, Douglas Stupart, Alyna Turner, Michael Berk, Andrew J Marriott
BACKGROUND: Some degree of cognitive decline after surgery occurs in as many as one quarter of elderly surgical patients, and this decline is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Cognition may be affected across a range of domains, including memory, psychomotor skills, and executive function. Whilst the exact mechanisms of cognitive change after surgery are not precisely known, oxidative stress and subsequent neuroinflammation have been implicated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) acts via multiple interrelated mechanisms to influence oxidative homeostasis, neuronal transmission, and inflammation...
2016: Trials
Hans-Joachim Priebe
The perioperative period is associated with alterations in the neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune systems, referred to as "stress response." The resultant increased sympathetic activity and elevated serum concentrations of catecholamines may adversely affect the cardiovascular system, resulting in cardiovascular instability (hypertension, tachycardia, and arrhythmia), morbidity (myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, and stroke), and mortality (cardiac death and fatal stroke), particularly in patients at an elevated cardiovascular risk and with reduced cardiovascular reserve...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Minkwan Kim, Minkook Son, Dong Hyun Lee, Kyungil Park, Tae-Ho Park
Individuals with intermediate to high cardiac risk for major noncardiac surgery suffer from perioperative myocardial ischemic injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of postoperative cardiac troponin elevation on clinical outcome after major noncardiac surgery.Patients (n = 750) aged ≥ 50 years who underwent major noncardiac surgery were eligible for the study. Postoperative cardiac troponin-I data were collected retrospectively and consecutively. The primary outcome measure was allcause mortality...
May 25, 2016: International Heart Journal
Florence E Turrentine, Min-Woong Sohn, Rayford Scott Jones
BACKGROUND: Congestive heart failure (CHF) predicts surgical morbidity and mortality. However, few studies evaluate CHF's impact on noncardiac operations. Because of CHFs serious threat to health and survival, surgeons must understand risks CHF poses to patients undergoing a diverse array of operations. STUDY DESIGN: We used 2009 to 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Participant Use Files to estimate the risk of serious morbidity, reoperation, readmission, mortality, and other postoperative complications associated with preoperative diagnosis of CHF...
June 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Valérie Smit-Fun, Wolfgang F Buhre
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one of the most common diseases of the elderly patient. The underlying pathophysiology varies considerably and approximately 50% of the patients suffer from CHF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Mortality in the perioperative period is increased in patients with CHF and this holds true for both minor and major surgeries. This review will summarize recent literature in the field of CHF and perioperative outcome in patients undergoing surgery with a special emphasis on actual guidelines, preoperative assessment and appropriate perioperative therapy...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Sunghye Kim, Anthony P Marsh, Lauren Rustowicz, Catherine Roach, Xiaoyan I Leng, Stephen B Kritchevsky, W Jack Rejeski, Leanne Groban
BACKGROUND: Specific geriatric assessment tools may complement traditional perioperative risk stratification. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether self-reported mobility is predictive of postoperative outcomes in older patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery. METHODS: Patients aged 69 yr or older (n = 197) underwent (1) traditional risk assessments (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification and Revised Cardiac Risk Index), (2) five-point frailty evaluation, (3) self-reported mobility assessment using the Mobility Assessment Tool-short form (range, 30...
April 2016: Anesthesiology
Lee A Fleisher
The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association has published Guidelines on Perioperative Evaluation. Preoperative evaluation should focus on identifying patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic coronary artery disease. The guidelines advocate using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project Risk Index to determine perioperative risk. Diagnostic testing should be reserved for those at increased risk with poor exercise capacity. Indications for coronary interventions are the same in the perioperative period as in the nonoperative setting...
March 2016: Anesthesiology Clinics
Paul S Myles, Matthew T V Chan, Jessica Kasza, Michael J Paech, Kate Leslie, Philip J Peyton, Daniel I Sessler, Guy Haller, W Scott Beattie, Cameron Osborne, J Robert Sneyd, Andrew Forbes
BACKGROUND: The Evaluation of Nitrous oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anesthesia II trial randomly assigned 7,112 noncardiac surgery patients to a nitrous oxide or nitrous oxide-free anesthetic; severe postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was a prespecified secondary end point. Thus, the authors evaluated the association between nitrous oxide, severe PONV, and effectiveness of PONV prophylaxis in this setting. METHODS: Univariate and multivariate analyses of patient, surgical, and other perioperative characteristics were used to identify the risk factors for severe PONV and to measure the impact of severe PONV on patient outcomes...
May 2016: Anesthesiology
Matthias Bock, Antonio Fanolla, Isabelle Segur-Cabanac, Franco Auricchio, Carla Melani, Flavio Girardi, Horand Meier, Armin Pycha
IMPORTANCE: The appropriately coached implementation of surgical safety checklists (SSCs) reduces the incidence of perioperative complications and 30-day mortality of patients undergoing surgery. The association of the introduction of SSCs with 90-day mortality remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between the implementation of SSCs and all-cause 90- and 30-day mortality rates. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Evaluation of the outcomes of surgical procedures performed during the 6 months before (January 1 to June 30, 2010) and after (January 1 to June 30, 2013) the introduction of SSCs by retrospective analysis of administrative databases...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Carlos Álvarez Zurro, Antonio Planas Roca, Enrique Alday Muñoz, Lorena Vega Piris, Fernando Ramasco Rueda, Rosa Méndez Hernández
BACKGROUND: Major noncardiac surgery is associated with a 5% incidence of serious cardiovascular complications and with a 1 to 2% probability of death from cardiac causes. Over the last few decades, researchers have assessed the perioperative predictive power of several risk indices. Research is currently focused on the evaluation of biomarkers. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine the incidence of high serum levels of N terminal B-type natriuretic propeptide (NT-proBNP) before and after surgery in adults undergoing elective major noncardiac procedures and to evaluate its relationship with mortality and cardiovascular complications occurring up to 30 days after surgery...
June 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Pooja Mathur, Arvind Khare, Neena Jain, Priya Verma, Vivek Mathur
D-transposition of great arteries (D-TGA) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease diagnosed at birth. There is ventriculoarterial discordance leading to parallel circulation. The postnatal survival depends on intercirculatory mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood at various levels through atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus. The anesthesiologist must have an understanding of concepts of shunting and other long-term consequences of transposition of great arteries (TGA) in order to tailor the anesthetic technique to optimize the hemodynamic variables and oxygenation in the perioperative period...
September 2015: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
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