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Wildlife corridors

Anne-Lise Chaber, Gabriele Cozzi, Femke Broekhuis, Robyn Hartley, John W McNutt
The recent increase in the creation of transboundary protected areas and wildlife corridors between them lends importance to information on pathogen prevalence and transmission among wildlife species that will become connected. One such initiative is the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area of which Botswana's Okavango Delta constitutes a major contribution for wildlife and ecosystems. Between 2008 and 2011, we collected serum samples from 14 lions ( Panthera leo ), four leopards ( Panthera pardus ), 19 spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta ), and six cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in the Okavango...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Deborah A Jenkins, Nicolas Lecomte, James A Schaefer, Steffen M Olsen, Didier Swingedouw, Steeve D Côté, Loïc Pellissier, Glenn Yannic
Global warming threatens to reduce population connectivity for terrestrial wildlife through significant and rapid changes to sea ice. Using genetic fingerprinting, we contrasted extant connectivity in island-dwelling Peary caribou in northern Canada with continental-migratory caribou. We next examined if sea-ice contractions in the last decades modulated population connectivity and explored the possible impact of future climate change on long-term connectivity among island caribou. We found a strong correlation between genetic and geodesic distances for both continental and Peary caribou, even after accounting for the possible effect of sea surface...
September 2016: Biology Letters
Ying Chen, Jorgelina Marino, Yong Chen, Qing Tao, Casey D Sullivan, Kun Shi, David W Macdonald
Research on the spatial patterns of human-wildlife conflict is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms underlying it and to identifying opportunities for mitigation. In the state of Xishuangbanna, containing China's largest tropical forest, an imbalance between nature conservation and economic development has led to increasing conflicts between humans and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), as both elephant numbers and conversion of habitable land to rubber plantations have increased over the last several decades...
2016: PloS One
Mathieu Pruvot, Manigandan Lejeune, Susan Kutz, Wendy Hutchins, Marco Musiani, Alessandro Massolo, Karin Orsel
Migratory movements and alteration of host communities through livestock production are examples of ecological processes that may have consequences on wildlife pathogens. We studied the effect of co-grazing of cattle and wild elk, and of elk migratory behaviour on the occurrence of the giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, in elk. Migratory elk and elk herds with a higher proportion of migratory individuals were significantly less likely to be infected with F. magna. This may indicate a decreased risk of infection for migratory individuals, known as the "migratory escape" hypothesis...
2016: PloS One
Daniel Ramp, Vanessa K Wilson, David B Croft
Most people in the world now live in cities. Urbanisation simultaneously isolates people from nature and contributes to biodiversity decline. As cities expand, suburban development and the road infrastructure to support them widens their impact on wildlife. Even so, urban communities, especially those on the peri-urban fringe, endeavour to support biodiversity through wildlife friendly gardens, green spaces and corridors, and conservation estates. On one hand, many who live on city fringes do so because they enjoy proximity to nature, however, the ever increasing intrusion of roads leads to conflict with wildlife...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Corrie H Allen, Lael Parrott, Catherine Kyle
Background. Preserving connectivity, or the ability of a landscape to support species movement, is among the most commonly recommended strategies to reduce the negative effects of climate change and human land use development on species. Connectivity analyses have traditionally used a corridor-based approach and rely heavily on least cost path modeling and circuit theory to delineate corridors. Individual-based models are gaining popularity as a potentially more ecologically realistic method of estimating landscape connectivity...
2016: PeerJ
Claudia Wultsch, Lisette P Waits, Marcella J Kelly
With increasing anthropogenic impact and landscape change, terrestrial carnivore populations are becoming more fragmented. Thus, it is crucial to genetically monitor wild carnivores and quantify changes in genetic diversity and gene flow in response to these threats. This study combined the use of scat detector dogs and molecular scatology to conduct the first genetic study on wild populations of multiple Neotropical felids coexisting across a fragmented landscape in Belize, Central America. We analyzed data from 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 1053 scat samples collected from wild jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)...
2016: PloS One
Jared P Wood, Stephanie A Dowell, Todd S Campbell, Robert B Page
Invasive species are widely recognized as important drivers of the ongoing biodiversity crisis. The US state of Florida is especially susceptible to the proliferation of invasive reptiles, and nonnative lizards currently outnumber native lizard species. At present, there are 3 documented breeding populations of the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) in different regions of Southern Florida, and these populations are considered potential dangers to threatened, fossorial endemics, such as burrowing owls, American crocodiles, and gopher tortoises...
July 2016: Journal of Heredity
Rory A Dow, Matti Hämäläinen, Frank R Stokvis
Species of Devadatta from Borneo are studied using both morphological and molecular methods. As well as D. podolestoides Laidlaw, four new species are recognised from the island: D. aran spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Pulong Tau National Park, Miri division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. clavicauda spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Bukit Mina, Bukit Mina Wildlife Corridor, Sarawak Planted Forest Project, Bintulu division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. somoh spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from the Sungai Kahei area, Ulu Balui, Kapit division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH) and D...
2015: Zootaxa
Sercan Gülci, Abdullah Emin Akay
Major roads cause barrier effect and fragmentation on wildlife habitats that are suitable places for feeding, mating, socializing, and hiding. Due to wildlife collisions (Wc), human-wildlife conflicts result in lost lives and loss of biodiversity. Geographical information system (GIS)-based multi criteria evaluation (MCE) methods have been successfully used in short-term planning of road networks considering wild animals. Recently, wildlife passages have been effectively utilized as road engineering structures provide quick and certain solutions for traffic safety and wildlife conservation problems...
December 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
M van Vuuren, B L Penzhorn
The role of African wildlife in the occurrence of vector-borne infections in domestic animals has gained renewed interest as emerging and re-emerging infections occur worldwide at an increasing rate. In Africa, biodiversity conservation and the expansion of livestock production have increased the risk of transmitting vector-borne infections between wildlife and livestock. The indigenous African pathogens with transboundary potential, such as Rift Valley fever virus, African horse sickness virus, bluetongue virus, lumpy skin disease virus, African swine fever virus, and blood-borne parasites have received the most attention...
April 2015: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Maureen S McCarthy, Jack D Lester, Eric J Howe, Mimi Arandjelovic, Craig B Stanford, Linda Vigilant
BACKGROUND: As habitat degradation and fragmentation continue to impact wildlife populations around the world, it is critical to understand the behavioral flexibility of species in these environments. In Uganda, the mostly unprotected forest fragment landscape between the Budongo and Bugoma Forests is a potential corridor for chimpanzees, yet little is known about the status of chimpanzee populations in these fragments. RESULTS: From 2011 through 2013, we noninvasively collected 865 chimpanzee fecal samples across 633 km(2) and successfully genotyped 662 (77%) at up to 14 microsatellite loci...
2015: BMC Ecology
Clémentine Azam, Christian Kerbiriou, Arthur Vernet, Jean-François Julien, Yves Bas, Laura Plichard, Julie Maratrat, Isabelle Le Viol
As light pollution is currently considered to be a major threat to biodiversity, different lighting management options are being explored to mitigate the impact of artificial lighting on wildlife. Although part-night lighting schemes have been adopted by many local authorities across Europe to reduce the carbon footprint and save energy, their effects on biodiversity are unknown. Through a paired, in situ experiment, we compared the activity levels of 8 bat species under unlit, part-night, and full-night lighting treatments in a rural area located 60 km south of Paris, France...
December 2015: Global Change Biology
Evelyn Garrah, Ryan K Danby, Ewen Eberhardt, Glenn M Cunnington, Scott Mitchell
Strategies to reduce wildlife road mortality have become a significant component of many conservation efforts. However, their success depends on knowledge of the temporal and spatial patterns of mortality. We studied these patterns along the 1000 Islands Parkway in Ontario, Canada, a 37 km road that runs adjacent to the St. Lawrence River and bisects the Algonquin-to-Adirondacks international conservation corridor. Characteristics of all vertebrate road kill were recorded during 209 bicycle surveys conducted from 2008 to 2011...
October 2015: Environmental Management
Tatjana Sitt, E Jane Poole, Gideon Ndambuki, Stephen Mwaura, Thomas Njoroge, George P Omondi, Matthew Mutinda, Joseph Mathenge, Giles Prettejohn, W Ivan Morrison, Philip Toye
Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T...
August 2015: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Eva Schuster, Lea Bulling, Johann Köppel
Wind energy development contributes substantially to achieve climate protection goals. Unintended side effects, especially on wildlife, have long been discussed and substantial research has evolved over the last decade. At this stage, it is important to identify what we have learnt so far, as well as which predominant uncertainties and gaps remain. This review article aims to consolidate the state of knowledge, providing a qualitative analysis of the main effects of wind energy development on- and offshore, focusing on frequently studied species groups (bats, breeding and resting birds, raptors, migratory birds, marine mammals)...
August 2015: Environmental Management
Consuelo Lorenzo, Eugenia C Sántiz, Darío A Navarrete, Jorge Bolaños
Land use changes by human activities have been the main causes of habitats and wildlife population degradation. In the Tehuantepec Isthmus in Oaxaca, the tropical habitat of the porcupine Sphiggurus mexicanus has been subject to vegetation and land use changes, causing its reduction and fragmentation. In this study, we estimated vegetation cover and land use (δn) change rates and assessed habitat availability and potential cor- ridors for possible porcupine movements to avoid its isolation. In the study area, the type of vegetation with the most change rate value was the savanna (δn = -2...
December 2014: Revista de Biología Tropical
Henrik Thurfjell, Simone Ciuti, Mark S Boyce
Recent progress in positioning technology facilitates the collection of massive amounts of sequential spatial data on animals. This has led to new opportunities and challenges when investigating animal movement behaviour and habitat selection. Tools like Step Selection Functions (SSFs) are relatively new powerful models for studying resource selection by animals moving through the landscape. SSFs compare environmental attributes of observed steps (the linear segment between two consecutive observations of position) with alternative random steps taken from the same starting point...
2014: Movement Ecology
Sébastien Rioux Paquette, Benoit Talbot, Dany Garant, Julien Mainguy, Fanie Pelletier
Predicting the geographic spread of wildlife epidemics requires knowledge about the movement patterns of disease hosts or vectors. The field of landscape genetics provides valuable approaches to study dispersal indirectly, which in turn may be used to understand patterns of disease spread. Here, we applied landscape genetic analyses and spatially explicit models to identify the potential path of raccoon rabies spread in a mesocarnivore community. We used relatedness estimates derived from microsatellite genotypes of raccoons and striped skunks to investigate their dispersal patterns in a heterogeneous landscape composed predominantly of agricultural, forested and residential areas...
August 2014: Evolutionary Applications
Susan J Kutz, Eric P Hoberg, Péter K Molnár, Andy Dobson, Guilherme G Verocai
Climate change is occurring very rapidly in the Arctic, and the processes that have taken millions of years to evolve in this very extreme environment are now changing on timescales as short as decades. These changes are dramatic, subtle and non-linear. In this article, we discuss the evolving insights into host-parasite interactions for wild ungulate species, specifically, muskoxen and caribou, in the North American Arctic. These interactions occur in an environment that is characterized by extremes in temperature, high seasonality, and low host species abundance and diversity...
August 2014: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
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