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Mobbing behavior

Huaiqing Deng, Kai Gao, Jiang Zhou
Alarm calls are important defensive behaviors. Here, we report the acoustic spectrum characteristics of alarm calls produced by Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus) inhabiting Bawangling National Nature Reserve in Hainan, China. Analysis of call data collected from 2002-2014 shows that alarm calls are emitted by all family group members, except infants. Alarm behavior included simple short alarming calls (7-10 min) followed by longer variable-frequency mobbing calls lasting 5-12 min. The duration of individual alarming and mobbing calls was 0...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ana Lúcia da Silva João, António Fernando Saldanha Portelada
Mobbing is characterized by the repetition, over a long period of time, of hostile behavior and unethical conduct carried out by a hierarchical superior or co-worker, against someone's physic and mental integrity, endangering one's job or disturbing the work environment. This current investigative study intends to assess the existence, frequency, and intensity of mobbing within the Portuguese nurse population, as well as its impact on their well-being and interpersonal relationships. The study carried out was quantitative, correlational, and cross-sectional...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
John A Batsis, Julie P W Bynum
OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of the Medicare Obesity Benefit (MOB) by a licensed physician or associate provider in an outpatient setting in older adults. METHODS: A serial cross-sectional analysis of fee-for-service Medicare claims (2012 and 2013) was used to assess the use of the MOB. Number and proportion of Medicare beneficiaries over age 65 using the benefit were assessed. Correlation between state-obesity rates and MOB uptake was determined based on state-specific obesity prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System...
September 2016: Obesity
Fangyuan Hua, Kathryn E Sieving
In understanding the impacts of selective logging on biodiversity, relatively little is known about the critical behavioral link between altered forest conditions and population persistence. Predator-mobbing is a widespread anti-predator behavior in birds that expresses a well-known trade-off influencing prey survival under predation risk. Here, we ask whether the predator-mobbing behavior of understory forest birds is altered by selective logging and associated forest structural changes in the highly endangered lowland rainforest of Sumatra...
November 2016: Oecologia
R Corona, M Meurisse, F Cornilleau, C Moussu, M Keller, Frédéric Lévy
New neurons are continuously added to the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of the mammalian brain. While their function has been demonstrated in olfactory learning, it is less known in an ethological context such as mothering. We addressed this question by investigating whether in sheep mothers the adult-generated olfactory neurons contribute to the processing of odors involved in attraction to lambs and in memorization of its individual signature. Parturient ewes, after having 2 days of contact with their lamb and being separated from them for 3 h, were exposed for 2 h either to their own lamb, an unfamiliar lamb or a familiar adult sheep and then sacrificed...
July 13, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
S Muellmann, K Landgraf-Rauf, T Brand, H Zeeb, C R Pischke
Objective: To summarize the current evidence on the effectiveness of school-based interventions for the maintenance of mental health and the prevention of psychosocial problems among pupils. Methods: A systematic literature search of reviews published between 2007 and 2015 was carried out. Databases searched included Medline, PsycINFO, Campbell Library, Cochrane Library, NICE, ERIC, and Web of Science. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using AMSTAR criteria) were performed by 2 independent reviewers...
June 28, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Erika Navarrete, Juan Roberto Ortega-Bernal, Lucero Trejo-Muñoz, Georgina Díaz, Rodrigo Montúfar-Chaveznava, Ivette Caldelas
Experimental evidence indicates that during pre-visual stages of development in mammals, circadian regulation is still not under the control of the light-entrainable hypothalamic pacemaker, raising the possibility that the circadian rhythmicity that occurs during postnatal development is under the control of peripheral oscillators, such as the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We evaluated the outcome of olfactory bulbectomy on the temporal pattern of core body temperature and gross locomotor activity in newborn rabbits...
2016: PloS One
Maïna Brus, Anne-Charlotte Trouillet, Vincent Hellier, Julie Bakker
Odors processed by the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOB, AOB) are important for sexual behavior. Interestingly, both structures continue to receive new neurons during adulthood. A role for olfactory neurogenesis in sexual behavior in female mice has recently been shown and gonadal hormones such as estradiol can modulate adult neurogenesis. Therefore, we wanted to determine the role of estradiol in learning the odors of sexual partners and in the adult neurogenesis of female aromatase knockout mice (ArKO), unable to produce estradiol...
August 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Nancy M Unda, Wendy Portillo, Rebeca Corona, Raúl G Paredes
Sexual behavior in rodents is modulated by the olfactory system. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a structure that undergoes continues neurogenesis in adulthood. We have previously shown that 15 days after males rats pace the sexual interaction and ejaculate 1 or 3 times, there is an increase in the density of new cells that reach the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The aim of the present study was to evaluate if sexual behavior in male rats increases the density of new neurons that survive 45 days after sexual behavior in the AOB and in the main OB (MOB)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Rebeca Corona, Socorro Retana-Márquez, Wendy Portillo, Raúl G Paredes
We have previously demonstrated, that 15 days after female rats pace the sexual interaction, there is an increase in the number of new cells that reach the granular cell layer (GrL) of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The aim of the present study was to evaluate, if the first sexual experience in the female rat increases cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS). We also tested if this behavior promotes the survival of the new cells that integrate into the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and AOB 45 days after the behavioral test...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Roelie Mulder, Arjan E R Bos, Mieneke Pouwelse, Karen van Dam
Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger...
February 17, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Funda Durupinar, Ugur Gudukbay, Aytek Aman, Norman I Badler
In the social psychology literature, crowds are classified as audiences and mobs. Audiences are passive crowds, whereas mobs are active crowds with emotional, irrational and seemingly homogeneous behavior. In this study, we aim to create a system that enables the specification of different crowd types ranging from audiences to mobs. In order to achieve this goal we parametrize the common properties of mobs to create collective misbehavior. Because mobs are characterized by emotionality, we describe a framework that associates psychological components with individual agents comprising a crowd and yields emergent behaviors in the crowd as a whole...
September 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Danilo Simonini Teixeira, Edmilson dos Santos, Silvana Gomes Leal, Andrea Karla de Jesus, Waldemir Paixão Vargas, Irapuan Dutra, Marilia Barros
Here we report the first witnessed attack on a marmoset by a constrictor snake. The incident occurred mid-morning in a gallery forest within an altered landscape of the Cerrado region of central Brazil and refers to a fatal attack by a Boa constrictor on two juvenile black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) simultaneously. The snake captured both individuals at a height of ~ 4 m while a group of eight marmosets traveled through the subcanopy. The actual strike was not seen. After 2 min, the boa fell to the ground with both marmosets in its coils and proceeded to kill one animal at a time through constriction...
January 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
José Navarro, Rita Rueff-Lopes
The healthy variability thesis suggests that healthy systems function in a complex manner over time. This thesis is well-established in fields like physiology. In the field of organizational behavior, however, this relation is only starting to be explored. The objective of this article is threefold: First, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the healthy variability thesis including some of the most important findings across different fields, with a focus on evidences from organizational research in work motivation and performance...
October 2015: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Gerald Carter, Diana Schoeppler, Marie Manthey, Mirjam Knörnschild, Annette Denzinger
Many birds and mammals produce distress calls when captured. Bats often approach speakers playing conspecific distress calls, which has led to the hypothesis that bat distress calls promote cooperative mobbing. An alternative explanation is that approaching bats are selfishly assessing predation risk. Previous playback studies on bat distress calls involved species with highly maneuverable flight, capable of making close passes and tight circles around speakers, which can look like mobbing. We broadcast distress calls recorded from the velvety free-tailed bat, Molossus molossus, a fast-flying aerial-hawker with relatively poor maneuverability...
2015: PloS One
Elric Elias, Michael Dyer, Timothy Sweeny
Coordinated group behavior is common for many species, including humans. Perceiving groups is important, too, especially when that group displays emotion. To see a crowd, like a laughing audience or an angry mob, the visual system engages a mechanism known as ensemble coding, which compresses information about the individuals into a summary representation. This ensemble, or "gist", perception is remarkably quick, allowing people to judge the emotion of a large crowd with a mere glance, as if from a snapshot...
2015: Journal of Vision
Sarah A Jelbert, Puja J Singh, Russell D Gray, Alex H Taylor
There is growing comparative evidence that the cognitive bases of cooperation are not unique to humans. However, the selective pressures that lead to the evolution of these mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that while tool-making New Caledonian crows can produce collaborative behavior, they do not understand the causality of cooperation nor show sensitivity to inequity. Instead, the collaborative behavior produced appears to have been underpinned by the transfer of prior experience. These results suggest that a number of possible selective pressures, including tool manufacture and mobbing behaviours, have not led to the evolution of cooperative cognition in this species...
2015: PloS One
Richard S Smith, Ruilong Hu, Andre DeSouza, Christian L Eberly, Krista Krahe, Wilson Chan, Ricardo C Araneda
UNLABELLED: Neuromodulation of olfactory circuits by acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in odor discrimination and learning. Early processing of chemosensory signals occurs in two functionally and anatomically distinct regions, the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOB and AOB), which receive extensive cholinergic input from the basal forebrain. Here, we explore the regulation of AOB and MOB circuits by ACh, and how cholinergic modulation influences olfactory-mediated behaviors in mice...
July 29, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Metin Picakciefe, Gulcihan Acar, Zehra Colak, Ibrahim Kilic
Mobbing is a type of violence which occurs in workplaces and is classified under the community violence subgroup of interpersonal violence. The aim of this study is to examine health care workers who work in primary health care in the city of Mugla and to determine whether there is a relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, work conditions, and their level of mobbing. A cross-sectional analysis has been conducted in which 130 primary health care workers were selected. Of the 130, 119 health workers participated, yielding a response rate of 91...
June 19, 2015: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Laura M Bolt, Michelle L Sauther, Frank P Cuozzo, Ibrahim Antho Youssouf Jacky
The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is a group-living strepsirrhine primate endemic to Madagascar that faces considerable predation pressure from aerial and terrestrial predators. This species engages in mobbing and vigilance behavior in response to predators, and has referential alarm vocalizations. Because L. catta is female dominant, less is known about the alarm calls of males. We tested 3 hypotheses for male antipredator vocalization behavior on L. catta at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve in Madagascar: the predator confusion, group maintenance, and predation risk allocation hypotheses...
2015: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
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