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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776614/characterisation-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-populations-in-periparturient-dairy-cows-that-develop-metritis
#1
John J Bromfield, Meghan M Watt, Sossi M Iacovides
Bacterial contamination of the uterus following calving is ubiquitous in the dairy cow, 40% of cows develop postpartum uterine infection, including metritis. While predisposing factors like twinning and dystocia are associated with metritis, it is unclear why some cows remain healthy following calving and others develop uterine infection, negatively impacting animal health, milk production and economic return. Here, we profiled peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cows before calving and during postpartum metritis...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773848/identification-and-tissue-distribution-of-chemosensory-protein-and-odorant-binding-protein-genes-in-tropidothorax-elegans-distant-hemiptera-lygaeidae
#2
Yue-Qin Song, Hui-Zhong Sun, Jun Du
Tropidothorax elegans Distant (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) is an insect pest that inflicts damage to vegetables and flowering plants across China. The olfactory system regulates insect behavior, such as feeding, mating, oviposition and predator avoidance. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and the chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are two groups of small soluble proteins that initiate olfactory signal transduction in insects. In this study, we generated antennal transcriptomes of male and female T. elegans, and identified 19 putative OBP (14 classic OBPs and five plus-C OBPs) and seven CSP genes...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772497/the-role-of-the-vasopressin-system-and-dopamine-d1-receptors-in-the-effects-of-social-housing-condition-on-morphine-reward
#3
M L Shawn Bates, Rebeca S Hofford, Michael A Emery, Paul J Wellman, Shoshana Eitan
BACKGROUND: The association with opioid-abusing individuals or even the perception of opioid abuse by peers are risk factors for the initiation and escalation of abuse. Similarly, we demonstrated that morphine-treated animals housed with only morphine-treated animals (referred to as morphine only) acquire morphine conditioned place-preference (CPP) more readily than morphine-treated animals housed with drug-naïve animals (referred to as morphine cage-mates). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still elusive...
April 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767553/mating-system-in-the-brown-rot-pathogens-monilinia-fructicola-monilinia-laxa-and-monilinia-fructigena
#4
Domenico Abate, Rita Milvia De Miccolis Angelini, Caterina Rotolo, Stefania Pollastro, Francesco Faretra
Monilinia fructicola, Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena are the most important pathogens responsible for brown rot disease of stone and pome fruits. Information on their mating system and sexual behaviour is scant. A mating-type specific PCR-based assay was developed and applied to 155 Monilinia isolates from ten countries and ten different host plants. We showed that single isolates carry only one of two opposite idiomorphs at the MAT1 locus consistent with a heterothallic mating system for all three species...
May 16, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763435/personality-differentially-affects-individual-mate-choice-decisions-in-female-and-male-western-mosquitofish-gambusia-affinis
#5
Bo-Jian Chen, Kai Liu, Lin-Jun Zhou, Guilherme Gomes-Silva, Carolin Sommer-Trembo, Martin Plath
Consistent individual differences in behavioral tendencies (animal personality) can affect individual mate choice decisions. We asked whether personality traits affect male and female mate choice decisions similarly and whether potential personality effects are consistent across different mate choice situations. Using western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as our study organism, we characterized focal individuals (males and females) twice for boldness, activity, and sociability/shoaling and found high and significant behavioral repeatability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761830/itc-commentary-on-metformin-clinical-drug-drug-interaction-study-design-that-enables-an-efficacy-and-safety-based-dose-adjustment-decision
#6
Maciej J Zamek-Gliszczynski, Xiaoyan Chu, Jack A Cook, Joseph M Custodio, Aleksandra Galetin, Kathleen M Giacomini, Caroline A Lee, Mary F Paine, Adrian S Ray, Joseph A Ware, Matthias B Wittwer, Lei Zhang
Metformin drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies are conducted during development of drugs that inhibit organic cation transporters and/or multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (OCTs/MATEs). Monitoring solely changes in systemic exposure, the typical DDI study endpoint appears inadequate for metformin, which is metabolically stable, has poor passive membrane permeability, and undergoes transporter-mediated tissue distribution and clearance. Evaluation of renal clearance, antihyperglycemic effects, and potentially lactate as an exploratory safety marker, can support rational metformin dose adjustment...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761484/inbreeding-inbreeding-depression-and-infidelity-in-a-cooperatively-breeding-bird
#7
Gabriela K Hajduk, Andrew Cockburn, Nicolas Margraf, Helen L Osmond, Craig A Walling, Loeske E B Kruuk
Inbreeding depression plays a major role in shaping mating systems: in particular, inbreeding avoidance is often proposed as a mechanism explaining extra-pair reproduction in socially-monogamous species. This suggestion relies on assumptions which are rarely comprehensively tested: that inbreeding depression is present, that higher kinship between social partners increases infidelity, and that infidelity reduces the frequency of inbreeding. Here, we test these assumptions using 26 years of data for a cooperatively-breeding, socially-monogamous bird with high female infidelity, the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus)...
May 15, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760893/high-levels-of-polyandry-but-limited-evidence-for-multiple-paternity-in-wild-populations-of-the-western-rock-lobster-panulirus-cygnus
#8
Jacqueline Loo, Winn Jason Kennington, Simon de Lestang, Jason How, Jonathan P Evans
Polyandry, where multiple mating by females results in the temporal and spatial overlap of ejaculates from two or more males, is taxonomically widespread and occurs in varying frequencies within and among species. In decapods (crabs, lobsters, crayfish, and prawns), rates of polyandry are likely to be variable, but the extent to which patterns of multiple paternity reflect multiple mating, and thus are shaped by postmating processes that bias fertilization toward one or a subset of mated males, is unclear. Here, we use microsatellite markers to examine the frequency of multiple mating (the presence of spermatophores from two or more males) and patterns of paternity in wild populations of western rock lobster ( Panulirus cygnus )...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760760/differences-in-the-reliance-on-cuticular-hydrocarbons-as-sexual-signaling-and-species-discrimination-cues-in-parasitoid-wasps
#9
Jan Buellesbach, Sebastian G Vetter, Thomas Schmitt
Background: Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) have been documented to play crucial roles as species- and sex-specific cues in the chemical communication systems of a wide variety of insects. However, whether they are sufficient by themselves as the sole cue triggering sexual behavior as well as preference of con- over heterospecific mating partners is rarely assessed. We conducted behavioral assays in three representative species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to determine their reliance on CHC as species-specific sexual signaling cues...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760717/reduced-neuronal-transcription-of-escargot-the-drosophila-gene-encoding-a-snail-type-transcription-factor-promotes-longevity
#10
Alexander V Symonenko, Natalia V Roshina, Anna V Krementsova, Elena G Pasyukova
In recent years, several genes involved in complex neuron specification networks have been shown to control life span. However, information on these genes is scattered, and studies to discover new neuronal genes and gene cascades contributing to life span control are needed, especially because of the recognized role of the nervous system in governing homeostasis, aging, and longevity. Previously, we demonstrated that several genes that encode RNA polymerase II transcription factors and that are involved in the development of the nervous system affect life span in Drosophila melanogaster ...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757461/accumulation-of-transposable-elements-in-selfing-populations-of-arabidopsis-lyrata-supports-the-ectopic-recombination-model-of-transposon-evolution
#11
Georgi Bonchev, Yvonne Willi
Transposable elements (TE) can constitute a large fraction of plant genomes, yet our understanding of their evolution and fitness effect is still limited. Here we tested several models of evolution that make specific predictions about differences in TE abundance between selfing and outcrossing taxa, and between small and large populations. We estimated TE abundance in multiple populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata differing in mating system and long-term size, using transposon insertion display on several TE families...
May 14, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750559/morph-specific-patterns-of-reproductive-senescence-connections-to-discrete-reproductive-strategies
#12
Andrea S Grunst, Melissa L Grunst, Vince A Formica, Marisa L Korody, Adam M Betuel, Margarida Barcelo-Serra, Sarah Ford, Rusty A Gonser, Elaina M Tuttle
How reproductive strategies contribute to patterns of senescence in natural populations remains contentious. We studied reproductive senescence in the dimorphic white-throated sparrow, an excellent species for exploring this issue. Within both sexes the morphs use distinct reproductive strategies, and disassortative pairing by morph results in pair types with distinct parental systems. White morph birds are more colorful and aggressive than tan counterparts, and white males compete for extrapair matings, whereas tan males are more parental...
June 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746704/the-evolutionary-history-of-colour-polymorphism-in-ischnura-damselflies
#13
Rosa A Sánchez-Guillén, Adolfo Cordero-Rivera, Anais Rivas-Torres, Maren Wellenreuther, Seth Bybee, Bengt Hansson, María I Velasquez-Vélez, Emilio Realpe, Jesús R Chávez-Ríos, Fabricio Villalobos, Henri Dumont
A major challenge in evolutionary biology consists of understanding how genetic and phenotypic variation is created and maintained. In the present study, we investigated the origin(s) and evolutionary patterns of the female-limited colour polymorphism in ischnuran damselflies. These consist of the presence of one to three colour morphs: one androchrome morph with a colouration that is similar to the male, and two gynochrome morphs (infuscans and aurantiaca) with female-specific colouration. We (i) documented the colour and mating system of 44 of the 75 taxa within the genus Ischnura, (ii) reconstructed the evolutionary history of colour and mating system to identify the ancestral state, (iii) evaluated the stability of the colour morph status over time, and (iv) tested for a correlation between colour and mating system...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743485/genome-wide-prediction-of-crispr-cas9-targets-in-kluyveromyces-marxianus-and-its-application-to-obtain-a-stable-haploid-strain
#14
Ming-Hsuan Lee, Jinn-Jy Lin, Yu-Ju Lin, Jui-Jen Chang, Huei-Mien Ke, Wen-Lang Fan, Tzi-Yuan Wang, Wen-Hsiung Li
Kluyveromyces marxianus, a probiotic yeast, is important in industrial applications because it has a broad substrate spectrum, a rapid growth rate and high thermotolerance. To date, however, there has been little effort in its genetic engineering by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Therefore, we aimed at establishing the CRISPR/Cas9 system in K. marxianus and creating stable haploid strains, which will make genome engineering simpler. First, we predicted the genome-wide target sites of CRISPR/Cas9 that have been conserved among the eight sequenced genomes of K...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741708/direct-and-maternal-breed-additive-and-heterosis-effects-on-growth-traits-of-beef-cattle-raised-in-southern-brazil
#15
W S Leal, M D MacNeil, H G Carvalho, R Z Vaz, F F Cardoso
The objective of this study was to compare growth from birth to slaughter of different breed groups that were raised in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and estimate the consequent breed additive and heterosis effects. Caracu (C), Hereford (H), and Nelore (N) sires were mated with Angus (A) dams, and A sires were mated with H and N dams to produce a first generation of crossbred progeny that were contemporary with purebred A, H, and N calves. Heifers from this first generation (G1) were mated with Brangus (BN) and Braford (BO) sires to produce a second generation (G2) of progeny...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731154/eco-evolutionary-genomics-of-chromosomal-inversions
#16
REVIEW
Maren Wellenreuther, Louis Bernatchez
Chromosomal inversions have long fascinated evolutionary biologists due to their suppression of recombination, which can protect co-adapted alleles. Emerging research documents that inversions are commonly linked to spectacular phenotypes and have a pervasive role in eco-evolutionary processes, from mating systems, social organisation, environmental adaptation, and reproductive isolation to speciation. Studies also reveal that inversions are taxonomically widespread, with many being old and large, and that balancing selection is commonly facilitating their maintenance...
May 3, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729859/male-contributions-during-mating-increase-female-survival-in-the-disease-vector-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#17
Susan M Villarreal, Sylvie Pitcher, Michelle E H Helinski, Lynn Johnson, Mariana F Wolfner, Laura C Harrington
Aedes aegypti is a vector of medically important viruses including those causing Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. During mating, males transfer a number of proteins and other molecules to the female and these components of the male ejaculate are essential in shifting female post-mating behaviors in a number of insect species. Because these molecules are highly variable by species, and female post-mating behavior by species is also varied, behavioral assays testing the function of the ejaculate are necessary before we can develop control strategies targeting the mating system to reduce mosquito populations...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726217/-fitness-of-sexual-reproduction-of-toona-ciliata-var-pubescens-natural-populations-and-their-sexual-reproduction-and-regeneration
#18
Hong Lan Huang, Lu Zhang, Li Ming Jia, Yue-Long Liang, Jun Huo Cai
To examine the reproduction fitness coefficients and individual-level fitness of Toona ciliata var. pubescens, their sexual reproduction and natural regeneration were investigated during 2006-2016, with four natural populations in Jiulianshan National Reserve as test objects. The results showed that there were only 2-10 trees for the natural populations of T. ciliata var. pubescens with a small initial number of fruiting plants (3-9 trees), which were from the initial fruiting plants or their first/second generation...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725356/yerba-mate-ilex-paraguariensis-beverage-nutraceutical-ingredient-or-conveyor-for-the-intake-of-medicinal-plants-evidence-from-paraguayan-folk-medicine
#19
Monika Kujawska
The use of medicinal plants mixed with yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) has been poorly studied in the ethnopharmacological literature so far. The Paraguayan Mestizo people have the longest tradition of using the yerba mate beverage, apart from the indigenous Guarani people. This study analyses the role of yerba mate and medicinal plants in the treatment of illnesses within Paraguayan folk medicine. The research was conducted among 100 Paraguayan migrants living in Misiones, Argentina, in 2014 and 2015. Yerba mate is not considered to be a medicinal plant by its own virtues but is culturally a very important type of medicinal plant intake...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724050/female-choice-undermines-the-emergence-of-strong-sexual-isolation-between-locally-adapted-populations-of-atlantic-mollies-poecilia-mexicana
#20
Claudia Zimmer, Rüdiger Riesch, Jonas Jourdan, David Bierbach, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Martin Plath
Divergent selection between ecologically dissimilar habitats promotes local adaptation, which can lead to reproductive isolation (RI). Populations in the Poecilia mexicana species complex have independently adapted to toxic hydrogen sulfide and show varying degrees of RI. Here, we examined the variation in the mate choice component of prezygotic RI. Mate choice tests across drainages (with stimulus males from another drainage) suggest that specific features of the males coupled with a general female preference for yellow color patterns explain the observed variation...
May 2, 2018: Genes
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