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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937815/differential-allocation-revisited-when-should-mate-quality-affect-parental-investment
#1
Thomas R Haaland, Jonathan Wright, Bram Kuijper, Irja I Ratikainen
Differential allocation (DA) is the adaptive adjustment of reproductive investment (up or down) according to partner quality. A lack of theoretical treatments has led to some confusion in the interpretation of DA in the empirical literature. We present a formal framework for DA that highlights the nature of reproductive benefits versus costs for females mated to males of different quality. Contrary to popular belief, analytical and stochastic dynamic models both show that additive benefits of male quality on offspring fitness have no effect on optimal levels of female investment and thus cannot produce DA...
October 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936793/restricted-female-function-of-hermaphrodites-in-a-gynodioecious-shrub-daphne-jezoensis-thymelaeaceae
#2
Akari Shibata, Yoshiaki Kameyama, Gaku Kudo
Gynodioecy is the coexistence of hermaphrodites and females in a population. It is supposed to be an intermediate stage in the evolutionary pathway from hermaphroditism to dioecy in angiosperm. Hermaphrodites gain fitness through both seed and pollen production whereas females gain fitness only through seed production. As females spread in a gynodioecious population, sexual selection prompts hermaphrodites to invest in male function and male-biased hermaphrodites prevail. In the gynodioecious shrub Daphne jezoensis (Thymelaeaceae), female frequency is stably around 50% in most populations, and fruit-set rate of hermaphrodites is commonly low...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934723/neural-mechanisms-underlying-the-disruption-of-male-courtship-behavior-by-adult-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-in-mice
#3
Carlos Dombret, Daphné Capela, Kevin Poissenot, Caroline Parmentier, Emma Bergsten, Cédric Pionneau, Solenne Chardonnet, Hélène Hardin-Pouzet, Valérie Grange-Messent, Matthieu Keller, Isabelle Franceschini, Sakina Mhaouty-Kodja
BACKGROUND: Courtship behavior plays a critical role in attracting females and reproduction success. However, the effects of exposure to a ubiquitous contaminant di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on these behaviors and, in particular, on courtship vocalizations have not been examined. OBJECTIVE: The effects of adult exposure to DEHP on courtship and mating behaviors and gonadotropic axis and neural mechanisms involved in DEHP-induced effects were analyzed in male mice...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930194/developmental-programming-of-obesity-and-liver-metabolism-by-maternal-perinatal-nutrition-involves-the-melanocortin-system
#4
Paul Cordero, Jiawei Li, Vi Nguyen, Joaquim Pombo, Nuria Maicas, Marco Novelli, Paul D Taylor, Anne-Maj Samuelsson, Manlio Vinciguerra, Jude A Oben
Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity. Female mice heterozygous for Mc4r fed an obesogenic or a control diet for 5 weeks were mated with heterozygous males, with the same diet continued throughout pregnancy and lactation, generating four offspring groups: control wild type (C_wt), control knockout (C_KO), obese wild type (Ob_wt), and obese knockout (Ob_KO)...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926153/comparative-and-population-genomics-landscape-of-phellinus-noxius-a-hypervariable-fungus-causing-root-rot-in-trees
#5
Chia-Lin Chung, Tracy J Lee, Mitsuteru Akiba, Hsin-Han Lee, Tzu-Hao Kuo, Dang Liu, Huei-Mien Ke, Toshiro Yokoi, Marylette B Roa, Meiyeh J Lu, Ya-Yun Chang, Pao-Jen Ann, Jyh-Nong Tsai, Chien-Yu Chen, Shean-Shong Tzean, Yuko Ota, Tsutomu Hattori, Norio Sahashi, Ruey-Fen Liou, Taisei Kikuchi, Isheng J Tsai
The order Hymenochaetales of white rot fungi contain some of the most aggressive wood decayers causing tree deaths around the world. Despite their ecological importance and the impact of diseases they cause, little is known about the evolution and transmission patterns of these pathogens. Here, we sequenced and undertook comparative genomics analyses of Hymenochaetales genomes using brown root rot fungus Phellinus noxius, wood-decomposing fungus Phellinus lamaensis, laminated root rot fungus Phellinus sulphurascens, and trunk pathogen Porodaedalea pini...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925526/sub1-has-photoreceptor-dependent-and-independent-functions-in-sexual-development-and-secondary-metabolism-in-trichoderma-reesei
#6
Hoda Bazafkan, Sabrina Beier, Eva Stappler, Stefan Böhmdorfer, Josua T Oberlerchner, Michael Sulyok, Monika Schmoll
Light dependent processes are involved in the regulation of growth, development and enzyme production in Trichoderma reesei. The photoreceptors BLR1, BLR2 and ENV1 exert crucial functions in these processes. We analyzed the involvement of the transcription factor SUB1 in sexual development as well as secondary metabolism and its position in the light signaling cascade. SUB1 influences growth and in contrast to its homologue in N. crassa, SUB1 is not essential for fruiting body formation and male fertility in T...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924516/characterization-and-transferability-of-microsatellites-for-the-kangaroo-paw-anigozanthos-manglesii-haemodoraceae
#7
Bronwyn M Ayre, Janet M Anthony, David G Roberts, Richard J N Allcock, Siegfried L Krauss
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Microsatellites were developed for the future assessment of population genetic structure, mating system, and dispersal of the perennial kangaroo paw, Anigozanthos manglesii (Haemodoraceae), and related species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a Personal Genome Machine (PGM) semiconductor sequencer, ca. 4.03 million sequence reads were generated. QDD pipeline software was used to identify 190,000 microsatellite-containing regions and priming sites...
August 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924513/identification-and-characterization-of-microsatellite-loci-in-the-tuliptree-liriodendron-tulipifera-magnoliaceae
#8
Ricardo Gutiérrez-Ozuna, Matthew B Hamilton
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Twenty-three polymorphic microsatellite loci (simple sequence repeats) were identified and characterized for Liriodendron tulipifera (Magnoliaceae), a species native to eastern North America, to investigate its genetic diversity, population structure, and mating system. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Illumina HiSeq paired-end reads from genomic DNA, searches for repeat motifs identified approximately 280,000 potentially amplifiable loci. Of 77 loci tested, 51 amplified consistently...
August 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921699/morphological-determinants-of-carrier-frequency-signal-in-katydids-orthoptera-a-comparative-analysis-using-biophysical-evidence
#9
Fernando Montealegre-Z, Jessica Ogden, Thorin Jonsson, Carl D Soulsbury
Male katydids produce mating calls by stridulation using specialized structures on the forewings. The right wing (RW) bears a scraper connected to a drum-like cell known as the mirror and a left wing (LW) that overlaps the RW and bears a serrated vein on the ventral side, the stridulatory file. Sound is generated with the scraper sweeping across the file, producing vibrations that are amplified by the mirror. Using this sound generator, katydids exploit a range of song carrier frequencies (CF) unsurpassed by any other insect group, with species singing as low as 600 Hz and others as high as 150 kHz...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921050/characterization-of-ccstop1-a-c2h2-type-transcription-factor-regulates-al-tolerance-gene-in-pigeonpea
#10
Abhijit Arun Daspute, Yuriko Kobayashi, Sanjib Kumar Panda, Bashasab Fakrudin, Yasufumi Kobayashi, Mutsutomo Tokizawa, Satoshi Iuchi, Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Yoshiharu Y Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Koyama
Al-responsive citrate-transporting CcMATE1 function and its regulation by CcSTOP1 were analyzed using NtSTOP1 -KD tobacco- and pigeonpea hairy roots, respectively, CcSTOP1 binding sequence of CcMATE1 showed similarity with AtALMT1 promoter. The molecular mechanisms of Aluminum (Al) tolerance in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) were characterized to provide information for molecular breeding. Al-inducible citrate excretion was associated with the expression of MULTIDRUGS AND TOXIC COMPOUNDS EXCLUSION (CcMATE1), which encodes a citrate transporter...
September 18, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919556/measuring-inotocin-receptor-gene-expression-in-chronological-order-in-ant-queens
#11
Sarah Chérasse, Serge Aron
In vertebrates and invertebrates, oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptides modulate a variety of behaviors. The recent discovery of the gene and receptor sequences of inotocin, the insect ortholog of oxytocin/vasopressin, opens new opportunities for understanding the role of this peptide family in regulating behaviors in the most populated class of living animals. Ants live in highly organized colonies. Once a year, they produce future queens that soon leave the nest to mate and found new colonies. During the first months of their lives, ant queens display a sequence of behaviors ranging from copulation and social interactions to violent fighting...
September 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916791/genomic-structure-and-evolution-of-the-mating-type-locus-in-the-green-seaweed-ulva-partita
#12
Tomokazu Yamazaki, Kensuke Ichihara, Ryogo Suzuki, Kenshiro Oshima, Shinichi Miyamura, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Atsushi Toyoda, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Masahira Hattori, Shigeyuki Kawano
The evolution of sex chromosomes and mating loci in organisms with UV systems of sex/mating type determination in haploid phases via genes on UV chromosomes is not well understood. We report the structure of the mating type (MT) locus and its evolutionary history in the green seaweed Ulva partita, which is a multicellular organism with an isomorphic haploid-diploid life cycle and mating type determination in the haploid phase. Comprehensive comparison of a total of 12.0 and 16.6 Gb of genomic next-generation sequencing data for mt(-) and mt(+) strains identified highly rearranged MT loci of 1...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915488/plant-mating-systems-self-incompatibility-and-evolutionary-transitions-to-self-fertility-in-the-mustard-family
#13
REVIEW
June B Nasrallah
Flowering plants have evolved diverse mechanisms that promote outcrossing. The most widespread of these outbreeding devices are self-incompatibility systems, the highly selective prefertilization mating barriers that prevent self-fertilization by disrupting pollen-pistil interactions. Despite the advantages of outcrossing, loss of self-incompatibility has occurred repeatedly in many plant families. In the mustard family, the highly polymorphic receptors and ligands that mediate the recognition and inhibition of self-pollen in self-incompatibility have been characterized and the 3D structure of the receptor-ligand complex has been solved...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914350/a-stochastic-model-for-speciation-by-mating-preferences
#14
Camille Coron, Manon Costa, Hélène Leman, Charline Smadi
Mechanisms leading to speciation are a major focus in evolutionary biology. In this paper, we present and study a stochastic model of population where individuals, with type a or A, are equivalent from ecological, demographical and spatial points of view, and differ only by their mating preference: two individuals with the same genotype have a higher probability to mate and produce a viable offspring. The population is subdivided in several patches and individuals may migrate between them. We show that mating preferences by themselves, even if they are very small, are enough to entail reproductive isolation between patches, and we provide the time needed for this isolation to occur as a function of the carrying capacity...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912344/parasex-generates-phenotypic-diversity-de-novo-and-impacts-drug-resistance-and-virulence-in-candida-albicans
#15
Matthew P Hirakawa, Darius E Chyou, Denis Huang, Aaron R Slan, Richard J Bennett
Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that is a frequent cause of mucosal and systemic infections in humans. This species exhibits an unusual parasexual cycle in which mating produces tetraploid cells that undergo a non-meiotic program of concerted chromosome loss to return to a diploid or aneuploid state. In this work, we used a multipronged approach to examine the capacity of parasex to generate diversity in C. albicans First, we compared the phenotypic properties of 32 genotyped progeny and observed wide-ranging differences in fitness, filamentation, biofilm formation and virulence...
September 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911017/uncertain-pollination-environment-promotes-the-evolution-of-a-stable-mixed-reproductive-system-in-the-self-incompatible-hypochaeris-salzmanniana-asteraceae
#16
M Arista, R Berjano, J Viruel, M Á Ortiz, M Talavera, P L Ortiz
Background and aims: The transition from outcrossing to selfing is a repeated pattern in angiosperm diversification and according to general theory this transition should occur quickly and mixed reproductive systems should be infrequent. However, a large proportion of flowering plants have mixed reproductive systems, even showing inbreeding depression. Recently, several theoretical studies have shown that mixed mating systems can be stable, but empirical studies supporting these assumptions are still scarce...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905723/breeding-and-rearing-naked-mole-rats-heterocephalus-glaber-under-laboratory-conditions
#17
Chenlin Yu, Shiyong Wang, Guoshi Yang, Shanmin Zhao, Lifang Lin, Wenjing Yang, Qiu Tang, Wei Sun, Shufang Cui
The unique biologic characteristics of naked mole-rats (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber) include longevity, cancer resistance, hypoxia tolerance, and pain insensitivity, making NMR an attractive model for biomedical research on aging, cancer, and neurobiology. However, breeding and rearing NMR in captivity is challenging. Here, we report a method for breeding NMR by using a closed-colony mating system. We selected sexually mature male and female NMR from different natal colonies and mated them 1:1. The 5 original colonies had an annual parity of 3...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901288/multiple-conserved-cell-adhesion-protein-interactions-mediate-neural-wiring-of-a-sensory-circuit-in-c-elegans
#18
Byunghyuk Kim, Scott W Emmons
Nervous system function relies on precise synaptic connections. A number of widely-conserved cell adhesion proteins are implicated in cell recognition between synaptic partners, but how these proteins act as a group to specify a complex neural network is poorly understood. Taking advantage of known connectivity in C. elegans, we identified and studied cell adhesion genes expressed in three interacting neurons in the mating circuits of the adult male. Two interacting pairs of cell surface proteins independently promote fasciculation between sensory neuron HOA and its postsynaptic target interneuron AVG: BAM-2/neurexin-related in HOA binds to CASY-1/calsyntenin in AVG; SAX-7/L1CAM in sensory neuron PHC binds to RIG-6/contactin in AVG...
September 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898238/glucosamine-stimulates-pheromone-independent-dimorphic-transition-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-by-promoting-crz1-nuclear-translocation
#19
Xinping Xu, Jianfeng Lin, Youbao Zhao, Elyssa Kirkman, Yee-Seul So, Yong-Sun Bahn, Xiaorong Lin
Morphotype switch is a cellular response to external and internal cues. The Cryptococcus neoformans species complex can undergo morphological transitions between the yeast and the hypha form, and such morphological changes profoundly affect cryptococcal interaction with various hosts. Filamentation in Cryptococcus was historically considered a mating response towards pheromone. Recent studies indicate the existence of pheromone-independent signaling pathways but their identity or the effectors remain unknown...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895138/feed-backs-among-inbreeding-inbreeding-depression-in-sperm-traits-and-sperm-competition-can-drive-evolution-of-costly-polyandry
#20
Greta Bocedi, Jane M Reid
Ongoing ambitions are to understand the evolution of costly polyandry and its consequences for species ecology and evolution. Emerging patterns could stem from feed-back dynamics between the evolving mating system and its genetic environment, defined by interactions among kin including inbreeding. However, such feed-backs are rarely considered in non-selfing systems. We use a genetically-explicit model to demonstrate a mechanism by which inbreeding depression can select for polyandry to mitigate the negative consequences of mating with inbred males rather than avoiding inbreeding...
September 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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