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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220990/oxidative-stress-serotonergic-changes-and-decreased-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-a-mouse-model-of-smith-lemli-opitz-syndrome
#1
Navila F Sharif, Zeljka Korade, Ned A Porter, Harrison Fiona E
Smith Lemli Opitz syndrome is an inherited monogenic disorder in which mutations to the Dhcr7 gene lead to deficits in cholesterol synthesis. As a result, many patients suffer from gross physiological and neurological deficits. The purpose of this study was to identify a potential abnormal behavioral phenotype in a compound mutant mouse model for Smith Lemli Opitz disease (Dhcr7(Δ3)(-5/)(T93M) ) to further validate the model, and to provide potential targets for future therapeutic interventions. We also sought to identify some of the underlying changes in brain function that may be responsible for behavioral differences among groups...
February 21, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216419/seasonal-cycle-of-inbreeding-and-recombination-of-the-parasitic-mite-varroa-destructor-in-honeybee-colonies-and-its-implications-for-the-selection-of-acaricide-resistance
#2
Alexis L Beaurepaire, Klemens J Krieger, Robin F A Moritz
Varroa destructor is the most devastating parasite of the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera. In the light of the arm race opposing the host and its parasite, the population dynamics and genetic diversity of these organisms are key parameters. However, the life cycle of V. destructor is characterized by extreme inbreeding due to full sibling mating in the host brood cells. We here present an equation reflecting the evolution of inbreeding in such a clonal system, and compare our predictions with empirical data based on the analysis of seven microsatellite markers...
February 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210973/renal-drug-transporters-and-drug-interactions
#3
REVIEW
Anton Ivanyuk, Françoise Livio, Jérôme Biollaz, Thierry Buclin
Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209763/revisiting-suppression-of-interspecies-hybrid-male-lethality-in-caenorhabditis-nematodes
#4
Lauren E Ryan, Eric S Haag
Within the nematode genus Caenorhabditis, C. briggsae and C. nigoni are among the most closely related species known. They differ in sexual mode, with C. nigoni retaining the ancestral XO male-XX female outcrossing system, while C. briggsae recently evolved self-fertility and an XX-biased sex ratio. Wild-type C. briggsae and C. nigoni can produce fertile hybrid XX female progeny, but XO progeny are either 100% inviable (when C. briggsae is the mother) or viable but sterile (when C. nigoni is the mother). A recent study provided evidence suggesting that loss of the Cbr-him-8 meiotic regulator in C...
February 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207173/sensitivity-analysis-of-effective-population-size-to-demographic-parameters-in-house-sparrow-populations
#5
Marlene Waege Stubberud, Ane Marlene Myhre, Håkon Holand, Thomas Kvalnes, Thor Harald Ringsby, Bernt-Erik Saether, Henrik Jensen
The ratio between the effective and the census population size, Ne/N, is an important measure of the long-term viability and sustainability of a population. Understanding which demographic processes that affect Ne/N most will improve our understanding of how genetic drift and the probability of fixation of alleles is affected by demography. This knowledge may also be of vital importance in management of endangered populations and species. Here, we use data from 13 natural populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) in Norway to calculate the demographic parameters that determine Ne/N...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199659/mating-system-and-genetic-structure-across-all-known-populations-of-dyckia-brevifolia-a-clonal-endemic-and-endangered-rheophyte-bromeliad
#6
Juliana Marcia Rogalski, Ademir Reis, Marcelo Rogalski, Tiago Montagna, Maurício Sedrez Dos Reis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193811/the-dual-rod-system-of-amphibians-supports-colour-discrimination-at-the-absolute-visual-threshold
#7
Carola A M Yovanovich, Sanna M Koskela, Noora Nevala, Sergei L Kondrashev, Almut Kelber, Kristian Donner
The presence of two spectrally different kinds of rod photoreceptors in amphibians has been hypothesized to enable purely rod-based colour vision at very low light levels. The hypothesis has never been properly tested, so we performed three behavioural experiments at different light intensities with toads (Bufo) and frogs (Rana) to determine the thresholds for colour discrimination. The thresholds of toads were different in mate choice and prey-catching tasks, suggesting that the differential sensitivities of different spectral cone types as well as task-specific factors set limits for the use of colour in these behavioural contexts...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193269/how-flies-are-flirting-on-the-fly
#8
Courtney Eichorn, Michael Hrabar, Emma C Van Ryn, Bekka S Brodie, Adam J Blake, Gerhard Gries
BACKGROUND: Flies have some of the most elaborate visual systems in the Insecta, often featuring large, sexually dimorphic eyes with specialized "bright zones" that may have a functional role during mate-seeking behavior. The fast visual system of flies is considered to be an adaptation in support of their advanced flight abilities. Here, we show that the immense processing speed of the flies' photoreceptors plays a crucial role in mate recognition. RESULTS: Video-recording wing movements of abdomen-mounted common green bottle flies, Lucilia sericata, under direct light at 15,000 frames per second revealed that wing movements produce a single, reflected light flash per wing beat...
February 14, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192145/population-based-familial-aggregation-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-suggests-a-genetic-contribution
#9
Kristina Allen-Brady, Rafael Firszt, John C Fang, Jathine Wong, Ken R Smith, Kathryn A Peterson
BACKGROUND: Prior familial clustering studies have observed an increased risk of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) mostly among first-degree relatives suggesting a genetic contribution to EoE, and twin studies have suggested a powerful contribution from environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: Clarify the contribution of genetic factors to EoE through estimation of familial aggregation and risk of EoE in extended relatives. METHODS: The Utah Population Database, a population-based genealogy resource linked to electronic medical records for healthcare systems across the state of Utah, was used to identify EoE cases and age, sex and birthplace-matched controls at a 5:1 ratio...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190728/juvenile-hormone-suppresses-resistance-to-infection-in-mated-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Robin A Schwenke, Brian P Lazzaro
Hormonal signaling provides metazoans with the ability to regulate development, growth, metabolism, immune defense, and reproduction in response to internal and external stimuli. The use of hormones as central regulators of physiology makes them prime candidates for mediating allocation of resources to competing biological functions (i.e., hormonal pleiotropy) [1]. In animals, reproductive effort often results in weaker immune responses (e.g., [2-4]), and this reduction is sometimes linked to hormone signaling (see [5-7])...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185611/retrospective-analysis-of-reproductive-performance-of-pair-bred-compared-with-trio-bred-mice
#11
Katherine Wasson
Federal guidelines provide recommendations regarding the minimum of floor space that should be allotted for breedinglaboratory rodents. Mouse mating systems used by a variety of institutions frequently deviate from these recommendations.Regulatory agencies suggest that deviations from established guidelines should be assessed on an institutional basis andrecommend periodic review by the local IACUC. Mouse breeding data, collected in a laboratory animal management softwareprogram at a single institution, were retrospectively analyzed to determine the effects of 2 breeding schemes on reproductiveperformance...
February 9, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183866/self-fertilization-sex-allocation-and-spermatogenesis-kinetics-in-the-hypodermically-inseminating-flatworm-macrostomum-pusillum
#12
Athina Giannakara, Steven A Ramm
The free-living flatworm genus Macrostomum is an emerging model system for studying the links between sex allocation, sexual selection and mating system evolution, as well as the underlying developmental and physiological mechanisms responsible for wide intra- and inter-specific variability in reproductive phenotypes. Despite compelling comparative morphological evidence of sexual diversity, detailed experimental work on reproductive behaviour and physiology in Macrostomum has so far been largely limited to just two species, M...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183328/laboratory-colonization-of-the-european-invasive-mosquito-aedes-finlaya-koreicus
#13
Silvia Ciocchetta, Jonathan M Darbro, Francesca D Frentiu, Fabrizio Montarsi, Gioia Capelli, John G Aaskov, Gregor J Devine
BACKGROUND: Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus (Edwards) is a mosquito that has recently entered Europe from Asia. This species is considered a potential threat to newly colonized territories, but little is known about its capacity to transmit pathogens or ability to compete with native mosquito species. The establishment of a laboratory colony is a necessary first step for further laboratory studies on the biology, ecology and vector competence of Ae. koreicus. RESULTS: A self-mating colony was established at QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute (Brisbane, Australia) from eggs of the F1 progeny of individuals collected as free-living larvae in northeastern Italy (Belluno province)...
February 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178276/selfish-pups-weaning-conflict-and-milk-theft-in-free-ranging-dogs
#14
Manabi Paul, Anindita Bhadra
Parent-offspring conflict theory predicts the emergence of weaning conflict between a mother and her offspring arising from skewed relatedness benefits. Empirical observations of weaning conflict have not been carried out in canids. In a field-based study on free-ranging dogs we observed that nursing/suckling bout durations decrease, proportion of mother-initiated nursing bouts decrease and mother-initiated nursing/suckling terminations increase with pup age. We identified the 7th - 13th week period of pup age as the zone of conflict between the mother and her pups, beyond which suckling solicitations cease, and before which suckling refusals are few...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178203/male-psyllids-differentially-learn-in-the-context-of-copulation
#15
Dara G Stockton, Xavier Martini, Lukasz L Stelinski
In the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, stimulatory cuticular hydrocarbons act as sex pheromone attractants. Male psyllids locate aggregations of females using those olfactory cues, as well as vibrational communication on the plant surface. Although previous research has indicated that learning plays a role in modulating female reproductive behaviors in psyllids, it is unknown whether males similarly use learning to increase the likelihood of copulatory success. We used an olfactometer-based bio-assay to study the effects of experience on male response to female odor...
February 7, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177380/effect-of-ewe-prolificacy-potential-and-stocking-rate-on-ewe-and-lamb-performance-in-a-grass-based-lamb-production-system
#16
E Earle, N McHugh, T M Boland, P Creighton
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of ewe prolificacy potential (PP; predicted number of lambs born per ewe per year) as dictated by sire breed type, stocking rate (SR; ewes per ha), and their interaction on ewe and lamb performance in a temperate grass-based lamb production system. The study was a 2 × 3 factorial design, consisting of 2 differing ewe PP and 3 SR which included 180 medium prolificacy potential (MP- Suffolk-sired crossbred ewes) and 180 high prolificacy potential ewes (HP- Belclare-sired crossbred ewes) allocated to 1 of 3 ( = 60 ewes) SR: low (LSR; 10 ewes per ha), medium (MSR; 12 ewes per ha) or high (HSR: 14 ewes per ha)...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175334/mating-system-of-caiman-yacare-reptilia-alligatoridae-described-from-microsatellite-genotypes
#17
Guillermo N Ojeda, Patricia S Amavet, Eva C Rueda, Pablo A Siroski, Alejandro Larriera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168032/no-inbreeding-depression-in-laboratory-reared-individuals-of-the-parasitoid-wasp-allotropa-burrelli
#18
Bastien Quaglietti, Lucie Tamisier, Géraldine Groussier, Alexandre Fleisch, Isabelle Le Goff, Nicolas Ris, Philippe Kreiter, Xavier Fauvergue, Thibaut Malausa
Inbreeding depression is a major concern in almost all human activities relating to plant and animal breeding. The biological control of pests with natural enemies is no exception, because populations of biocontrol agents experience a series of bottlenecks during importation, rearing, and introduction. A classical biological control program for the Comstock mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was initiated in France in 2008, based on the introduction of an exotic parasitoid, Allotropa burrelli Mues...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168028/sex-specific-responses-to-territorial-intrusions-in-a-communication-network-evidence-from-radio-tagged-great-tits
#19
Lysanne Snijders, Kees van Oers, Marc Naguib
Signals play a key role in the ecology and evolution of animal populations, influencing processes such as sexual selection and conflict resolution. In many species, sexually selected signals have a dual function: attracting mates and repelling rivals. Yet, to what extent males and females under natural conditions differentially respond to such signals remains poorly understood, due to a lack of field studies that simultaneously track both sexes. Using a novel spatial tracking system, we tested whether or not the spatial behavior of male and female great tits (Parus major) changes in relation to the vocal response of a territorial male neighbor to an intruder...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165312/incidence-of-lameness-and-association-of-cause-and-severity-of-lameness-on-the-outcome-for-cattle-on-six-commercial-beef-feedlots
#20
Shane P Terrell, Christopher D Reinhardt, Connie K Larson, Christopher I Vahl, Daniel U Thomson
OBJECTIVE To describe the incidence of specific causes of lameness and the associations of cause and severity of lameness on the outcome for cattle on commercial feedlots. DESIGN Dynamic population longitudinal study. ANIMALS Cattle on 6 commercial feedlots in Kansas and Nebraska during a 12-month period (mean daily population, 243,602 cattle; range, 223,544 to 252,825 cattle). PROCEDURES Feedlot personnel were trained to use a standardized diagnostic algorithm and locomotion score (LMS) system to identify and classify cattle by cause and severity of lameness...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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