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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748329/impact-of-thiamethoxam-on-honey-bee-queen-apis-mellifera-carnica-reproductive-morphology-and-physiology
#1
Ivana Tlak Gajger, Martina Sakač, Aleš Gregorc
High honey bee losses around the world have been linked in part by the regular use of neonicotinoids in agriculture. In light of the current situation, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of thiamethoxam on the development of the reproductive system and physiology in the honey bee queen. Two experimental groups of honey bee queen larvae were treated with thiamethoxam during artificial rearing, applied via artificial feed in two cycles. In the first rearing cycle, honey bee larvae received a single treatment dose (4...
July 26, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746381/hedgehogs-on-the-move-testing-the-effects-of-land-use-change-on-home-range-size-and-movement-patterns-of-free-ranging-ethiopian-hedgehogs
#2
Mohammad A Abu Baker, Nigel Reeve, April A T Conkey, David W Macdonald, Nobuyuki Yamaguchi
Degradation and alteration of natural environments because of agriculture and other land uses have major consequences on vertebrate populations, particularly on spatial organization and movement patterns. We used GPS tracking to study the effect of land use and sex on the home range size and movement of a typical model species, the Ethiopian hedgehogs. We used free-ranging hedgehogs from two areas with different land use practices: 24 from an area dominated by irrigated farms (12 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀) and 22 from a natural desert environment within a biosphere reserve (12 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745628/a-method-to-test-the-effect-of-environmental-cues-on-mating-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Jenke A Gorter, Jean-Christophe Billeter
An individual's sexual drive is influenced by genotype, experience and environmental conditions. How these factors interact to modulate sexual behaviors remains poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, environmental cues, such as food availability, affect mating activity offering a tractable system to investigate the mechanisms modulating sexual behavior. In D. melanogaster, environmental cues are often sensed via the chemosensory gustatory and olfactory systems. Here, we present a method to test the effect of environmental chemical cues on mating behavior...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745022/characterized-cantharidin-distribution-and-related-gene-expression-patterns-in-tissues-of-blister-beetles-epicauta-chinensis-laporte
#4
Ming Jiang, Shu-Min Lü, Zi-Yi Qi, Ya-Lin Zhang
Cantharidin (CTD), a terpenoid defensive toxin mainly produced by blister beetles, is widely known by its toxicity to both cancer cells and pests. However, little information is known about its biosynthesis in blister beetles. In this study, we firstly determined the CTD content in various tissues of adult blister beetles on different days after mating, and then detected the temporal and spatial expression patterns of genes related to CTD biosynthesis in Epicauta chinensis. Results revealed that the accessory gland is the source of the highest CTD production...
July 26, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743920/sexual-pair-formation-in-a-cicada-mediated-by-acoustic-behaviour-of-females-and-positive-phonotaxis-of-males
#5
Zehai Hou, Changqing Luo, J Dale Roberts, Cong Wei
The functions of female song found in a few cicadas have rarely been studied. In the cicada Subpsaltria yangi we investigated the acoustic behaviour and signal structure of songs produced by females, the phonotaxis of males, and mate choice, as well as the selective pressure imposed on this species by predators. Pair-formation in S. yangi occurs when males signal, females respond, then males move to signaling females, which is opposite to that in most other cicadas where females move to calling males. Females only mate once and are sexually unreceptive after copulation...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743812/horizontal-gene-transfer-of-functional-type-vi-killing-genes-by-natural-transformation
#6
Jacob Thomas, Samit S Watve, William C Ratcliff, Brian K Hammer
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) can have profound effects on bacterial evolution by allowing individuals to rapidly acquire adaptive traits that shape their strategies for competition. One strategy for intermicrobial antagonism often used by Proteobacteria is the genetically encoded contact-dependent type VI secretion system (T6SS), a weapon used to kill heteroclonal neighbors by direct injection of toxic effectors. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that Vibrio cholerae can acquire new T6SS effector genes via horizontal transfer and utilize them to kill neighboring cells...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742153/reconstructing-the-regulatory-circuit-of-cell-fate-determination-in-yeast-mating-response
#7
Bin Shao, Haiyu Yuan, Rongfei Zhang, Xuan Wang, Shuwen Zhang, Qi Ouyang, Nan Hao, Chunxiong Luo
Massive technological advances enabled high-throughput measurements of proteomic changes in biological processes. However, retrieving biological insights from large-scale protein dynamics data remains a challenging task. Here we used the mating differentiation in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model and developed integrated experimental and computational approaches to analyze the proteomic dynamics during the process of cell fate determination. When exposed to a high dose of mating pheromone, the yeast cell undergoes growth arrest and forms a shmoo-like morphology; however, at intermediate doses, chemotropic elongated growth is initialized...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739429/llex-paraguariensis-decreases-oxidative-stress-in-bone-and-mitigates-the-damage-in-rats-during-perimenopause
#8
Camila Scacco Pereira, Camila Tami Stringhetta-Garcia, Lilian da Silva Xavier, Keny Gonçalves Tirapeli, Ariana Aparecida Ferreira Pereira, GiselIi Mitsuy Kayahara, José Marcelo Tramarim, Marcelo Macedo Crivelini, Karina Stringhetta Padovani, Andréia Machado Leopoldino, Mário Jefferson Quirino Louzada, Adriane Belló-Klein, Susana Francisca Llesuy, Edilson Ervolino, Rita Cássia Menegati Dornelles, Antonio Hernandes Chaves-Neto, Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato Nakamune
During perimenopause, oxidative stress increases, which may result in disruption of bone turnover, and consequently in osteoporosis. The use of antioxidants may be an effective nutritional approach to reducing osteoporosis in this period of life. Mate tea (MT) (Ilex paraguariensis), a typical and inexpensive beverage consumed in the Brazilian south-east, Argentina and Uruguay, increases antioxidant defense. Our hypothesis was that MT would decrease oxidative stress and mitigate bone deterioration. To test this, we analyzed oxidative stress markers of bone turnover, and local and systemic markers of bone metabolism of rats during natural perimenopause...
July 21, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736880/central-nervous-system-infection-due-to-cryptococcus-gattii-sensu-lato-in-india-analysis-of-clinical-features-molecular-profile-and-antifungal-susceptibility
#9
Shayanki Lahiri Mukhopadhyay, Veenakumari H Bahubali, Netravathi Manjunath, Aarthi Swaminathan, Sayani Maji, Marimuthu Palaniappan, Satishchandra Parthasarathy, Nagarathna Chandrashekar
Cryptococcus gattii species complex has evolved as a pathogen in the last two decades causing infection among both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. We aimed to analyse the clinical features of CNS infection caused by C. gattii sensu lato, molecular and antifungal susceptibility profile of this pathogen. Cases diagnosed to have CNS cryptococcosis were included in the study. Cryptococcus recovered from patient's specimen was identified by standard protocol. Species confirmation, mating type and molecular type determination were performed by PCR based methods...
July 23, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735853/a-comparative-study-of-genome-organization-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-model-ciliates-with-an-emphasis-on-tetrahymena-paramecium-and-oxytricha
#10
REVIEW
Yurui Wang, Yuanyuan Wang, Yalan Sheng, Jie Huang, Xiao Chen, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid, Shan Gao
As a group of unicellular eukaryotes, ciliates offer a unique system to explore epigenetic regulation, mostly due to their nuclear dualism. Ciliates launched a successful radiation after their early evolutionary branching, therefore harboring an unexpectedly rich pool of diverse biological functions and mechanisms. In this review, we compare distinct features of different ciliates in mating type determination, genome organization, DNA methylation, and removal of internal eliminated sequences (IES), with emphasis on Tetrahymena, Paramecium and Oxytricha...
July 1, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734064/extensive-seed-and-pollen-dispersal-and-assortative-mating-in-the-rain-forest-tree-entandrophragma-cylindricum-meliaceae-inferred-from-indirect-and-direct-analyses
#11
F K Monthe, O J Hardy, J L Doucet, J Loo, J Duminil
Pollen and seed dispersal are key processes affecting the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of plant species, and are also important considerations for the sustainable management of timber trees. Through direct and indirect genetic analyses we studied the mating system and the extent of pollen and seed dispersal in an economically-important timber species, Entandrophragma cylindricum (Meliaceae). We genotyped adult trees, seeds and saplings from a 400-ha study plot in a natural forest from East Cameroon using eight nuclear microsatellite markers...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733416/genetic-interaction-screens-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-using-the-pombe-epistasis-mapper-pem-system-and-a-manual-colony-replicator
#12
Isabelle Colson, Edgar Hartsuiker
In laboratories in which a colony-replicating robot is not available, manual replication provides a good, low-cost alternative for genetic interaction screening using the Pombe Epistasis Mapper (PEM) system. The protocol presented here describes the minimum number of steps required to identify genetic interactions. First, a query deletion is introduced to a library of deletion mutants by mating. Through a series of subsequent selection steps, single and double mutants are isolated and analyzed.
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733394/genetic-interaction-mapping-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-using-the-pombe-epistasis-mapper-pem-system-and-a-rotor-hda-colony-replicating-robot-in-a-1536-array-format
#13
Assen Roguev, Jiewei Xu, Nevan Krogan
This protocol describes an optimized high-throughput procedure for generating double deletion mutants in Schizosaccharomyces pombe using the colony replicating robot ROTOR HDA and the PEM (pombe epistasis mapper) system. The method is based on generating high-density colony arrays (1536 colonies per agar plate) and passaging them through a series of antidiploid and mating-type selection (ADS-MTS) and double-mutant selection (DMS) steps. Detailed program parameters for each individual replication step are provided...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728781/a-yeast-two-hybrid-assay-reveals-cmya1-interacting-proteins
#14
Xiangbo Xin, Ting Wang, Xinfeng Liu, Guoning Sui, Congfei Jin, Yingwei Yue, Shuping Yang, Hong Guo
CMYA1 is a protein that plays an important role in muscle development and contains a highly conserved Xin repeats region. However, the function of the Xin-repeats in CMYA1 is unknown, and there is little information regarding proteins that interact with the CMYA1/Xin-repeats in the bovine system. In this study, we generated a high-quality bovine muscle cDNA library and performed a yeast two-hybrid screen twice using both CMYA1 and the Xin-repeats as bait. There were 27 candidate-interacting proteins identified in this screen...
July 17, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726989/economic-selection-index-development-for-beefmaster-cattle-ii-general-purpose-breeding-objective
#15
K P Ochsner, M D MacNeil, R M Lewis, M L Spangler
An economic selection index was developed for Beefmaster cattle in a general-purpose production system in which bulls are mated to a combination of heifers and mature cows, with resulting progeny retained as replacements or sold at weaning. National average prices from 2010 to 2014 were used to establish income and expenses for the system. Genetic parameters were obtained from the literature. Economic values were estimated by simulating 100,000 animals and approximating the partial derivatives of the profit function by perturbing traits 1 at a time, by 1 unit, while holding the other traits constant at their respective means...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725411/choosing-a-mate-in-a-high-predation-environment-female-preference-in-the-fiddler-crab-uca-terpsichores
#16
Daniela M Perez, John H Christy, Patricia R Y Backwell
The interplay between a receiver's sensory system and a sender's courtship signals is fundamental to the operation of sexual selection. Male courtship signals that match a female receiver's preexisting perceptual biases can be favored yet the message they communicate is not always clear. Do they simply beacon the male's location or also indicate his quality? We explored this question in a species of fiddler crab Uca terpsichores that courts under elevated predation risk and that mates and breeds underground in the safety of males' burrows...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725386/the-coevolution-of-sexual-imprinting-by-males-and-females
#17
Miguel Angel Gómez-Llano, Eva María Navarro-López, Robert Tucker Gilman
Sexual imprinting is the learning of a mate preference by direct observation of the phenotype of another member of the population. Sexual imprinting can be paternal, maternal, or oblique if individuals learn to prefer the phenotypes of their fathers, mothers, or other members of the population, respectively. Which phenotypes are learned can affect trait evolution and speciation rates. "Good genes" models of polygynous systems predict that females should evolve to imprint on their fathers, because paternal imprinting helps females to choose mates that will produce offspring that are both viable and sexy...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725383/sexual-selection-impacts-brain-anatomy-in-frogs-and-toads
#18
Yu Zeng, Shang Ling Lou, Wen Bo Liao, Robert Jehle, Alexander Kotrschal
Natural selection is a major force in the evolution of vertebrate brain size, but the role of sexual selection in brain size evolution remains enigmatic. At least two opposing schools of thought predict a relationship between sexual selection and brain size. Sexual selection should facilitate the evolution of larger brains because better cognitive abilities may aid the competition for mates. However, it may also restrict brain size evolution due to energetic trade-offs between brain tissue and sexually selected traits...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725221/cell-surface-glycosylation-is-required-for-efficient-mating-of-haloferax-volcanii
#19
Yarden Shalev, Israela Turgeman-Grott, Adi Tamir, Jerry Eichler, Uri Gophna
Halophilic archaea use a fusion-based mating system for lateral gene transfer across cells, yet the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Previous work implied that cell fusion involves cell-cell recognition since fusion occurs more efficiently between cells from the same species. Long believed to be restricted only to Eukarya, it is now known that cells of all three domains of life perform N-glycosylation, the covalent attachment of glycans to select target asparagine residues in proteins, and that this post-translational modification is common for archaeal cell surface proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723221/accelerating-realtime-tddft-with-block-orthogonalized-manby-miller-embedding-theory
#20
Kevin J Koh, Triet S Nguyen-Beck, John Parkhill
Realtime time-dependent density-functional theory (RT-TDDFT) is one of the mostpractical techniques available to simulate electronic dynamics of molecules and mate-rials. Promising applications of RT-TDDFT to study non-linear spectra and energytransport, demand simulations of large solvated systems over long timescales, whichare computationally quite costly. In this paper, we apply an embedding techniquedeveloped for ground-state SCF methods by Manby and Miller to accelerate realtimeTDDFT. We assess the accuracy and speed of these approximations by studying theabsorption spectra of solvated and covalently split chromophores...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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