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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164751/style-polymorphism-in-linum-linaceae-a-case-of-mediterranean-parallel-evolution
#1
J Ruiz-Martín, R Santos-Gally, M Escudero, J J Midgley, R Pérez-Barrales, J Arroyo
Heterostyly is a sex polymorphism which has challenged evolutionary biologists ever since Darwin. One of the lineages where heterostyly, and related stylar conditions, appears more frequently is the family Linaceae and its most diverse and widespread genus, Linum. Thus, this group is particularly suitable for testing competing hypotheses about ancestral and transitional stages on the evolutionary building up of heterostyly. We generated a well-resolved phylogeny of Linum based on extensive sampling and plastid and nuclear DNA sequences, and used it to trace the evolution of character states of style polymorphism and its association with traits related to pollination and breeding systems, obtained from our samples and the literature...
November 22, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162832/the-roles-of-plasticity-versus-dominance-in-maintaining-polymorphism-in-mating-strategies
#2
Sylvain Moulherat, Alexis Chaine, Alain Mangin, Fabien Aubret, Barry Sinervo, Jean Clobert
Although natural selection is expected to reduce variability, polymorphism is common in nature even under strong selective regimes. Discrete polymorphisms in mating strategies are widespread and offer a good opportunity to understand the genetic processes that allow the maintenance of polymorphism in relatively simple systems. Here we explored the genetic mechanism underlying the expression of discrete mating strategies in the rock-paper-scissors (RPS) game. Heterozygotes carry the genetic information for two different strategies, yet little attention has been devoted to the mechanisms underpinning heterozygote phenotype and its consequences for allele frequency dynamics...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158971/the-ultimate-legs-of-chilopoda-myriapoda-a-review-on-their-morphological-disparity-and-functional-variability
#3
Matthes Kenning, Carsten H G Müller, Andy Sombke
The arthropodium is the key innovation of arthropods. Its various modifications are the outcome of multiple evolutionary transformations, and the foundation of nearly endless functional possibilities. In contrast to hexapods, crustaceans, and even chelicerates, the spectrum of evolutionary transformations of myriapod arthropodia is insufficiently documented and rarely scrutinized. Among Myriapoda, Chilopoda (centipedes) are characterized by their venomous forcipules-evolutionarily transformed walking legs of the first trunk segment...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157723/implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-therapy-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-a-simple-substudy
#4
Mate Vamos, Jeff S Healey, Jia Wang, Stuart J Connolly, Philippe Mabo, Lieselot VanErven, Josef Kautzner, Michael Glikson, Jorg Neuzner, Gilles O'Hara, Xavier Vinolas, Frederik Gadler, Stefan H Hohnloser
BACKGROUND: Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are considered to be at high risk for elevated defibrillation thresholds, peri-procedural complications, and failed appropriate shocks. OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of defibrillation testing in HCM patients undergoing ICD implantation. METHODS: Defibrillation thresholds, perioperative complications, and long-term outcomes were compared between patients with HCM, and those with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy (ICM/DCM) enrolled in the SIMPLE trial...
November 17, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156051/natural-and-anthropogenic-influences-on-the-mating-system-of-the-common-morning-glory
#5
Diego F Alvarado-Serrano, Shu-Mei Chang, Regina S Baucom
Evolutionary biologists remain puzzled by the often dramatic variation of mating strategies within single species. Of particular interest is the extent to which environmental conditions shape patterns of variation of mating system components within mixed mating species, and how widespread anthropogenic manipulations may influence these associations. Here, we address this question in the common morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) by combining a dataset of floral traits, estimates of the mating system, and relevant environmental factors compiled for 22 populations of this species distributed along a wide range of environments from the Southeast and midwest USA...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154412/the-impact-of-mating-systems-and-dispersal-on-fine-scale-genetic-structure-at-maternally-paternally-and-biparentally-inherited-markers
#6
Robyn E Shaw, Sam C Banks, Rod Peakall
For decades, studies have focused on how dispersal and mating systems influence genetic structure across populations or social-groups. However, we still lack a thorough understanding of how these processes and their interaction, shape spatial genetic patterns over a finer-scale (tens - hundreds of metres). Using uniparentally inherited markers may help answer these questions, yet their potential has not been fully explored. Here, we use individual-level simulations to investigate the effects of dispersal and mating system on fine-scale genetic structure at autosomal, mitochondrial and Y chromosome markers...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153581/novel-application-of-micro-computerized-tomography-for-morphologic-characterization-of-the-murine-penis
#7
Marisol O'Neill, Gene O Huang, Dolores J Lamb
BACKGROUND: The murine penis model has enriched our understanding of anomalous penile development. The morphologic characterization of the murine penis using conventional serial sectioning methods is labor intensive and prone to errors. AIM: To develop a novel application of micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT) with iodine staining for rapid, non-destructive morphologic study of murine penis structure. METHODS: Penises were dissected from 10 adult wild-type mice and imaged using micro-CT with iodine staining...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152183/genetic-mating-system-and-mate-selection-in-smallmouth-bass
#8
Ryan P Franckowiak, Mark S Ridgway, Chris C Wilson
Mating systems are an important factor influencing the variance in reproductive success among individuals within natural populations and thus have important ecological and evolutionary implications. We used molecular pedigree reconstruction techniques with microsatellite DNA data to characterize the genetic mating system and mate selection in adult smallmouth bass spawning in Lake Opeongo. The genetic mating system of smallmouth bass in this system can be characterized as predominantly monogamous with a low rate of polygynandry particularly among larger individuals...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151882/progression-of-phosphine-resistance-in-susceptible-tribolium-castaneum-herbst-populations-under-different-immigration-regimes-and-selection-pressures
#9
Michelle A Rafter, Graham A McCulloch, Gregory J Daglish, Gimme H Walter
Insecticide resistance is an escalating global issue for a wide variety of agriculturally important pests. The genetic basis and biochemical mechanisms of resistance are well characterized in some systems, but little is known about the ecological aspects of insecticide resistance. We therefore designed a laboratory experiment to quantify the progression of phosphine resistance in Tribolium castaneum populations subject to different immigration regimes and selection pressures. Mated resistant females were added to originally susceptible populations under two distinct migration rates, and in addition, half of the populations in each migration treatment were exposed to selection pressures from phosphine fumigation...
October 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151629/six-new-phytophthora-species-from-its-clade-7a-including-two-sexually-functional-heterothallic-hybrid-species-detected-in-natural-ecosystems-in-taiwan
#10
T Jung, M H Jung, B Scanu, D Seress, G M Kovács, C Maia, A Pérez-Sierra, T-T Chang, A Chandelier, K Heungens, K van Poucke, P Abad-Campos, M Léon, S O Cacciola, J Bakonyi
During a survey of Phytophthora diversity in natural ecosystems in Taiwan six new species were detected. Multigene phylogeny based on the nuclear ITS, ß-tubulin and HSP90 and the mitochondrial cox1 and NADH1 gene sequences demonstrated that they belong to ITS Clade 7a with P. europaea, P. uniformis, P. rubi and P. cambivora being their closest relatives. All six new species differed from each other and from related species by a unique combination of morphological characters, the breeding system, cardinal temperatures and growth rates...
June 2017: Persoonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150593/rapid-and-efficient-crispr-cas9-based-mating-type-switching-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#11
Ze-Xiong Xie, Leslie A Mitchell, Hui-Min Liu, Bing-Zhi Li, Duo Liu, Neta Agmon, Yi Wu, Xia Li, Xiao Zhou, Bo Li, Wen-Hai Xiao, Ming-Zhu Ding, Ying Wang, Ying-Jin Yuan, Jef D Boeke
Rapid and highly efficient mating-type switching of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables a wide variety of genetic manipulations such as the construction of strains, for instance isogenic haploid pairs of both mating-types, diploids and polyploids. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate a double-strand break (DSB) at the MAT locus, and in a single co-transformation, both haploid and diploid cells were switched to the specified mating-type at ~80% efficiency. The mating-type of strains carrying either rod or ring chromosome III were switched, including those lacking HMLα and HMRa cryptic mating loci...
November 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149835/forkhead-transcription-factors-formulating-a-foxo-target-for-cognitive-loss
#12
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With almost 47 million individuals worldwide suffering from some aspect of dementia, it is clear that cognitive loss impacts a significant proportion of the global population. Unfortunately, definitive treatments to resolve or prevent the onset of cognitive loss are limited. In most cases such care is currently non-existent prompting the need for novel treatment strategies. METHODS: Mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxO) are one such avenue of investigation that offer an exciting potential to bring new treatments forward for disorders that involve cognitive loss...
November 15, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149308/paternity-analysis-of-wood-turtles-glyptemys-insculpta-reveals-complex-mating-patterns
#13
Cindy Bouchard, Nathalie Tessier, François-Joseph Lapointe
Mating system characteristics are of great importance as they may influence male and female reproductive success and reproductive isolation. The wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) is a terrestrial freshwater species listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Considering its conservation status and the paucity of information currently available on parentage relationship for the species, we performed a microsatellite analysis to study the mating system of wood turtles in the Shawinigan River (Québec)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146770/environmental-population-and-life-stage-plasticity-in-the-visual-system-of-atlantic-cod
#14
Ragnhild Valen, Rita Karlsen, Jon Vidar Helvik
The visual system is for many fishes essential in guiding behaviors such as foraging, predator avoidance and mate choice. The marine environment is characterized by large spatiotemporal fluctuations in light intensity and spectral composition. However, visual capabilities are restricted by both space limitations set by eye size, and by the genomic content of light absorbing opsin genes. The rich array of visual opsins in teleosts may be used differentially to tune vision towards specific needs during ontogeny, and to changing light...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145213/depressed-immune-responses-and-accelerated-splenic-apoptosis-due-to-experience-of-food-deprivation-and-inequality-but-not-unstable-social-status-in-balb-c-mice
#15
Marjan Aghajani, Mohammad Reza Vaez Mahdavi, Mohsen Khalili Najafabadi, Tooba Ghazanfari, Fatemeh Moradi, Ravieh Golchoobian, Hasan Askari, Nima Sanadgol, Ehsan Kazemi Moghaddam
OBJECTIVE(S): We aimed to show that the immune system is sensitive to the detrimental effects of inequality and social injustice, and splenic vulnerability to apoptosis may also increase. METHODS: In order of better determination of immune responses to chronic social stress, we implemented food deprivation, food intake inequality, and unstable social status (a change of cage-mate every 3 days) for a period of 14 days in 60 male Balb/c mice. At the end of this stress period, nitric oxide (NO) production by peritoneal adherent cells and the serum concentration of corticosterone were measured...
November 17, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144594/on-the-origin-of-obesity-identifying-the-biological-environmental-and-cultural-drivers-of-genetic-risk-among-human-populations
#16
REVIEW
A Qasim, M Turcotte, R J de Souza, M C Samaan, D Champredon, J Dushoff, J R Speakman, D Meyre
Genetic predisposition to obesity presents a paradox: how do genetic variants with a detrimental impact on human health persist through evolutionary time? Numerous hypotheses, such as the thrifty genotype hypothesis, attempt to explain this phenomenon yet fail to provide a justification for the modern obesity epidemic. In this critical review, we appraise existing theories explaining the evolutionary origins of obesity and explore novel biological and sociocultural agents of evolutionary change to help explain the modern-day distribution of obesity-predisposing variants...
November 16, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142112/give-one-species-the-task-to-come-up-with-a-theory-that-spans-them-all-what-good-can-come-out-of-that
#17
REVIEW
Hanna Kokko
Does the progress in understanding evolutionary theory depend on the species that is doing the investigation? This question is difficult to answer scientifically, as we are dealing with an n = 1 scenario: every individual who has ever written about evolution is a human being. I will discuss, first, whether we get the correct answer to questions if we begin with ourselves and expand outwards, and second, whether we might fail to ask all the interesting questions unless we combat our tendencies to favour taxa that are close to us...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140779/experiencing-the-sights-smells-sounds-and-climate-of-southern-italy-in-vr
#18
Vito M Manghisi, Michele Fiorentino, Michele Gattullo, Antonio Boccaccio, Vitoantonio Bevilacqua, Giuseppe L Cascella, Michele Dassisti, Antonio E Uva
This article explores what it takes to make interactive computer graphics and VR attractive as a promotional vehicle, from the points of view of tourism agencies and the tourists themselves. The authors exploited current VR and human-machine interface (HMI) technologies to develop an interactive, innovative, and attractive user experience called the Multisensory Apulia Touristic Experience (MATE). The MATE system implements a natural gesture-based interface and multisensory stimuli, including visuals, audio, smells, and climate effects...
November 2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140727/population-genomics-of-herbicide-resistance-adaptation-via-evolutionary-rescue
#19
Julia M Kreiner, John R Stinchcombe, Stephen I Wright
The evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations is a highly replicated example of adaptation surmounting the race against extinction, but the factors determining its rate and nature remain poorly understood. Here, we explore theory and empirical evidence for the importance of population genetic parameters-including effective population size, dominance, mutational target size, and gene flow-in influencing the probability and mode of herbicide resistance adaptation and its variation across species. We compiled data on the number of resistance mutations across populations for 79 herbicide-resistant species...
November 15, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136171/mating-system-and-effective-population-size-of-the-overexploited-neotropical-tree-myroxylon-peruiferum-l-f-and-their-impact-on-seedling-production
#20
Ellida de Aguiar Silvestre, Kaiser Dias Schwarcz, Carolina Grando, Jaqueline Bueno de Campos, Patricia Sanae Sujii, Evandro Vagner Tambarussi, Camila Menezes Trindade Macrini, José Baldin Pinheiro, Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion, Maria Imaculada Zucchi
The reproductive system of a tree species has substantial impact on genetic diversity and structure within and among natural populations. Such information, should be considered when planning tree planting for forest restoration. Here, we describe the mating system and genetic diversity of an overexploited Neotropical tree, Myroxylon peruiferum L.f. (Fabaceae) sampled from a forest remnant (10 seed trees and 200 seeds) and assess whether the effective population size of nursery-grown seedlings (148 seedlings) is sufficient to prevent inbreeding depression in reintroduced populations...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Heredity
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