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Mating systems

Mehmet Eray Alcigir, Halef Okan Dogan, Begum Yurdakok, Kubra Dogan, Sevil Vural, Fatma Meric Yilmaz, Atilla Isgoren
Aroclor 1254 is a widespread toxic compound of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), which can create significant nervous problems. No remedies have been found to date. The aim of this study was to reveal the damage that occurs in the central nervous system of rat pups exposed to Aroclor 1254 in the prenatal period, and to show the inhibiting effect of curcumin, which is a strong anti-oxidant and neuroprotective substance. The study established 3 groups of adult female and male Wistar albino rats. The rats were mated within these groups and the offspring rats were evaluated within the group given Aroclor 1254 only (n=10) and the group given both Aroclor 1254 and curcumin (n=10) and the control group (n=10)...
March 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Yuki Yoshimura, Miyuki Ida-Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Hiramaki, Motohito Goto, Tsutomu Kamisako, Tomoo Eto, Mika Yagoto, Kenji Kawai, Takeshi Takahashi, Manabu Nakayama, Mamoru Ito
DNA site-specific recombination by Cre/loxP is a powerful tool for gene manipulation in experimental animals. VCre/VloxP and SCre/SloxP are novel site-specific recombination systems, consisting of a recombinase and its specific recognition sequences, which function in a manner similar to Cre/loxP. Previous reports using Escherichia coli and Oryzias latipes demonstrated the existence of stringent specificity between each recombinase and its target sites; VCre/VloxP, SCre/SloxP, and Cre/loxP have no cross-reactivity with each other...
March 15, 2018: Transgenic Research
Ya-Li Zhang, Xiao-Bin Fu, Hong-Chun Cui, Lei Zhao, Ji-Zhong Yu, Hong-Liang Li
As one of the main lepidopteran pests in Chinese tea plantations, Ectropis obliqua Warren (tea geometrids) can severely decrease yields of tea products. The olfactory system of the adult tea geometrid plays a significant role in seeking behaviors, influencing their search for food, mating partners, and even spawning grounds. In this study, a general odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene, EoblGOBP2 , was identified in the antennae of E. obliqua using reverse transcription quantification PCR (RT-qPCR). Results showed that EoblGOBP2 was more highly expressed in the antennae of males than in females relative to other tissues...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
José F Muñoz, Juan G McEwen, Oliver K Clay, Christina A Cuomo
Dimorphic fungal pathogens cause a significant human disease burden and unlike most fungal pathogens affect immunocompetent hosts. To examine the origin of virulence of these fungal pathogens, we compared genomes of classic systemic, opportunistic, and non-pathogenic species, including Emmonsia and two basal branching, non-pathogenic species in the Ajellomycetaceae, Helicocarpus griseus and Polytolypa hystricis. We found that gene families related to plant degradation, secondary metabolites synthesis, and amino acid and lipid metabolism are retained in H...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
M J Schulze, R Henriques, K A Feldheim, R C K Bowie, S von der Heyden
Fishes belonging to the family Clinidae in South Africa display super-embryonation, a rare reproductive mode were females gestate broods at different gestational stages, but little is known regarding the mating systems of this family. Here we tested the hypothesis that multiple males would contribute not only to the offspring of each female, but that several males would contribute to each brood, by sampling Muraenoclinus dorsalis from three sampling locations along the west and south-west coast of South Africa...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Christine Lembke, Daniel Stettin, Franziska Speck, Nico Ueberschaar, Sam De Decker, Wim Vyverman, Georg Pohnert
Recently the first pheromone of a marine diatom was identified to be the diketopiperazine (S,S)-diproline. This compound facilitates attraction between mating partners in the benthic diatom Seminavis robusta. Interestingly, sexualized S. robusta cells are attracted to both the natural pheromone (S,S)-diproline as well as to its enantiomer (R,R)-diproline. Usually stereospecificity is a prerequisite for successful substrate-receptor interactions, and especially pheromone perception is often highly enantioselective...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Adriana A Maldonado-Chaparro, Pierre-Olivier Montiglio, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Bart Kempenaers, Damien R Farine
Variation in extra-pair paternity (EPP) among individuals of the same population could result from stochastic demography or from individual differences in mating strategies. Although the adaptive value of EPP has been widely studied, much less is known about the characteristics of the social environment that drive the observed patterns of EPP. Here, we demonstrate how concepts and well-developed tools for the study of social behaviour (such as social network analysis) can enhance the study of extra-pair mating decisions (focussing in particular on avian mating systems)...
March 13, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Shuangbo Kong, Guixian Liang, Zhaowei Tu, Dunjin Chen, Haibin Wang, Jinhua Lu
Placental development is a complex and highly controlled process during which trophoblast stem cells differentiate to various trophoblast subtypes. The early embryonic death of systemic gene knockout models hampers the investigation of these genes that might play important roles during placentation. A trophoblast specific Cre mouse model would be of great help for dissecting out the potential roles of these genes during placental development. For this purpose, we generate a transgenic mouse with the Cre recombinase inserted into the endogenous locus of Elf5 gene that is expressed specifically in placental trophoblast cells...
March 13, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Pascal Touzet, Sarah Villain, Laetitia Buret, Hélène Martin, Anne-Catherine Holl, Céline Poux, Joël Cuguen
Historical demographic processes and mating systems are believed to be major factors in the shaping of the intraspecies genetic diversity of plants. Among Caryophyllales, the Beta section of the genus Beta, within the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae alliance, is an interesting study model with species and subspecies ( Beta macrocarpa , Beta patula , Beta vulgaris maritima and B.v. adanensis) differing in geographical distribution and mating system. In addition, one of the species, B. macrocarpa , mainly diploid, varies in its level of ploidy with a tetraploid cytotype described in the Canary Islands and in Portugal...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Roman Yukilevich, Luana S Maroja, Kim Nguyen, Syed Hussain, Preethi Kumaran
The rapid evolution of sexual isolation in sympatry has long been associated with reinforcement (i.e., selection to avoid maladaptive hybridization). However, there are many species pairs in sympatry that have evolved rapid sexual isolation without known costs to hybridization. A major unresolved question is what evolutionary processes are involved in driving rapid speciation in such cases. Here, we focus on one such system; the Drosophila athabasca species complex, which is composed of three partially sympatric and interfertile semispecies: WN, EA, and EB...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Alison R Gerken, James F Campbell
Controlling postharvest pest species is a costly process with insecticide resistance and species-specific control requiring multiple tactics. Mating disruption (MD) can be used to both decrease a female's access to males and delay timing of mating and decreases overall mating success in a population and population growth rate. Development of new commercially available MD products requires an understanding of life history parameters associated with mating delay. These can provide information for targeting proportions of reproducing individuals using MD...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Michael Pablo, Samuel A Ramirez, Timothy C Elston
Polarity establishment, the spontaneous generation of asymmetric molecular distributions, is a crucial component of many cellular functions. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) undergoes directed growth during budding and mating, and is an ideal model organism for studying polarization. In yeast and many other cell types, the Rho GTPase Cdc42 is the key molecular player in polarity establishment. During yeast polarization, multiple patches of Cdc42 initially form, then resolve into a single front. Because polarization relies on strong positive feedback, it is likely that the amplification of molecular-level fluctuations underlies the generation of multiple nascent patches...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Jon Cavanaugh, Aaryn Mustoe, Jeffrey A French
While separation from significant social partners produces a host of neurobiological and behavioral perturbations, including behavioral distress and increased glucocorticoid production, positive social interactions upon reunion are critical for the reestablishment of normative relationship dynamics and the attenuation of the biobehavioral stress response. The hormone oxytocin has critical and pervasive roles in reproductive and behavioral processes across the lifespan, and plays a particularly prominent role in social bonding...
March 11, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Bo-Mi Song, Chi-Hon Lee
Many visual animals exploit spectral information for seeking food and mates, for identifying preys and predators, and for navigation. Animals use chromatic information in two ways. "True color vision," the ability to discriminate visual stimuli on the basis of their spectral content independent of brightness, is thought to play an important role in object identification. In contrast, "wavelength-specific behavior," which is strongly dependent on brightness, often associates with foraging, navigation, and other species-specific needs...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Katarzyna Bojarska, Ralph Kuehn, Małgorzata A Gazda, Nozomu J Sato, Yuji Okahisa, Keita D Tanaka, Alfredo Attisano, Roman Gula, Keisuke Ueda, Jörn Theuerkauf
Extra-pair copulation can increase genetic diversity and offspring fitness. However, it may also increase intra-nest variability in avian hosts of brood parasites, which can decrease the discrimination ability of host parents towards the parasite. In New Caledonia, the Fan-tailed Gerygone (Gerygone flavolateralis), which is parasitized by the Shining Bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites lucidus), has two nestling morphs, dark and bright, that can occur in monomorphic and polymorphic broods. Gerygone parents recognize and eject parasite nestlings from their nest, but the presence of polymorphic broods may increase the chances of recognition errors...
2018: PloS One
George S Chrysant, Anita A Phancao, Douglas A Horstmanshof, Susie Jones, James W Long
Evaluation of left ventricular devices is becoming increasingly important as the implantation of these devices increases. Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has many potential advantages compared with plain radiographs and echocardiography to troubleshoot these devices and potentially help guide therapy. Heart failure (HF) remains a deadly, progressive disease with substantive and increasing morbidity, mortality, cost, and prevalence. Use of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) as treatment for refractory HF has been steadily rising during the last decade...
March 5, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Kritika M Garg, Balaji Chattopadhyay, Uma Ramakrishnan
Bats are social animals and display a diverse variety of mating and social systems, with most species exhibiting some form of polygyny. Their social organization is fluid and individuals frequently switch partners and roosting sites. While harem-like social organization is observed in multiple tropical species, its importance is contested in many of them. In this study, we investigated the role of harems in the social organization of the old world fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx . Based on regular behavioural observations over a period of 20 months and genetic data from microsatellite markers, we observed that the social organization is flexible, individuals regularly shift between roosts and the social organization resembles a fission-fusion society...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Rostyslav V Bubnov, Maria V Drahulian, Polina V Buchek, Tamara P Gulko
Background: Liver fibrosis (LF) is a chronic disease, associated with many collateral diseases including reproductive dysfunction. Although the normal liver has a large regenerative capacity the complications of LF could be severe and irreversible. Hormone and sex-related issues of LF development and interactions with male reproductive have not been finally studied. The aim was to study the reproductive function of male rats in experimental CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis rat model, and the capability for restoration of both the liver and male reproduction system...
March 2018: EPMA Journal
Hiroki Koda, Tadahiro Murai, Augustine Tuuga, Benoit Goossens, Senthilvel K S S Nathan, Danica J Stark, Diana A R Ramirez, John C M Sha, Ismon Osman, Rosa Sipangkui, Satoru Seino, Ikki Matsuda
Male proboscis monkeys have uniquely enlarged noses that are prominent adornments, which may have evolved through their sexually competitive harem group social system. Nevertheless, the ecological roles of the signals encoded by enlarged noses remain unclear. We found significant correlations among nose, body, and testis sizes and a clear link between nose size and number of harem females. Therefore, there is evidence supporting both male-male competition and female choice as causal factors in the evolution of enlarged male noses...
February 2018: Science Advances
Ayman F El-Kattan, Manthena V S Varma
Membrane transporters play an important role in the absorption, distribution, clearance and elimination (ADCE) of the drugs. Supported by the pharmacokinetics data in human, several transporters including organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, organic anion transporter (OAT)1, OAT3, organic cation transporter (OCT)2, multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs), P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are suggested to be of clinical relevance. An early understanding of transporters role in the drug disposition and clearance allows reliable prediction/evaluation of the pharmacokinetic changes due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) or genetic polymorphisms...
March 1, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
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