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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356430/morph-specific-metabolic-rate-and-the-timing-of-reproductive-senescence-in-a-color-polymorphic-dragon
#1
Christopher R Friesen, Rasmus Johansson, Mats Olsson
Polymorphism has fascinated biologists for over a century because morphs persist within populations through evolutionary time in spite of showing disparate behavioral and physiological phenotypes; any one morph should go to fixation with the slightest fitness advantage over the others. Surely there must be trade-offs that balance selection on them. The polychromatic morphs of the Australian painted dragon lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, are one such system. The male color morphs of painted dragons have different physiological and behavioral traits including reproductive tactics, hormone levels, and the rate of body condition loss through the reproductive season...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351591/could-seasonally-deteriorating-environments-favour-the-evolution-of-autogamous-selfing-and-a-drought-escape-physiology-through-indirect-selection-a-test-of-the-time-limitation-hypothesis-using-artificial-selection-in-clarkia
#2
Simon K Emms, Alisa A Hove, Leah S Dudley, Susan J Mazer, Amy S Verhoeven
Background and Aims: The evolution of selfing from outcrossing may be the most common transition in plant reproductive systems and is associated with a variety of ecological circumstances and life history strategies. The most widely discussed explanation for these associations is the reproductive assurance hypothesis - the proposition that selfing is favoured because it increases female fitness when outcross pollen receipt is limited. Here an alternative explanation, the time limitation hypothesis, is addressed, one scenario of which proposes that selfing may evolve as a correlated response to selection for a faster life cycle in seasonally deteriorating environments...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351020/a-dynamic-state-model-of-migratory-behavior-and-physiology-to-assess-the-consequences-of-environmental-variation-and-anthropogenic-disturbance-on-marine-vertebrates
#3
Enrico Pirotta, Marc Mangel, Daniel P Costa, Bruce Mate, Jeremy A Goldbogen, Daniel M Palacios, Luis A Hückstädt, Elizabeth A McHuron, Lisa Schwarz, Leslie New
Integrating behavior and physiology is critical to formulating new hypotheses on the evolution of animal life-history strategies. Migratory capital breeders acquire most of the energy they need to sustain migration, gestation, and lactation before parturition. Therefore, when predicting the impact of environmental variation on such species, a mechanistic understanding of the physiology of their migratory behavior is required. Using baleen whales as a model system, we developed a dynamic state variable model that captures the interplay among behavioral decisions, energy, reproductive needs, and the environment...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348515/genetic-evidence-for-panmixia-in-a-colony-breeding-crater-lake-cichlid-fish
#4
T K Lehtonen, K R Elmer, M Lappalainen, A Meyer
Fine-scaled genetic structuring, as seen for example in many lacustrine fish, typically relates to the patterns of migration, habitat use, mating system or other ecological factors. Because the same processes can also affect the propensity of population differentiation and divergence, assessments of species from rapidly speciating clades, or with particularly interesting ecological traits, can be especially insightful. For this study, we assessed the spatial genetic relationships, including the genetic evidence for sex-biased dispersal, in a colony-breeding cichlid fish, Amphilophus astorquii, endemic to Crater Lake Apoyo in Nicaragua, using 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci (n = 123 individuals from three colonies)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346429/the-farnesoid-x-receptor-agonist-obeticholic-acid-upregulates-biliary-excretion-of-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-via-mate-1-during-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#5
Andrea Ferrigno, Laura Giuseppina Di Pasqua, Clarissa Berardo, Veronica Siciliano, Vittoria Rizzo, Luciano Adorini, Plinio Richelmi, Mariapia Vairetti
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) biliary excretion occurs during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), prompting us to study the effects of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) on bile, serum and tissue levels of ADMA after I/R. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were orally administered 10mg/kg/day of OCA or vehicle for 5 days and were subjected to 60 min partial hepatic ischemia or sham-operated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335654/microwave-squid-multiplexer-demonstration-for-cosmic-microwave-background-imagers
#6
B Dober, D T Becker, D A Bennett, S A Bryan, S M Duff, J D Gard, J P Hays-Wehle, G C Hilton, J Hubmayr, J A B Mates, C D Reintsema, L R Vale, J N Ullom
Key performance characteristics are demonstrated for the microwave SQUID multiplexer (µmux) coupled to transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers that have been optimized for cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. In a 64-channel demonstration, we show that the µmux produces a white, input referred current noise level of [Formula: see text] at -77 dB microwave probe tone power, which is well below expected fundamental detector and photon noise sources for a ground-based CMB-optimized bolometer. Operated with negligible photon loading, we measure [Formula: see text] in the TES-coupled channels biased at 65% of the sensor normal resistance...
December 2017: Applied Physics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330901/floral-contrivances-and-specialized-pollination-mechanism-confer-strong-influence-to-elicit-mixed-mating-in-wrightia-tomentosa-apocynaceae
#7
Chandan Barman, Vineet Kumar Singh, Sandip Das, Rajesh Tandon
• Reproductive success of a plant species is largely influenced by the outcomes of mating pattern in a population. It is believed that a significantly greater proportion of animal-pollinated plants have evolved a mixed-mating strategy, the extent of which may vary among species. It is thus pertinent to investigate the key contributors of mating success, especially to identify the reproductive constraints in depauperated populations of threatened plant species. • We looked into the contribution of floral architecture, pollination mechanism and breeding system on the extent of outcrossing rate in a near threatened tree species, W...
January 13, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328538/conflict-between-heterozygote-advantage-and-hybrid-incompatibility-in-haplodiploids-and-sex-chromosomes
#8
Ana-Hermina Ghenu, Alexandre Blanckaert, Roger K Butlin, Jonna Kulmuni, Claudia Bank
In many diploid species the sex chromosomes play a special role in mediating reproductive isolation. In haplodiploids, where females are diploid and males haploid, the whole genome behaves similarly to the X/Z chromosomes of diploids. Therefore, haplodiploid systems can serve as a model for the role of sex chromosomes in speciation and hybridization. A previously described population of Finnish Formica wood ants displays genome-wide signs of ploidally and sexually antagonistic selection resulting from hybridization...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327267/antimicrobial-peptide-gene-bdpho-responds-to-peptidoglycan-infection-and-mating-stimulation-in-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#9
Shi-Huo Liu, Hong-Fei Li, Yang Yang, Dong Wei, Hong-Bo Jiang, Wei Dou, Guo-Rui Yuan, Jin-Jun Wang
Phormicins belong to defensin family, which are important antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in insects. These AMPs are inducible upon challenging by immune triggers. In the present study, we identified the cDNA of a phormicin gene (BdPho) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a ruinous agricultural pest causing great economic losses to fruits and vegetables. The cDNA of BdPho contains a 282 bp open reading frame encoding 93 amino acid residues, and the predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point of BdPho peptide were 9...
January 11, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321876/effects-of-social-information-on-life-history-and-mating-tactics-of-males-in-the-orb-web-spider-argiope-bruennichi
#10
Anna-Lena Cory, Jutta M Schneider
Informed mating decisions are often based on social cues providing information about prospective mating opportunities. Social information early in life can trigger developmental modifications and influence later mating decisions. A high adaptive value of such adjustments is particularly obvious in systems where potential mating rates are extremely limited and have to be carried out in a short time window. Males of the sexually cannibalistic spider Argiope bruennichi can achieve maximally two copulations which they can use for one (monogyny) or two females (bigyny)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321267/extreme-call-amplitude-from-near-field-acoustic-wave-coupling-in-the-stridulating-water-insect-micronecta-scholtzi-micronectinae
#11
Andrew Reid, David J W Hardie, David Mackie, Joseph C Jackson, James F C Windmill
Underwater acoustic transducers, particularly at low frequencies, are beset by problems of scale and inefficiency due to the large wavelengths of sound in water. In insect mating calls, a high call volume is usually desirable, increasing the range of signal transmission and providing a form of advertisement of the signaller's quality to a potential mate; however, the strength of the call is constrained by body size and by the need to avoid predators who may be listening in. Male crickets and water boatmen avoid some of the limitations of body size by exploiting resonant structures, which produce sharply tuned species-specific songs, but call frequency and volume remain linked to body size...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319906/consequences-of-multiple-mating-system-shifts-for-population-and-range-wide-genetic-structure-in-a-coastal-dune-plant
#12
A López-Villalobos, C G Eckert
Evolutionary transitions from outcrossing to selfing can strongly affect the genetic diversity and structure of species at multiple spatial scales. We investigated the genetic consequences of mating system shifts in the North American, Pacific coast dune endemic plant Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia (Onagraceae) by assaying variation at 13 nuclear (n) and six chloroplast (cp) microsatellite (SSR) loci for 38 populations across the species range. As predicted from the expected reduction of effective population size (Ne ) caused by selfing, small-flowered, predominantly selfing (SF) populations had much lower nSSR diversity (but not cpSSR) than large flowered, predominantly outcrossing (LF) populations...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319228/mobility-affects-copulation-and-oviposition-dynamics-in-pieris-brassicae-in-semi-natural-cages
#13
Nicolas Larranaga, Michel Baguette, Olivier Calvez, Delphine Legrand
When, how often and for how long organisms mate can have strong consequences for individual fitness and are crucial aspects of evolutionary ecology. Such determinants are likely to be of even greater importance in monandrous species and species with short adult life stages. Previous work suggests that mobility, a key dispersal-related trait, may affect the dynamics of copulations, but few studies have investigated the impact of individual mobility on mating latency, copulation duration and oviposition latency simultaneously...
January 10, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317353/the-sensory-equipment-of-a-spider-a-morphological-survey-of-different-sensilla-types-in-both-sexes-of-argiope-bruennichi-araneae-araneidae
#14
Anne-Sarah Ganske, Gabriele Uhl
Spiders show a wide range of sensory capabilities as evidenced by behavioural observations. Accordingly, spiders possess diverse sensory structures like mechano-, hygro-, thermo- or chemoreceptive sensilla. As to chemoreceptive structures, only trichoid tip-pore sensilla were found so far that were tested for gustation. That spiders are also able to receive airborne signals is corroborated by numerous behavioural experiments but the responsible structures have not been determined yet. Here, we provide sensilla distribution maps of pedipalps and walking legs of both sexes of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi whose biology and mating system is well explored...
January 6, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316915/a-novel-one-step-approach-for-the-construction-of-yeast-surface-display-fab-antibody-libraries
#15
Simon Rosowski, Stefan Becker, Lars Toleikis, Bernhard Valldorf, Julius Grzeschik, Deniz Demir, Iris Willenbücher, Ramona Gaa, Harald Kolmar, Stefan Zielonka, Simon Krah
BACKGROUND: Yeast surface display (YSD) has proven to be a versatile platform technology for antibody discovery. However, the construction of antibody Fab libraries typically is a tedious three-step process that involves the generation of heavy chain as well as light chain display plasmids in different haploid yeast strains followed by yeast mating. RESULTS: Within this study, we aimed at implementing a focused Golden Gate Cloning approach for the generation of YSD libraries...
January 9, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313456/up-and-over-technique-for-implantation-of-iliac-branch-devices-after-prior-aortic-endograft-repair
#16
David L Dawson, Giuliano de Almeida Sandri, Emanuel Tenorio, Gustavo S Oderich
PURPOSE: To describe a modified up-and-over access technique for treatment of iliac artery aneurysms in patients with prior bifurcated stent-grafts for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). TECHNIQUE: This technique uses a coaxial 12-F flexible sheath that is docked with a through-and-through wire into a 7-F sheath advanced from the contralateral femoral approach. This maneuver allows both sheaths to be moved as a unit while maintaining position of the apex of the system as it loops over the flow divider, avoiding damage to or displacing the extant endograft...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309558/intergenerational-influence-of-paternal-obesity-on-metabolic-and-reproductive-health-parameters-of-the-offspring-male-preferential-impact-and-involvement-of-kiss1-mediated-pathways
#17
Miguel Angel Sanchez-Garrido, Francisco Ruiz-Pino, Inmaculada Velasco, Alexia Barroso, Daniela Fernandois, Violeta Heras, Maria Manfredi-Lozano, Maria Jesus Vazquez, Juan Manuel Castellano, Juan Roa, Leonor Pinilla, Manuel Tena-Sempere
Obesity and its comorbidities are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. Maternal obesity is known to predispose the offspring to metabolic disorders, independently of genetic inheritance. This intergenerational transmission has also been suggested for paternal obesity, with a potential negative impact on the metabolic and, eventually, reproductive health of the offspring, likely via epigenetic changes in spermatozoa. However, the neuroendocrine component of such phenomenon and whether paternal obesity sensitizes the offspring to the disturbances induced by high fat diet (HFD) remain poorly defined...
December 22, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307328/milk-protein-composition-in-purebred-holsteins-and-in-first-second-generation-crossbred-cows-from-swedish-red-montbeliarde-and-brown-swiss-bulls
#18
A Maurmayr, S Pegolo, F Malchiodi, G Bittante, A Cecchinato
The aim of this study was to analyze milk protein composition in purebred and crossbred dairy cattle and estimate the effects of individual sources of variation on the investigated traits. Milk samples were collected from 505 cows from three commercial farms located in Northern Italy, some of which had originated from crossbreeding programs, although most were purebred Holsteins (HO). The basic crossbreeding scheme was a three-breed rotational system using Swedish Red (SR) semen on HO cows (SR×HO), Montbeliarde (MO) semen on SR×HO cows (MO×(SR×HO)) and HO semen again on MO×(SR×HO) cows...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301967/demography-and-mating-system-shape-the-genome-wide-impact-of-purifying-selection-in-arabis-alpina
#19
Benjamin Laenen, Andrew Tedder, Michael D Nowak, Per Toräng, Jörg Wunder, Stefan Wötzel, Kim A Steige, Yiannis Kourmpetis, Thomas Odong, Andreas D Drouzas, Marco C A M Bink, Jon Ågren, George Coupland, Tanja Slotte
Plant mating systems have profound effects on levels and structuring of genetic variation and can affect the impact of natural selection. Although theory predicts that intermediate outcrossing rates may allow plants to prevent accumulation of deleterious alleles, few studies have empirically tested this prediction using genomic data. Here, we study the effect of mating system on purifying selection by conducting population-genomic analyses on whole-genome resequencing data from 38 European individuals of the arctic-alpine crucifer Arabis alpina We find that outcrossing and mixed-mating populations maintain genetic diversity at similar levels, whereas highly self-fertilizing Scandinavian A...
January 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300817/diversification-in-continental-island-archipelagos-new-evidence-on-the-roles-of-fragmentation-colonization-and-gene-flow-on-the-genetic-divergence-of-aegean-nigella-ranunculaceae
#20
Ursula Jaros, Andreas Tribsch, Hans Peter Comes
Background and Aims: Disentangling the relative roles of past fragmentation (vicariance), colonization (dispersal) and post-divergence gene flow in the genetic divergence of continental island organisms remains a formidable challenge. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to (1) gain further insights into the biogeographical processes underlying the Pleistocene diversification of the Aegean Nigella arvensis complex; (2) evaluate the role of potential key factors driving patterns of population genetic variability (mating system, geographical isolation and historical contingencies); and (3) test the robustness of conclusions previously drawn from chloroplast (cp) DNA...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
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