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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336124/ultraviolet-b-inhibition-of-dnmt1-activity-via-ahr-activation-dependent-sirt1-suppression-in-cd4-t-cells-from-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients
#1
Zhouwei Wu, Xingyu Mei, Zuolin Ying, Yue Sun, Jun Song, Weimin Shi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that ultraviolet B (UVB) inhibits DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1) activity in CD4+ T cells from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) is a type of Class III histone deacetylases (HDACs), and has been reported to play roles in the pathogenesis of different autoimmune diseases and can modulate DNMT1 activity. Moreover, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been reported to link UVB with SLE...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333336/comparative-sperm-proteomics-in-mouse-species-with-divergent-mating-systems
#2
Alberto Vicens, Kirill Borziak, Timothy L Karr, Eduardo R S Roldan, Steve Dorus
Sexual selection is the pervasive force underlying the dramatic divergence of sperm form and function. Although it has been demonstrated that testis gene expression evolves rapidly, exploration of the proteomic basis of sperm diversity is in its infancy. We have employed a whole-cell proteomics approach to characterize sperm divergence among closely related Mus species that experience different sperm competition regimes and exhibit pronounced variation in sperm energetics, motility and fertilization capacity...
February 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333215/genetic-diversity-and-the-efficacy-of-purifying-selection-across-plant-and-animal-species
#3
Jun Chen, Sylvain Glémin, Martin Lascoux
A central question in evolutionary biology is why some species have more genetic diversity than others and a no less important question is why selection efficacy varies among species. Although these questions have started to be tackled in animals, they have not been addressed to the same extent in plants. Here, we estimated nucleotide diversity at synonymous, πS, and nonsynonymous sites, πN, and a measure of the efficacy of selection, the ratio πN/πS, in 34 animal and 28 plant species using full genome data...
February 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332467/fungal-sex-the-mucoromycota
#4
Soo Chan Lee, Alexander Idnurm
Although at the level of resolution of genes and molecules most information about mating in fungi is from a single lineage, the Dikarya, many fundamental discoveries about mating in fungi have been made in the earlier branches of the fungi. These are nonmonophyletic groups that were once classified into the chytrids and zygomycetes. Few species in these lineages offer the potential of genetic tractability, thereby hampering the ability to identify the genes that underlie those fundamental insights. Research performed during the past decade has now established the genes required for mating type determination and pheromone synthesis in some species in the phylum Mucoromycota, especially in the order Mucorales...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330914/evolution-of-male-and-female-choice-in-polyandrous-systems
#5
Mikael Puurtinen, Lutz Fromhage
We study the evolution of male and female mating strategies and mate choice for female fecundity and male fertilization ability in a system where both sexes can mate with multiple partners, and where there is variation in individual quality (i.e. in the availability of resources individuals can allocate to matings, mate choice and production of gametes). We find that when the cost of mating differs between sexes, the sex with higher cost of mating is reluctant to accept matings and is often also choosy, while the other sex accepts all matings...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323327/an-explicit-model-for-the-inbreeding-load-in-the-evolutionary-analysis-of-selfing
#6
Aurora García-Dorado
I present analytical predictions for the equilibrium inbreeding load expected in a population under mutation, selection and a regular mating system, for any population size and for any magnitude and recessivity of the deleterious effects. Using this prediction, I deduce the relative fitness of mutant alleles with small effect on selfing, to explore the situations where selfing or outcrossing are expected to evolve. The results obtained are in agreement with previous literature, showing that natural selection is expected to lead to stable equilibria where populations show either complete outcrossing or complete selfing, and that selfing is promoted by large deleterious mutation rates...
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321909/characterization-of-candidate-odorant-binding-proteins-and-chemosensory-proteins-in-the-tea-geometrid-ectropis-obliqua-prout-lepidoptera-geometridae
#7
Liang Sun, Teng-Fei Mao, Yu-Xing Zhang, Jian-Jian Wu, Jia-He Bai, Ya-Nan Zhang, Xing-Chuan Jiang, Kun-Shan Yin, Yu-Yuan Guo, Yong-Jun Zhang, Qiang Xiao
Insects rely heavily on their sophisticated chemosensory systems to locate host plants and find conspecific mates. Although the molecular mechanisms of odorant recognition in many Lepidoptera species have been well explored, limited information has been reported on the geometrid moth Ectropis obliqua Prout, an economically important pest of tea plants. In the current study, we first attempted to identify and characterize the putative olfactory carrier proteins, including odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs)...
March 21, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319395/spreading-kinetics-of-ultra-thin-liquid-films-using-molecular-dynamics
#8
Brooklyn Ann Noble, C Mathew Mate, Bart Raeymaekers
Ultra-thin liquid films play a critical role in numerous engineering applications. Although crucial to the design and application of ultra-thin liquid films, the physical mechanisms that govern spreading on the molecular scale are not well-understood, and disagreement among experiments, simulations, and theory remains. We use molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the speed at which the edge of a polymer droplet advances on a flat substrate as a function of various environmental and design parameters. We explain the physical mechanisms that drive and inhibit spreading, identify different spreading regimes, and clarify transitions between spreading regimes...
March 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315650/retrospective-analysis-of-reproductive-performance-of-pair-bred-compared-with-trio-bred-mice
#9
Katherine Wasson
Federal guidelines provide recommendations regarding the minimum of floor space that should be allotted for breeding laboratory rodents. Mouse mating systems used by a variety of institutions frequently deviate from these recommendations. Regulatory agencies suggest that deviations from established guidelines should be assessed on an institutional basis and recommend periodic review by the local IACUC. Mouse breeding data, collected in a laboratory animal management software program at a single institution, were retrospectively analyzed to determine the effects of 2 breeding schemes on reproductive performance...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314725/a-genome-survey-and-postharvest-transcriptome-analysis-in-lentinula-edodes
#10
Yuichi Sakamoto, Keiko Nakade, Shiho Sato, Kentaro Yoshida, Kazuhiro Miyazaki, Satoshi Natsume, Naotake Konno
Lentinula edodes is a popular cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom. Lentinula edodes is susceptible to postharvest problems such as gill browning, fruiting body softening, and lentinan degradation. We constructed a de novo assembly draft genome sequence and performed gene prediction of Lentinula edodesDe novo assembly was carried out using short reads from paired-end and mate-paired libraries and long reads by PacBio, resulting in a contig number of 1951 and an N50 of 1 Mb. Further, we predicted genes by Augustus using RNA-seq data from the whole life cycle of Lentinula edodes, resulting in 12,959 predicted genes...
March 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303195/sexual-selection-constrains-the-body-mass-of-male-but-not-female-mice
#11
James S Ruff, Douglas H Cornwall, Linda C Morrison, Joseph W Cauceglia, Adam C Nelson, Shannon M Gaukler, Shawn Meagher, Lara S Carroll, Wayne K Potts
Sexual size dimorphism results when female and male body size is influenced differently by natural and sexual selection. Typically, in polygynous species larger male body size is thought to be favored in competition for mates and constraints on maximal body size are due to countervailing natural selection on either sex; however, it has been postulated that sexual selection itself may result in stabilizing selection at an optimal mass. Here we test this hypothesis by retrospectively assessing the influence of body mass, one metric of body size, on the fitness of 113 wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus) residing within ten replicate semi-natural enclosures from previous studies conducted by our laboratory...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301534/the-spermatogenic-process-of-the-common-vampire-bat-desmodus-rotundus-under-a-histomorphometric-view
#12
Danielle Barbosa Morais, Luciano Carlos Heringer Porcaro Puga, Tarcízio Antônio Rêgo de Paula, Mariella Bontempo Duca Freitas, Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta
Among all bat species, Desmodus rotundus stands out as one of the most intriguing due to its exclusively haematophagous feeding habits. However, little is known about their spermatogenic cycle. This study aimed at describing the spermatogenic process of common vampire bats through testicular histomorphometric characterization of adult specimens, spermatogenic production indexes, description of stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and estimative of the spermatogenic process duration. Morphometrical and immunohistochemical analyzes for bromodeoxiuridine were conducted under light microscopy and ultrastructural analyzes were performed under transmission electron microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299901/dual-display-of-proteins-on-the-yeast-cell-surface-simplifies-quantification-of-binding-interactions-and-enzymatic-bioconjugation-reactions
#13
Sungwon Lim, Jeff E Glasgow, Maria Filsinger Interrante, Erica M Storm, Jennifer R Cochran
Yeast surface display, a well-established technology for protein analysis and engineering, involves expressing a protein of interest as a genetic fusion to either the N- or C-terminus of the yeast Aga2p mating protein. Historically, yeast-displayed protein variants are flanked by peptide epitope tags that enable flow cytometric measurement of construct expression using fluorescent primary or secondary antibodies. Here, we built upon this technology to develop a new yeast display strategy that comprises fusion of two different proteins to Aga2p, one to the N-terminus and one to the C-terminus...
March 16, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299419/insights-into-the-role-of-age-and-social-interactions-on-the-sexual-attractiveness-of-queens-in-an-eusocial-bee-melipona-flavolineata-apidae-meliponini
#14
Jamille Costa Veiga, Cristiano Menezes, Felipe Andrés León Contrera
The attraction of sexual partners is a vital necessity among insects, and it involves conflict of interests and complex communication systems among male and female. In this study, we investigated the developing of sexual attractiveness in virgin queens (i.e., gynes) of Melipona flavolineata, an eusocial stingless bee. We followed the development of sexual attractiveness in 64 gynes, belonging to seven age classes (0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 18 days post-emergence), and we also evaluated the effect of different social interactions (such as competition between queens and interactions with workers) on the development of attractiveness in other 60 gynes...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298468/selective-attention-in-peacocks-during-assessment-of-rival-males
#15
Jessica L Yorzinski, Gail L Patricelli, Siarhei Bykau, Michael L Platt
Males in many species compete intensely for access to females. In order to minimize costly interactions, they can assess their rivals' competitive abilities by evaluating traits and behaviors. We know little about how males selectively direct their attention to make these assessments. Using Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) as a model system, we examined how males visually assess their competitors by continuously tracking the gaze of freely moving peacocks during the mating season. When assessing rivals, peacocks selectively gazed toward the lower display regions of their rivals, including the lower eyespot and fishtail feathers, dense feathers, body and wings...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298376/floral-size-and-shape-evolution-following-the-transition-to-gender-dimorphism
#16
Ambika Kamath, Rachel A Levin, Jill S Miller
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Floral morphology is expected to evolve following the transition from cosexuality to gender dimorphism in plants, as selection through male and female function becomes dissociated. Specifically, male-biased dimorphism in flower size can arise through selection for larger flowers through male function, selection for smaller flowers through female function, or both. The evolutionary pathway to floral dimorphism can be most effectively reconstructed in species with intraspecific variation in sexual system...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298247/tissue-specific-inhibition-of-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-expression-in-the-testes-of-mice-by-inducible-lentiviral-rna-interference-causes-male-infertility
#17
Kai Zhao, Yan Liu, Zhe Xiong, Lian Hu, Cheng-Liang Xiong
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is involved in many physiological processes, including male infertility. To explore the effects of uPA in male reproduction, we constructed an inducible uPA short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system expressed by lentiviral vectors. After proving inhibition of uPA expression in the mouse Sertoli cell line TM4 by 1μgmL-1 doxycycline (Dox), two lentivirus (pLenti4-shRNA and pLenti6/TR) were co-microinjected into mouse testes to produce TetR&shuPA mice model. Though oral gavage by 0...
March 16, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291771/real-time-divergent-evolution-in-plants-driven-by-pollinators
#18
Daniel D L Gervasi, Florian P Schiestl
Pollinator-driven diversification is thought to be a major source of floral variation in plants. Our knowledge of this process is, however, limited to indirect assessments of evolutionary changes. Here, we employ experimental evolution with fast cycling Brassica rapa plants to demonstrate adaptive evolution driven by different pollinators. Our study shows pollinator-driven divergent selection as well as divergent evolution in plant traits. Plants pollinated by bumblebees evolved taller size and more fragrant flowers with increased ultraviolet reflection...
March 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290982/mating-and-male-pheromone-kill-caenorhabditis-males-through-distinct-mechanisms
#19
Cheng Shi, Alexi M Runnels, Coleen T Murphy
Differences in longevity between sexes is a mysterious yet general phenomenon across great evolutionary distances. To test the roles of responses to environmental cues and sexual behaviors in longevity regulation, we examined Caenorhabditis male lifespan under solitary, grouped, and mated conditions. We find that neurons and the germline are required for male pheromone-dependent male death. Hermaphrodites with a masculinized nervous system secrete male pheromone and are susceptible to male pheromone killing...
March 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287580/measuring-and-altering-mating-drive-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Christine L Boutros, Lauren E Miner, Ofer Mazor, Stephen X Zhang
Despite decades of investigation, the neuronal and molecular bases of motivational states remain mysterious. We have recently developed a novel, reductionist, and scalable system for in-depth investigation of motivation using the mating drive of male Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila), the methods for which we detail here. The behavioral paradigm centers on the finding that male mating drive decreases alongside fertility over the course of repeated copulations and recovers over ~3 d. In this system, the powerful neurogenetic tools available in the fly converge with the genetic accessibility and putative wiring diagram available for sexual behavior...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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