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Mating systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429781/geographic-variation-in-floral-traits-and-the-capacity-of-autonomous-selfing-across-allopatric-and-sympatric-populations-of-two-closely-related-centaurium-species
#1
Dorien Schouppe, Rein Brys, Mario Vallejo-Marin, Hans Jacquemyn
Floral traits and the relative contribution of autonomous selfing to total seed set varies geographically and is often driven by the availability and abundance of suitable pollinators and/or the presence of co-flowering relatives. In the latter case, competition for pollinator services and costs of hybridization can select for floral traits that reduce interspecific gene flow and contribute to prezygotic isolation, potentially leading to geographic variation in floral divergence between allopatric and sympatric populations...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428854/not-all-weeds-are-created-equal-a-database-approach-uncovers-differences-in-the-sexual-system-of-native-and-introduced-weeds
#2
Megan L Van Etten, Jeffrey K Conner, Shu-Mei Chang, Regina S Baucom
Weedy species provide excellent opportunities to examine the process of successful colonization of novel environments. Despite the influence of the sexual system on a variety of processes from reproduction to genetic structure, how the sexual system of species influences weediness has received only limited consideration. We examined the hypothesis that weedy plants have an increased likelihood of being self-compatible compared with nonweedy plants; this hypothesis is derived from Baker's law, which states that species that can reproduce uniparentally are more likely to successfully establish in a new habitat where mates are lacking...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424677/responses-of-the-housefly-musca-domestica-to-the-hytrosavirus-replication-impacts-on-host-s-vitellogenesis-and-immunity
#3
Henry M Kariithi, Xu Yao, Fahong Yu, Peter E Teal, Chelsea P Verhoeven, Drion G Boucias
Hytrosaviridae family members replicate in the salivary glands (SGs) of their adult dipteran hosts and are transmitted to uninfected hosts via saliva during feeding. Despite inducing similar gross symptoms (SG hypertrophy; SGH), hytrosaviruses (SGHVs) have distinct pathobiologies, including sex-ratio distortions in tsetse flies and refusal of infected housefly females to copulate. Via unknown mechanism(s), SGHV replication in other tissues results in reduced fecundity in tsetse flies and total shutdown of vitellogenesis and sterility in housefly females...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423417/multi-species-mating-disruption-in-cranberries-ericales-ericaceae-early-evidence-using-a-flowable-emulsion
#4
Shawn A Steffan, Elissa M Chasen, Annie E Deutsch, Agenor Mafra-Neto
Pheromone-based mating disruption has proven to be a powerful pest management tactic in many cropping systems. However, in the cranberry system, a viable mating disruption program does not yet exist. There are commercially available pheromones for several of the major pests of cranberries, including the cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and blackheaded fireworm, Rhopobota naevana (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Previous studies have shown that mating disruption represents a promising approach for R...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423088/the-epidemiology-of-cryptococcosis-and-the-characterization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolated-in-a-brazilian-university-hospital
#5
Paula Augusta Dias Fogaça de Aguiar, Reginaldo Dos Santos Pedroso, Aércio Sebastião Borges, Tomaz de Aquino Moreira, Lúcio Borges de Araújo, Denise Von Dolinger de Brito Röder
Cryptococcosis, a systemic disease caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans/ Cryptococcus gattii is more severe in immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiology of the disease, the molecular characteristics and the antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolated from patients treated in a Brazilian university hospital. This retrospective study was conducted in the Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Uberlândia, and evaluated cases of cryptococcosis and strains of C...
April 13, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423037/identification-of-candidate-chemosensory-genes-by-transcriptome-analysis-in-loxostege-sticticalis-linnaeus
#6
Hong-Shuang Wei, Ke-Bin Li, Shuai Zhang, Ya-Zhong Cao, Jiao Yin
Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeus is an economically important agricultural pest, and the larvae cause great damage to crops, especially in Northern China. However, effective and environmentally friendly chemical methods for controlling this pest have not been discovered to date. In the present study, we performed HiSeq2500 sequencing of transcriptomes of the male and female adult antennae, adult legs and third instar larvae, and we identified 54 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), including 1 odorant receptor coreceptor (Orco) and 5 pheromone receptors (PRs), 18 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 13 gustatory receptors (GRs), 34 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), including 1 general odorant binding protein (GOBP1) and 3 pheromone binding proteins (PBPs), 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423024/interrelationships-of-vel1-and-env1-in-light-response-and-development-in-trichoderma-reesei
#7
Hoda Bazafkan, Christoph Dattenböck, Eva Stappler, Sabrina Beier, Monika Schmoll
Sexual development is regulated by a complex regulatory mechanism in fungi. For Trichoderma reesei, the light response pathway was shown to impact sexual development, particularly through the photoreceptor ENVOY. Moreover, T. reesei communicates chemically with a potential mating partner in its vicinity, a response which is mediated by the velvet family protein VEL1 and its impact on secondary metabolism. We therefore studied the regulatory interactions of ENV1 and VEL1 with a focus on sexual development. Although individual mutants in both genes are female sterile under standard crossing conditions (light-dark cycles), an altered light regime enabled sexual development, which we found to be due to conditional female sterility of Δenv1, but not Δvel1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421861/the-plant-dependent-life-cycle-of-thecaphora-thlaspeos-a-smut-fungus-adapted-to-brassicaceae
#8
Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Kaitlyn J Courville, Lesley Plücker, Ronny Kellner, Julia Kruse, Andreas Brachmann, Michael Feldbrügge, Vera Göhre
Smut fungi are globally distributed plant pathogens that infect agriculturally important crop plants such as maize or potato. To date, molecular studies on plant responses to smut fungi are challenging due to the genetic complexity of their host plants. Therefore, we set out to investigate the known smut fungus of Brassicaceae hosts, Thecaphora thlaspeos. T. thlaspeos infects different Brassicaceae plant species throughout Europe, including the perennial model plant Arabis alpina. In contrast to characterized smut fungi, mature and dry T...
April 19, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421540/maternal-folic-acid-supplementation-during-pregnancy-improves-neurobehavioral-development-in-rat-offspring
#9
Xinyan Wang, Wen Li, Shou Li, Jing Yan, John X Wilson, Guowei Huang
Maternal folate status during pregnancy may influence central nervous system (CNS) development in offspring. However, the recommended intakes of folic acid for women of childbearing age differ among countries and there is still no consensus about whether folic acid should be supplemented continuously throughout pregnancy. We hypothesized that folic acid supplementation may be more beneficial for offspring's neurobehavioral development if prolonged throughout pregnancy instead of being limited to the periconceptional period...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421370/the-current-state-of-knowledge-on-the-neuroactive-compounds-that-affect-the-development-mating-and-reproduction-of-spiders-araneae-compared-to-insects
#10
REVIEW
Marta Sawadro, Agata Bednarek, Agnieszka Babczyńska
The neuroendocrine system of insects, including the presence of the main neuroactive compounds, and their role in ontogenesis are probably best understood of all the arthropods. Development, metamorphosis, the maturation of the gonads, vitellogenesis and egg production are regulated by hormones (juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids) and neuropeptides. However, knowledge about their presence and functions in spiders is fragmentary. In this paper, we present a summary of the current data about the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids and neuropeptides in selected groups of arthropods, with particular emphasis on spiders...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420433/umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-scaffolds-facilitate-collagen-degradation-via-upregulation-of-mmp-9-in-rat-uterine-scars
#11
Lu Xu, Lijun Ding, Lei Wang, Yun Cao, Hui Zhu, Jingjie Lu, Xin'an Li, Tianran Song, Yali Hu, Jianwu Dai
BACKGROUND: Severe injuries of the uterus may trigger uterine scar formation, ultimately leading to infertility or obstetrical complications. To date, few methods have adequately solved the problem of collagen deposition in uterine scars. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) have shown great promise in clinical applications. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a scaffold/UC-MSCs construct on collagen degradation and functional regeneration in rat uterine scars following full-thickness excision of uterine walls...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419864/how-to-be-a-good-neighbour-facilitation-and-competition-between-two-co-flowering-species
#12
Mohsen B Mesgaran, Juliette Bouhours, Mark A Lewis, Roger D Cousens
Empirical evidence suggests that co-flowering species can facilitate each other through shared pollinators. However, the extent to which one co-flowering species can relieve pollination limitation of another while simultaneously competing for abiotic resource has rarely been examined. Using a deterministic model we explored the demographic outcome for one ("focal") species of its co-occurrence with a species that shares pollinators and competes for both pollinator visitation and abiotic resources. In this paper we showed how the overall impact can be positive or negative, depending on the balance between enhanced fertilization versus increased competition...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419839/near-infrared-laser-irradiation-improves-the-development-of-mouse-pre-implantation-embryos
#13
Masaki Yokoo, Miho Mori
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of near-infrared laser irradiation on the in vitro development of mouse embryos. Female ICR mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and mated with male mice. Two-cell stage embryos were collected 40 h after administering hCG and cultured in M16 medium. Two-cell embryos (0 h after culture), 8-cell embryos (approx. 30 h after culture), morula (approx. 48 h after culture), and blastocysts (approx...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419370/distinguishing-industrial-meat-from-that-of-indigenous-chickens-with-molecular-markers
#14
Dominga Soglia, Paola Sacchi, Stefano Sartore, Sandra Maione, Achille Schiavone, Michele De Marco, Maria Teresa Bottero, Alessandra Dalmasso, Daniele Pattono, Roberto Rasero
The aim of investigation was to evaluate a traceability system to detect industrial chicken meat among indigenous products, considering issues that could affect assignment accuracy. The dataset included 2 Italian indigenous meat breeds, namely Bionda Piemontese (2 ecotypes) and Bianca di Saluzzo, one broiler line, and 3 layer lines. Assignment tests were performed using a standard panel of 28 microsatellite loci. To evaluate effects of inbreeding and substructure on assignment accuracy, a simulated dataset was prepared...
April 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417351/detrimental-effect-of-maternal-and-post-weaning-high-fat-diet-on-the-reproductive-function-in-the-adult-female-offspring-rat-roles-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-and-the-ovarian-circadian-clock
#15
Yu-Ju Lin, Ching-Chou Tsai, Li-Tung Huang, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, Mao-Meng Tiao, Hong-Ren Yu, Chih-Cheng Chen, You-Lin Tain
PURPOSE: We evaluate the impact of maternal and post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on ovarian follicular population, steroidogenesis, and gene expression with a focus on the circadian clock system and insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) in adult offspring ovaries, and to elucidate whether a maternal and post-weaning diet confers similar risks. METHODS: Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal chow (C) diet or HF diet for 5 weeks before mating, during gestation, and lactation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412035/novel-consequences-of-bird-pollination-for-plant-mating
#16
REVIEW
Siegfried L Krauss, Ryan D Phillips, Jeffrey D Karron, Steven D Johnson, David G Roberts, Stephen D Hopper
Pollinator behaviour has profound effects on plant mating. Pollinators are predicted to minimise energetic costs during foraging bouts by moving between nearby flowers. However, a review of plant mating system studies reveals a mismatch between behavioural predictions and pollen-mediated gene dispersal in bird-pollinated plants. Paternal diversity of these plants is twice that of plants pollinated solely by insects. Comparison with the behaviour of other pollinator groups suggests that birds promote pollen dispersal through a combination of high mobility, limited grooming, and intra- and interspecies aggression...
April 12, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410019/mating-system-evolution-under-strong-pollen-limitation-evidence-of-disruptive-selection-through-male-and-female-fitness-in-clarkia-xantiana
#17
Ryan D Briscoe Runquist, Monica A Geber, Michael Pickett-Leonard, David A Moeller
Selection on floral traits in hermaphroditic plants is determined by both male and female reproductive success. However, predictions regarding floral trait and mating system evolution are often based solely on female fitness. Selection via male fitness has the potential to affect the outcomes of floral evolution. In this study, we used paternity analysis to assess individual selfing rates and selection on floral traits via male and female fitness in an experimental population of Clarkia xantiana where pollen limitation of seed set was strong...
May 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407838/-effects-of-maternal-folate-deficiency-on-the-methylation-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-system-in-the-offspring-rats
#18
Meng-Meng Wu, Fan Yang, Yi Qu, De-Zhi Mu
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of maternal folate deficiency on fetal growth and development and the methylation profiles of insulin-like growth factor system in the offspring rats. METHODS: Twenty-two Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly assigned to two groups: a folate deficient group (n=12) and a control group (n=10). They were fed with folate deficient and normal diet respectively. Dams were mated after 2 weeks of feeding. Eight female rats from each group were pregnant...
April 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407047/identification-of-candidate-odorant-binding-protein-and-chemosensory-protein-genes-in-cyrtorhinus-lividipennis-hemiptera-miridae-a-key-predator-of-the-rice-planthoppers-in-asia
#19
Gui-Yao Wang, Mu-Fei Zhu, Yan-Dong Jiang, Wen-Wu Zhou, Su Liu, Kong Luen Heong, Jiaan Cheng, Zeng-Rong Zhu
Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important predatory natural enemy of planthopper and leafhopper eggs in Asian rice paddy fields. Cyrtorhinus lividipennis is known to rely largely on herbivore-induced plant volatiles to identify eggs embedded in rice stem tissues for feeding and on pheromones for mating. However, exactly how C. lividipennis decode these chemical information is unclear. In most insects, the odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and the chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are essential for seeking out food resources and mates...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404822/sperm-as-moderators-of-environmentally-induced-paternal-effects-in-a-livebearing-fish
#20
Jonathan P Evans, Rowan A Lymbery, Kyle S Wiid, Md Moshiur Rahman, Clelia Gasparini
Until recently, paternal effects-the influence of fathers on their offspring due to environmental factors rather than genes-were largely discarded or assumed to be confined to species exhibiting paternal care. It is now recognized that paternal effects can be transmitted through the ejaculate, but unambiguous evidence for them is scarce, because it is difficult to isolate effects operating via changes to the ejaculate from maternal effects driven by female mate assessment. Here, we use artificial insemination to disentangle mate assessment from fertilization in guppies, and show that paternal effects can be transmitted to offspring exclusively via ejaculates...
April 2017: Biology Letters
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