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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859354/public-challenge-and-endorsement-of-sex-category-ambiguity-in-online-debate-the-sooner-people-stop-thinking-that-gender-is-a-matter-of-choice-the-better
#1
Helen Sweeting, Matthew William Maycock, Laura Walker, Kate Hunt
Despite academic feminist debate over several decades, the binary nature of sex as a (perhaps the) primary social classification is often taken for granted, as is the assumption that individuals can be unproblematically assigned a biological sex at birth. This article presents analysis of online debate on the BBC news website in November 2013, comprising 864 readers' responses to an article entitled 'Germany allows 'indeterminate' gender at birth'. It explores how discourse reflecting Western essentialist beliefs about people having one sex or 'the other' is maintained in debates conducted in this online public space...
November 16, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843491/3d-strength-surfaces-for-ankle-plantar-and-dorsi-flexion-in-healthy-adults-an-isometric-and-isokinetic-dynamometry-study
#2
Sara J Hussain, Laura Frey-Law
BACKGROUND: The ankle is an important component of the human kinetic chain, and deficits in ankle strength can negatively impact functional tasks such as balance and gait. While peak torque is influenced by joint angle and movement velocity, ankle strength is typically reported for a single angle or movement speed. To better identify deficits and track recovery of ankle strength after injury or surgical intervention, ankle strength across a range of movement velocities and joint angles in healthy adults is needed...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824305/abortion-providers-professional-identity-and-restrictive-laws-a-qualitative-study
#3
Laura E Britton, Rebecca J Mercier, Mara Buchbinder, Amy G Bryant
Most studies of the impact of restrictive abortion laws have focused on patient-level outcomes. To better understand how such laws affect providers, we conducted a qualitative study of 27 abortion providers working under a restrictive law in North Carolina. Providers derived professional identity from their motivations, values, and experiences of pride related to abortion provision. The law affected their professional identities by perpetuating negative characterizations of their profession, requiring changes to patient care and communication, and creating conflicts between professional values and legal obligations...
November 8, 2016: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820871/consent-refusal-and-waivers-in-patient-centered-dysphagia-care-using-law-ethics-and-evidence-to-guide-clinical-practice
#4
Jennifer Horner, Maria Modayil, Laura Roche Chapman, An Dinh
Purpose: When patients refuse medical or rehabilitation procedures, waivers of liability have been used to bar future lawsuits. The purpose of this tutorial is to review the myriad issues surrounding consent, refusal, and waivers. The larger goal is to invigorate clinical practice by providing clinicians with knowledge of ethics and law. This tutorial is for educational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. Method: The authors use a hypothetical case of a "noncompliant" individual under the care of an interdisciplinary neurorehabilitation team to illuminate the ethical and legal features of the patient-practitioner relationship; the elements of clinical decision-making capacity; the duty of disclosure and the right of informed consent or informed refusal; and the relationship among noncompliance, defensive practices, and iatrogenic harm...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797387/droplay-laser-writing-of-functional-patterns-within-biological-microdroplet-displays
#5
Chi Long Chan, Guido Bolognesi, Archis Bhandarkar, Mark S Friddin, Nicholas J Brooks, John M Seddon, Robert V Law, Laura M C Barter, Oscar Ces
In this study, we introduce an optofluidic method for the rapid construction of large-area cell-sized droplet assemblies with user-defined, re-writable, two-dimensional patterns of functional droplets. Light responsive water-in-oil droplets capable of releasing fluorescent dye molecules upon exposure were generated and self-assembled into arrays inside a microfluidic device. This biological architecture was exploited by the scanning laser of a confocal microscope to 'write' user defined patterns of differentiated (fluorescent) droplets in a network of originally undifferentiated (non-fluorescent) droplets...
October 31, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792355/nonperturbative-twist-in-the-generation-of-extreme-ultraviolet-vortex-beams
#6
Laura Rego, Julio San Román, Antonio Picón, Luis Plaja, Carlos Hernández-García
High-order harmonic generation (HHG) has been recently proven to produce extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) vortices from the nonlinear conversion of infrared twisted beams. Previous works have demonstrated a linear scaling law of the vortex charge with the harmonic order. We demonstrate that this simple law hides an unexpectedly rich scenario for the buildup of orbital angular momentum (OAM) due to the nonperturbative behavior of HHG. The complexity of these twisted XUV beams appears only when HHG is driven by nonpure vortex modes, where the XUV OAM content is dramatically increased...
October 14, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791100/f901318-represents-a-novel-class-of-antifungal-drug-that-inhibits-dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase
#7
Jason D Oliver, Graham E M Sibley, Nicola Beckmann, Katharine S Dobb, Martin J Slater, Laura McEntee, Saskia du Pré, Joanne Livermore, Michael J Bromley, Nathan P Wiederhold, William W Hope, Anthony J Kennedy, Derek Law, Mike Birch
There is an important medical need for new antifungal agents with novel mechanisms of action to treat the increasing number of patients with life-threatening systemic fungal disease and to overcome the growing problem of resistance to current therapies. F901318, the leading representative of a novel class of drug, the orotomides, is an antifungal drug in clinical development that demonstrates excellent potency against a broad range of dimorphic and filamentous fungi. In vitro susceptibility testing of F901318 against more than 100 strains from the four main pathogenic Aspergillus spp...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782669/vapour-liquid-coexistence-of-an-active-lennard-jones-fluid
#8
Vasileios Prymidis, Siddharth Paliwal, Marjolein Dijkstra, Laura Filion
We study a three-dimensional system of self-propelled Lennard-Jones particles using Brownian dynamics simulations. Using recent theoretical results for active matter, we calculate the pressure and report equations of state for the system. Additionally, we chart the vapour-liquid coexistence and show that the coexistence densities can be well described using simple power laws. Lastly, we demonstrate that our out-of-equilibrium system shows deviations from both the law of rectilinear diameters and the law of corresponding states...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768528/focus-groups-of-parents-and-teens-help-develop-messages-to-prevent-early-marijuana-use-in-the-context-of-legal-retail-sales
#9
Martie L Skinner, Kevin P Haggerty, Mary Casey-Goldstein, Ronald W Thompson, Laura Buddenberg, W Alex Mason
OBJECTIVES: The changes in Washington State and Colorado marijuana laws call for the development of new brief family-focused adolescent marijuana use preventive interventions that are relevant for and tailored to the context of legalization for retail sale. To that end, focus groups with parents and teens were conducted to find out about their concerns and needs in the context of legalization. METHODS: Six semi-structured focus groups (3 with parents, 3 with teens) were conducted in Washington State in 2013 related to consequences of teen marijuana use and messages that would be effective in helping to prevent teens from using marijuana in the context of legal adult use...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729445/media-messages-and-perceptions-of-the-affordable-care-act-during-the-early-phase-of-implementation
#10
Erika Franklin Fowler, Laura Baum, Colleen Barry, Jeff Niederdeppe, Sarah E Gollust
Public opinion about the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been polarized since the law's passage. Past research suggests these conditions would make any media influence on the public limited at best. However, during the early phase of implementation, locally broadcast ACA-related media messages-in the form of paid health insurance and political advertisements and news media stories-abounded as advocates, insurance marketers, and politicians sought to shape the public's perceptions of the law. To what extent did message exposure affect ACA perceptions during the first open enrollment period? We merge data on volumes of messaging at the media market level with nationally representative survey data to examine the relationship between estimated exposure to media messaging and the public's perceptions of how informed they were about and favorable toward the ACA in October 2013...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719679/community-perspectives-on-the-determinants-of-maternal-health-in-rural-southern-mozambique-a-qualitative-study
#11
Tabassum Firoz, Marianne Vidler, Prestige Tatenda Makanga, Helena Boene, Rogério Chiaú, Esperança Sevene, Laura A Magee, Peter von Dadelszen, Khátia Munguambe
BACKGROUND: Mozambique has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The main influences on maternal health encompass social, economic, political, environmental and cultural determinants of health. To effectively address maternal mortality in the post-2015 agenda, interventions need to consider the determinants of health so that their delivery is not limited to the health sector. The objective of this exploratory qualitative study was to identify key community groups' perspectives on the perceived determinants of maternal health in rural areas of southern Mozambique...
September 30, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707790/landscape-of-genomic-alterations-in-pituitary-adenomas
#12
Wenya Linda Bi, Peleg Horowtiz, Noah Greenwald, Malak Abedalthagafi, Pankaj K Agarwalla, William J Gibson, Yu Mei, Steven E Schumacher, Uri Ben-David, Aaron Chevalier, Scott L Carter, Grace Tiao, Priscilla K Brastianos, Azra H Ligon, Matthew Ducar, Laura E MacConaill, Edward R Laws, Sandro Santagata, Rameen Beroukhim, Ian F Dunn
PURPOSE: Pituitary adenomas are the second most common primary brain tumor, yet their genetic profiles are incompletely understood. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed whole-exome sequencing of 42 pituitary macroadenomas and matched normal DNA. These adenomas included hormonally active and inactive tumors, ones with typical or atypical histology, and ones that were primary or recurrent. RESULTS: We identified mutations, insertions/deletions, and copy number alterations...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684376/a-study-of-physical-activity-comparing-people-with-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-to-normal-control-subjects
#13
Gita M Ramdharry, Alexander J Pollard, Robert Grant, Elizabeth L Dewar, Matilde Laurá, Sarah A Moore, Kate Hallsworth, Thomas Ploetz, Michael I Trenell, Mary M Reilly
PURPOSE: Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT) describes a group of hereditary neuropathies that present with distal weakness, wasting and sensory loss. Small studies indicate that people with CMT have reduced daily activity levels. This raises concerns as physical inactivity increases the risk of a range of co- morbidities, an important consideration in the long-term management of this disease. This study aimed to compare physical activity, patterns of sedentary behavior and overall energy expenditure of people with CMT and healthy matched controls...
August 16, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681737/children-s-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-during-ramadan-in-jakarta-indonesia
#14
Nurul Nadia H W Luntungan, M Justin Byron, Melbourne F Hovell, Laura J Rosen, Annisa Anggraeni, Vaughan W Rees
Secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) causes a disproportionate health burden for children, yet existing smoke-free laws are often poorly enforced. We monitored air quality while observing children and adult nonsmokers present in public venues during Ramadan, a period of Muslim religious observance marked by family and social gatherings, in Jakarta, Indonesia. A repeated-measures design was used to assess indoor air quality during and after Ramadan in 43 restaurants and in five smoke-free control venues. Fine particulate matter of 2...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678196/differences-in-hospital-readmission-risk-across-all-payer-groups-in-south-carolina
#15
Hrishikesh Chakraborty, Robert Neal Axon, Jordan Brittingham, Genevieve Ray Lyons, Laura Cole, Christine B Turley
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in hospital readmission risk across all payers in South Carolina (SC). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: South Carolina Revenue and Fiscal Affairs Office (SCRFA) statewide all payer claims database including 2,476,431 hospitalizations in SC acute care hospitals between 2008 and 2014. STUDY DESIGN: We compared the odds of unplanned all-cause 30-day readmission for private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, uninsured, and other payers and examined interaction effects between payer and index admission characteristics using generalized estimating equations...
September 28, 2016: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651891/complying-with-the-framework-convention-for-tobacco-control-an-application-of-the-abridged-simsmoke-model-to-israel
#16
David Levy, David B Abrams, Jeffrey Levy, Laura Rosen
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) established the MPOWER policy package to provide practical country-level guidance on implementing effective policies to reduce smoking rates. The Abridged SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model is applied to Israel to estimate the effects on reducing smoking-attributable mortality resulting from full implementation of MPOWER policies. METHODS: Smoking prevalence from the 2014 Israel National Health Interview Survey 3 and population data from the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate the number of current smokers...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645254/factors-that-influence-attitude-and-enforcement-of-the-smoke-free-law-in-turkey-a-survey-of-hospitality-venue-owners-and-employees
#17
Angela Aherrera, Asli Çarkoğlu, Mutlu Hayran, Gül Ergör, Toker Ergüder, Bekir Kaplan, Jolie Susan, Laura Zheng, Joanna E Cohen, Ana Navas-Acien
INTRODUCTION: In 2009, Turkey extended the smoke-free legislation to hospitality venues. Compliance, however, remains low in some hospitality venues. We identified characteristics associated with knowledge of health effects that can be prevented by the smoke-free law, the attitude towards and enforcement of the law. METHODS: In 2014, we conducted 400 interviews with hospitality venue owners and employees in 7 cities in Turkey. The venues were identified based on a random sampling strategy in a previous phase of the study...
September 19, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636245/knee-pain-severity-rather-than-structural-damage-is-a-risk-factor-for-incident-widespread-pain-the-multicenter-osteoarthritis-most-study
#18
Lisa C Carlesso, Neil Segal, Jeffrey R Curtis, Barton L Wise, Laura Frey Law, Michael Nevitt, Tuhina Neogi
OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relation of knee pain, radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA), symptomatic knee OA (SxOA) and knee pain severity to incident widespread pain (WSP). METHODS: The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study is a longitudinal cohort of persons with or at risk of knee OA. Participants were characterized with regards to consistent frequent knee pain (CFKP), ROA (Kellgren & Lawrence grade ≥2), SxOA, and knee pain severity at the 60-month visit (baseline)...
September 16, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634839/-i-wasn-t-texting-i-was-just-reading-an-email-%C3%A2-a-qualitative-study-of-distracted-driving-enforcement-in-washington-state
#19
Paul E Nevin, Laura Blanar, Annie Phare Kirk, Amy Freedheim, Robert Kaufman, Laura Hitchcock, Jennifer D Maeser, Beth E Ebel
BACKGROUND: In response to the rise of distracted driving, many countries and most US states have adopted laws to restrict the use of handheld phones for drivers. Specific provisions of each law and the overall social mores of distracted driving influence enforceability and impact. OBJECTIVES: Identify multilevel interdependent factors that influence distracted driving enforcement through the perspective of police officers. DESIGN/METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions with active duty law enforcement officers from three large Washington State counties...
September 15, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621337/assessing-injury-and-violence-prevention-in-north-carolina-s-local-health-departments
#20
Mary S Mouw, Jennifer Counts, Corinne Fordham, Molly Merrill Francis, Laura E Bach, Suzanne Maman, Scott K Proescholdbell
BACKGROUND: Injury and violence-related morbidity and mortality present a major public health problem in North Carolina. However, the extent to which local health departments (LHDs) engage in injury and violence prevention (IVP) has not been well described. OBJECTIVES: One objective of the current study is to provide a baseline assessment of IVP in the state's LHDs, describing capacity, priorities, challenges, and the degree to which programs are data-driven and evidence-based...
September 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
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