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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457631/non-invasive-genetic-censusing-and-monitoring-of-primate-populations
#1
REVIEW
Mimi Arandjelovic, Linda Vigilant
Knowing the density or abundance of primate populations is essential for their conservation management and contextualizing socio-demographic and behavioral observations. When direct counts of animals are not possible, genetic analysis of non-invasive samples collected from wildlife populations allows estimates of population size with higher accuracy and precision than is possible using indirect signs. Furthermore, in contrast to traditional indirect survey methods, prolonged or periodic genetic sampling across months or years enables inference of group membership, movement, dynamics, and some kin relationships...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455139/implications-of-movement-for-species-distribution-models-rethinking-environmental-data-tools
#2
REVIEW
Stijn Bruneel, Sacha Gobeyn, Pieterjan Verhelst, Jan Reubens, Tom Moens, Peter Goethals
Movement is considered an essential process in shaping the distributions of species. Nevertheless, most species distribution models (SDMs) still focus solely on environment-species relationships to predict the occurrence of species. Furthermore, the currently used indirect estimates of movement allow to assess habitat accessibility, but do not provide an accurate description of movement. Better proxies of movement are needed to assess the dispersal potential of individual species and to gain a more practical insight in the interconnectivity of communities...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454622/development-of-adjuvanted-solid-fat-nanoemulsions-for-pulmonary-hepatitis-b-vaccination
#3
Sunita Minz, Ravi Shankar Pandey
Pulmonary vaccination is one of the most promising routes for immunization owing to its non-invasive nature and induction of strong mucosal immunity and systemic response. In the present study, recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen loaded solid fat nanoemulsions (SFNs) as carrier system and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) as an adjuvant-carrier system was prepared and evaluated as multi adjuvanted vaccine system for deep pulmonary vaccination. Deposition and clearance from the deep lung of rats were determined by gamma scintigraphy...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449081/urinary-concentrations-of-benzophenone-type-ultra-violet-light-filters-and-reproductive-parameters-in-young-men
#4
Evdochia Adoamnei, Jaime Mendiola, Miriam Moñino-García, Fernando Vela-Soria, Luz M Iribarne-Durán, Mariana F Fernández, Nicolás Olea, Niels Jørgensen, Shanna H Swan, Alberto M Torres-Cantero
BACKGROUND: Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) light filters are chemicals frequently added to personal care products, insect repellents, sunscreens, and beverage and food packaging to diminish the harmful effects of UV sunlight on human skin or foodstuffs. BP-type UV filters have shown negative effects on male reproduction function in in vitro and animal models, but human epidemiologic studies are limited. The goal of this study was to examine associations between urinary concentrations of BP-type UV filters and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446237/going-through-the-motions-incorporating-movement-analyses-into-disease-research
#5
REVIEW
Eric R Dougherty, Dana P Seidel, Colin J Carlson, Orr Spiegel, Wayne M Getz
Though epidemiology dates back to the 1700s, most mathematical representations of epidemics still use transmission rates averaged at the population scale, especially for wildlife diseases. In simplifying the contact process, we ignore the heterogeneities in host movements that complicate the real world, and overlook their impact on spatiotemporal patterns of disease burden. Movement ecology offers a set of tools that help unpack the transmission process, letting researchers more accurately model how animals within a population interact and spread pathogens...
February 14, 2018: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444100/super-ranging-a-new-ranging-strategy-in-european-badgers
#6
Aoibheann Gaughran, David J Kelly, Teresa MacWhite, Enda Mullen, Peter Maher, Margaret Good, Nicola M Marples
We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles) population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females) remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22%) regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442371/good-daphnia-parents-do-not-control-the-offspring-microbiome
#7
Angela E Douglas
In Focus: Mushegian, A. A., Walser, J. -C., Sullam, K. E., & Ebert, D. (2018). The microbiota of diapause: How host-microbe associations are formed after dormancy in an aquatic crustacean. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 400-413. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12709. All animals are colonized by micro-organisms, most of which are benign or beneficial. Where do these micro-organisms come from? Theory predicts that micro-organisms which are transmitted vertically from parent to offspring are especially likely to be beneficial to the host, while horizontally acquired micro-organisms are opportunistic and more variable in their impact on host performance...
March 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440415/coprolites-reveal-ecological-interactions-lost-with-the-extinction-of-new-zealand-birds
#8
Alexander P Boast, Laura S Weyrich, Jamie R Wood, Jessica L Metcalf, Rob Knight, Alan Cooper
Over the past 50,000 y, biotic extinctions and declines have left a legacy of vacant niches and broken ecological interactions across global terrestrial ecosystems. Reconstructing the natural, unmodified ecosystems that preceded these events relies on high-resolution analyses of paleoecological deposits. Coprolites are a source of uniquely detailed information about trophic interactions and the behaviors, gut parasite communities, and microbiotas of prehistoric animal species. Such insights are critical for understanding the legacy effects of extinctions on ecosystems, and can help guide contemporary conservation and ecosystem restoration efforts...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436500/seed-ingestion-and-germination-in-rattlesnakes-overlooked-agents-of-rescue-and-secondary-dispersal
#9
Randall S Reiserer, Gordon W Schuett, Harry W Greene
Seed dispersal is a key evolutionary process and a central theme in the population ecology of terrestrial plants. The primary producers of most land-based ecosystems are propagated by and maintained through various mechanisms of seed dispersal that involve both abiotic and biotic modes of transportation. By far the most common biotic seed transport mechanism is zoochory, whereby seeds, or fruits containing them, are dispersed through the activities of animals. Rodents are one group of mammals that commonly prey on seeds (granivores) and play a critical, often destructive, role in primary dispersal and the dynamics of plant communities...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435234/epizoochorous-dispersal-by-ungulates-depends-on-fur-grooming-and-social-interactions
#10
Océane Liehrmann, Flore Jégoux, Marie-Alice Guilbert, Francis Isselin-Nondedeu, Sonia Saïd, Yann Locatelli, Christophe Baltzinger
The transport phase of the animal-mediated plant dispersal process is critical to dispersal effectiveness as it determines the spatial distribution of the diaspores released and their chance for further recruitment. Assessing this specific phase of the dispersal process generally requires combining diaspore retention times with the associated distances covered. Here, we specifically tested the effect of grooming behavior, interindividual contacts and ungulate fur on diaspore retention times and associated dispersal distances for the hooked diaspores of Xanthium strumarium L...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434781/metoprolol-protects-cardiomyocytes-in-rabbit-model-of-heart-failure-by-regulating-cx43
#11
Hu Zhai, Wenyi Dai, Yu Wang
This study investigated the protective effect of metoprolol on cardiomyocytes in rabbits with heart failure and its possible mechanism. Sixty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into infarction group and non-infarction group, 30 in each group. Myocardial infarction was constructed by ligation of anterior descending branch of coronary artery. Coronary artery threading without ligation after thoracotomy was performed for rabbits in non-infarction group. After model construction, rabbits in each group were further divided into control group (n=15) and metoprolol group (n=15), and fed with normal diet and normal diet + metoprolol...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428874/a-novel-hepatitis-b-virus-species-discovered-in-capuchin-monkeys-sheds-new-light-on-the-evolution-of-primate-hepadnaviruses
#12
Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez Souza, Alexander König, Andrea Rasche, Ianei de Oliveira Carneiro, Nora Stephan, Victor Max Corman, Pia Luise Roppert, Nora Goldmann, Ramona Kepper, Simon Franz Müller, Christof Völker, Alex Junior Souza de Souza, Michele Soares Gomes-Gouvêa, Andrés Moreira-Soto, Andreas Stöcker, Michael Nassal, Carlos Roberto Franke, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Manoel do Carmo Pereira Soares, Joachim Geyer, Philippe Lemey, Christian Drosten, Eduardo Martins Netto, Dieter Glebe, Jan Felix Drexler
BACKGROUND & AIMS: All known hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes occur in humans and hominoid Old World nonhuman primates (NHP). The divergent Woolly Monkey HBV (WMHBV) forms another orthohepadnavirus species. The evolutionary origins of HBV are unclear. METHODS: We analyzed sera from 124 Brazilian monkeys collected during 2012-2016 for hepadnaviruses using molecular and serological tools and conducted evolutionary analyses. RESULTS: We identified a novel orthohepadnavirus species in capuchin monkeys (CMHBV)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428457/molecular-diversity-and-conjugal-transferability-of-class-2-integrons-among-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-food-animal-and-human-sources
#13
Carla Andrea Alonso, Gerardo Cortés-Cortés, Elaa Maamar, Mariana Massó, Rosa Del Carmen Rocha-Gracia, Carmen Torres, Daniela Centrón, María Paula Quiroga
Integrons are genetic platforms able to excise, integrate and express antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. Here, we investigate the complete genetic organization, genetic environment, location and conjugative transferability of a collection of class 2 integrons carried by E. coli strains from different sources (poultry/pork-meat, animals, and humans). PCR cartography was conducted to determine the genetic arrangement of the integrons, their physical linkage to Tn7 and the chromosomal insertion at attTn7 site...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425261/timing-of-seed-dispersal-and-seed-dormancy-in-brazilian-savanna-two-solutions-to-face-seasonality
#14
Diego F E Escobar, Fernando A O Silveira, Leonor Patricia C Morellato
Background and Aims: The relationship between fruiting phenology and seed dispersal syndrome is widely recognized; however, the interaction of dormancy classes and plant life-history traits in relation to fruiting phenology and seed dispersal is understudied. Here we examined the relationship between fruiting season and seed dormancy and how this relationship is modulated by dormancy classes, dispersal syndromes, seed mass and seed moisture content in a Brazilian savanna (cerrado). Methods: Dormancy classes (non-dormancy and physical, morphological, morphophysiological, physiological and physiophysical dormancy) of 34 cerrado species were experimentally determined...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424463/spin-lock-imaging-of-early-tissue-ph-changes-in-ischemic-rat-brain
#15
Zhongliang Zu, Aqeela Afzal, Hua Li, Jingping Xie, John C Gore
We have previously reported that the dispersion of spin-lattice relaxation rates in the rotating frame (R1ρ ) of tissue water protons at high field can be dominated by chemical exchange contributions. Ischemia in brain causes changes in tissue pH, which in turn may affect proton exchange rates. Amide proton transfer (APT, a form of chemical exchange saturation transfer) has been shown to be sensitive to chemical exchange rates and able to detect pH changes non-invasively following ischemic stroke. However, the specificity of APT to pH changes is decreased because of the influence of several other factors that affect magnetization transfer...
February 9, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424459/spin-lock-imaging-of-3-o-methyl-d-glucose-3omg-in-brain-tumors
#16
Zhongliang Zu, Xiaoyu Jiang, Junzhong Xu, John C Gore
PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of spin-lock imaging to detect the uptake of 3-o-methyl-D-glucose (3oMG) in normal brain and brain tumors in animals. METHODS: Measurements of the longitudinal relaxation rate in the rotating frame (R 1ρ ) were made over a range of spin-lock powers in rat brains bearing 9L tumors. The dispersion of R 1ρ values was quantified by ΔR 1ρ , the difference of R 1ρ values acquired with low and high locking powers. The glucose analogue 3oMG was administered intravenously and the differences of ΔR 1ρ values ( ΔR1ρdiff) before and as a function of time after administration were calculated to isolate the contribution of 3oMG to the dispersions, which at high fields primarily reflects chemical exchange effects...
February 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422505/independent-estimates-of-marine-population-connectivity-are-more-concordant-when-accounting-for-uncertainties-in-larval-origins
#17
R Nolasco, I Gomes, L Peteiro, R Albuquerque, T Luna, J Dubert, S E Swearer, H Queiroga
Marine larval dispersal is a complex biophysical process that depends on the effects of species biology and oceanography, leading to logistical difficulties in estimating connectivity among populations of marine animals with biphasic life cycles. To address this challenge, the application of multiple methodological approaches has been advocated, in order to increase confidence in estimates of population connectivity. However, studies seldom account for sources of uncertainty associated with each method, which undermines a direct comparative approach...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420807/transoceanic-dispersal-and-plate-tectonics-shaped-global-cockroach-distributions-evidence-from-mitochondrial-phylogenomics
#18
Thomas Bourguignon, Tang Qian, Simon Y W Ho, Frantisek Juna, Zongqing Wang, Daej A Arab, Stephen L Cameron, James Walker, David Rentz, Theodore A Evans, Nathan Lo
Following the acceptance of plate tectonics theory in the latter half of the 20th century, vicariance became the dominant explanation for the distributions of many plant and animal groups. In recent years, however, molecular-clock analyses have challenged a number of well-accepted hypotheses of vicariance. As a widespread group of insects with a fossil record dating back 300 million years, cockroaches provide an ideal model for testing hypotheses of vicariance through plate tectonics vs transoceanic dispersal...
February 6, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415102/applicability-of-eddy-covariance-to-estimate-methane-emissions-from-grazing-cattle
#19
Trevor W Coates, Marcelo A Benvenutti, Thomas K Flesch, Ed Charmley, Sean M McGinn, Deli Chen
Grazing systems represent a significant source of enteric methane (CH), but available techniques for quantifying herd scale emissions are limited. This study explores the capability of an eddy covariance (EC) measurement system for long-term monitoring of CH emissions from grazing cattle. Measurements were made in two pasture settings: in the center of a large grazing paddock, and near a watering point where animals congregated during the day. Cattle positions were monitored through time-lapse images, and this information was used with a Lagrangian stochastic dispersion model to interpret EC fluxes and derive per-animal CH emission rates...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415084/mr-guided-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-safely-enhances-interstitial-dispersion-of-large-polymeric-nanoparticles-in-the-living-brain
#20
David S Hersh, Pavlos Anastasiadis, Ali Mohammadabadi, Ben A Nguyen, Sijia Guo, Jeffrey A Winkles, Anthony J Kim, Rao Gullapalli, Asaf Keller, Victor Frenkel, Graeme F Woodworth
Generating spatially controlled, non-destructive changes in the interstitial spaces of the brain has a host of potential clinical applications, including enhancing the delivery of therapeutics, modulating biological features within the tissue microenvironment, altering fluid and pressure dynamics, and increasing the clearance of toxins, such as plaques found in Alzheimer's disease. Recently we demonstrated that ultrasound can non-destructively enlarge the interstitial spaces of the brain ex vivo. The goal of the current study was to determine whether these effects could be reproduced in the living brain using non-invasive, transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS)...
2018: PloS One
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