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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092623/ultrasonography-a-method-used-for-pregnancy-imaging-of-the-fire-salamander-salamandra-salamandra
#1
A Najbar, Z Kiełbowicz, J Szymczak, M Ogielska
Ultrasound imaging has more frequently been used in veterinary medicine of amphibians and reptiles. In this study, we have verified the usefulness of ultrasound imaging in pregnancy determination of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. We have also undertaken to estimate the number of larvae and their developmental stage directly in the oviducts. Three gravid females from Lower Silesia (southern Poland) were examined. Due to the small size of the scanned animals, and the particular arrangement of embryos in the oviducts and ultrasound beams dispersal, the method proved to be inaccurate...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091855/combining-dispersion-modelling-with-synoptic-patterns-to-understand-the-wind-borne-transport-into-the-uk-of-the-bluetongue-disease-vector
#2
Laura Burgin, Marie Ekström, Suraje Dessai
Bluetongue, an economically important animal disease, can be spread over long distances by carriage of insect vectors (Culicoides biting midges) on the wind. The weather conditions which influence the midge's flight are controlled by synoptic scale atmospheric circulations. A method is proposed that links wind-borne dispersion of the insects to synoptic circulation through the use of a dispersion model in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. We illustrate how to identify the main synoptic situations present during times of midge incursions into the UK from the European continent...
January 14, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089740/early-remodeling-of-repolarizing-k-currents-in-the-%C3%AE-mhc-403-mouse-model-of-familial-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#3
Rocco Hueneke, Adam Adenwala, Rebecca L Mellor, Jonathan G Seidman, Christine E Seidman, Jeanne M Nerbonne
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), linked to mutations in myosin, myosin-binding proteins and other sarcolemmal proteins, is associated with increased risk of life threatening ventricular arrhythmias, and a number of animal models have been developed to facilitate analysis of disease progression and mechanisms. In the experiments here, we use the αMHC(403/+) mouse line in which one αMHC allele harbors a common HCM mutation (in βMHC, Arg403 Gln). Here, we demonstrate marked prolongation of QT intervals in young adult (10-12week) male αMHC(403/+) mice, well in advance of the onset of measurable left ventricular hypertrophy...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088635/mucoadhesive-amorphous-solid-dispersions-for-sustained-release-of-poorly-water-soluble-drugs
#4
Justin S LaFountaine, Leena Kumari Prasad, Dave A Miller, James W McGinity, Robert O Williams
The oral delivery of mucoadhesive patches has been shown to enhance the absorption of large molecules such as peptides. We hypothesized that this mechanism could have utility for poorly soluble small molecules by utilizing a mucoadhesive polymer as the matrix for an amorphous solid dispersion. Binary dispersions of itraconazole and carbomer (Carbopol 71G) were prepared utilizing a thermokinetic mixing process (KinetiSol Dispersing) and the physicochemical properties were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction, calorimetry, and liquid chromatography...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088478/comparison-of-the-adjuvant-activity-of-emulsions-with-different-physicochemical-properties-on-the-antibody-response-towards-the-venom-of-west-african-carpet-viper-echis-ocellatus
#5
Juan Manuel Valverde, Karina Rodríguez, María Herrera, Álvaro Segura, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Mavis Montero, Jose María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León
Adjuvant emulsions are widely used to enhance the antibody response of the animals used as immunoglobulin source for producing antivenoms. Usually, the adjuvant activity of emulsions is attributed both to their ability to trigger "danger" signals from cells in which they induce death, and to form depots from which immunogens are slowly released. However, there is contradictory evidence suggesting that adjuvant activity of emulsions is independent of the dispersion type and the rate of immunogen release. In order to test how physical properties of emulsions, composed of mineral oil and water, affect their ability to enhance the antibody response towards snake venoms, we compared water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions prepared at volume ratios of 70/30, 50/50 or 30/70, a 50/50 oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, and a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion...
January 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087763/circadian-kinetics-of-cell-cycle-progression-in-adult-neurogenic-niches-of-a-diurnal-vertebrate
#6
Veronica Akle, Alexander J Stankiewicz, Vasili Kharchenko, Lili Yu, Peter V Kharchenko, Irina V Zhdanova
: The circadian system may regulate adult neurogenesis via intracellular molecular clock mechanisms or by modifying the environment of neurogenic niches, with daily variation in growth factors or nutrients depending on the animal's diurnal or nocturnal life-style. In a diurnal vertebrate, zebrafish, we studied circadian distribution of immunohistochemical markers of the cell division cycle (CDC) in five of the sixteen neurogenic niches of adult brain, the dorsal telencephalon, habenula, preoptic area, hypothalamus and cerebellum...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080995/rapid-emergence-of-pathogens-in-agro-ecosystems-global-threats-to-agricultural-sustainability-and-food-security
#7
REVIEW
Bruce A McDonald, Eva H Stukenbrock
Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078452/do-deer-and-raccoons-defecate-in-the-right-place-fitness-consequences-of-vertebrate-seed-dispersal-for-a-deciduous-forest-herb
#8
Eric C Niederhauser, Glenn R Matlack
Precision of seed placement in a heterogeneous environment is often assumed to select for the evolution of animal-mediated dispersal systems, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a multivariate sense. We quantify the microsite fitness benefits of dispersal by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) for mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum), a shade-tolerant perennial herb, in deciduous forests of southeastern Ohio, USA. Micro-environmental variables were recorded at dung-deposition microsites, at rooting points of mayapple shoots, and at random (control) points in the forest...
January 11, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077373/determination-of-renal-function-and-injury-using-near-infrared-fluorimetry-in-experimental-cardiorenal-syndrome
#9
Mizuko Ikeda, Rumie Wakasaki, Katie J Schenning, Thomas Swide, Jeong Heon Lee, M Bernie Miller, Hak Soo Choi, Sharon Anderson, Michael P Hutchens
Cardiorenal syndrome type 1 causes acute kidney injury but is poorly understood; animal models and diagnostic aids are lacking. Robust noninvasive measurements of glomerular filtration rate are required for injury models and clinical use. Several have been described but are untested in translational models and suffer from biologic interference. We developed a mouse model of cardiorenal syndrome and tested the novel near-infrared fluorophore, ZW800-1, to assess renal and cardiac function. We performed murine cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation followed by transthoracic echocardiography, 2- and 24h later...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#10
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069128/on-line-mspd-spe-hplc-fld-analysis-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-bovine-tissues
#11
Tania M Gutiérrez-Valencia, Martha P García de Llasera
A fast method was optimized and validated for simultaneous trace determination of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in bovine tissues. The determination was performed by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) coupled on-line to solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD). The sample was dispersed on C18 silica sorbent and then the on-line MSPD-SPE-HPLC/FLD method was applied...
May 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068097/characterization-of-phase-separation-propensity-for-amorphous-spray-dried-dispersions
#12
Daniel McNamara, Shawn Yin, Duohai Pan, George Crull, Peter Timmins, Balvinder Vig
A generalized screening approach, applying isothermal calorimetry at 37°C 100%RH, to formulations of spray dried dispersions (SDDs) for two active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) (BMS-903452 and BMS-986034) is demonstrated. APIs 452 and 034, with similar chemotypes, were synthesized and promoted during development for oral dosing. Both APIs were formulated as SDDs for animal exposure studies using the polymer hydroxypropylmethlycellulose acetyl succinate M grade (HPMCAS M). 452 formulated at 30% (wt/wt%) was an extremely robust SDD that was able to withstand 40°C 75%RH open storage conditions for 6 months with no physical evidence of crystallization or loss of dissolution performance...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056072/clarifying-the-cryptic-host-specificity-of-blastocystis-spp-isolates-from-alouatta-palliata-and-a-pigra-howler-monkeys
#13
Claudia Villanueva-Garcia, Elias Jose Gordillo-Chavez, Eduardo Lopez-Escamilla, Emilio Rendon-Franco, Claudia Irais Muñoz-Garcia, Lilia Gama, Williams Arony Martinez-Flores, Nayeli Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Mirza Romero-Valdovinos, Hilda Diaz-Lopez, Jose Galian, Guiehdani Villalobos, Pablo Maravilla, Fernando Martinez-Hernandez
Although the presence of cryptic host specificity has been documented in Blastocystis, differences in infection rates and high genetic polymorphism within and between populations of some subtypes (ST) have impeded the clarification of the generalist or specialist specificity of this parasite. We assessed the genetic variability and host specificity of Blastocystis spp. in wild howler monkeys from two rainforest areas in the southeastern region of Mexico. Fecal samples of 225 Alouatta palliata (59) and A. pigra (166) monkeys, belonging to 16 sylvatic sites, were analyzed for infection with Blastocystis ST using a region of the small subunit rDNA (SSUrDNA) gene as a marker...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047870/tu-h-campus-tep2-03-high-sensitivity-and-high-resolution-fiber-based-micro-detector-for-sub-millimeter-preclinical-dosimetry
#14
E Izaguirre, S Pokhrel, S Hedrick, T Knewtson
PURPOSE: Current precision of small animal and cell micro-irradiators has continuously increased during the past years. Currently, preclinical irradiators can deliver sub-millimeter fields with micrometric precision but there are no water equivalent dosimeters to determine small field profiles and dose in the orthovoltage range of energies with micrometric resolution and precision. We have developed a fiber based micro-dosimeter with the resolution and dosimetric accuracy required for radiobiological research...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046379/we-ab-bra-01-biodistribution-of-paclitaxel-loaded-nanodroplets-for-prostate-cancer-management-using-ultrasound-mediated-drug-delivery-under-mrguidance
#15
R Gupta, D Cvetkovic, B Wang, L Chen, C Ma
PURPOSE: To study the biodistribution of paclitaxel-loaded nanodroplets in vivo in order to evaluate the efficacy of focused ultrasound (FUS)-mediated drug delivery under MR-guidance to prostate tumor. METHODS: Poly {ethylene oxide}-co-poly {D, L-lactide} (PDLA) nanodroplets loaded with fluorescently labeled-paclitaxel (F-PTX) were synthesized using solid dispersion technique. Human prostate cancer, LNCaP cells were implanted orthotopically in prostates of male nude mice...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045457/endemicity-of-the-cosmopolitan-mesophilic-chemolithoautotroph-sulfurimonas-at-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vents
#16
Sayaka Mino, Satoshi Nakagawa, Hiroko Makita, Tomohiro Toki, Junichi Miyazaki, Stefan M Sievert, Martin F Polz, Fumio Inagaki, Anne Godfroy, Shingo Kato, Hiromi Watanabe, Takuro Nunoura, Koichi Nakamura, Hiroyuki Imachi, Tomo-O Watsuji, Shigeaki Kojima, Ken Takai, Tomoo Sawabe
Rich animal and microbial communities have been found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Although the biogeography of vent macrofauna is well understood, the corresponding knowledge about vent microbial biogeography is lacking. Here, we apply the multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to assess the genetic variation of 109 Sulfurimonas strains with ⩾98% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, which were isolated from four different geographical regions (Okinawa Trough (OT), Mariana Volcanic Arc and Trough (MVAT), Central Indian Ridge (CIR) and Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR))...
January 3, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042108/dynamics-of-reintroduced-populations-of-oedipoda-caerulescens-orthoptera-acrididae-over-21-years
#17
Bruno Baur, G Heinrich Thommen, Armin Coray
Conservation programs increasingly involve the reintroduction of animals which otherwise would not recolonize restored habitats. We assessed the long-term success of a project in which the Blue-winged grasshopper, Oedipoda caerulescens (L., 1758), was reintroduced to a nature reserve in Northwestern Switzerland, an alluvial gravel area where the species went extinct in the 1960s. In summer 1995, we released 110 individuals (50 females and 60 males) and 204 individuals (101 females and 103 males) into two restored gravel patches with sparse vegetation...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025274/mitochondrial-phylogenomics-resolves-the-global-spread-of-higher-termites-ecosystem-engineers-of-the-tropics
#18
Thomas Bourguignon, Nathan Lo, Jan Šobotník, Simon Y W Ho, Naeem Iqbal, Eric Coissac, Maria Lee, Martin M Jendryka, David Sillam-Dussès, Barbora Křížková, Yves Roisin, Theodore A Evans
The higher termites (Termitidae) are keystone species and ecosystem engineers. They have exceptional biomass and play important roles in decomposition of dead plant matter, in soil manipulation, and as the primary food for many animals, especially in the tropics. Higher termites are most diverse in rainforests, with estimated origins in the late Eocene (∼54 Ma), postdating the breakup of Pangaea and Gondwana when most continents became separated. Since termites are poor fliers, their origin and spread across the globe requires alternative explanation...
December 25, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024456/thrombospondin-1-mediates-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-induced-impairment-of-arteriolar-dilation
#19
W Kyle Mandler, Timothy R Nurkiewicz, Dale W Porter, I Mark Olfert
Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has been shown to disrupt endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation in the peripheral microcirculation. The molecular mechanisms behind these arteriolar disruptions have yet to be fully elucidated. The secreted matricellular matrix protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is capable of moderating arteriolar vasodilation by inhibiting soluble guanylate cyclase activity. We hypothesized that TSP-1 may be a link between nanomaterial exposure and observed peripheral microvascular dysfunction...
December 26, 2016: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018645/a-random-walk-description-of-individual-animal-movement-accounting-for-periods-of-rest
#20
Paulo F C Tilles, Sergei V Petrovskii, Paulo L Natti
Animals do not move all the time but alternate the period of actual movement (foraging) with periods of rest (e.g. eating or sleeping). Although the existence of rest times is widely acknowledged in the literature and has even become a focus of increased attention recently, the theoretical approaches to describe animal movement by calculating the dispersal kernel and/or the mean squared displacement (MSD) rarely take rests into account. In this study, we aim to bridge this gap. We consider a composite stochastic process where the periods of active dispersal or 'bouts' (described by a certain baseline probability density function (pdf) of animal dispersal) alternate with periods of immobility...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
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