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Animal dispersal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908607/a-novel-naphthalene-carboxylic-acid-based-ionic-liquid-mixed-disperser-combined-with-ultrasonic-enhanced-in-situ-metathesis-reaction-for-preconcentration-of-triclosan-and-methyltriclosan-in-milk-and-eggs
#1
Xuedong Wang, Mei Wang, Xuran Wang, Liyang Du, Fangyu Chu, Weinan Ding, Haidong Gu, Huili Wang
A microextraction method was developed based on utilization of a novel ionic liquid (IL) [C4 MIM][NCA] as disperser and conventional ILs as extractor (IL-IL-DLLME). This method was integrated with an in-situ metathesis reaction to achieve high extraction efficiency by eliminating the loss of analytes in the discarded disperser after microextraction. Ultrasonic energy was compared to traditional mechanical shaking to accelerate the in-situ metathesis reaction. A 3-min ultrasonic treatment provided similar extraction efficiency as a 120-min mechanical shaking...
October 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902275/the-invasiveness-of-hypochaeris-glabra-asteraceae-responses-in-morphological-and-reproductive-traits-for-exotic-populations
#2
Irene Martín-Forés, Belén Acosta-Gallo, Isabel Castro, José M de Miguel, Alejandro Del Pozo, Miguel A Casado
Scientists have been interested in many topics driven by biological invasions, such as shifts in the area of distribution of plant species and rapid evolution. Invasiveness of exotic plant species depends on variations on morphological and reproductive traits potentially associated with reproductive fitness and dispersal ability, which are expected to undergo changes during the invasion process. Numerous Asteraceae are invasive and display dimorphic fruits, resulting in a bet-hedging dispersal strategy -wind-dispersed fruits versus animal-dispersed fruits-...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899077/to-adapt-or-go-extinct-the-fate-of-megafaunal-palm-fruits-under-past-global-change
#3
Renske E Onstein, William J Baker, Thomas L P Couvreur, Søren Faurby, Leonel Herrera-Alsina, Jens-Christian Svenning, W Daniel Kissling
Past global change may have forced animal-dispersed plants with megafaunal fruits to adapt or go extinct, but these processes have remained unexplored at broad spatio-temporal scales. Here, we combine phylogenetic, distributional and fruit size data for more than 2500 palm (Arecaceae) species in a time-slice diversification analysis to quantify how extinction and adaptation have changed over deep time. Our results indicate that extinction rates of palms with megafaunal fruits have increased in the New World since the onset of the Quaternary (2...
June 13, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898892/mitochondrial-ros-drive-sudden-cardiac-death-and-chronic-proteome-remodeling-in-heart-failure
#4
Swati Dey, Deeptankar DeMazumder, Agnieszka Sidor, D B Foster, Brian O'Rourke
<u>Rationale:</u> Despite increasing prevalence and incidence of heart failure (HF), therapeutic options remain limited. In early stages of HF, sudden cardiac death (SCD) from ventricular arrhythmias claims many lives. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in both arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction. However, little is known about how ROS in specific subcellular compartments contribute to HF or SCD pathophysiology. The role of ROS in chronic proteome remodeling has not been explored...
June 13, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897918/overwintering-aggregations-are-part-of-hippodamia-undecimnotata-s-coleoptera-coccinellidae-mating-system
#5
Eline Catherine Susset, Jean-Louis Hemptinne, Etienne Danchin, Alexandra Magro
Aggregation during diapause is a common phenomenon in arthropods that nevertheless remains poorly understood. The most commonly claimed benefit is that survival is higher in aggregations but animal aggregations could also be driven by sexual selection. In this perspective, we investigated whether aggregations in insects could be part of their mating system. We studied the overwintering aggregations of the ladybird Hippodamia undecimnotata (Schneider), an aphidophagous species from Southern and Eastern Europe as well as Asia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892411/research-on-regeneration-methods-of-animal-glue-waste-sand-for-foundry
#6
Li Ying-Min, Wang Tian-Shu, Liu Wei-Hua
Sand moulds are used in the casting process. However, after heating, the binder in the sand loses the binding properties, and the most part of the foundry sand has to be discarded from the process. The waste foundry sand after the regeneration can be recycled, and reclamation can reduce the production cost and lower waste emissions. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility of reusing the animal glue binder waste foundry sand from the study of three regeneration methods. Studies with the waste foundry sand and reclaimed sand were performed in order to compare the results obtained with raw sand...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892272/-symbiodinium-induced-formation-of-microbialites-mechanistic-insights-from-in-vitro-experiments-and-the-prospect-of-its-occurrence-in-nature
#7
Jörg C Frommlet, Daniel Wangpraseurt, Maria L Sousa, Bárbara Guimarães, Mariana Medeiros da Silva, Michael Kühl, João Serôdio
Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium exhibit a variety of life styles, ranging from mutualistic endosymbioses with animal and protist hosts to free-living life styles. In culture, Symbiodinium spp. and naturally associated bacteria are known to form calcifying biofilms that produce so-called symbiolites, i.e., aragonitic microbialites that incorporate Symbiodinium as endolithic cells. In this study, we investigated (i) how algal growth and the combined physiological activity of these bacterial-algal associations affect the physicochemical macroenvironment in culture and the microenvironment within bacterial-algal biofilms, and (ii) how these interactions induce the formation of symbiolites...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891340/determination-of-the-temperature-causing-a-nociceptive-response-in-the-tail-of-albino-balb-c-mice
#8
E E Aguirre Siancas, N M Lam Figueroa, J C Delgado Rios, E Ruiz Ramirez, O S Portilla Flores, L J Crispín Huamaní, L Alarcón Velásquez
INTRODUCTION: Designs for determining nociceptive response in rodents are of great use in neurology and experimental neuroscience. Immersing mice's tails in warm water is one of the most widely used procedures to evaluate this response; however, a wide range of temperatures are used in different studies. Knowing the temperature that produces a powerful nociceptive response in the tail of BALB/c mice is extremely useful. METHODS: Eight 2-month-old male BALB/c mice were used...
June 8, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885244/reading-between-the-vines-hosts-as-islands-for-extreme-holoparasitic-plants
#9
Todd J Barkman, Matthew R Klooster, Keith D Gaddis, Brian Franzone, Sondra Calhoun, Sugumaran Manickam, Suyanee Vessabutr, Sawitree Sasirat, Charles C Davis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Partitioning of population genetic variation in plants may be affected by numerous factors including life history and dispersal characteristics. In parasitic plants, interactions with host populations may be an additional factor influencing partitioning. To test for hierarchical population genetic patterns related to obligate endoparasitism, we studied three species of Rafflesiaceae, which grow as extremely reduced endophytes infecting Tetrastigma vines in Southeast Asia...
September 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884965/bioimaging-metallomics
#10
Valderi Luiz Dressler, Edson Irineu Müller, Dirce Pozebon
This chapter focuses on bioimaging in metallomics, which involves metal and metalloids distribution in animal tissues. It starts with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry followed by secondary ion mass spectrometry, synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence, and electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The basic principles of these techniques and their application for qualitative and quantitative imaging of elements are presented...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884829/microbial-island-biogeography-isolation-shapes-the-life-history-characteristics-but-not-diversity-of-root-symbiotic-fungal-communities
#11
John Davison, Mari Moora, Maarja Öpik, Leho Ainsaar, Marc Ducousso, Inga Hiiesalu, Teele Jairus, Nancy Johnson, Philippe Jourand, Rein Kalamees, Kadri Koorem, Jean-Yves Meyer, Kersti Püssa, Ülle Reier, Meelis Pärtel, Marina Semchenko, Anna Traveset, Martti Vasar, Martin Zobel
Island biogeography theory is one of the most influential paradigms in ecology. That island characteristics, including remoteness, can profoundly modulate biological diversity has been borne out by studies of animals and plants. By contrast, the processes influencing microbial diversity in island systems remain largely undetermined. We sequenced arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal DNA from plant roots collected on 13 islands worldwide and compared AM fungal diversity on islands with existing data from mainland sites...
June 8, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883728/semisolid-self-microemulsifying-drug-delivery-systems-smeddss-effects-on-pharmacokinetics-of-acyclovir-in-rats
#12
Ljiljana Djekic, Jovana Janković, Aleksandar Rašković, Marija Primorac
Semisolid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) with optimized drug loading capacity, stability, dispersibility in aqueous media and in vitro drug release profile, was evaluated in vivo regarding effects on pharmacokinetics of acyclovir, an antiviral with low bioavailability (BA) and short half-life (t1/2 ). Additional goal of this study was evaluation of safety of this semisolid SMEDDS consisted of medium chain length triglycerides (oil) (10% w/w), macrogolglycerol hydroxystearate (surfactant) (56...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880909/phylogenetic-conservatism-of-thermal-traits-explains-dispersal-limitation-and-genomic-differentiation-of-streptomyces-sister-taxa
#13
Mallory J Choudoir, Daniel H Buckley
The latitudinal diversity gradient is a pattern of biogeography observed broadly in plants and animals but largely undocumented in terrestrial microbial systems. Although patterns of microbial biogeography across broad taxonomic scales have been described in a range of contexts, the mechanisms that generate biogeographic patterns between closely related taxa remain incompletely characterized. Adaptive processes are a major driver of microbial biogeography, but there is less understanding of how microbial biogeography and diversification are shaped by dispersal limitation and drift...
June 7, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876086/genetic-diversity-of-the-chinese-goat-in-the-littoral-zone-of-the-yangtze-river-as-assessed-by-microsatellite-and-mtdna
#14
Guang-Xin E, Yong-Ju Zhao, Li-Peng Chen, Yue-Hui Ma, Ming-Xing Chu, Xiang-Long Li, Qiong-Hua Hong, Lan-Hui Li, Ji-Jun Guo, Lan Zhu, Yan-Guo Han, Hui-Jiang Gao, Jia-Hua Zhang, Huai-Zhi Jiang, Cao-De Jiang, Gao-Fu Wang, Hang-Xing Ren, Mei-Lan Jin, Yuan-Zhi Sun, Peng Zhou, Yong-Fu Huang
The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of goats in the Yangtze River region using microsatellite and mtDNA to better understand the current status of those goat genetic diversity and the effects of natural landscape in fashion of domestic animal genetic diversity. The genetic variability of 16 goat populations in the littoral zone of the Yangtze River was estimated using 21 autosomal microsatellites, which revealed high diversity and genetic population clustering with a dispersed geographical distribution...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875297/urban-rat-races-spatial-population-genomics-of-brown-rats-rattus-norvegicus-compared-across-multiple-cities
#15
Matthew Combs, Kaylee A Byers, Bruno M Ghersi, Michael J Blum, Adalgisa Caccone, Federico Costa, Chelsea G Himsworth, Jonathan L Richardson, Jason Munshi-South
Urbanization often substantially influences animal movement and gene flow. However, few studies to date have examined gene flow of the same species across multiple cities. In this study, we examine brown rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) to test hypotheses about the repeatability of neutral evolution across four cities: Salvador, Brazil; New Orleans, USA; Vancouver, Canada; and New York City, USA. At least 150 rats were sampled from each city and genotyped for a minimum of 15 000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms...
June 13, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873035/the-influence-of-a-demographic-change-on-social-relationships-among-male-golden-snub-nosed-monkeys-rhinopithecus-roxellana
#16
Pengzhen Huang, Endi Zhang, Min Chen
It has been suggested that social relationships are more likely to be prone to variation in the dispersing sex than the philopatric sex. However, we know less about the dynamics of all-male groups in male-dispersing species than we do about other types of primate groups. We studied male sociality in a captive group of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana), which was composed of a one-male unit (OMU, N = 7) and an all-male unit (AMU, N = 7 or 8), in Shanghai Wild Animal Park, China. Using data collected for 6 months, during which there was a demographic change in the AMU and the alpha male was replaced by a newcomer, we found that a dramatic change in social ranks occurred accompanied by elevated aggression following this social upheaval...
June 5, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872442/phylogeography-and-ecological-niche-modeling-reveal-reduced-genetic-diversity-and-colonization-patterns-of-skunk-cabbage-symplocarpus-foetidus-araceae-from-glacial-refugia-in-eastern-north-america
#17
Seon-Hee Kim, Myong-Suk Cho, Pan Li, Seung-Chul Kim
Alternating glacial and interglacial periods during the Quaternary have dramatically affected the distribution and population genetic structure of plant and animal species throughout the northern hemisphere. Surprisingly, little is known about the post-glacial recolonization history of wetland herbaceous perennials that are widely distributed in the understory of deciduous or mixed deciduous-evergreen forests in eastern North America. In this study, we investigated infraspecific variation among 32 populations of skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus , to test the hypothesis that the extant species diversity of skunk cabbage is the result of a post-glacial range expansion from southern refugia during the Quaternary Ice Age...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869187/crested-porcupines-hystrix-cristata-mycophagist-spore-dispersers-of-the-ectomycorrhizal-truffle-tuber-aestivum
#18
Francesca Ori, James Trappe, Marco Leonardi, Mirco Iotti, Giovanni Pacioni
Truffles, as hypogeous, ectomycorrhizal fungi, have no means to actively discharge spores into the environment and thus depend on mycophagists for spore dispersal. After consumption of fruiting bodies by animals and passage through the digestive tract, the spores are released in faecal pellets. Recently, in the Abruzzo region (Italy), Hystrix cristata has been spotted inside private truffières, but its role in spore dispersal has never been investigated. Here, we report our research on the occurrence of Tuber aestivum spores in porcupine's faecal contents in a truffière in L'Aquila, Italy, where a H...
June 4, 2018: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867804/polyphyletic-nature-of-salmonella-enterica-serotype-derby-and-lineage-specific-host-association-revealed-by-genome-wide-analysis
#19
Yann Sévellec, Marie-Léone Vignaud, Sophie A Granier, Renaud Lailler, Carole Feurer, Simon Le Hello, Michel-Yves Mistou, Sabrina Cadel-Six
In France, Salmonella Derby is one of the most prevalent serotypes in pork and poultry meat. Since 2006, it has ranked among the 10 most frequent Salmonella serotypes isolated in humans. In previous publications, Salmonella Derby isolates have been characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles revealing the existence of different pulsotypes and AMR phenotypic groups. However, these results suffer from the low discriminatory power of these typing methods...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866432/the-uterine-pacemaker-of-labor
#20
REVIEW
Roger Charles Young
The laboring uterus is generally thought to initiate contractions much similar to the heart, with a single, dedicated pacemaker. Research on human and animal models over decades has failed to identify such pacemaker. On the contrary, data indicate that instead of being fixed at a site similar to the sinoatrial node of the heart, the initiation site for each uterine contraction changes during time, often with each contraction. The enigmatic uterine "pacemaker" does not seem to fit the standard definition of what a pacemaker should be...
April 26, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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