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Animal dispersal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238539/dispersal-influences-genetic-and-acoustic-spatial-structure-for-both-males-and-females-in-a-tropical-songbird
#1
Brendan A Graham, Daniel D Heath, Daniel J Mennill
Animals exhibit diverse dispersal strategies, including sex-biased dispersal, a phenomenon common in vertebrates. Dispersal influences the genetic structure of populations as well as geographic variation in phenotypic traits. Patterns of spatial genetic structure and geographic variation may vary between the sexes whenever males and females exhibit different dispersal behaviors. Here, we examine dispersal, spatial genetic structure, and spatial acoustic structure in Rufous-and-white Wrens, a year-round resident tropical bird...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228508/cranial-backspatter-pattern-production-utilizing-human-cadavers
#2
Celestina Rossi, Lynne D Herold, Tom Bevel, Leslie McCauley, Stephanie Guadarrama
A backspatter pattern results from blood drops that travel retrograde to an applied external force. Historically, an array of animals and nonhuman objects have been used to create and study backspatter patterns. In this study, backspatter patterns captured on foam core targets that were placed 45.72 cm (18 in) behind the impact site (occipital area of the skull) were produced by cranial gunshots to human cadavers that were reinfused with fresh defibrinated bovine blood. These patterns were compared to the backspatter patterns produced by shooting blood-soaked sponges, a typical simulant used in controlled studies of backspatter pattern production and characteristics...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220800/exposure-to-traffic-related-air-pollution-and-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-overweight-and-obese-adolescents
#3
Tanya L Alderete, Roshonda B Jones, Zhanghua Chen, Jeniffer S Kim, Rima Habre, Frederick Lurmann, Frank D Gilliland, Michael I Goran
BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic dysfunction in humans. Animal studies suggest that air pollutants may alter the composition of the gut microbiota, which may negatively impact metabolic health through changes in the composition and/or function of the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to determine whether elevated TRAP exposure was correlated with gut bacterial taxa in overweight and obese adolescents from the Meta-AIR (Metabolic and Asthma Incidence Research) study...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208140/suspected-cases-of-intracontinental-burkholderia-pseudomallei-sequence-type-homoplasy-resolved-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#4
Ammar Aziz, Derek S Sarovich, Tegan M Harris, Mirjam Kaestli, Evan McRobb, Mark Mayo, Bart J Currie, Erin P Price
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative environmental bacterium that causes melioidosis, a disease of high mortality in humans and animals. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a popular and portable genotyping method that has been used extensively to characterise the genetic diversity of B. pseudomallei populations. MLST has been central to our understanding of the underlying phylogeographical signal present in the B. pseudomallei genome, revealing distinct populations on both the intra- and the inter-continental level...
November 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200730/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-three-gelatinous-chinese-medicines-and-their-authentications-by-tryptic-digested-peptides-profiling-using-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#5
Huan Yang, Jie Zheng, Hai-Yan Wang, Nan Li, Ya-Ya Yang, Yu-Ping Shen
Background: Gelatinous Chinese medicines (GCMs) including Asini Corii Colla, Testudinis Carapacis ET Plastri Colla, and Cervi Cornus Colla, were made from reptile shell or mammalian skin or deer horn, and consumed as a popular tonic, as well as hemopoietic and hemostatic agents. Misuse of them would not exert their functions, and fake or adulterate products have caused drug market disorder and affected food and drug safety. GCMs are rich in denatured proteins, but insufficient in available DNA fragments, hence commonly used cytochrome c oxidase I barcoding was not successful for their authentication...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198907/aquatic-life-in-neotropical-rainforest-canopies-techniques-using-artificial-phytotelmata-to-study-the-invertebrate-communities-inhabiting-therein
#6
Alain Dejean, Frédéric Petitclerc, Frédéric Azémar, Laurent Pélozuelo, Stanislas Talaga, Maurice Leponce, Arthur Compin
In Neotropical rainforest canopies, phytotelmata ("plant-held waters") shelter diverse aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, including vectors of animal diseases. Studying these communities is difficult because phytotelmata are widely dispersed, hard to find from the ground and often inaccessible. We propose here a method for placing in tree crowns "artificial phytotelmata" whose size and shape can be tailored to different research targets. The efficacy of this method was shown while comparing the patterns of community diversity of three forest formations...
November 30, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184097/csl2-a-novel-chimeric-bacteriophage-lysin-to-fight-infections-caused-by-streptococcus-suis-an-emerging-zoonotic-pathogen
#7
Roberto Vázquez, Mirian Domenech, Manuel Iglesias-Bexiga, Margarita Menéndez, Pedro García
Streptococcus suis is a Gram-positive bacterium that infects humans and various animals, causing human mortality rates ranging from 5 to 20%, as well as important losses for the swine industry. In addition, there is no effective vaccine for S. suis and isolates with increasing antibiotic multiresistance are emerging worldwide. Facing this situation, wild type or engineered bacteriophage lysins constitute a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics. In this study, we have constructed a new chimeric lysin, Csl2, by fusing the catalytic domain of Cpl-7 lysozyme to the CW_7 repeats of LySMP lysin from an S...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179076/urinary-concentrations-of-parabens-and-reproductive-parameters-in-young-men
#8
Evdochia Adoamnei, Jaime Mendiola, Miriam Moñino-García, Fernando Vela-Soria, Luz M Iribarne-Durán, Mariana F Fernández, Nicolás Olea, Niels Jørgensen, Shanna H Swan, Alberto M Torres-Cantero
Parabens are a group of alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid that are commonly added to personal care products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and beverage and food processing as antimicrobial preservatives. Parabens have been reported to show estrogenic effects and affect male reproduction function in animal models, but human epidemiologic studies are still scarce. The objective of this study was to examine associations between urinary concentrations of parabens and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels...
November 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179009/osteoblastic-cell-behaviour-on-modified-titanium-surfaces
#9
Magdalena Lukaszewska-Kuska, Przemysław Wirstlein, Radomir Majchrowski, Barbara Dorocka-Bobkowska
INTRODUCTION: The surfaces of endoosseous dental implants have been subjected to numerous modifications in order to create a surface which can provide rapid bone healing and fast implant loading. Each modification has involved changes to the chemical composition and topography of the surfaces which have resulted in various biological reactions to the implanted material. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface topography and chemistry of various modified titanium surfaces: (1) machined surface (MA), (2) alumina-blasted (Al2O3), (3) alumina-blasted and acid-etched (Al2O3 DE), (4) hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate grit-blasted (HA/TCP) and (5) hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate grit-blasted and acid-etched (HA/TCP DE) and to analyse the effects of surface roughness, and chemical composition on human osteoblast vitality, differentiation, morphology and orientation...
November 22, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178175/effect-of-dairy-cow-crossbreeding-on-selected-performance-traits-and-quality-of-milk-in-first-generation-crossbreds
#10
Kamila Puppel, Ewa Bogusz, Marcin Gołębiewski, Teresa Nałęcz-Tarwacka, Beata Kuczyńska, Jan Slósarz, Arkadiusz Budziński, Paweł Solarczyk, Małgorzata Kunowska-Slósarz, Tomasz Przysucha
The main goal of crossbreeding Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows with bulls of other dairy or combined breeds is to improve their performance traits. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to compare the dairy performance traits of first generation crossbreds produced by crossbreeding Polish HF cows with bulls of other breeds (Norman, Norwegian Red, Danish Red, Brown Swiss, Montbeliarde, and Simmental). This was done by analyzing the fatty acid profile and technological quality of the milk from these first generation crossbreds...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176590/nanocarrier-mediated-delivery-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-for-non-surgical-castration-of-male-animals
#11
Jakarwan Yostawonkul, Suvimol Surassmo, Katawut Namdee, Mattaka Khongkow, Chatwalee Boonthum, Sasithon Pagseesing, Nattika Saengkrit, Uracha Rungsardthong Ruktanonchai, Kaywalee Chatdarong, Suppawiwat Ponglowhapan, Teerapong Yata
The overpopulation of abandoned and stray companion animals has become a global crisis. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel nanomedicine-based antifertility compound for non-surgical castration of male animals. Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract has been shown to exhibit anti-fertility property. α-mangostin (AM)-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (AM-NLC) was developed to improve male germ cell apoptosis. This study was conducted to investigate physicochemical properties of AM-NLC and determine the biological effects of AM-NLC on spermatogonia cells and testicular explants obtained from castrated testes...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175643/sustained-release-multiparticulates-for-oral-delivery-of-a-novel-peptidic-ghrelin-agonist-formulation-design-and-in-vitro-characterization
#12
Ken Howick, Ryan Alam, Barbara Chruscicka, Dalia Kandil, Dara Fitzpatrick, Aoife M Ryan, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens, Brendan T Griffin
There is an impetus to provide appropriate sustained release oral delivery vehicles to protect biofunctional peptide loads from gastric degradation in vivo. This study describes the generation of a high load capacity pellet formulation for sustained release of a freely water-soluble dairy-derived hydrolysate, FHI-2571. The activity of this novel peptidic ghrelin receptor agonist is reported using in vitro calcium mobilization assays. Conventional extrusion spheronization was then used to prepare peptide-loaded pellets which were subsequently coated with ethylcellulose (EC) film coats using a fluid bed coating system in bottom spray (Wurster) mode...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174976/deposition-pattern-of-aerosolized-legionella-using-an-ex-vivo-human-porcine-respiratory-model
#13
Sophie Perinel, Valérie Forest, Mathilde Landraud, Jérémie Pourchez, Françoise Girardot, Serge Riffard, Magalie Stauffert, Jean-Michel Vergnon, Séverine Allegra
Legionella are bacteria responsible for severe lung pathologies. However how they enter and are deposited within the respiratory tract remains poorly documented. Data using animal testing led to the establishment of mathematical models allowing the estimation of aerosol dispersion risks. But direct extrapolation to humans is questionable and experimental models more physiologically representative of the inhalation route are welcome. The aim of this study was to develop a model as close as possible to the human anatomy and physiology allowing determining the deposition pattern of aerosolized Legionella while limiting in vivo experiments...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171902/early-ecological-outcomes-of-natural-regeneration-and-tree-plantations-for-restoring-agricultural-landscapes
#14
Ricardo G César, Vanessa S Moreno, Gabriel D Coletta, Robin L Chazdon, Silvio F B Ferraz, Danilo R A de Almeida, Pedro H S Brancalion
Mixed tree plantings and natural regeneration are the main restoration approaches for recovering tropical forests worldwide. Despite substantial differences in implementation costs between these methods, little is known regarding how they differ in terms of ecological outcomes, which is key information for guiding decision-making and cost-effective restoration planning. Here, we compared the early ecological outcomes of natural regeneration and tree plantations for restoring the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in agricultural landscapes...
November 24, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167982/successional-changes-in-trophic-interactions-support-a-mechanistic-model-of-post-fire-population-dynamics
#15
Annabel L Smith
Models based on functional traits have limited power in predicting how animal populations respond to disturbance because they do not capture the range of demographic and biological factors that drive population dynamics, including variation in trophic interactions. I tested the hypothesis that successional changes in vegetation structure, which affected invertebrate abundance, would influence growth rates and body condition in the early-successional, insectivorous gecko Nephrurus stellatus. I captured geckos at 17 woodland sites spanning a succession gradient from 2 to 48 years post-fire...
November 22, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167374/fmrfamide-like-peptides-expand-the-behavioral-repertoire-of-a-densely-connected-nervous-system
#16
James Siho Lee, Pei-Yin Shih, Oren N Schaedel, Porfirio Quintero-Cadena, Alicia K Rogers, Paul W Sternberg
Animals, including humans, can adapt to environmental stress through phenotypic plasticity. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can adapt to harsh environments by undergoing a whole-animal change, involving exiting reproductive development and entering the stress-resistant dauer larval stage. The dauer is a dispersal stage with dauer-specific behaviors for finding and stowing onto carrier animals, but how dauers acquire these behaviors, despite having a physically limited nervous system of 302 neurons, is poorly understood...
November 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167161/inferring-long-distance-dispersal-modes-in-american-amphitropically-disjunct-species-through-adaptive-dispersal-structures
#17
John J Schenk, Kelsey Saunders
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A repeated pattern of American amphitropical disjunct species or sister species distributed on either side of the equator has long-fascinated botanists, but the modes of these disjunctions remain untested. We evaluated diaspore morphology to generate hypotheses on probable dispersal mechanisms. METHODS: The sizes and structures of diaspores, habit, habitat, distribution, and dispersal units were collected for 108 species from literature searches and herbarium specimens...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166859/divergent-clades-or-cryptic-species-mito-nuclear-discordance-in-a-daphnia-species-complex
#18
Anne Thielsch, Alexis Knell, Ali Mohammadyari, Adam Petrusek, Klaus Schwenk
BACKGROUND: Genetically divergent cryptic species are frequently detected by molecular methods. These discoveries are often a byproduct of molecular barcoding studies in which fragments of a selected marker are used for species identification. Highly divergent mitochondrial lineages and putative cryptic species are even detected in intensively studied animal taxa, such as the crustacean genus Daphnia. Recently, eleven such lineages, exhibiting genetic distances comparable to levels observed among well-defined species, were recorded in the D...
November 22, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166167/kinship-and-incest-avoidance-drive-patterns-of-reproductive-skew-in-cooperatively-breeding-birds
#19
Christina Riehl
Social animals vary in how reproduction is divided among group members, ranging from monopolization by a dominant pair (high skew) to equal sharing by cobreeders (low skew). Despite many theoretical models, the ecological and life-history factors that generate this variation are still debated. Here I analyze data from 83 species of cooperatively breeding birds, finding that kinship within the breeding group is a powerful predictor of reproductive sharing across species. Societies composed of nuclear families have significantly higher skew than those that contain unrelated members, a pattern that holds for both multimale and multifemale groups...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166127/bat-biology-genomes-and-the-bat1k-project-to-generate-chromosome-level-genomes-for-all-living-bat-species
#20
Emma Teeling, Sonja Vernes, Liliana M Davalos, David A Ray, M Thomas P Gilbert, Eugene Myers, Bat K Consortium
Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling insect pest populations, thus driving healthy ecosystems. They account for more than 20% of all living mammalian diversity, and their crown-group evolutionary history dates back to the Eocene...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
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