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Animal dispersal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449118/polyphosphate-accumulating-bacterial-community-colonizing-the-calcium-bodies-of-terrestrial-isopod-crustaceans-titanethes-albus-and-hyloniscus-riparius
#1
Rok Kostanjšek, Vittori Miloš, Vesna Srot, Peter A van Aken, Štrus Jasna
Terrestrial isopods from the group Trichoniscidae accumulate calcium in specialized organs, known as the calcium bodies. These consist of two pairs of epithelial sacs located alongside the digestive system. These organs contain various forms of calcium and constantly present bacteria. To elucidate their origin and role, we analyzed the bacteria of the calcium bodies in the cave-dwelling isopod Titanethes albus and the epigean species Hyloniscus riparius, by microscopy, histochemistry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, 16S rRNA analysis and in situ hybridization...
April 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447980/disposable-dosators-for-pulmonary-insufflation-of-therapeutic-agents-to-small-animals
#2
Phillip G Durham, Shumaila N Hanif, Lucia Garcia Contreras, Ellen F Young, Miriam S Braunstein, Anthony J Hickey
Development of new therapeutic products requires efficacy testing in an animal model. The pulmonary route of administration can be utilized to deliver drugs locally and systemically. Evaluation of dry powder aerosols necessitates an efficient dispersion mechanism to maintain high concentrations in an exposure chamber or for direct endotracheal administration. While solutions exist to expose animals by passive inhalation to dry powder aerosols, most require masses of powder in large excess of the dose delivered...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442639/astaxanthin-increases-progesterone-production-in-cultured-bovine-luteal-cells
#3
Hachiro Kamada, Satoshi Akagi, Shinya Watanabe
Although astaxanthin (AST) is known to be a strong antioxidant, its effects on reproductive function in domestic animals have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we investigated the effects of AST on luteal cells, which produce progesterone (P4), an important hormone for maintaining pregnancy. Luteal cells were prepared by collagenase dispersion of the corpus luteum (CL). The addition of racemic AST at a low concentration (<10 nM) to cultured bovine luteal cells increased P4 in the culture medium (P<0...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440937/microplastics-are-not-important-for-the-cycling-and-bioaccumulation-of-organic-pollutants-in-the-oceans-but-should-microplastics-be-considered-pops-themselves
#4
Rainer Lohmann
The role of microplastic particles in the cycling and bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is discussed. Five common concepts, sometimes misconceptions, about the role of microplastics are reviewed. While there is ample evidence that microplastics accumulate high concentrations of POPs, this does not result in microplastics being important for the global dispersion of POPs. Similarly, there is scant evidence that microplastics are an important transfer vector of POPs into animals, but possibly for plastic additives (flame retardants)...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437606/transfer-study-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-poultry-production
#5
Federica Gallocchio, Giancarlo Biancotto, Veronica Cibin, Carmen Losasso, Simone Belluco, Ruud Peters, Greet van Bemmel, Claudia Cascio, Stefan Weigel, Peter Tromp, Federica Gobbo, Salvatore Catania, Antonia Ricci
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of interest due to their antimicrobial activity and are seen as potential candidates to replace antibiotics in animal husbandry. A few studies have focused on this new application, but they lack any considerations about residual accumulation of AgNPs in edible animal tissues and animal products. In this research, a 22 day in vivo study was carried out by oral administration of 20 nm spherical PVP coated AgNPs to hens. Six doses of approximately 1 mg kg(-1) of AgNPs-PVP each were administered to animals throughout the experimentation...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437453/three-dominant-awnless-genes-in-common-wheat-fine-mapping-interaction-and-contribution-to-diversity-in-awn-shape-and-length
#6
Motohiro Yoshioka, Julio C M Iehisa, Ryoko Ohno, Tatsuro Kimura, Hiroyuki Enoki, Satoru Nishimura, Shuhei Nasuda, Shigeo Takumi
The awn is a long needle-like structure formed at the tip of the lemma in the florets of some grass species. It plays a role in seed dispersal and protection against animals, and can contribute to the photosynthetic activity of spikes. Three main dominant inhibitors of awn development (Hd, B1 and B2) are known in hexaploid wheat, but the causal genes have not been cloned yet and a genetic association with awn length diversity has been found only for the B1 allele. To analyze the prevalence of these three awning inhibitors, we attempted to predict the genotypes of 189 hexaploid wheat varieties collected worldwide using markers tightly linked to these loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434830/bone-formation-of-demineralized-human-dentin-block-graft-with-different-demineralization-time-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-study
#7
So-Min Park, David-Hyungjin Kim, Eun-Kyoung Pang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate structural and physicochemical characteristics of demineralized human dentin block with increasing demineralization time and to assess new bone formation when onlay grafted at different demineralization times in rat calvaria. STUDY DESIGN: Extracted human permanent teeth were pretreated and demineralized for 10-90 min. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were performed...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430042/control-without-controllers-toward-a-distributed-neuroscience-of-executive-control
#8
Benjamin R Eisenreich, Rei Akaishi, Benjamin Y Hayden
Executive control refers to the regulation of cognition and behavior by mental processes and is a hallmark of higher cognition. Most approaches to understanding its mechanisms begin with the assumption that our brains have anatomically segregated and functionally specialized control modules. The modular approach is intuitive: Control is conceptually distinct from basic mental processing, so an organization that reifies that distinction makes sense. An alternative approach sees executive control as self-organizing principles of a distributed organization...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415537/potassium-doped-mesoporous-bioactive-glass-synthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-biomedical-properties
#9
Muhammad Shoaib, Aamer Saeed, Javeed Akhtar, Muhammad Saif Ur Rahman, Aman Ullah, Klaus Jurkschat, Muhammad Moazzam Naseer
A bifunctional mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) with composition (49SiO2·20CaO·20Na2O·7K2O·4P2O5 mol%) was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method, using polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) as a soft template. The structure, morphology (spherical with approximate size 1μm) and composition of MBG were determined by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), respectively. The surface area (189.53m(2)g(-1) with the pore size of 21nm) of MBG was measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) analysis...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415137/drivers-of-species-role-in-avian-seed-dispersal-mutualistic-networks
#10
Esther Sebastián-González
The mutualistic interaction between frugivore birds and the fruiting plants they disperse presents an asymmetric interaction pattern, with some species having a more important role (i.e. being essential) for maintaining the structure and functioning of the interaction network. The identification of the biological characteristics of these species is of major importance for the understanding and conservation of seed-dispersal interactions. In this study, I use a network approach and avian seed-dispersal networks from 23 different geographical areas to test 5 hypotheses about species characteristics determining the structure of the assemblage...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414859/source-receptor-probability-of-atmospheric-long-distance-dispersal-of-viruses-to-israel-from-the-eastern-mediterranean-area
#11
Z Klausner, E Klement, E Fattal
Viruses that affect the health of humans and farm animals can spread over long distances via atmospheric mechanisms. The phenomenon of atmospheric long-distance dispersal (LDD) is associated with severe consequences because it may introduce pathogens into new areas. The introduction of new pathogens to Israel was attributed to LDD events numerous times. This provided the motivation for this study which is aimed to identify all the locations in the eastern Mediterranean that may serve as sources for pathogen incursion into Israel via LDD...
April 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411127/preventing-false-negatives-in-the-in-vitro-skin-sensitization-testing-of-acid-anhydrides-using-interleukin-8-release-assays
#12
Kazuto Narita, Phuc Thi Hong Vo, Kenta Yamamoto, Hajime Kojima, Hiroshi Itagaki
In vitro safety tests may be used as replacements for animal tests owing to their accuracy and high-throughput performance. However, several in vitro skin sensitization tests produce false-negative results such as acid anhydride. Here, we investigated the relationship between false-negative results of acid anhydride and its hydrolysis by aqueous vehicle. Differences in the pattern of hydrolysis for phthalic anhydride (PAH) due to addition of 1 drop of stock solution of PAH in liquid paraffin (LP) dispersion medium and PAH in DMSO were analyzed in a cell-free system...
April 11, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409576/-radar-as-imaging-tool-in-ecology-and-conservation-biology
#13
Piotr Matyjasiak
Migrations and dispersal are among the most important ecological processes that shape ecosystems and influence our economy, health and safety. Movements of birds, bats and insects occur in a large spatial scale - regional, continental, or intercontinental. However, studies of these phenomena using classic methods are usually local. Breakthrough came with the development of radar technology, which enabled researchers to study animal movements in the atmosphere in a large spatial and temporal scale. The aim of this article was to present the radar imaging methods used in the research of aerial movements of birds, bats and insects...
2017: Postepy Biochemii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406073/rapid-multi-residue-determination-of-pesticides-in-livestock-muscle-and-liver-tissue-via-modified-quechers-sample-preparation-and-lc-ms-ms
#14
K Hamamoto, K Iwatsuki, R Akama, R Koike
Many multi-residue methods for the determination of pesticides in vegetables and fruits have been reported to date. However, few such methods have been employed to investigate pesticide residues in animal tissue. In this study, an LC/MS/MS multi-residue method coupled with modified QuEChERS extraction was developed and validated for the investigation of eight pesticide residues [prallethrin, resmethrin (RMT), imidacloprid, diflubenzuron, cyromazine (CYR), etofenprox, dinotefuran (DNT), and phthalthrin]. This method involves initial extraction in a water/acetone system, the addition of salts and a subsequent extraction/partitioning step, and finally, a clean-up step utilising dispersive SPE...
April 13, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405389/mixing-of-porpoise-ecotypes-in-southwestern-uk-waters-revealed-by-genetic-profiling
#15
Michaël C Fontaine, Oliver Thatcher, Nicolas Ray, Sylvain Piry, Andrew Brownlow, Nicholas J Davison, Paul Jepson, Rob Deaville, Simon J Goodman
Contact zones between ecotypes are windows for understanding how species may react to climate changes. Here, we analysed the fine-scale genetic and morphological variation in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) around the UK by genotyping 591 stranded animals at nine microsatellite loci. The data were integrated with a prior study to map at high resolution the contact zone between two previously identified ecotypes meeting in the northern Bay of Biscay. Clustering and spatial analyses revealed that UK porpoises are derived from two genetic pools with porpoises from the southwestern UK being genetically differentiated, and having larger body sizes compared to those of other UK areas...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403166/functional-decay-in-tree-community-within-tropical-fragmented-landscapes-effects-of-landscape-scale-forest-cover
#16
Larissa Rocha-Santos, Maíra Benchimol, Margaret M Mayfield, Deborah Faria, Michaele S Pessoa, Daniela C Talora, Eduardo Mariano-Neto, Eliana Cazetta
As tropical rainforests are cleared, forest remnants are increasingly isolated within agricultural landscapes. Understanding how forest loss impacts on species diversity can, therefore, contribute to identifying the minimum amount of habitat required for biodiversity maintenance in human-modified landscapes. Here, we evaluate how the amount of forest cover, at the landscape scale, affects patterns of species richness, abundance, key functional traits and common taxonomic families of adult trees in twenty Brazilian Atlantic rainforest landscapes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400498/effect-of-thoracic-epidural-anesthesia-on-heart-rate-variability-in-a-porcine-model
#17
Arjun Mahajan, Tatsuo Takamiya, Peyman Benharash, Wei Zhou
Heart rate variability (HRV) is increasingly recognized as a means of evaluating autonomic tone. Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) has been previously demonstrated to suppress the electrical storms in patients. However, the effect of TEA on HRV during sympathoexcitation remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of TEA on HRV response to left stellate ganglion stimulation (LSS) in a porcine model. In 12 anesthetized pigs after insertion of an epidural catheter to T1 level, a median sternotomy was performed to expose the heart and the left stellate ganglion...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396262/physiological-and-behavioral-flexibility-to-an-acute-co2-challenge-within-and-between-genotypes-in-rainbow-trout
#18
B Sadoul, N C Friggens, C Valotaire, L Labbé, V Colson, P Prunet, I Leguen
Adaptive capacities, governing the ability of animals to cope with an environmental stressor, have been demonstrated to be strongly dependent upon genetic factors. Two isogenic lines of rainbow trout, previously described for their sensitivity and resilience to an acute confinement challenge, were used in the present study to investigate whether adaptive capacities remain consistent when fish are exposed to a different type of challenge. For this purpose, the effects of a 4-hour hypercapnia (CO2 increase) challenge at concentrations relevant in aquaculture conditions are described for the two isogenic lines...
April 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389645/enhanced-interstitial-fluid-drainage-in-the-hippocampus-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#19
Beatrice Bedussi, Daphne M P Naessens, Judith de Vos, Rik Olde Engberink, Micha M M Wilhelmus, Edo Richard, Malyssa Ten Hove, Ed vanBavel, Erik N T P Bakker
Hypertension is associated with cognitive decline and various forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. In animal models of hypertension, many of Alzheimer's disease characteristics are recapitulated, including brain atrophy, cognitive decline, amyloid β accumulation and blood brain barrier dysfunction. Removal of amyloid β and other waste products depends in part on clearance via the brain interstitial fluid (ISF). Here we studied the impact of hypertension on ISF drainage, using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY)...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389536/whole-genome-sequencing-of-drug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-dairy-cattle-and-humans-in-new-york-and-washington-states-reveals-source-and-geographic-associations
#20
Laura M Carroll, Martin Wiedmann, Henk den Bakker, Julie Siler, Steven Warchocki, David Kent, Svetlana Lyalina, Margaret Davis, William Sischo, Thomas Besser, Lorin D Warnick, Richard V Pereira
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica can be spread from cattle to humans through direct contact with animals shedding Salmonella, as well as through the food chain, making MDR Salmonella a serious threat to human health. The objective of this study was to use whole-genome sequencing to compare antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) S. Typhimurium, Newport, and Dublin isolated from dairy cattle and humans in Washington state and New York state at a genotypic and phenotypic level. A total of 90 isolates were selected for the study (37 Typhimurium, 32 Newport, 21 Dublin)...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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