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Animal dispersal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049305/pig-movements-in-france-designing-network-models-fitting-the-transmission-route-of-pathogens
#1
Morgane Salines, Mathieu Andraud, Nicolas Rose
Pathogen spread between farms results from interaction between the epidemiological characteristics of infectious agents, such as transmission route, and the contact structure between holdings. The objective of our study was to design network models of pig movements matching with epidemiological features of pathogens. Our first model represents the transmission of infectious diseases between farms only through the introduction of animals to holdings (Animal Introduction Model AIM), whereas the second one also accounts for pathogen spread through intermediate transit of trucks through farms even without any animal unloading (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046072/commentary-on-the-clinical-and-preclinical-dosage-limits-of-interstitially-administered-magnetic-fluids-for-therapeutic-hyperthermia-based-on-current-practice-and-efficacy-models
#2
Paul Southern, Quentin A Pankhurst
We offer a critique of what constitutes a suitable dosage limit, in both clinical and preclinical studies, for interstitially administered magnetic nanoparticles in order to enable therapeutic hyperthermia under the action of an externally applied alternating magnetic field. We approach this first from the perspective of the currently approved clinical dosages of magnetic nanoparticles in the fields of MRI contrast enhancement, sentinel node detection, iron replacement therapy and magnetic thermoablation. We compare this to a simple analytical model of the achievable hyperthermia temperature rise in both humans and animals based on the interstitially administered dose, the heating and dispersion characteristics of the injected fluid, and the strength and frequency of the applied magnetic field...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045883/in-vitro-in-vivo-correlations-of-carbamazepine-nano-dispersions-for-application-in-formulation-development
#3
Zachary Warnken, Michael Puppolo, Justin Hughey, Iris Duarte, Susan Jansen-Varnum
During formulation development, efficiently integrating in vitro dissolution testing can significantly improve one's ability to estimate in vivo performance and aide in the selection of premier drug candidates. The concept of in vitro - in vivo relationship/correlation (IVIVR/IVIVC) has garnered significant attention from pharmaceutical scientists to predict expected bioavailability characteristics for drug substances and products. The current work illustrates a comparative evaluation of in vitro tests to access crystalline carbamazepine and various types of amorphous and crystalline dispersions of carbamazepine and Eudragit L100 produced by spray-drying, including a membrane-permeation dissolution methodology and non-sink dissolution...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045476/spread-of-domestic-animals-across-neolithic-western-anatolia-new-zooarchaeological-evidence-from-u%C3%A4-urlu-h%C3%A3-y%C3%A3-k-the-island-of-g%C3%A3-k%C3%A3-eada-turkey
#4
Levent Atici, Suzanne E Pilaar Birch, Burçin Erdoğu
The zooarchaeological research presented here investigates Neolithic and Chalcolithic (ca. 6500-5000 cal. BC) animal exploitation strategies at Uğurlu Höyük on the Turkish island of Gökçeada in the northeastern Aegean Sea. Toward this end, we first discuss the results of our analysis of the zooarchaeological assemblages from Uğurlu Höyük and then consider the data within a wider regional explanatory framework using a diachronic approach, comparing them with those from western and northwestern Anatolian sites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045396/indirect-effects-drive-coevolution-in-mutualistic-networks
#5
Paulo R Guimarães, Mathias M Pires, Pedro Jordano, Jordi Bascompte, John N Thompson
Ecological interactions have been acknowledged to play a key role in shaping biodiversity. Yet a major challenge for evolutionary biology is to understand the role of ecological interactions in shaping trait evolution when progressing from pairs of interacting species to multispecies interaction networks. Here we introduce an approach that integrates coevolutionary dynamics and network structure. Our results show that non-interacting species can be as important as directly interacting species in shaping coevolution within mutualistic assemblages...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038478/herbivores-increase-the-global-availability-of-nutrients-over-millions-of-years
#6
Christopher E Doughty
Can the presence of herbivores increase global nutrient availability? Animals disperse vital nutrients through ecosystems, increasing the spatial availability of these nutrients. Large herbivores are especially important for the dispersal of vital nutrients due to their long food passage times and day ranges, and large herbivores from past periods (the Pleistocene) may have increased nutrient concentrations on the continental scale. However, such results have been demonstrated theoretically but not yet empirically...
October 16, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032446/homogenization-analysis-of-invasion-dynamics-in-heterogeneous-landscapes-with-differential-bias-and-motility
#7
Brian P Yurk
Animal movement behaviors vary spatially in response to environmental heterogeneity. An important problem in spatial ecology is to determine how large-scale population growth and dispersal patterns emerge within highly variable landscapes. We apply the method of homogenization to study the large-scale behavior of a reaction-diffusion-advection model of population growth and dispersal. Our model includes small-scale variation in the directed and random components of movement and growth rates, as well as large-scale drift...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031812/nestmate-discrimination-based-on-familiarity-but-not-relatedness-in-eastern-carpenter-bees
#8
J L Vickruck, M H Richards
How animals recognize conspecific individuals has important outcomes in many contexts, but interactions among group members are particularly important. Two recognition criteria are often implicated in these interactions: kin recognition is based on relatedness cues and nestmate recognition is based on familiarity. For social insects, both types of recognition are possible, as many nestmates are close kin and familiarity can develop among individuals that encounter each other repeatedly. To discern whether social insects use kin or nestmate recognition, it is necessary to simultaneously assess how relatedness and familiarity influence behaviour...
October 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029290/nmda-receptor-mediated-ca2-influx-in-the-absence-of-mg2-block-disrupts-rest-activity-rhythms-in-drosophila
#9
Qian Song, Ge Feng, Jiaxing Zhang, Xuechun Xia, Min Ji, Lei Lv, Yong Ping
Introduction: The correlated activation of pre- and postsynaptic neurons is essential for the NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx by removing Mg2+ from block site and NMDA receptors have been implicated in phase resetting of circadian clocks. So we assessed rest:activity rhythms in Mg2+ block defective animals. Methods: Using Drosophila locomotor monitoring system, we checked circadian rest:activity rhythms of different mutants under constant darkness (DD) and light:dark (LD) conditions...
October 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028575/green-synthesis-of-highly-dispersed-ytterbium-and-thulium-co-doped-sodium-yttrium-fluoride-microphosphors-for-in-situ-light-upconversion-from-near-infrared-to-blue-in-animals
#10
Yuan Pu, Lifeng Lin, Dan Wang, Jie-Xin Wang, Jun Qian, Jian-Feng Chen
We report a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly method to prepare NaYF4:Yb(3+), Tm(3+) upconversion microphosphors (UCMPs) by thermal decomposition of rare earth-trifluoroacetate precursors using paraffin as the high boiling non-coordinating solvent. The UCMPs exhibited cubic phase with defined shape and bright upconversion luminescence. After coating with amphiphilic polymers of phospholipid-polyethylene glycol, the NaYF4:Yb(3+), Tm(3+) UCMPs were highly dispersed in aqueous solutions and exhibited low cytotoxicity...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026303/delivery-of-antagomir204-conjugated-gold-nanoparticles-from-plga-sheets-and-its-implication-in-promoting-osseointegration-of-titanium-implant-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Xiangwei Liu, Naiwen Tan, Yuchao Zhou, Hongbo Wei, Shuai Ren, Fan Yu, Hui Chen, Chengming Jia, Guodong Yang, Yingliang Song
Impaired osseointegration of the implant remains the big hurdle for dental implant therapy in diabetic patients. In this study, the authors first identified that miR204 was strikingly highly expressed in the bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) of diabetic rats. Forced expression of miR204 repressed the osteogenic potential of BMSCs, while inhibition of miR204 significantly increased the osteogenic capacity. Moreover, the miR204 inhibitor was conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNP-antagomiR204) and dispersed them in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) solution...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024366/tethyan-changes-shaped-aquatic-diversification
#12
Zhonge Hou, Shuqiang Li
The Tethys Ocean existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia from the Triassic to the Pliocene. Analyses of multiple biogeographic and phylogenetic histories reveal that the subsequent breakup of the Tethys greatly influenced the distributions of many species. The ancestral Tethyan realm broke into five biogeographic provinces, including the present-day East Pacific, West Atlantic, East Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, and Indo-West Pacific. Palaeogeographic maps illustrate the Mesozoic Atlantic opening, the Cenozoic closure of the Tethys, the Messinian Salinity Crisis, the mid-Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway, and Quaternary geological changes...
October 12, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024277/how-intraspecific-variation-in-seed-dispersing-animals-matters-for-plants
#13
Rafał Zwolak
Seed dispersal by animals is a complex phenomenon, characterized by multiple mechanisms and variable outcomes. Most researchers approach this complexity by analysing context-dependency in seed dispersal and investigating extrinsic factors that might influence interactions between plants and seed dispersers. Intrinsic traits of seed dispersers provide an alternative way of making sense of the enormous variation in seed fates. I review causes of intraspecific variability in frugivorous and granivorous animals, discuss their effects on seed dispersal, and outline likely consequences for plant populations and communities...
October 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021627/dispersal-of-thermophilic-beetles-across-the-intercontinental-arctic-forest-belt-during-the-early-eocene
#14
Adam J Brunke, Stylianos Chatzimanolis, Brian D Metscher, Karin Wolf-Schwenninger, Alexey Solodovnikov
Massive biotic change occurred during the Eocene as the climate shifted from warm and equable to seasonal and latitudinally stratified. Mild winter temperatures across Arctic intercontinental land bridges permitted dispersal of frost-intolerant groups until the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, while trans-Arctic dispersal in thermophilic groups may have been limited to the early Eocene, especially during short-lived hyperthermals. Some of these lineages are now disjunct between continents of the northern hemisphere...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994103/migratory-animals-feel-the-cost-of-getting-sick-a-meta-analysis-across-species
#15
Alice Risely, Marcel Klaassen, Bethany Hoye
1.Migratory animals are widely assumed to play an important role in the long-distance dispersal of parasites, and are frequently implicated in the global spread of zoonotic pathogens such as avian influenzas in birds and ebolaviruses in bats. However, infection imposes physiological and behavioural constraints on hosts that may act to curtail parasite dispersal via changes to migratory timing ('migratory separation') and survival ('migratory culling'). 2.There remains little consensus regarding the frequency and extent to which migratory separation and migratory culling may operate, despite a growing recognition of the importance of these mechanisms in regulating transmission dynamics in migratory animals...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984293/drive-and-reinforcement-circuitry-in-the-brain-origins-neurotransmitters-and-projection-fields
#16
REVIEW
Roy A Wise, Ross A McDevitt
Brain stimulation has identified two central subsets of stimulation sites with motivational relevance. First, there is a large and disperse set of sites where stimulation is reinforcing, increasing the frequency of the responses it follows, and second, a much more restricted set of sites where-along with reinforcement-stimulation also has drive-like effects, instigating feeding, copulation, predation, and other motivated acts in otherwise sated or peaceful animals. From this work a dispersed but synaptically interconnected network of reinforcement circuitry is emerging: it includes afferents to the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra; the dopamine systems themselves; glutamatergic afferents to the striatum; and one of two dopamine-receptor-expressing efferent pathways of the striatum...
October 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980514/determination-of-testosterone-esters-and-nortestosterone-esters-in-animal-blood-serum-by-lc-ms-ms
#17
Martina Rejtharová, Libor Rejthar, Katarína Čačková
A sensitive and robust confirmatory method for determination of steroid esters in blood serum is essential for reliable monitoring of possible illegal use of steroid hormones as growth promoters in meat production. A previously used sample preparation methodology was improved. The procedure consists of protein precipitation and removal of phospholipids by dispersive SPE Supel(TM) QuE Z-Sep (Sigma-Aldrich) followed by clean-up on alumina column and LC-MS/MS measurement. The modified method has been validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC...
October 5, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979256/advances-and-perspectives-on-the-epidemiology-of-bovine-cryptosporidium-in-china-in-the-past-30-years
#18
REVIEW
Rongjun Wang, Guanghui Zhao, Yunya Gong, Longxian Zhang
Major progress has been made in understanding the epidemiology of bovine Cryptosporidium in China in the past 30 years. The overall infection rate in that period was 14.50% (5265/36316), with different prevalence being observed among dairy cattle, yaks, beef cattle, and buffalo. The infection rate declined as the animals' ages increased and the lowest prevalence occurred in winter. Ten Cryptosporidium species and two genotypes have been found in cattle, with Cryptosporidium parvum, C. andersoni, C. bovis, and C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977679/termites-and-large-herbivores-influence-seed-removal-rates-in-an-african-savanna
#19
Erik Francis Acanakwo, Douglas Sheil, Stein R Moe
Seed removal can influence plant community dynamics, composition and resulting vegetation characteristics. In the African savanna, termites and large herbivores influence vegetation in various ways, likely including indirect effects on seed predators and secondary dispersers. However, the intensity and variation of seed removal rates in African savannas has seldom been studied. We experimentally investigated whether termites and large herbivores were important factors in the mechanisms driving observed patterns in tree species composition on and off mounds, in Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda...
October 4, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977003/genetic-structure-of-brown-pelicans-pelecanus-occidentalis-in-the-northern-gulf-of-mexico-in-the-context-of-human-management-and-disturbance
#20
Brock Geary, Susan M Longest, Kym Ottewell, Samantha M Lantz, Scott T Walter, Jordan Karubian, Paul L Leberg
Environmental disturbances, both natural and anthropogenic, have the capacity to substantially impact animal behavior and abundance, which can in turn influence patterns of genetic diversity and gene flow. However, little empirical information is available on the nature and degree of such changes due to the relative rarity of longitudinal genetic sampling of wild populations at appropriate intervals. Addressing this knowledge gap is therefore of interest to evolutionary biologists, policy makers, and managers...
2017: PloS One
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