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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819099/the-genetic-basis-of-natural-variation-in-a-phoretic-behavior
#1
Daehan Lee, Heeseung Yang, Jun Kim, Shannon Brady, Stefan Zdraljevic, Mostafa Zamanian, Heekyeong Kim, Young-Ki Paik, Leonid Kruglyak, Erik C Andersen, Junho Lee
Phoresy is a widespread form of commensalism that facilitates dispersal of one species through an association with a more mobile second species. Dauer larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibit a phoretic behavior called nictation, which could enable interactions with animals such as isopods or snails. Here, we show that natural C. elegans isolates differ in nictation. We use quantitative behavioral assays and linkage mapping to identify a genetic locus (nict-1) that mediates the phoretic interaction with terrestrial isopods...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813201/applying-movement-ecology-to-marine-animals-with-complex-life-cycles
#2
Richard M Allen, Anna Metaxas, Paul V R Snelgrove
Marine animals with complex life cycles may move passively or actively for fertilization, dispersal, predator avoidance, resource acquisition, and migration, and over scales from micrometers to thousands of kilometers. This diversity has catalyzed idiosyncratic and unfocused research, creating unsound paradigms regarding the role of movement in ecology and evolution. The emerging movement ecology paradigm offers a framework to consolidate movement research independent of taxon, life-history stage, scale, or discipline...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811885/manipulation-of-habitat-isolation-and-area-implicates-deterministic-factors-and-limited-neutrality-in-community-assembly
#3
Terry J Ord, Jack Emblen, Mattias Hagman, Ryan Shofner, Sara Unruh
Theory predicts deterministic and stochastic factors will contribute to community assembly in different ways: Environmental filters should regulate those species that establish in a particular area resulting in the ecological requirements of species being the primary driver of species distributions, while chance and dispersal limitation should dictate the likelihood of species reaching certain areas with the ecology of species being largely neutral. These factors are specifically relevant for understanding how the area and isolation of different habitats or islands interact to affect community composition...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809832/phagocytosis-assay-for-apoptotic-cells-in-drosophila-embryos
#4
Saori Nonaka, Aki Hori, Yoshinobu Nakanishi, Takayuki Kuraishi
The molecular mechanisms underlying the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells need to be elucidated in more detail because of its role in immune and inflammatory intractable diseases. We herein developed an experimental method to investigate phagocytosis quantitatively using the fruit fly Drosophila, in which the gene network controlling engulfment reactions is evolutionally conserved from mammals. In order to accurately detect and count engulfing and un-engulfing phagocytes using whole animals, Drosophila embryos were homogenized to obtain dispersed cells including phagocytes and apoptotic cells...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808693/the-simulated-air-flow-pattern-around-a-moving-animal-transport-vehicle-as-the-basis-for-a-prospective-biosecurity-risk-assessment
#5
Jens Seedorf, Ralf-Gunther Schmidt
Research that investigates bioaerosol emissions from animal transport vehicles (ATVs) and their importance in the spread of harmful airborne agents while the ATVs travel on roads is limited. To investigate the dynamical behaviour of theoretically released particles from a moving ATV, the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software OpenFOAM was used to calculate the external and internal air flow fields with passive and forced ventilated openings of a common ATV moving at a speed of 80 km/h. In addition to a computed flow rate of approximately 40,000 m(3)/h crossing the interior of the ATV, the visualization of the trajectories has demonstrated distinct patterns of the spatial distribution of potentially released bioaerosols in the vicinity of the ATV...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808545/dioecious-plants-are-more-precocious-than-cosexual-plants-a-comparative-study-of-relative-sizes-at-the-onset-of-sexual-reproduction-in-woody-species
#6
Itsuki Ohya, Satoshi Nanami, Akira Itoh
The reproductive capacities of dioecious plant species may be limited by severe pollen limitation and narrow seed shadows for the two reasons. First, they are unable to self-pollinate, and seed production occurs only with pollinator movement from males to females. Second, only 50% of the individuals in populations contribute to seed production. Despite these handicaps, dioecious plants maintain their populations in plant communities with cooccurring cosexual plants, and no substantial difference in population growth rates has been found between dioecious and cosexual plants...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802161/physicochemical-analysis-of-permian-coprolites-from-brazil
#7
M I C Rodrigues, J H da Silva, F Eroni P Santos, P Dentzien-Dias, J C Cisneros, A S de Menezes, P T C Freire, B C Viana
In this paper we performed the study of two coprolites (fossilized feces) collected from the exposed levels of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin, and Rio do Rasto Formation, Paraná Sedimentary Basin, both of the Palaeozoic era (Permian age). They were characterized using X-ray diffractometry, infrared, Raman and energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques in order to aid our understanding of the processes of fossilization and to discuss issues related to the feeding habits of the animals which generated those coprolites, probably cartilaginous fishes...
August 8, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799177/racemic-and-enantiopure-forms-of-3-ethyl-3-phenylpyrrolidin-2-one-adopt-very-different-crystal-structures
#8
Arcadius V Krivoshein, Sergey V Lindeman, Tatiana V Timofeeva, Victor N Khrustalev
3-Ethyl-3-phenylpyrrolidin-2-one (EPP) is an experimental anticonvulsant based on the newly proposed α-substituted amide group pharmacophore. These compounds show robust activity in animal models of drug-resistant epilepsy and are thus promising for clinical development. In order to understand pharmaceutically relevant properties of such compounds, we are conducting an extensive investigation of their structures in the solid state. In this article, we report chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, determination of absolute configuration of enantiomers, and crystal structures of EPP...
August 11, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794579/temporal-and-geographic-patterns-of-kinship-structure-in-common-dolphins-delphinus-delphis-suggest-site-fidelity-and-female-biased-long-distance-dispersal
#9
Laura Ball, Kypher Shreves, Małgorzata Pilot, André E Moura
ABSTRACT: Social structure plays a crucial role in determining a species' dispersal patterns and genetic structure. Cetaceans show a diversity of social and mating systems, but their effects on dispersal and genetic structure are not well known, in part because of technical difficulties in obtaining robust observational data. Here, we combine genetic profiling and GIS analysis to identify patterns of kin distribution over time and space, to infer mating structure and dispersal patterns in short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791174/locomotor-performance-of-cane-toads-differs-between-native-range-and-invasive-populations
#10
Georgia Kosmala, Keith Christian, Gregory Brown, Richard Shine
Invasive species provide a robust opportunity to evaluate how animals deal with novel environmental challenges. Shifts in locomotor performance-and thus the ability to disperse-(and especially, the degree to which it is constrained by thermal and hydric extremes) are of special importance, because they might affect the rate that an invader can spread. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) across a broad geographical range: two populations within the species' native range in Brazil, two invasive populations on the island of Hawai'i and eight invasive populations encompassing the eastern, western and southern limits of the toad invasion in Australia...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776950/genetics-of-dispersal
#11
Marjo Saastamoinen, Greta Bocedi, Julien Cote, Delphine Legrand, Frédéric Guillaume, Christopher W Wheat, Emanuel A Fronhofer, Cristina Garcia, Roslyn Henry, Arild Husby, Michel Baguette, Dries Bonte, Aurélie Coulon, Hanna Kokko, Erik Matthysen, Kristjan Niitepõld, Etsuko Nonaka, Virginie M Stevens, Justin M J Travis, Kathleen Donohue, James M Bullock, Maria Del Mar Delgado
Dispersal is a process of central importance for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations and communities, because of its diverse consequences for gene flow and demography. It is subject to evolutionary change, which begs the question, what is the genetic basis of this potentially complex trait? To address this question, we (i) review the empirical literature on the genetic basis of dispersal, (ii) explore how theoretical investigations of the evolution of dispersal have represented the genetics of dispersal, and (iii) discuss how the genetic basis of dispersal influences theoretical predictions of the evolution of dispersal and potential consequences...
August 3, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771629/altitudinal-gradients-biogeographic-history-and-microhabitat-adaptation-affect-fine-scale-spatial-genetic-structure-in-african-and-neotropical-populations-of-an-ancient-tropical-tree-species
#12
Paloma Torroba-Balmori, Katharina B Budde, Katrin Heer, Santiago C González-Martínez, Sanna Olsson, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Maxime Casalis, Bonaventure Sonké, Christopher W Dick, Myriam Heuertz
The analysis of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS) within populations can provide insights into eco-evolutionary processes. Restricted dispersal and locally occurring genetic drift are the primary causes for FSGS at equilibrium, as described in the isolation by distance (IBD) model. Beyond IBD expectations, spatial, environmental or historical factors can affect FSGS. We examined FSGS in seven African and Neotropical populations of the late-successional rain forest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) to discriminate the influence of drift-dispersal vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770078/closing-the-gaps-for-animal-seed-dispersal-separating-the-effects-of-habitat-loss-on-dispersal-distances-and-seed-aggregation
#13
Landon R Jones, Scott M Duke-Sylvester, Paul L Leberg, Derek M Johnson
Habitat loss can alter animal movements and disrupt animal seed dispersal mutualisms; however, its effects on spatial patterns of seed dispersal are not well understood. To explore the effects of habitat loss on seed dispersal distances and seed dispersion (aggregation), we created a spatially explicit, individual-based model of an animal dispersing seeds (SEADS-Spatially Explicit Animal Dispersal of Seeds) in a theoretical landscape of 0%-90% habitat loss based on three animal traits: movement distance, gut retention time, and time between movements...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769118/earliest-expansion-of-animal-husbandry-beyond-the-mediterranean-zone-in-the-sixth-millennium-bc
#14
Jonathan Ethier, Eszter Bánffy, Jasna Vuković, Krassimir Leshtakov, Krum Bacvarov, Mélanie Roffet-Salque, Richard P Evershed, Maria Ivanova
Since their domestication in the Mediterranean zone of Southwest Asia in the eighth millennium BC, sheep, goats, pigs and cattle have been remarkably successful in colonizing a broad variety of environments. The initial steps in this process can be traced back to the dispersal of farming groups into the interior of the Balkans in the early sixth millennium BC, who were the first to introduce Mediterranean livestock beyond its natural climatic range. Here, we combine analysis of biomolecular and isotopic compositions of lipids preserved in prehistoric pottery with faunal analyses of taxonomic composition from the earliest farming sites in southeast Europe to reconstruct this pivotal event in the early history of animal husbandry...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760763/adult-sex-ratios-and-their-implications-for-cooperative-breeding-in-birds
#15
Jan Komdeur, Tamás Székely, Xiaoyan Long, Sjouke A Kingma
Cooperative breeding is a form of breeding system where in addition to a core breeding pair, one or more usually non-breeding individuals provide offspring care. Cooperative breeding is widespread in birds, but its origin and maintenance in contemporary populations are debated. Although deviations in adult sex ratio (ASR, the proportion of males in the adult population) have been hypothesized to influence the occurrence of cooperative breeding because of the resulting surplus of one sex and limited availability of breeding partners, this hypothesis has not been tested across a wide range of taxa...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760759/adult-sex-ratios-and-partner-scarcity-among-hunter-gatherers-implications-for-dispersal-patterns-and-the-evolution-of-human-sociality
#16
Karen L Kramer, Ryan Schacht, Adrian Bell
Small populations are susceptible to high genetic loads and random fluctuations in birth and death rates. While these selective forces can adversely affect their viability, small populations persist across taxa. Here, we investigate the resilience of small groups to demographic uncertainty, and specifically to fluctuations in adult sex ratio (ASR), partner availability and dispersal patterns. Using 25 years of demographic data for two Savannah Pumé groups of South American hunter-gatherers, we show that in small human populations: (i) ASRs fluctuate substantially from year to year, but do not consistently trend in a sex-biased direction; (ii) the primary driver of local variation in partner availability is stochasticity in the sex ratio at maturity; and (iii) dispersal outside of the group is an important behavioural means to mediate locally constrained mating options...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760756/estimating-adult-sex-ratios-in-nature
#17
REVIEW
Sergio Ancona, Francisco V Dénes, Oliver Krüger, Tamás Székely, Steven R Beissinger
Adult sex ratio (ASR, the proportion of males in the adult population) is a central concept in population and evolutionary biology, and is also emerging as a major factor influencing mate choice, pair bonding and parental cooperation in both human and non-human societies. However, estimating ASR is fraught with difficulties stemming from the effects of spatial and temporal variation in the numbers of males and females, and detection/capture probabilities that differ between the sexes. Here, we critically evaluate methods for estimating ASR in wild animal populations, reviewing how recent statistical advances can be applied to handle some of these challenges...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759732/therapeutic-effects-of-doxycycline-on-the-quality-of-repaired-and-unrepaired-achilles-tendons
#18
Quynhhoa T Nguyen, Jolanta B Norelli, Adam Graver, Charles Ekstein, Johnathan Schwartz, Farzana Chowdhury, Mark C Drakos, Daniel A Grande, Nadeen O Chahine
BACKGROUND: Achilles tendon tears are devastating injuries, especially to athletes. Elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity after a tendon injury has been associated with deterioration of the collagen network and can be inhibited with doxycycline (Doxy). HYPOTHESIS: Daily oral administration of Doxy will enhance the histological, molecular, and biomechanical quality of transected Achilles tendons. Additionally, suture repair will further enhance the quality of repaired tendons...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757358/strontium-release-from-sr-2-loaded-bone-cements-and-dispersion-in-healthy-and-osteoporotic-rat-bone
#19
Marcus Rohnke, Stefanie Pfitzenreuter, Boris Mogwitz, Anja Henß, Jürgen Thomas, Dina Bieberstein, Thomas Gemming, Svenja K Otto, Seemun Ray, Matthias Schumacher, Michael Gelinsky, Volker Alt
Drug functionalization of biomaterials is a modern and popular approach in biomaterials research. Amongst others this concept is used for the functionalization of bone implants to locally stimulate the bone healing process. For example strontium ions (Sr(2+)) are administered in osteoporosis therapy to stimulate bone growth and have recently been integrated into bone cements. Based on results of different analytical experiments we developed a two-phase model for the transport of therapeutically active Sr(2+)-ions in bone in combination with Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetics for the Sr(2+) release from bone cement...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746975/breeding-habitat-selection-across-spatial-scales-is-grass-always-greener-on-the-other-side
#20
Paul Acker, Aurélien Besnard, Jean-Yves Monnat, Emmanuelle Cam
Habitat selection theory predicts that natural selection should favor mechanisms allowing individuals to choose habitats associated with the highest fitness prospects. However, identifying sources of information on habitat quality that individuals use to choose their breeding habitat has proved to be difficult. It has also proven difficult to identify dispersal costs that prevent individuals from joining the highest-quality sites. A synthesis that integrates dispersal costs and habitat selection mechanisms across space has remained elusive...
July 26, 2017: Ecology
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