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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546514/the-nuclear-matrix-protein-ciz1-facilitates-localization-of-xist-rna-to-the-inactive-x-chromosome-territory
#1
Rebeca Ridings-Figueroa, Emma R Stewart, Tatyana B Nesterova, Heather Coker, Greta Pintacuda, Jonathan Godwin, Rose Wilson, Aidan Haslam, Fred Lilley, Renate Ruigrok, Sumia A Bageghni, Ghadeer Albadrani, William Mansfield, Jo-An Roulson, Neil Brockdorff, Justin F X Ainscough, Dawn Coverley
The nuclear matrix protein Cip1-interacting zinc finger protein 1 (CIZ1) promotes DNA replication in association with cyclins and has been linked to adult and pediatric cancers. Here we show that CIZ1 is highly enriched on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in mouse and human female cells and is retained by interaction with the RNA-dependent nuclear matrix. CIZ1 is recruited to Xi in response to expression of X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) RNA during the earliest stages of X inactivation in embryonic stem cells and is dependent on the C-terminal nuclear matrix anchor domain of CIZ1 and the E repeats of Xist CIZ1-null mice, although viable, display fully penetrant female-specific lymphoproliferative disorder...
May 25, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545404/gene-dispersion-is-the-key-determinant-of-the-read-count-bias-in-differential-expression-analysis-of-rna-seq-data
#2
Sora Yoon, Dougu Nam
BACKGROUND: In differential expression analysis of RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) read count data for two sample groups, it is known that highly expressed genes (or longer genes) are more likely to be differentially expressed which is called read count bias (or gene length bias). This bias had great effect on the downstream Gene Ontology over-representation analysis. However, such a bias has not been systematically analyzed for different replicate types of RNA-seq data. RESULTS: We show that the dispersion coefficient of a gene in the negative binomial modeling of read counts is the critical determinant of the read count bias (and gene length bias) by mathematical inference and tests for a number of simulated and real RNA-seq datasets...
May 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542901/mechanisms-and-implications-of-a-type-iv-functional-response-for-short-term-intake-rate-of-dry-matter-in-large-mammalian-herbivores
#3
J C Mezzalira, O J F Bonnet, P C de F Carvalho, L Fonseca, C Bremm, C C Mezzalira, E A Laca
1.The functional response (i.e. the relationship between consumers' intake rate and resource density) is central in plant-herbivore interactions. Its shape and the biological processes leading to it have significant implications for both foraging theory and ecology of grazing systems. 2.A type IV functional response (i.e. dome-shaped relationship) of short-term intake rate of dry matter (intake while grazing) has rarely been reported for large herbivores and the conditions that can lead to it are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533464/the-colours-of-humanity-the-evolution-of-pigmentation-in-the-human-lineage
#4
REVIEW
Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin
Humans are a colourful species of primate, with human skin, hair and eye coloration having been influenced by a great variety of evolutionary forces throughout prehistory. Functionally naked skin has been the physical interface between the physical environment and the human body for most of the history of the genus Homo, and hence skin coloration has been under intense natural selection. From an original condition of protective, dark, eumelanin-enriched coloration in early tropical-dwelling Homo and Homo sapiens, loss of melanin pigmentation occurred under natural selection as Homo sapiens dispersed into non-tropical latitudes of Africa and Eurasia...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532653/hippocampal-ca1-local-field-potential-oscillations-induced-by-olfactory-cue-of-liked-food
#5
Nifareeda Samerphob, Dania Cheaha, Surapong Chatpun, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
Eating motivation is induced not only by negative energy balance but also food related cues. However, neural processing for acquisition of learned food preference remains to be established. This study aimed to identify hippocampal neural signaling in response to olfactory cue (chocolate scent) after completion of repetitive chocolate sessions. Male Swiss albino mice implanted with intracranial electrode into the hippocampus were used for local field potential (LFP) recording. Animals were given chocolate sessions (a piece of 2 g chocolate per each mouse to eat on day 1, 3, 5 and 7)...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525920/torsade-de-pointes-arrhythmias-arise-at-the-site-of-maximal-heterogeneity-of-repolarization-in-the-chronic-complete-atrioventricular-block-dog
#6
Albert Dunnink, Thom R G Stams, Alexandre Bossu, Veronique M F Meijborg, Jet D M Beekman, Sofieke C Wijers, Jacques M T De Bakker, Marc A Vos
Aims: The chronic complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) dog is highly sensitive for drug-induced torsade de pointes (TdP) arrhythmias. Focal mechanisms have been suggested as trigger for TdP onset; however, its exact mechanism remains unclear. In this study, detailed mapping of the ventricles was performed to assess intraventricular heterogeneity of repolarization in relation to the initiation of TdP. Methods and results: In 8 CAVB animals, 56 needles, each containing 4 electrodes, were inserted in the ventricles...
May 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521734/higher-order-organisation-of-extremely-amplified-potentially-functional-and-massively-methylated-5s-rdna-in-european-pikes-esox-sp
#7
Radka Symonová, Konrad Ocalewicz, Lech Kirtiklis, Giovanni Battista Delmastro, Šárka Pelikánová, Sonia Garcia, Aleš Kovařík
BACKGROUND: Pikes represent an important genus (Esox) harbouring a pre-duplication karyotype (2n = 2x = 50) of economically important salmonid pseudopolyploids. Here, we have characterized the 5S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in Esox lucius and its closely related E. cisalpinus using cytogenetic, molecular and genomic approaches. Intragenomic homogeneity and copy number estimation was carried out using Illumina reads. The higher-order structure of rDNA arrays was investigated by the analysis of long PacBio reads...
May 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516453/dba-2j-mouse-model-for-experimental-glaucoma-pitfalls-and-problems
#8
Anita J Turner, Roshana Vander Wall, Vivek Gupta, Alex Klistorner, Stuart L Graham
PURPOSE: The DBA/2J mouse has been described as a model for congenital experimental glaucoma. It develops anterior segment anomalies with synechiae and pigment dispersion leading to raised intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous damage. However there are serious practical considerations when using this model in longitudinal studies. METHODS: We followed 118 mice from 12 - 48 weeks of age in a pharmaceutical trial. Here we report on the findings in control animals (n=37)...
May 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515235/insulin-like-growth-factor-signaling-regulates-developmental-trajectory-associated-with-diapause-in-embryos-of-the-annual-killifish-austrofundulus-limnaeus
#9
S Cody Woll, Jason E Podrabsky
Annual killifishes exhibit a number of unique life history characters including the occurrence of embryonic diapause, unique cell movements associated with dispersion and subsequent reaggregation of the embryonic blastomeres, and a short post-embryonic life span. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling is known to play a role in the regulation of metabolic dormancy in a number of animals but has not been explored in annual killifishes. The abundance of IGF proteins during development, and the developmental effects of blocking IGF signaling by pharmacological inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF1R) were explored in embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus Blocking of IGF signaling in embryos that would normally escape entrance into diapause resulted in a phenotype that was remarkably similar to embryos entering diapause...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515004/animal-breeding-strategies-can-improve-meat-quality-attributes-within-entire-populations
#10
D P Berry, S Conroy, T Pabiou, A R Cromie
The contribution of animal breeding to changes in animal performance is well documented across a range of species. Once genetic variation in a trait exists, then breeding to improve the characteristics of that trait is possible, if so desired. Considerable genetic variation exists in a range of meat quality attributes across a range of species. The genetic variation that exists for meat quality is as large as observed for most performance traits; thus, within a well-structured breeding program, rapid genetic gain for meat quality could be possible...
April 21, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513543/chronic-exposure-to-uranium-from-gestation-effects-on-behavior-and-neurogenesis-in-adulthood
#11
Céline Dinocourt, Cécile Culeux, Marie Legrand, Christelle Elie, Philippe Lestaevel
Uranium exposure leads to cerebral dysfunction involving for instance biochemical, neurochemical and neurobehavioral effects. Most studies have focused on mechanisms in uranium-exposed adult animals. However, recent data on developing animals have shown that the developing brain is also sensitive to uranium. Models of uranium exposure during brain development highlight the need to improve our understanding of the effects of uranium. In a model in which uranium exposure began from the first day of gestation, we studied the neurobehavioral consequences as well as the progression of hippocampal neurogenesis in animals from dams exposed to uranium...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512347/insight-into-the-global-evolution-of-rodentia-associated-morbilli-related-paramyxoviruses
#12
Wissem Ghawar, Hervé Pascalis, Jihéne Bettaieb, Julien Mélade, Adel Gharbi, Mohamed Ali Snoussi, Dhafer Laouini, Steven M Goodman, Afif Ben Salah, Koussay Dellagi
One portion of the family Paramyxoviridae is a group of Unclassified Morbilli-Related Viruses (UMRV) recently recognized in wild small mammals. At a global level, the evolutionary history of these viruses is not properly understood and the relationships between UMRV and their hosts still remain largely unstudied. The present study revealed, for the first time, that Rodentia associated UMRV emerged from a common ancestor in southern Africa more than 4000 years ago. Sequenced UMRV originating from different regions in the world, clustered into four well-supported viral lineages, which suggest that strain diversification occurred during host dispersal and associated exchanges, with purifying selection pressure as the principal evolutionary force...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512054/synthesis-and-characterization-of-psyllium-seed-mucilage-grafted-with-n-n-methylene-bisacrylamide
#13
Monica R P Rao, Laxmi Babrekar, Vaishali S Kharpude, Jagruti Chaudhari
Psyllium seed polysaccharide was modified to investigate its use as multifunctional pharmaceutical excipient. The objective of this study was isolation of psyllium seed polysaccharide and crosslinking with acrylic acid using N,N-methylene bisacrylamide and its characterization. Acrylic acid was used as monomer and ammonium persulfate as initiator. A full factorial design was employed to optimize the crosslinking. The modified polysaccharide was characterized by FTIR, DSC, PXRD, loss on drying, pH, viscosity, micromeritics properties and swelling studies in 0...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505423/simple-inkjet-process-to-fabricate-microstructures-of-chitinous-nanocrystals-for-cell-patterning
#14
Shuntaro Suzuki, Yoshikuni Teramoto
Structural polysaccharide nanocrystals (NCs) including cellulose nanocrystal have attracted attention. In order to broaden the range of application of the NCs, we can take advantage of their original characteristics by establishing simple and reasonable processing methods. We here demonstrate a micropatterning of animal cellular adhesion by inkjet printing of aqueous dispersions of cytocompatible chitinous NCs onto cellophane films. We display how to regulate the deposition form and two-dimensional shape of the chitinous NC micromoldings using a research inkjet printer...
May 22, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505375/between-a-pod-and-a-hard-test-the-deep-evolution-of-amoebae
#15
Seungho Kang, Alexander K Tice, Frederick W Spiegel, Jeffrey D Silberman, Tomáš Pánek, Ivan Cepicka, Martin Kostka, Anush Kosakyan, Daniel M Alcântara, Andrew J Roger, Lora L Shadwick, Alexey Smirnov, Alexander Kudryavstev, Daniel J G Lahr, Matthew W Brown
Amoebozoa is the eukaryotic supergroup sister to Obazoa, the lineage that contains the animals and Fungi, as well as their protistan relatives, and the breviate and apusomonad flagellates. Amoebozoa is extraordinarily diverse, encompassing important model organisms and significant pathogens. Although amoebozoans are integral to global nutrient cycles and present in nearly all environments, they remain vastly understudied. We present a robust phylogeny of Amoebozoa based on broad representative set of taxa in a phylogenomic framework (325 genes)...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503829/unravelling-seed-dispersal-through-fragmented-landscapes-frugivore-species-operate-unevenly-as-mobile-links
#16
Juan P González-Varo, Carolina S Carvalho, Juan M Arroyo, Pedro Jordano
Seed dispersal constitutes a pivotal process in an increasingly fragmented world, promoting population connectivity, colonization and range shifts in plants. Unveiling how multiple frugivore species disperse seeds through fragmented landscapes, operating as mobile links, has remained elusive owing to methodological constraints for monitoring seed dispersal events. We combine for the first time DNA barcoding and DNA microsatellites to identify, respectively, the frugivore species and the source trees of animal-dispersed seeds in forest and matrix of a fragmented landscape...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502644/leishmania-v-braziliensis-infecting-bats-from-pantanal-wetland-brazil-first-records-for-platyrrhinus-lineatus-and-artibeus-planirostris
#17
Eduardo de Castro Ferreira, Agnes Antônio Sampaio Pereira, Maurício Silveira, Carina Margonari, Glaucia Elisete Barbosa Marcon, Adriana de Oliveira França, Ludiele Souza Castro, Marcelo Oscar Bordignon, Erich Fischer, Walfrido Moraes Tomas, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo
In the New World genus Leishmania parasites are etiological agents of neglected zoonoses known as leishmaniasis. Its epidemiology is very complex due to the participation of several species of sand fly vectors and mammalian hosts, and man is an accidental host. Control is very difficult because of the different epidemiological patterns of transmission observed. Studies about Leishmania spp. infection in bats are so scarce, which represents a large gap in knowledge about the role of these animals in the transmission cycle of these pathogens, especially when considering that Chiroptera is one of the most abundant and diverse orders among mammals...
May 11, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498334/pastoralism-versus-agriculturalism-how-do-altered-land-use-forms-affect-the-spread-of-invasive-plants-in-the-degraded-mutara-rangelands-of-north-eastern-rwanda
#18
Torsten Wronski, Jean Damascene Bariyanga, Ping Sun, Martin Plath, Ann Apio
Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) originates from tropical Central and South America and has become invasive in about 50 countries. It causes problems when invading rangelands due to its toxicity to livestock and its tendency to form dense, monotonous thickets. Its invasiveness can partly be explained by the high tannin content largely protecting the species from being browsed, its tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as its general preference for anthropogenically disturbed habitats...
May 12, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496323/a-novel-nanoemulsion-based-method-to-produce-ultrasmall-water-dispersible-nanoparticles-from-chitosan-surface-modified-with-cell-penetrating-peptide-for-oral-delivery-of-proteins-and-peptides
#19
Ghullam Reza Barbari, Farid Abedin Dorkoosh, Mohsen Amini, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Fateme Atyabi, Saeed Balalaie, Niyousha Rafiee Tehrani, Morteza Rafiee Tehrani
A simple and reproducible water-in-oil (W/O) nanoemulsion technique for making ultrasmall (<15 nm), monodispersed and water-dispersible nanoparticles (NPs) from chitosan (CS) is reported. The nano-sized (50 nm) water pools of the W/O nanoemulsion serve as "nano-containers and nano-reactors". The entrapped polymer chains of CS inside these "nano-reactors" are covalently cross-linked with the chains of polyethylene glycol (PEG), leading to rigidification and formation of NPs. These NPs possess excessive swelling properties in aqueous medium and preserve integrity in all pH ranges due to chemical cross-linking with PEG...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490622/mutualistic-strategies-minimize-coextinction-in-plant-disperser-networks
#20
Evan C Fricke, Joshua J Tewksbury, Elizabeth M Wandrag, Haldre S Rogers
The global decline of mutualists such as pollinators and seed dispersers may cause negative direct and indirect impacts on biodiversity. Mutualistic network models used to understand the stability of mutualistic systems indicate that species with low partner diversity are most vulnerable to coextinction following mutualism disruption. However, existing models have not considered how species vary in their dependence on mutualistic interactions for reproduction or survival, overlooking the potential influence of this variation on species' coextinction vulnerability and on network stability...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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