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Animal dispersal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926915/cheetah-reunion-the-challenge-of-finding-your-friends-again
#1
Tatjana Y Hubel, Justine Shotton, Simon D Wilshin, Jane Horgan, Rebecca Klein, Rick McKenna, Alan M Wilson
Animals navigate their environment using a variety of senses and strategies. This multiplicity enables them to respond to different navigational requirements resulting from habitat, scale and purpose. One of the challenges social animals face is how to reunite after periods of separation. We explore a variety of possible mechanisms used to reunite the members of a cheetah coalition dispersed within a large area after prolonged separation. Using GPS data from three cheetahs reuniting after weeks of separation, we determined that 1) the likelihood of purely coincidental reunion is miniscule 2) the reunion occurred in an area not normally frequented 3) with very little time spent in the region in advance of the reunion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920383/effects-of-fragmentation-on-plant-adaptation-to-urban-environments
#2
Jonathan Dubois, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou
Urban ecosystems are relatively recent and heavily human-altered terrestrial ecosystems with a surprisingly high diversity of animals, plants and other organisms. Urban habitats are also strongly fragmented and subject to higher temperatures, providing a compelling model for studying adaptation to global change. Crepis sancta (Asteraceae), an annual Mediterranean wasteland weed, occupies fragmented urban environments as well as certain unfragmented landscapes in southern France. We tested for shifts in dispersal, reproductive traits and size across a rural-urban gradient to learn whether and how selection may be driving changes in life history in urban and fragmented habitats...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910818/histomorphometric-and-transcriptome-evaluation-of-early-healing-bone-treated-with-a-novel-human-particulate-dentin-powder
#3
Yu-Chih Huang, Wei-Zhen Lew, Sheng-Wei Feng, Wei-Yi Lai, Yoshimitsu Abiko, Haw-Ming Huang
Human particulate dentin (HPD) shows potential as an alternative bone grafting material. However, the mechanism of bone healing at the molecular level after grafting with HPD is unclear. This study assessed the histological and global gene expression of bone tissues grafted with HPD. The HPD was prepared to 250-500 µm in size. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were performed to confirm the crystal structure, organic compound residues, and surface morphology, respectively...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892872/fern-synthesized-silver-nanocrystals-towards-a-new-class-of-mosquito-oviposition-deterrents
#4
Rajapandian Rajaganesh, Kadarkarai Murugan, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Sudalaimani Jayashanthini, Al Thbiani Aziz, Mathath Roni, Udaiyan Suresh, Subrata Trivedi, Hasibur Rehman, Akon Higuchi, Marcello Nicoletti, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquitoes act as vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, representing a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide. Eco-friendly control tools are urgently required. We proposed a novel method of fern-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Dicranopteris linearis, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential and particle size analysis...
September 17, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888336/ocean-acidification-alters-temperature-and-salinity-preferences-in-larval-fish
#5
Jennifer C A Pistevos, Ivan Nagelkerken, Tullio Rossi, Sean D Connell
Ocean acidification alters the way in which animals perceive and respond to their world by affecting a variety of senses such as audition, olfaction, vision and pH sensing. Marine species rely on other senses as well, but we know little of how these might be affected by ocean acidification. We tested whether ocean acidification can alter the preference for physicochemical cues used for dispersal between ocean and estuarine environments. We experimentally assessed the behavioural response of a larval fish (Lates calcarifer) to elevated temperature and reduced salinity, including estuarine water of multiple cues for detecting settlement habitat...
November 25, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881755/unravelling-darwin-s-entangled-bank-architecture-and-robustness-of-mutualistic-networks-with-multiple-interaction-types
#6
Wesley Dáttilo, Nubia Lara-Rodríguez, Pedro Jordano, Paulo R Guimarães, John N Thompson, Robert J Marquis, Lucas P Medeiros, Raul Ortiz-Pulido, Maria A Marcos-García, Victor Rico-Gray
Trying to unravel Darwin's entangled bank further, we describe the architecture of a network involving multiple forms of mutualism (pollination by animals, seed dispersal by birds and plant protection by ants) and evaluate whether this multi-network shows evidence of a structure that promotes robustness. We found that species differed strongly in their contributions to the organization of the multi-interaction network, and that only a few species contributed to the structuring of these patterns. Moreover, we observed that the multi-interaction networks did not enhance community robustness compared with each of the three independent mutualistic networks when analysed across a range of simulated scenarios of species extinction...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870042/differential-foraging-preferences-on-seed-size-by-rodents-result-in-higher-dispersal-success-of-medium-sized-seeds
#7
Lin Cao, Zhenyu Wang, Chuan Yan, Jin Chen, Cong Guo, Zhibin Zhang
Rodent preference for scatter-hoarding large seeds has been widely considered to favor the evolution of large seeds. Previous studies supporting this conclusion were primarily based on observations at earlier stages of seed dispersal, or on a limited sample of successfully established seedlings. Because seed dispersal comprises multiple dispersal stages, we hypothesized that differential foraging preference on seed size by animal dispersers at different dispersal stages would ultimately result in medium-sized seeds having the highest dispersal success rates...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865404/formulation-studies-of-inha-inhibitors-and-combination-therapy-to-improve-efficacy-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#8
Susan E Knudson, Jason E Cummings, Gopal R Bommineni, Pan Pan, Peter J Tonge, Richard A Slayden
Previously, structure-based drug design was used to develop substituted diphenyl ethers with potency against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) enoyl-ACP reductase (InhA), however, the highly lipophilic centroid compound, SB-PT004, lacked sufficient efficacy in the acute murine Mtb infection model. A next generation series of compounds were designed with improved specificity, potency against InhA, and reduced cytotoxicity in vitro, but these compounds also had limited solubility. Accordingly, solubility and pharmacokinetics studies were performed to develop formulations for this class and other experimental drug candidates with high logP values often encountered in drug discovery...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864136/the-underlying-mechanisms-of-genetic-innovation-and-speciation-in-the-family-corynebacteriaceae-a-phylogenomics-approach
#9
Xiao-Yang Zhi, Zhao Jiang, Ling-Ling Yang, Ying Huang
The pangenome of a bacterial species population is formed by genetic reduction and genetic expansion over the long course of evolution. Gene loss is a pervasive source of genetic reduction, and (exogenous and endogenous) gene gain is the main driver of genetic expansion. To understand the genetic innovation and speciation of the family Corynebacteriaceae, which cause a wide range of serious infections in humans and animals, we analyzed the pangenome of this family, and reconstructed its phylogeny using a phylogenomics approach...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861945/rapid-hemostasis-in-a-sheep-model-using-particles-that-propel-thrombin-and-tranexamic-acid
#10
James R Baylis, Andres Finkelstein-Kulka, Luis Macias-Valle, Jamil Manji, Michael Lee, Elina Levchenko, Christopher Okpaleke, Salahuddin Al-Salihi, Amin Javer, Christian J Kastrup
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery and open surgeries can easily obstruct the surgeons' field of view and increase morbidity and risk of intraoperative complications. Intraoperative bleeding could potentially be addressed by a hemostatic agent that safely disperses itself through the escaping blood. We tested the safety and efficacy of a self-propelling formulation of thrombin and tranexamic acid (SPTT) in stopping bleeding in a paranasal sinus injury and in an open surgical carotid injury sheep model...
November 10, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861772/three-dimensional-habitat-structure-and-landscape-genetics-a-step-forward-in-estimating-functional-connectivity
#11
P Milanesi, R Holderegger, K Bollmann, F Gugerli, F Zellweger
Estimating connectivity among fragmented habitat patches is crucial for evaluating the functionality of ecological networks. However, current estimates of landscape resistance to animal movement and dispersal lack landscape-level data on local habitat structure. Here, we used a landscape genetics approach to show that high-fidelity habitat structure maps derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data critically improve functional connectivity estimates compared to conventional land cover data. We related pairwise genetic distances of 128 capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) genotypes to least-cost path distances at multiple scales derived from land cover data...
November 11, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860520/social-life-in-arid-environments-the-case-study-of-cataglyphis-ants
#12
Raphaël Boulay, Serge Aron, Xim Cerdá, Claudie Doums, Paul Graham, Abraham Hefetz, Thibaud Monnin
Unlike most desert-dwelling animals, Cataglyphis ants do not attempt to escape the heat; rather, they apply their impressive heat tolerance to avoid competitors and predators. This thermally defined niche has promoted a range of adaptations both at the individual and colony levels. We have also recently discovered that within the genus Cataglyphis there are incredibly diverse social systems, modes of reproduction, and dispersal, prompting the tantalizing question of whether social diversity may also be a consequence of the harsh environment within which we find these charismatic ants...
November 17, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860367/multidrug-resistant-outbreak-associated-salmonella-strains-in-irrigation-water-from-the-metropolitan-region-chile
#13
M C Martínez, P Retamal, J F Rojas-Aedo, J Fernández, A Fernández, L Lapierre
Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) is the main cause of foodborne diseases in the Chilean population. With the aim of characterizing the presence of S. enterica in bodies of water, samples from 40 sources were obtained, including rivers and irrigation canals used by agricultural farms in the most populated regions of Chile. As result, 35 S. enterica isolates belonging to several serotypes were detected, with the highest frequency represented by Typhimurium and Enteritidis. All strains showed phenotypic antimicrobial resistance, and most of them were multiresistant to critically important antimicrobials...
November 12, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859602/integrating-archaeology-and-ancient-dna-to-address-invasive-species-colonization-in-the-gulf-of-alaska
#14
Catherine West, Courtney A Hofman, Steve Ebbert, John Martin, Sabrina Shirazi, Samantha Dunning, Jesus E Maldonado
The intentional and unintentional movement of plants and animals by humans has transformed ecosystems and landscapes globally. Assessing when and how a species was introduced are central to managing these transformed landscapes, particularly in island environments. In the Gulf of Alaska, there is considerable interest in the history of mammal introductions and rehabilitating Gulf of Alaska island environments by eradicating those mammals classified as invasive species. The Arctic ground squirrel (Urocitellus parryii) is of concern because of its effect on vegetation and seabirds on Gulf of Alaska islands...
November 17, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859289/correlational-selection-on-personality-and-social-plasticity-morphology-and-social-context-determine-behavioural-effects-on-mating-success
#15
Pierre-Olivier Montiglio, Tina W Wey, Ann T Chang, Sean Fogarty, Andrew Sih
1.Despite a central line of research aimed at quantifying relationships between mating success and sexually dimorphic traits (e.g., ornaments), individual variation in sexually selected traits often explains only a modest portion of the variation in mating success. 2.Another line of research suggests that a significant portion of the variation in mating success observed in animal populations could be explained by correlational selection, where the fitness advantage of a given trait depends on other components of an individual's phenotype and/or its environment...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859265/does-movement-behaviour-predict-population-densities-a-test-with-25-butterfly-species
#16
Cheryl B Schultz, B Guy Pe'er, Christine Damiani, Leone Brown, Elizabeth E Crone
Diffusion, which approximates a correlated random walk, has been used by ecologists to describe movement, and forms the basis for many theoretical models. However, it is often criticized as too simple a model to describe animal movement in real populations. We test a key prediction of diffusion models, namely, that animals should be more abundant in land cover classes through which they move more slowly. This relationship between density and diffusion has rarely been tested across multiple species within a given landscape...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859154/generalist-birds-promote-tropical-forest-regeneration-and-increase-plant-diversity-via-rare-biased-seed-dispersal
#17
Tomás A Carlo, Juan M Morales
Regenerated forests now compose over half of the world's tropical forest cover and are increasingly important as providers of ecosystem services, freshwater, and biodiversity conservation. Much of the value and functionality of regenerating forests depends on the plant diversity they contain. Tropical forest diversity is strongly shaped by mutualistic interactions between plants and fruit-eating animals (frugivores) that disperse seeds. Here we show how seed dispersal by birds can influence the speed and diversity of early successional forests in Puerto Rico...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859092/uniting-paradigms-of-connectivity-in-marine-ecology
#18
Christopher J Brown, Alastair R Harborne, Claire B Paris, Peter J Mumby
The connectivity of marine organisms among habitat patches has been dominated by two independent paradigms with distinct conservation strategies. One paradigm is the dispersal of larvae on ocean currents, which suggests networks of marine reserves. The other is the demersal migration of animals from nursery to adult habitats, requiring the conservation of connected ecosystem corridors. Here, we suggest that a common driver, wave exposure, links larval and demersal connectivity across the seascape. To study the effect of linked connectivities on fish abundance at reefs, we parameterize a demographic model for The Bahamas seascape using maps of habitats, empirically forced models of wave exposure and spatially realistic three-dimensional hydrological models of larval dispersal...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859082/inactive-trout-come-out-at-night-behavioral-variation-circadian-activity-and-fitness-in-the-wild
#19
Libor Závorka, David Aldvén, Joacim Näslund, Johan Höjesjö, Jörgen I Johnsson
Theory suggests that high activity levels in animals increase growth at the cost of increased mortality. This growth-mortality tradeoff has recently been incorporated into the wider framework of the pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis. However, activity is often quantified only in the laboratory and on a diurnal basis, leaving open the possibility that animals manage predation risk and feeding efficiency in the wild by modulating their circadian activity rhythms. Here we investigate how laboratory activity in wild brown trout parr (Salmo trutta L...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859068/restored-connectivity-facilitates-recruitment-by-an-endemic-large-seeded-tree-in-a-fragmented-tropical-landscape
#20
Marinés de la Peña-Domene, Emily S Minor, Henry F Howe
Many large-seeded Neotropical trees depend on a limited guild of animals for seed dispersal. Fragmented landscapes reduce animal abundance and movement, limiting seed dispersal between distant forest remnants. In 2006, experimental plantings were established in pasture to determine whether plantings enhance seed dispersal and, ultimately, seedling recruitment. We examined patterns of naturally recruited seedlings of Ocotea uxpanapana, a large-seeded bird-dispersed tree endemic to southern Mexico that occurs in the surrounding landscape...
September 2016: Ecology
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