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Animal dispersal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728885/characterization-of-the-neuropeptidome-of-a-southern-ocean-decapod-the-antarctic-shrimp-chorismus-antarcticus-focusing-on-a-new-decapod-itp-like-peptide-belonging-to-the-chh-peptide-family
#1
Jean-Yves Toullec, Erwan Corre, Perrine Mandon, Marcelo Gonzalez-Aravena, Céline Ollivaux, Chi-Ying Lee
As part of the study of the resilience of Antarctic crustaceans to global warming, the shrimp Chorismus antarcticus was subjected to an analysis of global approach using the Next Generation Sequencing Illumina Hi-Seq platform. With this data a detailed study into the principal neuropeptides and neurohormones of this species have been undertaken. Total RNAs from whole animals were enriched with eyestalk extracts to ensure maximum sequencing depth of the different neurohormones and neuropeptides mainly expressed into the X organ-sinus gland complex, which is a major endocrine organ of their synthesis...
July 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725029/prominent-differences-in-left-ventricular-performance-and-myocardial-properties-between-right-ventricular-and-left-ventricular-based-pacing-modes-in-rats
#2
Wesam Mulla, Sharon Etzion, Sigal Elyagon, Roni Gillis, Michael Murninkas, Yuval Konstantino, Ingra Mannhardt, Thomas Eschenhagen, Noah Liel-Cohen, Yoram Etzion
Biventricular pacing is an important modality to improve left ventricular (LV) synchronization and long-term function. However, the biological effects of this treatment are far from being elucidated and existing animal models are limited and demanding. Recently, we introduced an implanted device for double-site epicardial pacing in rats and echocardiographically demonstrated favorable effects of LV and biventricular (LV-based) pacing modes typically observed in humans. Here, this new animal model was further characterized...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720537/inhaled-powder-formulation-of-naked-sirna-using-spray-drying-technology-with-l-leucine-as-dispersion-enhancer
#3
Michael Y T Chow, Yingshan Qiu, Fiona F K Lo, Hinson H S Lin, Hak-Kim Chan, Philip C L Kwok, Jenny K W Lam
Pulmonary delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) has been widely studied in both animal and clinical studies to treat various respiratory diseases by gene silencing through RNA interference. Some of these studies showed that the administration of naked siRNA (without the use of any delivery vectors) could achieve satisfactory gene silencing effect, a unique feature to pulmonary delivery. Liquid aerosols were mostly used with very limited studies on the use of powder aerosols for siRNA. In this study, siRNA was co-spray dried with mannitol and L-leucine, the latter being a dispersion enhancer...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720488/hormonal-correlates-of-natal-dispersal-and-rank-attainment-in-wild-male-baboons
#4
Mercy Y Akinyi, Laurence R Gesquiere, Mathias Franz, Patrick O Onyango, Jeanne Altmann, Susan C Alberts
In many mammals, maturational milestones such as dispersal and the attainment of adult dominance rank mark stages in the onset of reproductive activity and depend on a coordinated set of hormonal and socio-behavioral changes. Studies that focus on the link between hormones and maturational milestones are uncommon in wild mammals because of the challenges of obtaining adequate sample sizes of maturing animals and of tracking the movements of dispersing animals. We examined two maturational milestones in wild male baboons-adult dominance rank attainment and natal dispersal-and measured their association with variation in glucocorticoids (fGC) and fecal testosterone (fT)...
July 15, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717877/temporal-envelope-coding-by-inferior-colliculus-neurons-with-cochlear-implant-stimulation
#5
Kenneth E Hancock, Yoojin Chung, Martin F McKinney, Bertrand Delgutte
Modulations in temporal envelopes are a ubiquitous property of natural sounds and are especially important for hearing with cochlear implants (CIs) because these devices typically discard temporal fine structure information. With few exceptions, neural temporal envelope processing has been studied in both normal hearing (NH) and CI animals using only pure sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) which poorly represents the diversity of envelope shapes contained in natural sounds because it confounds repetition rate and the width of each modulation cycle...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710976/comparing-emissions-from-a-cattle-pen-as-measured-by-two-micrometeorological-techniques
#6
Mei Bai, Jianlei Sun, Owen T Denmead, Deli Chen
Accurate measurement of ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock pens is challenging. Two micrometeorological techniques, the integrated horizontal flux (IHF) and the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) dispersion techniques were used to measure NH3 emissions from an isolated cattle pen (20 × 20 m) in Victoria, Australia. The bLS technique is simple and insensitive to the presence of animals, but typically gives discontinuous measurements due to the need for target wind directions and wind conditions above accepted thresholds...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710849/long-distance-dispersal-of-fungi
#7
Jacob J Golan, Anne Pringle
Dispersal is a fundamental biological process, operating at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Despite an increasing understanding of fungal biodiversity, most research on fungal dispersal focuses on only a small fraction of species. Thus, any discussion of the dispersal dynamics of fungi as a whole is problematic. While abundant morphological and biogeographic data are available for hundreds of species, researchers have yet to integrate this information into a unifying paradigm of fungal dispersal, especially in the context of long-distance dispersal (LDD)...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710125/visualization-of-extracellular-dna-released-during-border-cell-separation-from-the-root-cap
#8
Fushi Wen, Gilberto Curlango-Rivera, David A Huskey, Zhongguo Xiong, Martha C Hawes
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Root border cells are programmed to separate from the root cap as it penetrates the soil environment, where the cells actively secrete >100 extracellular proteins into the surrounding mucilage. The detached cells function in defense of the root tip by an extracellular trapping process that also requires DNA, as in mammalian white blood cells. Trapping in animals and plants is reversed by treatment with DNase, which results in increased infection. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of DNA in the structural integrity of extracellular structures released as border cells disperse from the root tip upon contact with water...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699743/development-and-validation-of-quantitative-uplc-ms-ms-assay-for-anticoagulant-rodenticides-in-liver
#9
Lori L Smith, Boying Liang, Marcia C Booth, Michael Filigenzi, Andriy Tkachenko, Cynthia L Gaskill
Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are used to control rodent populations, however exposure to non-target animals occurs. A sensitive and rugged quantitative method was developed, optimized and validated for eight ARs in liver. Target analytes comprised two chemical classes: hydroxycoumarins (warfarin, coumachlor, dicoumarol, bromadiolone, brodifacoum and difethialone) and indanediones (diphacinone and chlorophacinone). In this method, liver extracts were cleaned up using dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) to remove matrix interferences and analyzed by reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689280/analysis-of-toxicity-effects-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-on-human-bronchial-epithelial-16hbe-cells
#10
Yue Ma, Yinsheng Guo, Shuang Wu, Ziquan Lv, Qian Zhang, Xing Xie, Yuebin Ke
Recent studies have indicated that Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most commonly used plasticizer in daily-life products, could be dispersed in indoor air and induce human exposure via inhalation. DEHP has been reported to have effects on the respiratory system in both animal and human researches. The toxicity effects of DEHP exposure on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, global DNA methylation and the expression levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) were investigated in this study, using human epithelial cell line 16HBE as an in vitro model...
July 8, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688180/effect-of-silver-diamine-fluoride-sdf-on-the-dentin-pulp-complex-ex-vivo-histological-analysis-on-human-primary-teeth-and-rat-molars
#11
Glenda Rossi, Aldo Squassi, Patricia Mandalunis, Andrea Kaplan
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of SDF on the dentin-pulp complex using two models: teeth after SDF application (ex vivo) and experimental animal molars. A descriptive study was performed using two models. In the first model, primary teeth (ex vivo) with enamel-dentin caries, without pulp involvement and previously treated with 38% SDF, were evaluated by means of two techniques: (a) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray detector (EDS) to determine qualitative and quantitative composition, and (b) brightfield optical microscopy (OM) after decalcification...
April 2017: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688128/effects-of-fragmentation-on-the-seed-predation-and-dispersal-by-rodents-differ-among-species-with-different-seed-size
#12
Qiong Chen, Kyle W Tomlinson, Lin Cao, Bo Wang
Fragmentation influences the population dynamics and community composition of vertebrate animals. Fragmentation effects on rodent species in forests may in turn affect seed predation and dispersal of many plant species. Previous studies have usually addressed this question by monitoring a single species, and their results are contradictory. Very few studies have discussed the fragmentation effect on rodent-seed interaction among tree species with different seed sizes, which can significantly influence rodent foraging preference and seed fate...
July 7, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684911/photothermal-therapy-of-melanoma-tumor-using-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes
#13
Zahra Sobhani, Mohammad Ali Behnam, Farzin Emami, Amirreza Dehghanian, Iman Jamhiri
Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a therapeutic method in which photon energy is transformed into heat rapidly via different operations to extirpate cancer. Nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exceptional optical absorbance in visible and near infrared spectra. Therefore, they could be a good converter to induce hyperthermia in PTT technique. In our study, for improving the dispersibility of multiwalled CNTs in water, the CNTs were oxidized (O-CNTs) and then polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used for wrapping the surface of nanotubes...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678837/reconstructing-the-recent-west-nile-virus-lineage-2-epidemic-in-europe-and-italy-using-discrete-and-continuous-phylogeography
#14
Gianguglielmo Zehender, Carla Veo, Erika Ebranati, Valentina Carta, Francesca Rovida, Elena Percivalle, Ana Moreno, Davide Lelli, Mattia Calzolari, Antonio Lavazza, Chiara Chiapponi, Laura Baioni, Gioia Capelli, Silvia Ravagnan, Graziana Da Rold, Enrico Lavezzo, Giorgio Palù, Fausto Baldanti, Luisa Barzon, Massimo Galli
West Nile virus lineage 2 (WNV-2) was mainly confined to sub-Saharan Africa until the early 2000s, when it was identified for the first time in Central Europe causing outbreaks of human and animal infection. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the origin and dispersion of WNV-2 in Central Europe and Italy on a phylodynamic and phylogeographical basis. To this aim, discrete and continuous space phylogeographical models were applied to a total of 33 newly characterised full-length viral genomes obtained from mosquitoes, birds and humans in Northern Italy in the years 2013-2015 aligned with 64 complete sequences isolated mainly in Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677645/hepatitis-delta-virus-replication-strategy-and-upcoming-therapeutic-options-for-a-neglected-human-pathogen
#15
REVIEW
Florian A Lempp, Stephan Urban
The human Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) is unique among all viral pathogens. Encoding only one protein (Hepatitis Delta Antigen; HDAg) within its viroid-like self-complementary RNA, HDV constitutes the smallest known virus in the animal kingdom. To disseminate in its host, HDV depends on a helper virus, the human Hepatitis B virus (HBV), which provides the envelope proteins required for HDV assembly. HDV affects an estimated 15-20 million out of the 240 million chronic HBV-carriers and disperses unequally in disparate geographical regions of the world...
July 4, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667257/long-distance-biotic-dispersal-of-tropical-seagrass-seeds-by-marine-mega-herbivores
#16
Samantha J Tol, Jessie C Jarvis, Paul H York, Alana Grech, Bradley C Congdon, Robert G Coles
Terrestrial plants use an array of animals as vectors for dispersal, however little is known of biotic dispersal of marine angiosperms such as seagrasses. Our study in the Great Barrier Reef confirms for the first time that dugongs (Dugong dugon) and green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) assist seagrass dispersal. We demonstrate that these marine mega-herbivores consume and pass in faecal matter viable seeds for at least three seagrass species (Zostera muelleri, Halodule uninervis and Halophila decipiens). One to two seagrass seeds per g DW of faecal matter were found during the peak of the seagrass reproductive season (September to December), with viability on excretion of 9...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666230/simultaneous-quantification-of-methiocarb-and-its-metabolites-methiocarb-sulfoxide-and-methiocarb-sulfone-in-five-food-products-of-animal-origin-using-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#17
Md Musfiqur Rahman, A M Abd El-Aty, Tae-Woong Na, Joon-Seong Park, Md Humayun Kabir, Hyung Suk Chung, Han Sol Lee, Ho-Chul Shin, Jae-Han Shim
A simultaneous analytical method was developed for the determination of methiocarb and its metabolites, methiocarb sulfoxide and methiocarb sulfone, in five livestock products (chicken, pork, beef, table egg, and milk) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Due to the rapid degradation of methiocarb and its metabolites, a quick sample preparation method was developed using acetonitrile and salts followed by purification via dispersive- solid phase extraction (d-SPE). Seven-point calibration curves were constructed separately in each matrix, and good linearity was observed in each matrix-matched calibration curve with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) ≥ 0...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661191/assessment-of-an-irritant-gas-plume-model-for-epidemiologic-study
#18
Dev D Jani, Mark Wilson, Jeffrey K Wickliffe, Jeffrey Shaffer, Tracy Middleton, Roy Rando, Erik R Svendsen
Previously, we reported the development of a Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability plume dispersion model of the 2005 Graniteville, South Carolina, USA accidental release of chlorine. Here, we assess this model by spatial and statistical comparison with post-incident observed environmental indicators of exposure and other types of observations. Spatial agreement was found when the model was compared to phytotoxic bleaching and corrosion events observed in 2 km radius around the release site. When spatially compared to locations of injured or killed animals, model predictions of the plume footprint were in relatively good agreement...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659596/novel-approaches-for-spatial-and-molecular-surveillance-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-in-the-united-states
#19
Moh A Alkhamis, Andreia G Arruda, Robert B Morrison, Andres M Perez
The US swine industry has been impaired over the last 25 years by the far-reaching financial losses caused by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Here, we explored the relations between the spatial risk of PRRS outbreaks and its phylodynamic history in the U.S during 1998-2016 using ORF5 sequences collected from swine farms in the Midwest region. We used maximum entropy and Bayesian phylodynamic models to generate risk maps for PRRS outbreaks and reconstructed the evolutionary history of three selected phylogenetic clades (A, B and C)...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649473/focus-expansion-and-stability-of-the-spread-parameter-estimate-of-the-power-law-model-for-dispersal-gradients
#20
Peter S Ojiambo, David H Gent, Lucky K Mehra, David Christie, Roger Magarey
Empirical and mechanistic modeling indicate that pathogens transmitted via aerially dispersed inoculum follow a power law, resulting in dispersive epidemic waves. The spread parameter (b) of the power law model, which is an indicator of the distance of the epidemic wave front from an initial focus per unit time, has been found to be approximately 2 for several animal and plant diseases over a wide range of spatial scales under conditions favorable for disease spread. Although disease spread and epidemic expansion can be influenced by several factors, the stability of the parameter b over multiple epidemic years has not been determined...
2017: PeerJ
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