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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908259/astroglial-camp-signalling-in-space-and-time
#1
REVIEW
Anemari Horvat, Nina Vardjan
To maintain a high level of specificity and normal cell function, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway is tightly regulated in space and time. Recent advances in cAMP reporter technology have provided insights into spatial-temporal characteristics of cAMP signalling in individual living cells, including astrocytes. Astrocytes are glial cells in the central nervous system with many homeostatic functions. In contrast to neurons, astrocytes are electrically silent, but, in response to extracellular stimuli through activation of surface receptors, they can increase intracellular levels of secondary messengers, e...
June 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907946/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-retinal-vein-occlusions
#2
Qian Wang, Szy Yann Chan, Yanni Yan, Jingyan Yang, Wenjia Zhou, Jost B Jonas, Wen Bin Wei
PURPOSE: To examine the vascular density in different retinal layers and in the choriocapillaris in eyes with retinal vein occlusions (RVO). METHODS: Applying optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), we examined patients with unilateral RVOs and normal individuals of a control group. RESULTS: The study group included 48 patients with unilateral RVO and the control group 17 normal individuals. Eyes affected by RVO as compared to the contralateral unaffected eyes (all P < 0...
June 16, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907863/attenuation-of-retinal-vascular-development-in-neonatal-mice-subjected-to-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#3
Ismail S Zaitoun, Ulas Cikla, Dila Zafer, Eshwar Udho, Reem Almomani, Andrew Suscha, Pelin Cengiz, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani
A significant proportion of children that survive hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) develop visual impairment. These visual deficits are generally attributed to injuries that occur in the primary visual cortex and other visual processing systems. Recent studies suggested that neuronal damage might also occur in the retina. An important structure affecting the viability of retinal neurons is the vasculature. However, the effects of HIE on the retinal neurovasculature have not been systemically evaluated...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907849/does-prolonged-severe-hypercapnia-interfere-with-normal-cerebrovascular-function-in-piglets
#4
Massroor Pourcyrous, Sandeep Chilakala, Mohamad T Elabiad, Helena Parfenova, Charles W Leffler
BACKGROUND: Hypercapnia causes cerebral vasodilation and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). During prolonged hypercapnia it is unknown whether cerebral vasodilation persists and whether cerebrovascular function is preserved. We investigated the effects of prolonged severe hypercapnia on pial arteriolar diameters (PAD) and cerebrovascular reactivity to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. METHODS: Piglets were anesthetized, intubated and ventilated. Closed cranial windows were implanted to measure PAD...
May 28, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906575/sodium-fluorescein-video-angiography-fl-vag-as-an-adjunct-to-resection-of-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformations
#5
Serrano-Rubio Alejandro, Ruiz-Treviño Armando S, Orenday-Barraza Jose M, Vázquez-Gregorio Rafael, Lee Angel, Nathal Edgar
OBJECT: The use of intraoperative fluorescence has proven to be a useful tool in multiple neurosurgical procedures with a potential utility in treating arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The aim of this study was to characterize dynamic changes of an AVM using a microscope-integrated technique at the moment of performing an intraoperative Sodium fluorescein videoangiography (FL-VAG) at each of the resection phases. METHODS: Our study at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery-Mexico City, prospectively recruited twelve patients harboring an AVM, using FL-VAG as an ancillary technique for the resection of the lesion...
June 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906437/novel-anatomical-observations-of-the-prostate-prostatic-vasculature-and-penile-vasculature-in-classic-bladder-exstrophy-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Karl S Benz, Emily Dunn, Mahir Maruf, James Facciola, John Jayman, Matthew Kasprenski, Jason E Michaud, Heather Di Carlo, John P Gearhart
PURPOSE: To use Magnetic Resonance Imaging to define the innate pelvic neurovascular course and prostate anatomy in infants with classic bladder exstrophy before their pelvis is altered by surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed on male classic bladder exstrophy infants and compared to a group of age matched controls. Data collected included the prostatic dimensions as well as the course of the prostatic artery, periprostatic vessels, and pudendal neurovasculature...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905864/pathogenic-variant-in-ephb4-results-in-central-conducting-lymphatic-anomaly
#7
Dong Li, Tara L Wenger, Christoph Seiler, Michael E March, Alvaro Gutierrez-Uzquiza, Charlly Kao, Elizabeth Bhoj, Lifeng Tian, Misha Rosenbach, Yichuan Liu, Nora Robinson, Mechenzie Behr, Rosetta Chiavacci, Cuiping Hou, Tiancheng Wang, Marina Bakay, Renata Pellegrino da Silva, Jonathan A Perkins, Patrick Sleiman, Michael A Levine, Patricia J Hicks, Maxim Itkin, Yoav Dori, Hakon Hakonarson
Central conducting lymphatic anomaly (CCLA) is one of the complex lymphatic anomalies characterized by dilated lymphatic channels, lymphatic channel dysmotility, and distal obstruction affecting lymphatic drainage. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) of DNA from a four-generation pedigree and examined the consequences of the variant by transfection of mammalian cells and morpholino and rescue studies in zebrafish. WES revealed a heterozygous mutation in EPHB4 (RefSeq NM_004444.4; c.2334 + 1G>C) and RNA-Seq demonstrated that the EPHB4 mutation destroys the normal donor site, which leads to the use of a cryptic splice donor that results in retention of the intervening 12-bp intron sequence...
June 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904356/coronary-blood-flow-is-increased-in-rv-hypertrophy-but-the-shape-of-normalized-waves-is-preserved-throughout-the-arterial-tree
#8
Yunlong Huo, Ghassan S Kassab
A pulsatile hemodynamic analysis was carried out in the right coronary arterial (RCA) tree of control and RV hypertrophy (RVH) hearts. The shape of flow and wall shear stress (WSS) waves was hypothesized to be maintained throughout the RCA tree in RVH (i.e., similar patterns of normalized flow and WSS waves in vessels of various sizes). Consequently, we reconstructed the entire RCA tree down to the first capillary bifurcation of control and RVH hearts based on measured morphometric data. A Womersley-type model was used to compute the flow and WSS waves in the tree...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903033/treatment-of-giant-cervico-mediastinal-lymphatic-malformations-a-case-series
#9
So-Hyun Nam, Kyoung-Ah Kwon
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic malformations are histologically benign vascular structures that vary in anatomic lesion and size. Extensive head and neck lymphatic malformations may be life-threatening. In the present study, we described three difficult-to-treat infants with giant cervico-mediastinal lymphatic malformations accompanied by severe respiratory distress. CASE PRESENTATIONS: Case 1. A Korean girl born at a gestational age of 37 weeks and weighing 2920 g had a large cervical mass compressing the trachea...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902456/neuregulin-4-is-an-angiogenic-factor-that-is-critically-involved-in-the-maintenance-of-adipose-tissue-vasculature
#10
Dhite Bayu Nugroho, Koji Ikeda, Agian Jeffilano Barinda, Donytra Arby Wardhana, Keiko Yagi, Keishi Miyata, Yuichi Oike, Ken-Ichi Hirata, Noriaki Emoto
Adipose tissue (AT) contains well-developed vascular networks. Pathological AT expansion often accompany the reduction in AT blood vessels, which further exacerbates adipocyte dysfunction due to hypoxia; however, it remains unclear whether AT vascular rarefaction is simply secondary to adipocyte hypertrophy, or if there is an actively regulated pathway that mediates impaired AT angiogenesis in obesity. We searched for growth factors whose expression in AT is down-regulated in obesity; accordingly, we identified neuregulin-4 (Nrg4), a member of the EGF family of proteins...
June 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901618/management-of-hepatic-vein-occlusive-disease-after-liver-transplantation-a-case-report-with-literature-review
#11
Yuchen Hou, Nga Lei Tam, Zhicheng Xue, Xuzhi Zhang, Bing Liao, Jie Yang, Shunjun Fu, Yi Ma, Linwei Wu, Xiaoshun He
RATIONALE: Hepatic vein occlusive disease (HVOD) is a rare complication after liver transplantation, which is characterized by nonthrombotic, fibrous obliteration of the small centrilobular hepatic veins by connective tissue and centrilobular necrosis in zone 3 of the acini. HVOD after solid organ transplantation has been reported; recently, most of these reports with limited cases have documented that acute cell rejection and immunosuppressive agents are the major causative factors. HVOD is relatively a rare complication of liver transplantation with the incidence of approximately 2%...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901100/implications-of-nestin-in-breast-cancer-pathogenesis-review
#12
Aleksandra Nowak, Piotr Dziegiel
The aim of the present review was to summarize the current knowledge of the involvement of nestin in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis. Nestin is a member of the class VI family of intermediate filament proteins, originally identified as a marker of neural stem cells and subsequently demonstrated to be expressed in BC and other cancer types. In normal breast tissue, nestin is expressed in the basal/myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland. In BC, nestin identifies basal-like tumours and predicts aggressive behaviour and poor prognosis...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899646/choroidal-haller-s-and-sattler-s-layers-thickness-in-normal-indian-eyes
#13
Rupak Roy, Kumar Saurabh, Chinmayi Vyas, Kaustubh Deshmukh, Preeti Sharma, Dhileesh P Chandrasekharan, Aditya Bansal
AIM: This study aims to study normative choroidal thickness (CT) and Haller's and Sattler's layers thickness in normal Indian eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The choroidal imaging of 73 eyes of 43 healthy Indian individuals was done using enhanced depth imaging feature of spectralis optical coherence tomography. Rraster scan protocol centered at fovea was used for imaging separately by two observers. CT was defined as the length of the perpendicular line drown from the outer border of hypereflective RPE-Bruch's complex to inner margin of choroidoscleral junction...
January 2018: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898964/early-generated-b-1-derived-b-cells-have-the-capacity-to-progress-to-become-mantle-cell-lymphoma-like-neoplasia-in-aged-mice
#14
Kyoko Hayakawa, Anthony M Formica, Yuka Nakao, Daiju Ichikawa, Susan A Shinton, Joni Brill-Dashoff, Mitchell R Smith, Herbert C Morse, Richard R Hardy
In mice, fetal/neonatal B-1 cell development generates murine CD5+ B cells (B1a) with autoreactivity. We analyzed B1a cells at the neonatal stage in a VH 11/D/JH knock-in mouse line (VH 11t) that generates an autoreactive antiphosphatidylcholine BCR. Our study revealed that antiphosphatidylcholine B1a cells develop in liver, mature in spleen, and distribute in intestine/colon, mesenteric lymph node (mLN), and body cavity as the outcome of B-1 cell development before B-2 cell development. Throughout life, self-renewing B-1 B1a cells circulate through intestine, mesenteric vessel, and blood...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898736/3d-whole-brain-vessel-wall-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-study-on-the-reliability-in-the-quantification-of-intracranial-vessel-dimensions
#15
Na Zhang, Fan Zhang, Zixin Deng, Qi Yang, Marcio A Diniz, Shlee S Song, Konrad H Schlick, M Marcel Maya, Nestor Gonzalez, Debiao Li, Hairong Zheng, Xin Liu, Zhaoyang Fan
BACKGROUND: One of the potentially important applications of three-dimensional (3D) intracranial vessel wall (IVW) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is to monitor disease progression and regression via quantitative measurement of IVW morphology during medical management or drug development. However, a prerequisite for this application is to validate that IVW morphologic measurements based on the modality are reliable. In this study we performed comprehensive reliability analysis for the recently proposed whole-brain IVW CMR technique...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898422/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-the-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Yue Liu, Nady Braidy, Anne Poljak, Daniel Ky Chan, Perminder Sachdev
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) comprises a variety of disorders affecting small arteries and microvessels of the brain, manifesting as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and deep brain infarcts. In addition to its contribution to vascular dementia (VaD), it has also been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature available on Medline, Embase and Pubmed was undertaken, whereby CSVD was divided into WMHs, CMBs and deep brain infarcts...
June 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897969/gene-expression-analysis-of-nidus-of-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformations-reveals-vascular-structures-with-deficient-differentiation-and-maturation
#17
Jaya Mary Thomas, Sumi Surendran, Mathew Abraham, Dhakshmi Sasankan, Sridutt Bhaadri, Arumugam Rajavelu, Chandrasekharan C Kartha
OBJECTIVE: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are characterised by tangles of dysplastic blood vessels which shunt blood from arteries to veins with no intervening capillary bed. It is not known at what stage of development and differentiation, AVM vessels became aberrant. To address this, we have analysed the expression of vascular differentiation, vascular maturation and brain capillary specific genes in AVM nidus. METHODOLOGY: We performed immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis of vascular differentiation (HEY2, DLL4, EFNB2, and COUP-TFII), vascular maturation (ENG and KLF2) and brain capillary specific genes (GGTP and GLUT1) on ten surgically excised human brain AVMs and ten normal human brain tissues...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896415/clarity-for-high-resolution-imaging-and-quantification-of-vasculature-in-the-whole-mouse-brain
#18
Lin-Yuan Zhang, Pan Lin, Jiaji Pan, Yuanyuan Ma, Zhenyu Wei, Lu Jiang, Liping Wang, Yaying Song, Yongting Wang, Zhijun Zhang, Kunlin Jin, Qian Wang, Guo-Yuan Yang
Elucidating the normal structure and distribution of cerebral vascular system is fundamental for understanding its function. However, studies on visualization and whole-brain quantification of vasculature with cellular resolution are limited. Here, we explored the structure of vasculature at the whole-brain level using the newly developed CLARITY technique. Adult male C57BL/6J mice undergoing transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and Tie2-RFP transgenic mice were used. Whole mouse brains were extracted for CLARITY processing...
April 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895187/factor-viii-in-acute-cerebral-ischemia-pilot-study-biomarker-in-patients-with-large-vessel-occlusion
#19
Digvijaya Navalkele, Amelia Boehme, Karen Albright, Cindy Leissinger, Laurie Schluter, Melissa Freeman, Stacy Drury, Ramy El Khoury, T Mark Beasley, Sheryl Martin-Schild
We conducted a prospective serial laboratory cohort study to assess the correlation of factor VIII (FVIII) levels in response to thrombolysis in patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) and acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Patients with AIS with anterior circulation LVO were eligible for enrollment if treated within 4.5 hours from last seen normal with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Patients (n = 29) had a mean age of 71 years and median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale of 14. Baseline pre-tPA FVIII was not significantly correlated with clot burden score (-0...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894856/the-response-of-peripheral-microcirculation-to-gravity-induced-changes
#20
Zehava Ovadia-Blechman, Ashley Gritzman, Maya Shuvi, Benjamin Gavish, Vered Aharonson, Neta Rabin
BACKGROUND: The peripheral microcirculation supplies fresh blood to the small blood vessels, providing oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, removing waste, and maintaining normal homeostatic conditions. The goal of this study was to characterize the response of the peripheral microcirculation, in terms of blood flow and tissue oxygenation variables, to gravity-induced changes. METHODS: The study included 20 healthy volunteers and the experiment involved monitoring central and peripheral variables with the right hand positioned at different heights...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
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