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minimal change disease

Johannes Eimer, Jan Vesterbacka, Irina Savitcheva, Rayomand Press, Homayoun Roshanisefat, Piotr Nowak
RATIONALE: Cognitive dysfunction is a common presenting symptom in patients with HIV/AIDS. It is usually directly associated with HIV infection or due to opportunistic infection. Rapidly progressive dementia, however, is rarely observed in acute HIV infection or during immune reconstitution. Recently, a case of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) has been reported in a patient with chronic HIV infection. The incidence of CJD is not known to be increased among immunocompromised patients. PATIENT CONCERNS: We here report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with a recent diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia presenting with secondary behavioral changes and disorientation...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Feng Liu, Priyatanu Roy, Qi Shao, Chunlan Jiang, Jeunghwan Choi, Connie Chung, Dushyant Mehra, Dr John Bischof
Atrial fibrillation affects millions of people in the US. Focal therapy is an attractive treatment for atrial fibrillation that avoids the debilitating effects of drugs for disease control. Perhaps the most widely used focal therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF) is heat-based radiofrequency (heating), although cryotherapy (cryo) is rapidly replacing it due to a reduction in side effects and positive clinical outcomes. A third focal therapy, irreversible electroporation (IRE), is also being considered. This study was designed to help guide treatment thresholds and compare mechanism of action across heating, cryo, and IRE...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Robert Zwolak, Maria Majdan
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Radiosynoviorthesis (RS) is local method of treatment of remittent joint effusions among patients who obtained general improvement after disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs therapy but one or a few joints stay resistant to this treatment and intraarticular corticosteroids injections. The aim: The attempt to identification methods of efficacy assessment of the 90yttrium knee joint RS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: The study group consisted of 43 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 19 patients with inflammatory spondyloarthropaties (SPA) where 8 patients were treated for ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 4 for psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and 7 due to undifferentiated inflammatory spondyloarthropaties (USPA)...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Anne L Carlton, Anuradha Illendula, Yan Gao, Danielle C Llaneza, Adam Boulton, Anant Shah, Roger A Rajewski, Charles N Landen, David Wotton, John H Bushweller
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer survival and treatment have improved minimally in the past 20years. Novel treatment strategies are needed to combat this disease. This study investigates the effects of chemical inhibition of the CBFβ/RUNX protein-protein interaction on ovarian cancer cell lines. METHODS: Ovarian cancer cell lines were treated with CBFβ/RUNX inhibitors, and the effects on proliferation, DNA replication, wound healing, and anchorage-independent growth were measured...
March 15, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Markus H Hoffmann, Helen Griffiths
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are created in cells during oxidative phosphorylation by the respiratory chain in the mitochondria or by the family of NADPH oxidase (NOX) complexes. The first discovered and most studied of these complexes, NOX2, mediates the oxidative burst in phagocytes. ROS generated by NOX2 are dreadful weapons: while being essential to kill ingested pathogens they can also cause degenerative changes on tissue if production and release are not balanced by sufficient detoxification. In the last fifteen years evidence has been accumulating that ROS are also integral signalling molecules and are important for regulating autoimmunity and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Taishi Nakamura, Guangshuo Zhu, Mark J Ranek, Kristen Kokkonen-Simon, Manling Zhang, Grace E Kim, Kenichi Tsujita, David A Kass
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of sGC (soluble guanylate cyclase) or inhibition of PDE5 (phosphodiesterase type 5) activates PKG (protein kinase G)-1α to counteract cardiac hypertrophy and failure. PKG1α acts within localized intracellular domains; however, its oxidation at cysteine 42, linking homomonomers, alters this localization, impairing suppression of pathological cardiac stress. Because PDE5 and sGC reside in separate microdomains, we speculated that PKG1α oxidation might also differentially influence the effects from their pharmacological modulation...
March 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
Qingkai Dai, Xiaojuan Liu, Hui Yang, Siqi Guo, Yuefang Wang, Luyun Peng, Lei Ye, Lan Chen, Chunqi Lai, Qi Chen, Ge Zhang, Yongmei Jiang
Detection of aberrant antigen expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by flow cytometric is proposed for the quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD). There are few studies that investigate the stability of the antigen expression in children with B lineage ALL at the end of remission induction therapy and determine its prognostic impact. Between 2010 and 2015, 691 bone marrow specimens of childhood ALL were sent at diagnosis for immunophenotypic characterization, and follow-up samples for MRD were analyzed on day 33...
March 2, 2018: Leukemia Research
Amanda Przespolewski, Andras Szeles, Eunice S Wang
Evasion of the host immune system is a key mechanism to promote malignant progression. Therapeutically targeting immune pathways has radically changed the treatment paradigm for solid and lymphoid tumors but has yet to be approved for myeloid malignancies. Here, we summarize the most recent advances in immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Topics reviewed here include adoptive cellular approaches (chimeric antigen receptor-T cells, natural killer and other immune cells), checkpoint inhibitors (anti-PD-1/PD-L1, anti-CTLA-4 and TIM-3) and vaccines (WT-1, HLA-A2 and hTERT)...
March 15, 2018: Future Oncology
Michelangelo Nigro, Davide Viggiano, Vincenzo Ragone, Tiziana Trabace, Annamaria di Palma, Michele Rossini, Giovambattista Capasso, Loreto Gesualdo, Giuseppe Gigliotti
BACKGROUND: The classical approach to the analysis of kidney biopsies is based on semi-quantitative scores of the amount of sclerosis, inflammatory infiltrate, fibrosis and vascular damage. However, advanced renal lesions may be accompanied by a paucity of clinical features and, conversely, important clinical abnormalities may be accompanied by minimal histopathological changes. The objective of this study is to correlate new, semiautomatic, quantitative features of kidney biopsies (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Ning Wei, Michelle L Gumz, Anita T Layton
Major renal functions such as renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and urinary excretion are known to exhibit circadian oscillations. However, the underlying mechanisms that govern these variations have yet to be fully elucidated. To better understand the impact of the circadian clock on renal solute and water transport, we have developed a computational model of the renal circadian clock, and coupled that model to an epithelial transport model of the proximal convoluted cell of the rat kidney. The activity of the Na$^+$-H$^+$ exchanger 3 (NHE3) is assumed to be regulated by changes in transcription of the NHE3 mRNA due to regulation by circadian clock proteins...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Alberto J Espay, Richard Trosch, Gustavo Suarez, Jonathan Johnson, Dominic Marchese, Cynthia Comella
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the minimal clinically important change (MCIC) after treatment in cervical dystonia patients using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS). METHODS: Changes in the TWSTRS from an observational study of abobotulinumtoxinA in the routine management of cervical dystonia (NCT01314365) were analyzed using the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) as anchor. RESULTS: For the overall population (N = 304, baseline TWSTRS-Total score 43...
March 7, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Ding Chen, Jian Liu, Shuwei Duan, Pu Chen, Li Tang, Li Zhang, Zhe Feng, Guangyan Cai, Jie Wu, Xiangmei Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the past, little attention has been paid to patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) who had minimal proteinuria upon the onset. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological features and the prognostic factors in patients with IgA nephropathy. METHODS: Data of patients that had their first renal biopsy in our hospital and were diagnosed with primary IgAN with proteinuria <1 g/d from January 1995 to December 2014 were retrospectively examined...
March 6, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Guri B Majak, Anna Varberg Reisæter, Harald Weedon-Fekjær, Tore Henriksen, Trond M Michelsen
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients have now conceived for almost 50 years. Nevertheless, few studies have evaluated long-term health outcomes for kidney transplanted women following pregnancies. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all Norwegian women receiving a kidney transplant before the age of 50 years between 1969 and 2013, with graft loss, cardiovascular disease and death as outcomes. Baseline characteristics for all women were ascertained at first transplantation, with information about exposure, outcomes and potential confounders collected from medical records...
March 9, 2018: Transplantation
Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Aaron P Schultz, Keith A Johnson, Trey Hedden, Sehily Jaimes, Tammie L S Benzinger, Clifford Jack, Beau M Ances, John M Ringman, Daniel S Marcus, Bernardino Ghetti, Martin R Farlow, Adrian Danek, Johannes Levin, Igor Yakushev, Christoph Laske, Robert A Koeppe, Douglas R Galasko, Chengjie Xiong, Colin L Masters, Peter R Schofield, Kirsi M Kinnunen, Stephen Salloway, Ralph N Martins, Eric McDade, Nigel J Cairns, Virginia D Buckles, John C Morris, Randall Bateman, Reisa A Sperling
Converging evidence from structural, metabolic and functional connectivity MRI suggests that neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, target specific neural networks. However, age-related network changes commonly co-occur with neuropathological cascades, limiting efforts to disentangle disease-specific alterations in network function from those associated with normal ageing. Here we elucidate the differential effects of ageing and Alzheimer's disease pathology through simultaneous analyses of two functional connectivity MRI datasets: (i) young participants harbouring highly-penetrant mutations leading to autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN), an Alzheimer's disease cohort in which age-related comorbidities are minimal and likelihood of progression along an Alzheimer's disease trajectory is extremely high; and (ii) young and elderly participants from the Harvard Aging Brain Study, a cohort in which imaging biomarkers of amyloid burden and neurodegeneration can be used to disambiguate ageing alone from preclinical Alzheimer's disease...
March 7, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Yue Yang, Zheng Zhang, Li Zhuo, Da-Peng Chen, Wen-Ge Li
Background: Chronic kidney disease has become a leading public health concern in China, as it is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and costs. However, the overall situation regarding common glomerular diseases in China remains unclear. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the national profile of the common types of glomerulonephritis in China. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, SinoMed, VIP, and Wanfang databases for English and Chinese language articles from inception to September 2017...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Rita Kiss, Katalin Szabó, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Sándor Somodi, Péter Kovács, Zoltán Szabó, József Németh, Dániel Priksz, Andrea Kurucz, Béla Juhász, Zoltán Szilvássy
In developed, developing and low-income countries alike, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases, the severity of which is substantially a consequence of multiple organ complications that occur due to long-term progression of the disease before diagnosis and treatment. Despite enormous investment into the characterization of the disease, its long-term management remains problematic, with those afflicted enduring significant degradation in quality-of-life. Current research efforts into the etiology and pathogenesis of T2DM, are focused on defining aberrations in cellular physiology that result in development of insulin resistance and strategies for increasing insulin sensitivity, along with downstream effects on T2DM pathogenesis...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
K Ganesh, R R Nair, N V Seethalekshmy, G Kurian, A Mathew, S Sreedharan, Z Paul
Suspicion and subsequent detection of renal disease is by an assessment of the urinalysis and renal function in the clinical context. Our attempt in this study is to correlate initial presenting features of urinalysis and renal function to the final histopathological diagnosis. A retrospective analysis of 1059 native kidney biopsies performed from January 2002 to June 2015 at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences was conducted. Correlative patterns between urinalysis, renal function, and final histopathological diagnosis were studied...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nephrology
V Muthu, R Ramachandran, R Nada, V Kumar, M Rathi, H S Kohli, V Jha, K L Gupta, V Sakhuja
The spectrum of biopsy-proven glomerular disease was studied from a single center in Northwestern India, among adolescents aged 13-19 years. From January 2009 to December 2012, a total of 177 patients with biopsy-proven glomerular disease were studied. The same pathologist reported all the biopsy specimens after subjecting to light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. The clinical profile and laboratory findings of the patients were correlated with the histopathological spectrum of glomerular diseases...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Alina Striha, A John Ashcroft, Anna Hockaday, David A Cairns, Karen Boardman, Gwen Jacques, Cathy Williams, John A Snowden, Mamta Garg, Jamie Cavenagh, Kwee Yong, Mark T Drayson, Roger Owen, Mark Cook, Gordon Cook
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell tumour with an approximate annual incidence of 4500 in the UK. Therapeutic options for patients with MM have changed in the last decade with the arrival of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. Despite these options, almost all patients will relapse post first-line autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). First relapse management (second-line treatment) has evolved in recent years with an expanding portfolio of novel agents, driving response rates influencing the durability of response...
March 7, 2018: Trials
Ching Feng Wu, Ricardo Fernandez, de la Torre Mercedes, Maria Delgado, Eva Fieira, Ching Yang Wu, Ming Ju Hsieh, Marina Paradela, Yun-Hen Liu, Diego Gonzalez-Rivas
OBJECTIVES: Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (SPVATS) anatomical resection has been shown to be a feasible technique for lung cancer patients. Whether SPVATS has equivalent or better oncological outcomes for lung cancer patients remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perioperative and mid-term survival outcomes of SPVATS in 2 different medical centres. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent SPVATS anatomical resections between January 2014 and February 2017 in Coruña University Hospital's Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery Unit (Spain) and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Taiwan)...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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