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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893147/update-on-the-pharmacology-and-legal-status-of-kratom
#1
Walter C Prozialeck
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to stave off fatigue and to manage pain and opioid withdrawal. In a comprehensive review published in 2012, Prozialeck et al presented evidence that kratom had been increasingly used for the self-management of opioid withdrawal and pain in the United States. At the time, kratom was classified as a legal herbal product by the US Drug Enforcement Administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851941/antimicrobial-peptides-share-a-common-interaction-driven-by-membrane-line-tension-reduction
#2
J Michael Henderson, Alan J Waring, Frances Separovic, Ka Yee C Lee
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a class of host-defense molecules that neutralize a broad range of pathogens. Their membrane-permeabilizing behavior has been commonly attributed to the formation of pores; however, with the continuing discovery of AMPs, many are uncharacterized and their exact mechanism remains unknown. Using atomic force microscopy, we previously characterized the disruption of model membranes by protegrin-1 (PG-1), a cationic AMP from pig leukocytes. When incubated with zwitterionic membranes of dimyristoylphosphocholine, PG-1 first induced edge instability at low concentrations, then porous defects at intermediate concentrations, and finally worm-like micelle structures at high concentrations...
November 15, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809281/ph-dependent-antimicrobial-peptides-and-proteins-their-mechanisms-of-action-and-potential-as-therapeutic-agents
#3
REVIEW
Erum Malik, Sarah R Dennison, Frederick Harris, David A Phoenix
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are potent antibiotics of the innate immune system that have been extensively investigated as a potential solution to the global problem of infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microbes. A group of AMPs that are increasingly being reported are those that utilise pH dependent antimicrobial mechanisms, and here we review research into this area. This review shows that these antimicrobial molecules are produced by a diverse spectrum of creatures, including vertebrates and invertebrates, and are primarily cationic, although a number of anionic examples are known...
November 1, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774500/surgical-technique-and-clinically-relevant-resection-cavity-dynamics-following-implantation-of-cesium-131-cs-131-brachytherapy-in-patients-with-brain-metastases
#4
A Gabriella Wernicke, Stefanie P Lazow, Shoshana Taube, Menachem Z Yondorf, Ilhami Kovanlikaya, Dattatreyudu Nori, Paul Christos, John A Boockvar, Susan Pannullo, Philip E Stieg, Theodore H Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Cesium-131 (Cs-131) brachytherapy is used to reduce local recurrence of resected brain metastases. In order to ensure dose homogeneity and reduce risk of radiation necrosis, inter-seed distance and cavity volume must remain stable during delivery. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of the "seeds-on-a-string" technique with intracavitary fibrin glue in achieving cavity volume stability. METHODS: We placed intra-operative Cs-131 brachytherapy in 30 cavities post-resection of brain metastases...
March 2016: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773790/partial-mhc-class-ii-constructs-as-novel-immunomodulatory-therapy-for-stroke
#5
Gil Benedek, Arthur A Vandenbark, Nabil J Alkayed, Halina Offner
The worldwide prevalence of stroke continues to rise despite recent successes in treating acute ischemic stroke. With limited patient eligibility and associated risk of tPA and mechanical thrombectomy, new preventive and therapeutic modalities are needed to stave the rising wave of stroke. Inflammation plays a key role in brain damage after cerebral ischemia, and novel therapies that target pro-inflammatory cells have demonstrated promise for treatment for stroke. Partial MHC class II constructs have been shown to prevent and/or reverse clinical signs of various inflammatory diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, collagen-induced arthritis and experimental autoimmune uveitis, by reducing the number and frequency of activated cells in the damaged CNS...
October 31, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745823/detection-and-prevention-of-cognitive-decline
#6
REVIEW
Gary W Small
Current diagnostic and treatment strategies for cognitive decline can help patients maintain cognitive ability and higher levels of function longer. Despite advances in detection and early treatment strategies, many patients do not receive proper assessments and available therapies. A systematic assessment strategy will increase the likelihood of an accurate diagnosis, which can facilitate pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment plans that can have a meaningful impact on prognosis. Available data support the integration of healthy lifestyle strategies in the treatment plan to help to stabilize symptoms and potentially delay future cognitive decline...
December 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739160/extrusions-are-phagocytosed-and-promote-chlamydia-survival-within-macrophages
#7
Meghan Zuck, Tisha Ellis, Anthony Venida, Kevin Hybiske
The precise strategies that intracellular pathogens use to exit host cells have a direct impact on their ability to disseminate within a host, transmit to new hosts, and engage or avoid immune responses. The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis exits the host cell by two distinct exit strategies, lysis and extrusion. The defining characteristics of extrusions, and advantages gained by Chlamydia within this unique double-membrane structure are not well understood. Here, we define extrusions as being largely devoid of host organelles, comprised mostly of Chlamydia elementary bodies, and containing phosphatidylserine on the outer surface of the extrusion membrane...
October 14, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738105/mechanism-of-four-de-novo-designed-antimicrobial-peptides
#8
Brian Murray, C Seth Pearson, Alexa Aranjo, Dinesh Cherupalla, Georges Belfort
As pathogenic bacteria become resistant to traditional antibiotics, alternate approaches such as designing and testing new potent selective antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are increasingly attractive. However, whereas much is known regarding the relationship between the AMP sequence and potency, less research has focused on developing links between AMP properties, such as design and structure, with mechanisms. Here we use four natural AMPs of varying known secondary structures and mechanisms of lipid bilayer disruption as controls to determine the mechanisms of four rationally designed AMPs with similar secondary structures and rearranged amino acid sequences...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697851/do-brain-training-programs-work
#9
Daniel J Simons, Walter R Boot, Neil Charness, Susan E Gathercole, Christopher F Chabris, David Z Hambrick, Elizabeth A L Stine-Morrow
In 2014, two groups of scientists published open letters on the efficacy of brain-training interventions, or "brain games," for improving cognition. The first letter, a consensus statement from an international group of more than 70 scientists, claimed that brain games do not provide a scientifically grounded way to improve cognitive functioning or to stave off cognitive decline. Several months later, an international group of 133 scientists and practitioners countered that the literature is replete with demonstrations of the benefits of brain training for a wide variety of cognitive and everyday activities...
October 2016: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664855/comparative-analysis-of-the-anti-chikungunya-virus-activity-of-novel-bryostatin-analogs-confirms-the-existence-of-a-pkc-independent-mechanism
#10
Rana Abdelnabi, Daryl Staveness, Katherine E Near, Paul A Wender, Leen Delang, Johan Neyts, Pieter Leyssen
Previously, we reported that salicylate-based analogs of bryostatin protect cells from chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-induced cell death. Interestingly, 'capping' the hydroxyl group at C26 of a lead bryostatin analog, a position known to be crucial for binding to and modulation of protein kinase C (PKC), did not abrogate the anti-CHIKV activity of the scaffold, putatively indicating the involvement of a pathway independent of PKC. The work detailed in this study demonstrates that salicylate-derived analog 1 and two capped analogs (2 and 3) are not merely cytoprotective compounds, but act as selective and specific inhibitors of CHIKV replication...
September 21, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649188/a-self-powered-insole-for-human-motion-recognition
#11
Yingzhou Han, Yalu Cao, Jingjing Zhao, Yajiang Yin, Liangchen Ye, Xiaofeng Wang, Zheng You
Biomechanical energy harvesting is a feasible solution for powering wearable sensors by directly driving electronics or acting as wearable self-powered sensors. A wearable insole that not only can harvest energy from foot pressure during walking but also can serve as a self-powered human motion recognition sensor is reported. The insole is designed as a sandwich structure consisting of two wavy silica gel film separated by a flexible piezoelectric foil stave, which has higher performance compared with conventional piezoelectric harvesters with cantilever structure...
2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611899/endoscope-assisted-management-of-sagittal-synostosis-wide-vertex-suturectomy-and-barrel-stave-osteotomies-versus-narrow-vertex-suturectomy
#12
Brian J Dlouhy, Dennis C Nguyen, Kamlesh B Patel, Gwendolyn M Hoben, Gary B Skolnick, Sybill D Naidoo, Albert S Woo, Matthew D Smyth
OBJECTIVE Endoscope-assisted methods for treatment of craniosynostosis have reported benefits over open calvarial vault reconstruction. In this paper, the authors evaluated 2 methods for endoscope-assisted correction of sagittal synostosis: wide vertex suturectomy and barrel stave osteotomies (WVS+BSO) and narrow vertex suturectomy (NVS). METHODS The authors evaluated patients with nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis treated with either wide vertex suturectomy (4-6 cm) and barrel stave osteotomies (WVS+BSO) or narrow vertex suturectomy (NVS) (approximately 2 cm) between October 2006 and July 2013...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605659/indonesia-s-road-to-universal-health-coverage-a-political-journey
#13
Elizabeth Pisani, Maarten Olivier Kok, Kharisma Nugroho
In 2013 Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous country, declared that it would provide affordable health care for all its citizens within seven years. This crystallised an ambition first enshrined in law over five decades earlier, but never previously realised. This paper explores Indonesia's journey towards universal health coverage (UHC) from independence to the launch of a comprehensive health insurance scheme in January 2014. We find that Indonesia's path has been determined largely by domestic political concerns - different groups obtained access to healthcare as their socio-political importance grew...
September 6, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529484/free-radical-chemistry-enabled-by-visible-light-induced-electron-transfer
#14
Daryl Staveness, Irene Bosque, Corey R J Stephenson
Harnessing visible light as the driving force for chemical transformations generally offers a more environmentally friendly alternative compared with classical synthetic methodology. The transition metal-based photocatalysts commonly employed in photoredox catalysis absorb efficiently in the visible spectrum, unlike most organic substrates, allowing for orthogonal excitation. The subsequent excited states are both more reducing and more oxidizing than the ground state catalyst and are competitive with some of the more powerful single-electron oxidants or reductants available to organic chemists yet are simply accessed via irradiation...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343861/the-accentuation-principle-of-figure-ground-segregation-and-the-downbeat-illusion
#15
Baingio Pinna, Luca Sirigu
Pinna and Sirigu (2011) demonstrated a new principle of grouping, called the accentuation principle, stating that, all else being equal, elements tend to group in the same oriented direction of the discontinuous element placed within a whole set of continuous/homogeneous components. The discontinuous element behaves like an accent, i.e. a visual emphasis within the wholeness of components as shown in the next section. In this work, the accentuation principle has been extended to new visual domains. In particular, it is shown how this principle affects shape perception...
October 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330954/partial-response-to-carboplatin-in-an-rrx-001-pretreated-patient-with-egfr-inhibitor-resistance-and-t790m-negative-nsclc
#16
Corey A Carter, Bryan Oronsky, Scott Caroen, Jan Scicinski, Pedro Cabrales, Aiste Degesys, Christina Brzezniak
Few therapeutic options are available for T790M-negative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after failure of primary epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and chemotherapy. This report presents the case of a 71-year-old Asian female never smoker with EGFR mutated T790M negative non squamous cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pre-treated with the experimental epi-immunotherapeutic agent, RRx-001, that re-responded to single agent carboplatin after failure of platinum doublets, TKIs, pemetrexed and nivolumab...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229181/the-future-of-antibiotics-emerging-technologies-and-stewardship
#17
Jeffrey L Fortman, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay
Antibiotic resistance is on the rise while the number of antibiotics being brought to market continues to drop. While this is a dire situation, a number of emerging technologies have the potential to reverse this trend. These, and supporting legislative initiatives, promise to stave off the post-antibiotic era.
July 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222391/a-reevaluation-of-the-role-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-islet-dysfunction-maladaptation-or-a-failure-to-adapt
#18
Terence P Herbert, D Ross Laybutt
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by perturbations in ER homeostasis activates an adaptive response termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) whose function is to resolve ER stress. If unsuccessful, the UPR initiates a proapoptotic program to eliminate the malfunctioning cells from the organism. It is the activation of this proapoptotic UPR in pancreatic β-cells that has been implicated in the onset of type 2 diabetes and thus, in this context, is considered a maladaptive response. However, there is growing evidence that β-cell death in type 2 diabetes may not be caused by a maladaptive UPR but by the inhibition of the adaptive UPR...
June 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154535/voluntary-wheel-running-attenuates-insulin-and-weight-gain-and-affects-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-c57bl6-j-mice-exposed-to-a-high-fat-diet
#19
Jasmin A Hicks, Aikaterini Hatzidis, Nicole L Arruda, Rachel R Gelineau, Isabella Monteiro De Pina, Kenneth W Adams, Joseph A Seggio
It is widely accepted that lifestyle plays a crucial role on the quality of life in individuals, particularly in western societies where poor diet is correlated to alterations in behavior and the increased possibility of developing type-2 diabetes. While exercising is known to produce improvements to overall health, there is conflicting evidence on how much of an effect exercise has staving off the development of type-2 diabetes or counteracting the effects of diet on anxiety. Thus, this study investigated the effects of voluntary wheel-running access on the progression of diabetes-like symptoms and open field and light-dark box behaviors in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet...
September 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151620/synergistic-effects-of-reserve-and-adaptive-personality-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Shumita Roy, Carolyn E Schwartz, Paul Duberstein, Michael G Dwyer, Robert Zivadinov, Niels Bergsland, Victoria Powell, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Ralph H B Benedict
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive reserve moderates the effects of gray matter (GM) atrophy on cognitive function in neurological disease. Broadly speaking, Reserve explains how persons maintain function in the face of cerebral injury in cognitive and other functional domains (e.g., physical, social). Personality, as operationalized by the Five Factor Model (FFM), is also implicated as a moderator of this relationship. It is conceivable that these protective mechanisms are related. Prior studies suggest links between Reserve and personality, but the degree to which these constructs overlap and buffer the clinical effects of neuropathology is unclear...
May 6, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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