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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941363/maintenance-of-distal-intestinal-structure-in-the-face-of-prolonged-fasting-a-comparative-examination-of-species-from-five-vertebrate-classes
#1
Marshall D McCue, Celeste A Passement, David K Meyerholz
It was recently shown that fasting alters the composition of microbial communities residing in the distal intestinal tract of animals representing five classes of vertebrates [i.e., fishes (tilapia), amphibians (toads), reptiles (leopard geckos), birds (quail), and mammals (mice)]. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the extent of tissue reorganization in the fasted distal intestine was correlated with the observed changes in enteric microbial diversity. Segments of intestine adjacent to those used for the microbiota study were examined histologically to quantify cross-sectional and mucosal surface areas as well as thicknesses of mucosa, submucosa, and tunica muscularis...
September 23, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938445/mini-review-discovery-of-gnih-and-its-role-in-hypothyroidism-induced-delayed-puberty
#2
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, You Lee Son, Mika Kiyohara, Ichiro Miyata
It is known that hypothyroidism delays puberty in mammals. Interaction between the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes may be important processes in delayed puberty. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a newly discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin synthesis and release in quail. It now apperas that GnIH is conserved across various mammals and primates including humans and inhibits reproduction. We have further demonstrated that GnIH is involved in pubertal delay induced by thyroid dysfunction in female mice...
September 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937852/coccidia-of-japanese-quails-from-identification-prevalence-infection-and-immunization
#3
Nagah Arafat, Ibrahim Abass
A systematic study was taken to identify the species, characterize the pathogencity and assess the immunization of Eimeria bateri in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). In total, 107 Japanese quail farms were examined. The samples were processed and oocysts shape indices of sporulated oocysts were determined. Out of 107 examined farms 34 (31.78%) farms were positive. Four Eimeria spp. were morphologically identified. For characterization of the pathogencity, Japanese quails were orally inoculated with various doses of sporulated oocysts of Eimeria bateri...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935735/genome-sequence-of-an-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-strain-with-hemagglutinin-neuraminidase-combination-isolated-from-a-quail-in-guangxi-southern-china
#4
Liji Xie, Zhixun Xie, Dan Li, Sisi Luo, Minxiu Zhang, Li Huang, Zhiqin Xie, Jiaoling Huang, Yanfang Zhang, Tingting Zeng, Xianwen Deng
We isolated a strain of H9N2 avian influenza virus from a quail in southern China in May 2015 and named it A/quail/Guangxi/198Q39/2015. All eight gene segments of the strain were sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that the amino acid motif of the hemagglutinin cleavage site of this H9N2 virus was RSSR↓GLF, which is a typical characteristic of the low pathogenic avian influenza virus. This study will help in better understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of avian influenza virus in wild birds...
September 21, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926597/altered-embryonic-development-in-northern-bobwhite-quail-colinus-virginianus-induced-by-pre-incubation-oscillatory-thermal-stresses-mimicking-global-warming-predictions
#5
Kelly S Reyna, Warren W Burggren
Global warming is likely to alter reproductive success of ground-nesting birds that lay eggs normally left unattended for days or even weeks before actual parental incubation, especially in already warm climates. The native North American bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) is such a species, and pre-incubation quail eggs may experience temperatures ≥45°C. Yet, almost nothing is known about embryonic survival after such high pre-incubation temperatures. Freshly laid bobwhite quail eggs were exposed during a 12 day pre-incubation period to one of five thermal regimes: low oscillating temperatures (25-40°C, mean = 28...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926567/critical-developmental-windows-for-morphology-and-hematology-revealed-by-intermittent-and-continuous-hypoxic-incubation-in-embryos-of-quail-coturnix-coturnix
#6
Warren W Burggren, Nourhan A Elmonoufy
Hypoxia during embryonic growth in embryos is frequently a powerful determinant of development, but at least in avian embryos the effects appear to show considerable intra- and inter-specific variation. We hypothesized that some of this variation may arise from different protocols that may or may not result in exposure during the embryo's critical window for hypoxic effects. To test this hypothesis, quail embryos (Coturnix coturnix) in the intact egg were exposed to hypoxia (~15% O2) during "early" (Day 0 through Day 5, abbreviated as D0-D5), "middle" (D6-D10) or "late" (D11-D15) incubation or for their entire 16-18 day incubation ("continuous hypoxia") to determine critical windows for viability and growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923598/testicular-atrophy-and-reproductive-quiescence-in-photorefractory-and-scotosensitive-quail-involvement-of-hypothalamic-deep-brain-photoreceptors-and-gnrh-gnih-system
#7
Somanshu Banerjee, Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi
Birds time their daily and seasonal activities in synchronization with circadian and annual periodicities in the environment, which is mainly provided by changes in photoperiod/day length conditions. Photoperiod appears to act at the level of eye, pineal and encephalic/deep brain photoperception and thus entrain the hypothalamic clock as well as reproductive circuitry in different avian species. In this article our focus of study is to elucidate out the underlying molecular mechanism of modulation of the hypothalamic reproductive circuitry following the photoperception through the hypothalamic photoreceptor cells and the subsequent alteration in the reproductive responses in quail, kept under different simulated photoperiodic conditions...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905526/transmission-and-immunopathology-of-the-avian-influenza-virus-a-anhui-1-2013-h7n9-human-isolate-in-three-commonly-commercialized-avian-species
#8
B Vidaña, R Dolz, N Busquets, A Ramis, R Sánchez, R Rivas, R Valle, I Cordón, D Solanes, J Martínez, N Majó
H7N9 virus infection is a global concern, given that it can cause severe infection and mortality in humans. However, the understanding of H7N9 epidemiology, animal reservoir species and zoonotic risk remains limited. This work evaluates the pathogenicity, transmissibility and local innate immune response of three avian species harbouring different respiratory distribution of α2,6 and α2,3 SA receptors. Muscovy ducks, European quails and SPF chickens were intranasally inoculated with 10(5) embryo infectious dose (EID)50 of the human H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013) influenza isolate...
September 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901781/genetic-analyses-of-partial-egg-production-in-japanese-quail-using-multi-trait-random-regression-models
#9
K Karami, S Zerehdaran, B Barzanooni, E Lotfi
1. The aim of present study was to estimate genetic parameters for average egg weight (EW) and egg number (EN) at different ages in Japanese quail using multi-trait random regression (MTRR) models. 2. A total of 8534 records from 900 quail, hatched between 2014 and 2015, were used in the study. Average weekly egg weights and egg numbers were measured from second until sixth week of egg production. 3. Nine random regression models were compared to identify the best order of the Legendre polynomials (LP). The most optimal model was identified by the Bayesian Information Criterion...
September 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891043/treamed-locked-intramedullary-nailing-for-studying-femur-fracture-and-its-complications
#10
O Yoshino, J Brady, K Young, B Hardy, R Matthys, T Buxton, R Appleyard, J Tomka, D Dabirrahmani, P Woodford, M Fadia, R Steck, A Quail, R G Richards, Z J Balogh
Morbidity associated with femur fractures in polytrauma patients is known to be high. The many unsolved clinical questions include the immunological effect of the fracture and its fixation, timing of fracture fixation, management of fracture non-union, effect of infection and critical size of bone defects. The aim of this study was to establish a clinically-relevant and reproducible animal model with regards to histological, biomechanical and radiological changes during bone healing. A custom-designed intramedullary nail with interlocking system (RabbitNail, RISystem AG, Davos Platz, Switzerland) was used for fixation, following femur fracture...
September 11, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886075/incorporating-abundance-information-and-guiding-variable-selection-for-climate-based-ensemble-forecasting-of-species-distributional-shifts
#11
Evan P Tanner, Monica Papeş, R Dwayne Elmore, Samuel D Fuhlendorf, Craig A Davis
Ecological niche models (ENMs) have increasingly been used to estimate the potential effects of climate change on species' distributions worldwide. Recently, predictions of species abundance have also been obtained with such models, though knowledge about the climatic variables affecting species abundance is often lacking. To address this, we used a well-studied guild (temperate North American quail) and the Maxent modeling algorithm to compare model performance of three variable selection approaches: correlation/variable contribution (CVC), biological (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874095/seasonal-rhythms-the-role-of-thyrotropin-and-thyroid-hormones
#12
Tomoya Nakayama, Takashi Yoshimura
Seasonal changes in various physiological events have been reported in humans including metabolism, immune function, and mood. However, the molecular and endocrine basis of the seasonal changes remain unclear. Animals that breed seasonally such as, the Japanese quail and Siberian hamster have sophisticated seasonal mechanisms and provide excellent opportunities to understand the underlying processes. Functional genomic analysis of the quail uncovered the photoperiodic signal transduction pathway, which regulates avian seasonal reproduction: Long day stimulus induces secretion of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the anterior pituitary gland...
September 6, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865120/uptake-of-radiolabeled-3-3-4-4-tetrachlorobiphenyl-into-japanese-quail-egg-compartments-and-embryo-following-air-cell-and-albumen-injection
#13
Karen M Dean, Leah D Baltos, Allegra M Marcell, Meredith E B Bohannon, Andrew N Iwaniuk, Mary Ann Ottinger
The avian embryo is an excellent model for testing adverse developmental effects of environmental chemicals, and uptake and movement of xenobiotics within the egg compartments. (14) C 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl ((14) C PCB 77) was injected into Japanese quail eggs prior to incubation at embryonic day 0 (ED0) either onto the air cell or into the albumen. All egg components were collected on ED1, 5 or 10 and concentrations of (14) C PCB 77 were measured in various egg components (shell, membrane, yolk, albumen and embryo)...
September 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861875/age-related-adaptive-responses-of-mitochondria-of-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-to-the-everyday-blue-led-lighting
#14
N B Serezhnikova, L S Pogodina, T V Lipina, N N Trofimova, T S Gurieva, P P Zak
The effect of everyday blue light (λ = 440-460 nm) on mitochondria of the retinal pigment epithelium of different age groups of Japanese quail was studied using electron microscopy, morphometric methods, and biochemical analysis. We have found a significant increase in the number of mitochondria, including those modified, mainly in young birds. In addition, cell metabolic activity increased in response to blue lighting. These changes are assumed to reflect an adaptive response of mitochondria aimed at neutralizing the phototoxic effect of blue light caused by accumulation of lipofuscin granules...
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844670/goose-fmo3-gene-cloning-tissue-expression-profiling-polymorphism-detection-and-association-analysis-with-trimethylamine-level-in-the-egg-yolk
#15
Hang Zhong, Yi Luo, Jing Sun, Chao Wang, Qi-Gui Wang, Guang-Liang Gao, Ke-Shan Zhang, Qin Li, Hai-Wei Wang, Jing Li, Ming-Jun Chen, Yang-Ming Wang, Xian-Zhi Zhao
Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) plays a critical role in catalyzing the conversion of trimethylamine (TMA) to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in vivo. Despite the well-documented association between FMO3 mutations and a 'fishy' off-flavor eggs in chicken and quail, little information is available regarding the molecular characteristic of goose (Anser cygnoides) FMO3 and its relationship with the yolk TMA content. To fill these gaps, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of goose FMO3, which comprised 1851bp encoding 531 amino acids...
October 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835474/multiscale-quantification-of-tissue-behavior-during-amniote-embryo-axis-elongation
#16
Bertrand Bénazéraf, Mathias Beaupeux, Martin Tchernookov, Allison Wallingford, Tasha Salisbury, Amelia Shirtz, Andrew Shirtz, David Huss, Olivier Pourquié, Paul François, Rusty Lansford
Embryonic axis elongation is a complex multi-tissue morphogenetic process responsible for the formation of the posterior part of the amniote body. How movements and growth are coordinated between the different posterior tissues (e.g. neural tube, axial and paraxial mesoderm, lateral plate, ectoderm, endoderm) to drive axis morphogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we use quail embryos to quantify cell behavior and tissue movements during elongation. We quantify the tissue-specific contribution to axis elongation by using 3D volumetric techniques, then quantify tissue-specific parameters such as cell density and proliferation...
August 23, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833041/the-intersensory-redundancy-hypothesis-extending-the-principle-of-unimodal-facilitation-to-prenatal-development
#17
Robert Lickliter, Lorraine E Bahrick, Jimena Vaillant-Mekras
Selective attention to different properties of stimulation provides the foundation for perception, learning, and memory. The Intersensory Redundancy Hypothesis (IRH) proposes that early in development information presented redundantly across two or more modalities (multimodal) selectively recruits attention to and enhances perceptual learning of amodal properties, whereas information presented to a single sense modality (unimodal) enhances perceptual learning of modality-specific properties. The present study is the first to assess this principle of unimodal facilitation in non-human animals in prenatal development...
August 21, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812532/spontaneous-experimentally-induced-and-transmissible-aa-amyloidosis-in-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica
#18
Yumi Nakayama, Junichi Kamiie, Gen Watanabe, Kazuhiko Suzuki, Tomoaki Murakami
The authors describe a spontaneous case of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in an adult female Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica). The bird developed AA amyloidosis secondary to chronic peritonitis caused by a Gram-negative bacillus infection. Mild amyloid deposition was also identified in the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adult individuals, suggesting that quail may develop intestinal amyloidosis with age. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that quail can develop AA amyloidosis following inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809021/genetic-manipulation-of-the-avian-urogenital-system-using-in-ovo-electroporation
#19
Claire E Hirst, Olivier Serralbo, Katie L Ayers, Kelly N Roeszler, Craig A Smith
One of the advantages of the avian embryo as an experimental model is its in ovo development and hence accessibility for genetic manipulation. Electroporation has been used extensively in the past to study gene function in chicken and quail embryos . Readily accessible tissues such as the neural tube, somites, and limb bud, in particular, have been targeted. However, more inaccessible tissues, such as the embryonic urogenital system , have proven more challenging to study. Here, we describe the use of in ovo electroporation of TOL2 vectors or RCASBP avian viral vectors for the rapid functional analysis of genes involved in avian sex determination and urogenital development ...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809018/fluorescent-quail-a-transgenic-model-system-for-the-dynamic-study-of-avian-development
#20
David Huss, Rusty Lansford
Real-time four-dimensional (4D, xyzt) imaging of cultured avian embryos is an ideal method for investigating the complex movements of cells and tissues during early morphogenesis. While methods that transiently label cells, such as electroporation, are highly useful for dynamic imaging, they can also be limiting due to the number and type of cells that can be effectively targeted. In contrast, the heritable, stable, and long-term expression of a fluorescent protein driven by the exogenous promoter of a transgene overcomes these challenges...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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