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Reshma Ramachandran, Cd McDaniel
Parthenogenesis or "virgin birth" is embryonic development in unfertilized eggs. It is a routine means of reproduction in many invertebrates. However even though parthenogenesis occurs naturally in even more advanced vertebrates, like birds, it is mostly abortive in nature. In fact, multiple limiting factors, such as delayed and unorganized development as well as unfavorable conditions developing within the unfertilized egg upon incubation, are associated with termination of progressive development of parthenogenetic embryos...
March 20, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Mayada R Farag, Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed M Badr, Samah R Khalil, Mohamed S El-Kholy
The present study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of dietary inclusion of raw Jatropha cucas meal [RJM, 3.5%] on productive and reproductive performances of laying Japanese quail and the influence of physical treatment of jatropha meal by heating at [100o c] for 24 or 48 h [JH24 or JH48 respectively] on reducing these effects. The inclusion of RJM in quail diets significantly decreased the egg production, fertility and hatchability percentages and resulted in a high mortality rate. While heat-treated jatropha meal [JH24 or JH48 ] improved such undesirable effects...
March 12, 2018: Theriogenology
V Jazi, A Ashayerizadeh, M Toghyani, A Shabani, G Tellez, M Toghyani
This study was conducted to investigate and compare the effect of dietary probiotic mixture (PM) and organic acid (OA) mixture with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on performance, crop, and ceca microbiota, small intestine morphology, and serum lipid profile in Japanese quails. A total of 800 day-old Japanese quails was randomly allotted to 5 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 20 birds each, for 35 days. The experimental diets consisted of a control corn-soybean meal diet and 4 test diets: 1) control diet + 0...
March 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Ewa Jankowska-Steifer, Justyna Niderla-Bielińska, Bogdan Ciszek, Marek Kujawa, Mateusz Bartkowiak, Aleksandra Flaht-Zabost, Daria Klosinska, Anna Ratajska
During embryonic development, hematopoietic cells are present in areas of blood-vessel differentiation. These hematopoietic cells emerge from a specific subpopulation of endothelial cells called the hemogenic endothelium. We have previously found that mouse proepicardium contained its own population of endothelial cells forming a network of vascular tubules. We hypothesize that this EC population contains cells of hematopoietic potential. Therefore, we investigated an in vitro hematopoietic potential of proepicardial cell populations...
March 16, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Eva Krkavcová, Jakub Kreisinger, Ludmila Hyánková, Pavel Hyršl, Veronika Javůrková
Avidin is key egg white antimicrobial protein with strong binding capacity for biotin, an essential growth and immune cell precursor. As such, it is assumed to have a pronounced, though still poorly explored, effect on hatchling phenotype. We tested the effect of experimentally increased egg white avidin concentration (AVIDIN+) on hatching success, chick morphology, post-hatching growth performance and innate immune function in a model bird, Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica ). Probability of embryo survival in the late embryonic phase increased with increasing egg weight in control eggs, but not in AVIDIN+ eggs...
March 14, 2018: Biology Open
C Henry, M Z Brym, A Kalyanasundaram, R J Kendall
Aulonocephalus pennula is a heteroxenous nematode that commonly infects a declining game bird, the northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). There is a lack of information on the life cycle of A. pennula and the potential effects of infection on bobwhites. In order to better understand the life cycle of this parasite, various species from the order Orthoptera were collected from a field site in Mitchell County, Texas. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nine potential intermediate hosts were identified from the 35 orthopteran species collected...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Zeinab Khoobbakht, Mehrdad Mohammadi, Mohammad Roostaei-Ali Mehr, Fahimeh Mohammadghasemi, Mohammad Mehdi Sohani
The objective was to examine the effect of different dietary zinc sources on reproduction of male Japanese quail. A total of 512 quail chicks (day-old) were divided into four groups with four replications for a period of 42 days. After this period, excess chicks were removed to attain the ratio of one male to three females and 16 quail in each subgroup. At 52 to 60 d of age, the eggs were collected and incubated. The basal diet (control) contained no zinc and the other three experimental diets were supplemented with 25 and 50 mg/kg zinc from zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) and zinc-methionine (Zn-Met) for 1 to 35 and 36 to 60 days, respectively...
February 23, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Takayoshi Ubuka, Ishwar S Parhar, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is an inhibitor of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. GnIH is also called RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) as GnIH peptides have a characteristic C-terminal LPXRFiamide (X = L or Q) sequence. GnIH is thought to be the mediator of stress by negatively regulating the HPG axis as various stressors increase GnIH mRNA, GnIH peptide or GnIH neuronal activity. On the other hand, GnIH may also mediate behavioral stress responses as GnIH neuronal fibers and GnIH receptors are widely located in the limbic system of telencephalon, diencephalon and midbrain area...
March 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Brody Heritage, Michelle Quail, Naomi Cocks
PURPOSE: This study explored the predictors of the outcomes of turnover and occupation attrition intentions for speech-language pathologists. The researchers examined the mediating effects of job satisfaction and strain on the relationship between stress and the latter outcomes. Additionally, the researchers examined the importance of embeddedness in predicting turnover intentions after accounting for stress, strain and job satisfaction. METHOD: An online questionnaire was used to explore turnover and attrition intentions in 293 Australian speech-language pathologists...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Daniela Rodler, Fred Sinowatz
The role of thecal glands in the ovary of birds remains controversial. Using transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, immunohistochemical localisation of cyclooxygenase I and II (COX-1 and COX-2), oestrogen receptor α and β (ER-α and ER-β), androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone receptor (PR), a detailed analysis of the thecal glands was performed. Our ultrastructural studies revealed that the thecal glands of the quail ovary consist of 2 cell types, steroid-producing cells (SPCs) and enclosing cells (ENCs)...
March 1, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Atefeh Berenjian, Seyed Davood Sharifi, Abdollah Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Shokoufe Ghazanfari
The original version of this article contained a mistake: The author name Shokoufe Ghazanfari was incorrectly written as Shekofeh Ghazanfari.
March 1, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Franco Nicolas Nazar, Emiliano Ariel Videla, Maria Emilia Fernandez, Maria Carla Labaque, Raul Hector Marin
Avian require comfortable temperatures for optimal development and heat stress is a high concern in warm weather countries. We aimed to assess the dynamics of immunoendocrine and biochemical variables responses of birds exposed to a heat stressor applied during daylight hours, during the chronic stress and the recovery periods. We hypothesize that variables involved in the birds response will be differentially and gradually modified during those periods. Female quail (n = 210) were housed in six rearing boxes...
February 25, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
D Cupic Miladinovic, S Borozan, S Ivanovic
Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate pesticide (OP). In birds and mammals OP exhibits a toxic effect via inhibition of cholinesterases [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] and through oxidative/nitrosative stress. In this study, the influence of chlorpyrifos on cholinesterase activity, parameters of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA); glutathione (GSH); superoxide dismutase (SOD); nitrite concentration (NO2-); hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)], and inflammatory parameter [activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO)] in the brain of Japanese quail (Coturnix japanica) was examined...
February 19, 2018: Poultry Science
Charlotte A Cornil, Gregory F Ball, Jacques Balthazart
Estrogens exert pleiotropic effects on multiple physiological and behavioral traits including sexual behavior. These effects are classically mediated via binding to nuclear receptors and subsequent regulation of target gene transcription. Estrogens also affect neuronal activity and cell-signaling pathways via faster, membrane-initiated events. Although the distinction between appetitive and consummatory aspects of sexual behavior has been criticized, this distinction remains valuable in that it facilitates the causal analysis of certain behavioral systems...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Ako Rezaei, Amjad Farzinpour, Asaad Vaziry, Ali Jalili
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have recently emerged as a powerful agents for disinfection in the poultry industry. AgNPs are capable of epithelial barriers passing from the route of exposure to the vital organs and cells. This study evaluated the effects of AgNPs on organs weights, blood biochemical, hematological, and coagulation parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes and silver concentrations of liver and kidney tissues in laying Japanese quails after exposure to the nanoparticles...
February 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Hazem Emam, Eman Ahmed, Mohamed Abdel-Daim
Imidacloprid (IM) is a neonicotinoid insecticide, used in a wide range of agricultural activities worldwide. However, it results in ecosystem disturbances and signs of toxicity in human and animals. The current study was designed to elucidate the protective effects of omega-3-fatty acids (OFAs) and vitamin E (Vit E) against IM hepatotoxicity in Japanese quails. Seventy male quails (30 days old) were divided into seven groups (n = 10); G1-ve control; G2received IM (+ve control); G3received OFA; G4received Vit E; and G5, G6, and G7received OFA and/or Vit E with IM for 30 days, respectively...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cherry P Fernandez, Fahmida Afrin, Rochelle A Flores, Woo H Kim, Jipseol Jeong, Suk Kim, Hyun S Lillehoj, Wongi Min
As the dysregulation of IL-17 is implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, the suppression of IL-17 production by Th2 cytokines could alleviate the development of these diseases. Previously, we confirmed that inflammatory cytokines including IL-17A are strongly associated with R. anatipestifer infection, which is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in the duck industry. Here, we found that IL-4 treatment downregulated the expression of IL-17A and IL-17F transcripts in splenic lymphocytes stimulated with R...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Hien Dang Thanh, Van Trung Tran, Duc Tan Nguyen, Vu-Khac Hung, Wonyong Kim
Avian influenza A H5N6 virus is a highly contagious infectious agent that affects domestic poultry and humans in South Asian countries. Vietnam may be an evolutionary hotspot for influenza viruses and therefore could serve as a source of pandemic strains. In 2015, two novel reassortant H5N6 influenza viruses designated as A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI01/2015 and A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI03/2015 were isolated from dead quails during avian influenza outbreaks in central Vietnam, and the whole genome sequences were analyzed...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Shasha Liu, Hein Min Tun, Frederick C Leung, Darin C Bennett, Hongfu Zhang, Kimberly M Cheng
Our previous study has shown that genetic selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet-induced atherosclerosis has affected the Japanese quail's cecal environment to accommodate distinctly different cecal microbiota. In this study, we fed the Atherosclerosis-resistant (RES) and -susceptable (SUS) quail a regular and a cholesterol enriched diet to examine the interaction of host genotype and diet on the diversity, composition, and metabolic functions of the duodenal and ileal microbiota with relations to atherosclerosis development...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tatsuya Kamimura, Toshiyuki Yamagishi, Yuji Nakajima
The origin of coronary endothelial cells (ECs) has been investigated in avian species, and the results showed that the coronary ECs originate from the proepicardial organ (PEO) and developing epicardium. Genetic approaches in mouse models showed that the major source of coronary ECs is the sinus venosus endothelium or ventricular endocardium. To clarify and reconcile the differences between avian and mouse species, we examined the source of coronary ECs in avian embryonic hearts. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein-Tol2 system and fluorescent dye labeling, four types of quail-chick chimeras were made and quail-specific endothelial marker (QH1) immunohistochemistry was performed...
February 2, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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