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Ahmed Kandeil, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Asmaa Maatouq, Yassmin Moatasim, Zhipeng Cai, Pamela McKenzie, Richard Webby, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed Ahmed Ali
The endemicity of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) among Egyptian poultry represents a public health risk. Co-circulation of low pathogenic AIV H9N2 subtype with highly pathogenic AIV H5N1 subtype in Egyptian farms potentiates the possibility to generate novel reassortant viruses. Herein, the genetic characteristics of surface glycoproteins of 59 Egyptian H9N2 viruses, isolated between 2013 and 2015, were analyzed. To elucidate the potential of genetic reassortment, 10 H9N2 isolates were selected based on different avian hosts (chickens, ducks, pigeons and quails) and conducted for phylogenetic analyses of full genome sequences...
November 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Daniela F Quail, Johanna A Joyce
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major cellular component of numerous tumor types. TAM-targeted therapies include depletion strategies, inhibiting their effector functions, or reprogramming towards an anti-tumorigenic phenotype, with varying degrees of efficacy. Here we review preclinical and clinical strategies to target macrophages in cancer, and discuss potential explanations for why some strategies are effective while other approaches have shown limited success.
November 28, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Jiří Plachý, Markéta Reinišová, Dana Kučerová, Filip Šenigl, Volodymyr Stepanets, Tomáš Hron, Kateřina Trejbalová, Daniel Elleder, Jiří Hejnar
: The J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infects domestic chicken, jungle fowl, and turkey. This virus enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by the tvj locus and identified as Na+/H+ exchanger 1. The resistance to J subgroup avian leukosis virus in a great majority of galliform species was explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of Na+/H+ exchanger 1. Because there are concerns of transspecies virus transmission, we studied the natural polymorphisms and susceptibility/resistance in wild galliforms and found the presence of tryptophan 38 in four species of New World quails...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
N Sahin, C Orhan, M Tuzcu, V Juturu, K Sahin
1. To examine the molecular mechanism of capsaicinoid supplementation from Capsicum extract, laying Japanese quail (n=180, 5 weeks old) were reared either at 22(o)C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34(o)C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS) and fed on one of three diets containing 0, 25 or 50 mg of capsaicinoids per kg for 12 weeks (2x3 factorial arrangement). 2. The results revealed that exposure to HS decreased feed consumption by 10.7% and egg production by 13.6%, increased serum and ovary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 66...
November 21, 2016: British Poultry Science
Joel L Pick, Christina Ebneter, Pascale Hutter, Barbara Tschirren
Organizational processes during prenatal development can have long-term effects on an individual's phenotype. Because these early developmental stages are sensitive to environmental influences, mothers are in a unique position to alter their offspring's phenotype by differentially allocating resources to their developing young. However, such prenatal maternal effects are difficult to disentangle from other forms of parental care, additive genetic effects, and/or other forms of maternal inheritance, hampering our understanding of their evolutionary consequences...
December 2016: American Naturalist
M Alahyari-Shahrasb, H Moravej, R Kianfar, W K Kim
An experiment was carried out to determine nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) values of processed wheat products with two levels of enzyme (0 and 0.5 g/kg) and five processing methods [control (C), water-soaking for 12 h (SO12h), 24 h (SO24h) and 48 h (SO48h) and fermentation with lactobacillus (FL)] in two species of poultry (cockerel and Japanese quail). In this study, each processing method group had six replications with two cockerels or four quails per replication. The results showed that the calculated AMEn values of processed wheat by different methods were as follows: C-12...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
A Kostrzak, V Caval, M Escande, E Pliquet, J Thalmensi, T Bestetti, M Julithe, L Fiette, T Huet, S Wain-Hobson, P L Demoyen
Human APOBEC3A (A3A) cytidine deaminase shows pro-apoptotic properties resulting from hypermutation of genomic DNA, induction of double stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) and G1 cell cycle arrest. Given this we evaluated the anti-tumor efficacy of A3A by intratumoral electroporation of an A3A expression plasmid. DNA was repeatedly electroporated into B16OVA, B16Luc tumors of C57BL/6J mice as well as the aggressive fibrosarcoma Sarc2 tumor of HLA-A*0201/DRB1*0101 transgenic mice using non-invasive plate electrodes. Intratumoral electroporation of A3A plasmid DNA resulted in regression of ~50% of small B16OVA melanoma tumors which did not rebound in the following two months without treatment...
November 18, 2016: Gene Therapy
V Coustham, E Godet, L Beauclair
1. The quail is a potentially important avian model for molecular studies a major drawback is the inability to sex visually before three weeks of age. Molecular sexing is therefore an absolute requirement when animals are sampled before that age. 2. A low-cost method using common laboratory equipment based on Allele-Specific Multiplex-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ASM-PCR) was developed to undertake reliable molecular identification of the sex of Coturnix japonica directly at hatching. 3. This simple method works with down feathers collected from behind the neck of the newly-hatched quail and includes internal controls during the PCR reaction to limit risks of error...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
J Belarge, S A Kuvin, L T Baby, J Baker, I Wiedenhöver, P Höflich, A Volya, J C Blackmon, C M Deibel, H E Gardiner, J Lai, L E Linhardt, K T Macon, E Need, B C Rasco, N Quails, K Colbert, D L Gay, N Keeley
The ^{19}Ne(p,γ)^{20}Na reaction is the second step of a reaction chain which breaks out from the hot CNO cycle, following the ^{15}O(α,γ)^{19}Ne reaction at the onset of x-ray burst events. We investigate the spectrum of the lowest proton-unbound states in ^{20}Na in an effort to resolve contradictions in spin-parity assignments and extract reliable information about the thermal reaction rate. The proton-transfer reaction ^{19}Ne(d,n)^{20}Na is measured with a beam of the radioactive isotope ^{19}Ne at an energy around the Coulomb barrier and in inverse kinematics...
October 28, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Joseph W Sanger, Jushuo Wang, Yingli Fan, Jennifer White, Lei Mi-Mi, Dipak K Dube, Jean M Sanger, David Pruyne
In this chapter, we present the current knowledge on de novo assembly, growth, and dynamics of striated myofibrils, the functional architectural elements developed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. The data were obtained in studies of myofibrils formed in cultures of mouse skeletal and quail myotubes, in the somites of living zebrafish embryos, and in mouse neonatal and quail embryonic cardiac cells. The comparative view obtained revealed that the assembly of striated myofibrils is a three-step process progressing from premyofibrils to nascent myofibrils to mature myofibrils...
November 11, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Young Sun Hwang, Mee Hyun Ko, Young Min Kim, Young Hyun Park, Tamao Ono, Jae Yong Han
Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) range in size from 12 to 42 kDa and contain an α-crystalline domain. They have been proposed to play roles in the first line of defence against various stresses in an ATP-independent manner. In birds, a newly oviposited blastoderm can survive several weeks in a dormant state in low-temperature storage suggesting that blastoderm cells are basically tolerant of environmental stress. However, sHSPs in the stress-tolerant blastoderm have yet to be investigated. Thus, we characterised the expression and function of sHSPs in the chicken blastoderm...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
S Najdi, G Nikbakht Brujeni, N Sheikhi, S Chakhkar
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that cause the stomach infection in more than 50% of human population worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of anti-H. pylori immunoglobulins Y (IgYs) production in quails and evaluate the effect of the different methods of immunization on titers of IgY in egg yolks. Whole cell bacterial antigen was used for immunization of quails. Forty Japanese quails (Coturnixjaponica) were divided into four groups. The first group intramuscularly immunized with one dose of antigen (3 × 10(8) inactivated bacteria) whereas the second group injected with half dose...
2016: Iranian journal of veterinary research
Si Won Kim, Jeong Hyo Lee, Byung-Chul Park, Tae Sub Park
Objective: In the livestock industry, the regulatory mechanisms of muscle proliferation and differentiation can be applied to improve traits such as growth and meat production. We investigated the regulatory pathway of MyoD and its role in muscle differentiation in quail myoblast cells. Methods: The MyoD gene was mutated by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology and single cell-derived MyoD mutant sublines were identified to investigate the global regulatory mechanism responsible for muscle differentiation...
October 28, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Gaynor Dolman, Leo Joseph
BACKGROUND: During the Pleistocene, shifts of species distributions and their isolation in disjunct refugia led to varied outcomes in how taxa diversified. Some species diverged, others did not. Here, we begin to address another facet of the role of the Pleistocene in generating today's diversity. We ask which processes contributed to divergence in semi-arid southern Australian birds. We isolated 11 autosomal nuclear loci and one mitochondrial locus from a total of 29 specimens of the sister species pair, Chestnut Quail-thrush Cinclosoma castanotum and Copperback Quail-thrush C...
October 22, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Janine Donaldson, Michael Taurai Madziva, Kennedy Honey Erlwanger
Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods: Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22 % coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil or sunflower oil) for 12 weeks...
October 20, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Tae Sub Park, Si Won Kim, Jeong Hyo Lee
Objective: Transgenic technology is widely used for industrial applications and basic research. Systems that allow for genetic modification play a crucial role in biotechnology for a number of purposes, including the functional analysis of specific genes and the production of exogenous proteins. In this study, we examined and verified the cumate-inducible transgene expression system in chicken DF1 and quail QM7 cells, as well as loxP element-mediated transgene recombination using Cre recombinase in DF1 cells...
October 20, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
S Micozzi, B Bartolomé, M E Sanchís-Merino, T Alfaya, T Aldunate, M Diaz, C Pastor-Vargas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Nicholas R Dunham, Scott Reed, Dale Rollins, Ronald J Kendall
Debilitating ocular diseases are often reported in avian species. By and large, helminth parasites have been overlooked in avian diseases and regarded as inconsequential. The decline of Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas has prompted an investigation of the factors influencing their disappearance. Infection by the eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) has been documented in many avian species; however, the effect it has on its host is not well understood. Heavy eyeworm infection has been documented in Northern bobwhites throughout this ecoregion, leading to eye pathology in this host species...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
C A Torres, V Listorti, C Lupini, G Franzo, M Drigo, E Catelli, P E Brandão, M Cecchinato
In view of the restricted knowledge on the diversity of coronaviruses in poultry other than chicken, this study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of coronaviruses in quail, pheasant, and partridge from two regions of Northern Italy. To this end, pools of tracheal and cloacal swabs from European quail (Coturnix Coturnix) and intestinal tract from pheasants (Phasianus Colchicus) and partridge (Perdix Perdix) flocks, with or without enteric signs, were collected during 2015. Avian coronavirus (Gammacoronavirus) was detected in quail not vaccinated against Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) and in pheasants vaccinated with an IBV Massachusetts serotype...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
Abu Nasar, Aminoor Rahman, Nazmul Hoque, Anup Kumar Talukder, Ziban Chandra Das
AIM: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire...
September 2016: Veterinary World
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