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C A Torres, V Listorti, C Lupini, G Franzo, M Drigo, E Catelli, P E Brandão, M Cecchinato
In view of the restricted knowledge on the diversity of coronaviruses in poultry other than chicken, this study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of coronaviruses in quail, pheasant, and partridge from two regions of Northern Italy. To this end, pools of tracheal and cloacal swabs from European quail (Coturnix Coturnix) and intestinal tract from pheasants (Phasianus Colchicus) and partridge (Perdix Perdix) flocks, with or without enteric signs, were collected during 2015. Avian coronavirus (Gammacoronavirus) was detected in quail not vaccinated against Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) and in pheasants vaccinated with an IBV Massachusetts serotype...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
D K Ajithdoss, M K Torchetti, L Badcoe, D S Bradway, T V Baszler
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major viral disease of poultry characterized by acute onset, systemic infection, and rapid death. In January 2015, H5N2 HPAI was identified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and gene sequencing as the cause of rapid death in 40 of 390 ring-necked pheasants (approximately 10% mortality), raised in a game bird farm in Washington State. We report clinicopathologic findings and viral antigen distribution in pheasants that died during the outbreak...
September 30, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
O J Gethings, R B Sage, E R Morgan, S R Leather
The role that parasites play in regulating animal populations is debated, however recent research hints at their pervasiveness among free-living animal populations. Parasites exert both direct and indirect effects on host populations, and can act to regulate populations. The Ring-necked pheasant is an important game-bird species in the UK, and large numbers of birds are released annually. The impact of the ubiquitous tracheal nematode, Syngamus trachea on pheasant populations through effects on host condition was assessed on two pheasant estates in the south west of England...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Singray Saleb Kullu, Asit Das, Mohini Saini, Anil Kumar Garg, Ravindra Kumar Yogi, Shyamal Kumar Soren, Anil Kumar Sharma
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of green forages on feed consumption, nutrient and mineral utilization in Golden pheasants (GP). Twenty-seven female GP (BW 617-635 g) were randomly distributed into three groups of nine birds each in an experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD). Birds in group T1 were fed a conventional zoo diet containing 1.4% green forages; however, the diets of the birds in groups T2 and T3 contained 2.7% and 5.0% of green forages, respectively...
September 13, 2016: Zoo Biology
Kehinde O Okonjo
The Bohr effect data for bar-headed goose, greylag goose and pheasant hemoglobins can be fitted with the Wyman equation for the Bohr effect, but under one proviso: that the pKa of His146β does not change following the T→R quaternary transition. This assumption is based on the x-ray structure of bar-headed goose hemoglobin, which shows that the salt-bridge formed between His146β and Asp94β in human deoxyhemoglobin is not formed in goose deoxyhemoglobin. When the Bohr data for chicken hemoglobin were fitted by making the same assumption, the pKa of the NH3(+) terminal group of Val1α decreased from 7...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Katrin Ronnenberg, Egbert Strauß, Ursula Siebert
BACKGROUND: The grey partridge (Perdix perdix) and the common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) are galliform birds typical of arable lands in Central Europe and exhibit a partly dramatic negative population trend. In order to understand general habitat preferences we modelled grey partridge and common pheasant densities over the entire range of Lower Saxony. Spatially explicit developments in bird densities were modelled using spatially explicit trends of crop cultivation. Pheasant and grey partridge densities counted annually by over 8000 hunting district holders over 10 years in a range of 3...
2016: BMC Ecology
(no author information available yet)
Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in aborting cows on rough grazingLead poisoning in bullocksPersistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection and colisepticaemia in a 20-hour-old calfAbortion due to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a four-year-old cowTickborne fever in lambsInfectious sinusitis due to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for May 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).
August 20, 2016: Veterinary Record
Khola Khan, Aoife Harrington, Rupinder Pannu, Sian Bentley, Sukeshi Makhecha, Nimla Pentayya, Clare Pheasant
INTRODUCTION: Children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) have complex medication regimens, where responsibility for administration usually lies with the parent/carer until the child is older and able to take over this role.1 On admission to hospital this role is usually undertaken by nurses, leaving patients/parents/carers feeling disempowered, and unprepared for discharge. AIMS: All CF admissions to be offered the Self-Administration Of Medicines Scheme (SAM).▸ Empower patients/parents/carers with responsibility of administering their own medications▸ Reduce nursing time▸ Educate patients/parents/carers about their medications▸ Cost-saving by utilising Patients Own Medicines (PODs)...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Andrzej Kowalski
In a previous work (Górnicka-Michalska et al. (1998)), an occurrence of genetic variants in the chicken erythrocyte histone H5 has been presented. Here, the pheasant histone H5 heterogeneity is characterized to verify if the interspecies variability of this protein is caused by the analogous determinants. During screening histone H1 preparations isolated from the pheasant erythrocytes, histone H5 was identified as differently located in the electrophoretic gels. According to the rate of electrophoretic migration, two histone H5 phenotypes (H5a and H5b) possessing similar quantitative proportion (P>0...
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Keiko Tagami, Brenda J Howard, Shigeo Uchida
Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, monitoring of tissues from hunted game animals ensures compliance with the standard food limits for radionuclides in Japan. We quantified the transfer of (137)Cs from contaminated land to game animals using the Aggregated transfer factor (Tag = activity concentration in meat [Bq kg(-1) fw]/amount in soil [Bq m(-2)]) of (137)Cs for Asian black bear, wild boar, sika deer, green pheasant, copper pheasant and wild duck, collected between 2011 and 2015. Open data sources were used from Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma prefectures...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Frances Pheasant-Kelly
This article considers differences between the representation of mutation in science fiction films from the 1950s and the present, and identifies distinctive changes over this time period, both in relation to the narrative causes of genetic disruption and in the aesthetics of its visual display. Discerning an increasingly abject quality to science fiction mutations from the 1970s onwards-as a progressive tendency to view the physically opened body, one that has a seemingly fluid interior-exterior reversal, or one that is almost beyond recognition as humanoid-the article connects a propensity for disgust to the corresponding socio-cultural and political zeitgeist...
August 10, 2016: Medical Humanities
Jayden O van Horik, Ellis J G Langley, Mark A Whiteside, Joah R Madden
Failure to participate in a cognitive test may result in sampling biases when measuring inter-individual variation in cognitive performances in both captive and wild populations. This would be problematic if particular classes of individuals consistently fail to participate, skewing data and making generalisations or comparisons difficult. We presented 144 pheasant chicks, raised under standardised conditions, with a battery of cognitive tests to investigate whether sex, body condition or personality traits, measured by differences in latencies to explore a novel object, novel environment or unknown conspecific, predicted individual variation in voluntary participation across 37 test sessions...
July 7, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Andrew M Ramey, Mia Kim Torchetti, Rebecca L Poulson, Deborah Carter, Andrew B Reeves, Paul Link, Patrick Walther, Camille Lebarbenchon, David E Stallknecht
In August 2014, a low-pathogenic H7N3 influenza A virus was isolated from pheasants at a New Jersey gamebird farm and hunting preserve. In this study, we use phylogenetic analyses and calculations of genetic similarity to gain inference into the genetic ancestry of this virus and to identify potential routes of transmission. Results of maximum-likelihood (ML) and maximum-clade-credibility (MCC) phylogenetic analyses provide evidence that A/pheasant/New Jersey/26996-2/2014 (H7N3) had closely related H7 hemagglutinin (HA) and N3 neuraminidase (NA) gene segments as compared to influenza A viruses circulating among wild waterfowl in the central and eastern USA...
September 2016: Archives of Virology
Yanwei Shen, Menglian He, Ji Zhang, Manda Zhao, Guihua Wang, Ziqiang Cheng
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian retrovirus that can induce myelocytomas. A high-frequency mutation in gene envelope endows ALV-J with the potential for cross-species transmission. We wished to ascertain if the ALV-J can spread across species under selection pressure in susceptible and resistant hosts. First, we inoculated (in turn) two susceptible host birds (specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and turkeys). Then, we inoculated three resistant hosts (pheasants, quails and ducks) to detect the viral shedding, pathologic changes, and genetic evolution of different isolates...
January 2016: Bing du Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Virology
Barbara Bockstahler, Alexander Tichy, Patricia Aigner
BACKGROUND: Retrievers are dogs particularly bred to retrieve birds or other small game, for the retrieval, the dogs are typically sent to the place where the shot game has fallen or to search the field for the wounded but still live game in order to return them to the hunter as quickly as possible. Examples of game animals are pheasants, mallard ducks and rabbits. For training, dummies with a variety of weights are used to simulate the retrieval of various types of game. The aim of this non-randomized prospective study was to investigate if peak vertical force, vertical impulse and paw pressure contact area are increased in the forelimbs when carrying different weights, and if the symmetrical weight distribution between contralateral limb pairs is disturbed...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Guang-Qi Gao, Li-Shuang Song, Bin Tong, Guang-Peng Li
Carotenoids, which generate yellow, orange, and red colors, are crucial pigments in avian plumage. Investigations into genes associated with carotenoidbased coloration in avian species are important; however, such research is difficult because carotenoids cannot be synthetized in vertebrates as they are only derived from dietary sources. Here, the golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) was used as a model in analysis of candidate gene expression profiles implicated in carotenoid binding and deposition. Using mass and Raman spectrometry to confirm the presence of carotenoids in golden pheasant feathers, we found C40H54O and C40H56O2 in feathers with yellow to red colors, and in the rachis of iridescent feathers...
May 18, 2016: Dong Wu Xue Yan Jiu, Zoological Research
S K Bajpai, A Das, M Saini, S S Kullu, A K Sharma
This experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding graded levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on serum biochemical profile of Lady Amherst's pheasants (LAP). Eighteen male LAP were randomly distributed into three groups of six each in an experiment based on completely randomized design. The CP content of the diets was 13.4%, 16.5%, and 19.1%, in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Serum concentrations of uric acid was lowest (P < 0.05) in group I. Relationship between serum concentration of uric acid and nitrogen intake was linear (R(2)  = 0...
July 2016: Zoo Biology
Jayden O van Horik, Joah R Madden
Rates of innovative foraging behaviours and success on problem-solving tasks are often used to assay differences in cognition, both within and across species. Yet the cognitive features of some problem-solving tasks can be unclear. As such, explanations that attribute cognitive mechanisms to individual variation in problem-solving performance have revealed conflicting results. We investigated individual consistency in problem-solving performances in captive-reared pheasant chicks, Phasianus colchicus, and addressed whether success depends on cognitive processes, such as trial-and-error associative learning, or whether performances may be driven solely via noncognitive motivational mechanisms, revealed through subjects' willingness to approach, engage with and persist in their interactions with an apparatus, or via physiological traits such as body condition...
April 2016: Animal Behaviour
Rongchang Yang, Belinda Brice, Aileen Elloit, Una Ryan
An Eimeria species is described from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) were subspherical, with a smooth bi-layered oocyst wall (1.0 μm thick). Oocysts measured 20.2 × 16.1 (22.0-18.9 × 15.7-18.9) μm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.38. Oocyst residuum and a polar granule were present. The micropyle was absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 13.0 × 6.1 (14.5-12.5 × 5.5-7.0) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 2.13 (2.0-2.2), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass...
July 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Mark A Whiteside, Rufus Sage, Joah R Madden
Subtle variations in early rearing environment influence morphological, cognitive and behavioural processes that together impact on adult fitness. We manipulated habitat complexity experienced by young pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in their first seven weeks, adding a third accessible dimension by placing elevated perches in their rearing pens mimicking natural variation in habitat complexity. This simple manipulation provoked an interrelated suite of morphological, cognitive and behavioural changes, culminating in decreased wild mortality of birds from complex habitats compared with controls...
March 2016: Royal Society Open Science
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