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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525340/detection-of-bordetella-avium-by-taqman-real-time-pcr-in-tracheal-swabs-from-wildlife-birds
#1
T Stenzel, D Pestka, B Tykałowski, M Śmiałek, A Koncicki, A Bancerz-Kisiel
Bordetella avium, the causing agent of bordetellosis, a highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract in young poultry, causes significant losses in poultry farming throughout the world. Wildlife birds can be a reservoir of various pathogens that infect farm animals. For this reason the studies were conducted to estimate the prevalence of Bordetella avium in wildlife birds in Poland. Tracheal swab samples were collected from 650 birds representing 27 species. The bacterial DNA was isolated directly from the swabs and screened for Bordetella avium by TaqMan real-time PCR...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508987/transmission-of-h6n2-wild-bird-origin-influenza-a-virus-among-multiple-bird-species-in-a-stacked-cage-setting
#2
J Jeffrey Root, Susan A Shriner, Jeremy W Ellis, Kaci K VanDalen, Alan B Franklin
Live bird markets are common in certain regions of the U.S. and in other regions of the world. We experimentally tested the ability of a wild bird influenza A virus to transmit from index animals to naïve animals at varying animal densities in stacked cages in a simulated live bird market. Two and six mallards, five and twelve quail, and six and nine pheasants were used in the low-density and high-density stacks of cages, respectively. Transmission did not occur in the high-density stack of cages likely due to the short duration and relatively low levels of shedding, a dominance of oral shedding, and the lack of transmission to other mallards in the index cage...
May 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504058/south-korean-anthropometric-data-and-survey-methodology-size-korea
#3
Jung Yong Kim, Jae Woo You, Mi Sook Kim
Considering the many emerging markets in East Asia, access to contemporary anthropometric data for this region is important for designers and manufacturers seeking to produce the best fitting products and living environments for consumers. The purpose of this paper is to describe Korean anthropometric data collection and survey techniques for those who are interested in ethnic characteristics, conducting surveys, and formulating ergonomic product designs for South Korean and, more broadly, East Asian populations...
May 15, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487259/the-role-of-niche-divergence-and-geographic-arrangement-in-the-speciation-of-eared-pheasants-crossoptilon-hodgson-1938
#4
Pengcheng Wang, Yang Liu, Yinong Liu, Yajing Chang, Nan Wang, Zhengwang Zhang
One of the most contentious theories in current ecology is the ecological niche conservatism, which is defined as conservatism among closely related species; however, the ecological niche can also be shifted, as documented in several cases. Genetic drift and ecological divergent selection may cause ecological niche divergence. The current study aims to test whether the ecological niche is conserved or divergent and to determine the main factor that drives ecological niche divergence or conservation. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationship, ecological niche model (ENM) and demographic history of Eared Pheasants in the genus Crossoptilon (Galliformes: Phasianidae) to test niche conservatism with respect to different geographically distributed patterns...
May 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469029/how-do-seemingly-non-vagile-clades-accomplish-trans-marine-dispersal-trait-and-dispersal-evolution-in-the-landfowl-aves-galliformes
#5
Peter A Hosner, Joseph A Tobias, Edward L Braun, Rebecca T Kimball
Dispersal ability is a key factor in determining insular distributions and island community composition, yet non-vagile terrestrial organisms widely occur on oceanic islands. The landfowl (pheasants, partridges, grouse, turkeys, quails and relatives) are generally poor dispersers, but the Old World quail (Coturnix) are a notable exception. These birds evolved small body sizes and high-aspect-ratio wing shapes, and hence are capable of trans-continental migrations and trans-oceanic colonization. Two monotypic partridge genera, Margaroperdix of Madagascar and Anurophasis of alpine New Guinea, may represent additional examples of trans-marine dispersal in landfowl, but their body size and wing shape are typical of poorly dispersive continental species...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467174/nodular-typhlocolitis-heterakiasis-and-mesenchymal-neoplasia-in-a-ring-necked-pheasant-phasianus-colchicus-with-immunohistochemical-characterization-of-visceral-metastases
#6
Lauren Himmel, Rachel Cianciolo
A 9-y-old, male ring-necked pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus) was autopsied following euthanasia because of acute distress, recumbency, and dyspnea. The bird had experienced a protracted period of neuromuscular disease localized to the left sciatic nerve. Gross and histologic examination of the large intestine revealed intramural nodules predominantly comprised of atypical, whorling spindle cells with small cores of granulomatous inflammation centered on cross-sections of immature adult nematodes. The body structures of these metazoan organisms and clinical disease manifestation are consistent with Heterakis isolonche infection...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428846/long-term-and-widespread-changes-in-agricultural-practices-influence-ring-necked-pheasant-abundance-in-california
#7
Peter S Coates, Brianne E Brussee, Kristy B Howe, Joseph P Fleskes, Ian A Dwight, Daniel P Connelly, Matt G Meshriy, Scott C Gardner
Declines in bird populations in agricultural regions of North America and Europe have been attributed to agricultural industrialization, increases in use of agrochemical application, and increased predation related to habitat modification. Based on count data compiled from Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) from 1974 to 2012, Christmas Bird Count (CBC) collected from 1914 to 2013, and hunter data from Annual Game Take Survey (AGTS) for years 1948-2010, ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in California have experienced substantial declines in agricultural environments...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378988/serological-evidence-of-exposure-to-zoonotic-tick-borne-bacteria-in-pheasants-phasianus-colchicus
#8
Valentina Virginia Ebani, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Paolo Mani
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on tick-borne pathogens in the avian population have focused mainly on the detection of the agents in ticks collected from birds, but data about the presence of tick-borne bacteria in these animals are scant. The aim of the presented study was to verify the exposure to some zoonotic tick-borne bacteria, in particular, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, and the Rickettsia species of the Spotted Fever Group (SFG), in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) living in a central Italy area, characterized by conditions favourable for the diffusion of the ticks...
March 22, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376425/effects-of-attitudes-and-demography-on-public-support-for-endangered-species-conservation
#9
Vasilios Liordos, Vasileios J Kontsiotis, Magdalini Anastasiadou, Efstathios Karavasias
It is critical for managers to understand how attitudes and demography affect public's preferences for species protection for designing successful conservation projects. 1080 adults in Greece were asked to rate pictures of 12 endangered species on aesthetic and negativistic attitudes, and intention to support their conservation. Factor analysis identified a group of animals for which respondents indicated high levels of support for their conservation (red deer, loggerhead sea turtle, brown bear, common pheasant, European ground squirrel, glossy ibis) and a group of animals for which respondents indicated low levels of support (black vulture, great white shark, fire-bellied toad, western barbastelle, Cretan tube web spider, Milos viper)...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363041/decline-of-game-birds-phasianus-colchicus-and-perdix-perdix-in-bavaria-a-survey-on-pathogenic-bacteria-parasites-pesticide-residues-and-influence-of-set-aside-land-and-maize-cultivation
#10
Anna Schmitz, Franz Kronthaler, Katrin Stein, Monika Rinder, Rüdiger Korbel
Due to a Europe-wide decline of grey partridge ( Perdix perdix ) and pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus ) populations, this study was conducted focusing on the county of Bavaria, south Germany. The aim was to assess the health status of game birds and identify possible causes of decline. For this purpose 203 pheasants and 11 partridges were examined during the 2011 hunting season. Pathologic examinations were conducted including examinations for parasites and bacteria. Due to public health significance, a screening for Salmonella sp...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342109/sensitivity-to-enterocins-of-biogenic-amine-producing-faecal-enterococci-from-ostriches-and-pheasants
#11
Andrea Lauková, Anna Kandričáková, Leona Buňková, Pavel Pleva, Jana Ščerbová
Enterococci are widespread bacteria forming the third largest genus among lactic acid bacteria. Some possess probiotic properties or they can produce beneficial proteinaceous antimicrobial substances called enterocins. On the other hand, some enterococci produce biogenic amines (BAs), so this study is focused on the sensitivity to enterocins of biogenic amine-producing faecal enterococci from ostriches and pheasants. Altogether, 60 enterococci isolated from faeces of ostriches and pheasants were tested for production of BAs...
March 24, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286102/historical-gene-flow-and-profound-spatial-genetic-structure-among-golden-pheasant-populations-suggested-by-multi-locus-analysis
#12
Ke He, Hong-Yi Liu, Yun-Fa Ge, Shao-Ying Wu, Qiu-Hong Wan
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a good marker system for geographical genetics since they are functional genes in the immune system that are likely to affect the fitness of the individual, and the survival and evolutionary potential of a population in a changing environment. Golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) is a wild Phasianidae distributed in central and north China. In this study, we used a locus-specific genotyping technique for MHC IIB genes of golden pheasant. Combining with microsatellites (simple sequence repeat, SSR) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region, we investigated the demographic history and illuminate genetic structure of this bird in detail...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271815/wild-game-consumption-habits-among-italian-shooters-relevance-for-intakes-of-cadmium-perfluorooctanesulphonic-acid-and-137-cesium-as-priority-contaminants
#13
Mauro Ferri, Loredana Baldi, Stefania Cavallo, Roberta Pellicanò, Gianfranco Brambilla
The consumption habits of 766 Italian shooters (96% males, 4% females), on average 52 years old, have been investigated, in Italy, through the distribution of questionnaires delivered during shooters' attendance to training and teaching courses, in compliance with 853/2004/EC Regulation provisions on food hygiene. The most consumed wild species recorded were pheasant > woodcock > choke among feathered animals, and wild boar > hare > roe deer among mammals, respectively. An average of 100-200 g game per serving (four servings per month) was consumed, with highest intakes of 3000 g per month; meat, liver, and heart were the preferred food items...
March 8, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271670/nest-survival-rate-of-reeves-s-pheasant-syrmaticus-reevesii-based-on-artificial-nest-experiments
#14
Xu Luo, Yu-Ze Zhao, Jing Ma, Jian-Qiang Li, Ji-Liang Xu
To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant(Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve(DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites by ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Program MARK for data analysis...
January 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195150/molecular-dietary-analysis-of-two-sympatric-felids-in-the-mountains-of-southwest-china-biodiversity-hotspot-and-conservation-implications
#15
Mengyin Xiong, Dajun Wang, Hongliang Bu, Xinning Shao, Dan Zhang, Sheng Li, Rongjiang Wang, Meng Yao
Dietary information is lacking in most of small to mid-sized carnivores due to their elusive predatory behaviour and versatile feeding habits. The leopard cat (LPC; Prionailurus bengalensis) and the Asiatic golden cat (AGC; Catopuma temminckii) are two important yet increasingly endangered carnivore species in the temperate mountain forest ecosystem in Southwest China, a global biodiversity hotspot and a significant reservoir of China's endemic species. We investigated the vertebrate prey of the two sympatric felids using faecal DNA and a next-generation sequencing (NGS)/metabarcoding approach...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192047/wild-birds-a-source-of-reticuloendotheliosis-virus-infection-for-the-endangered-attwater-s-prairie-chicken-tympanuchus-cupido-attwateri
#16
Pamela J Ferro, Michael E Morrow, Joseph P Flanagan, Brent Ortego, Rebecca E Chester, James M Mueller, Blanca Lupiani
Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infects a wide range of avian species. Since 1998, when it was first reported in a captive flock of the endangered Attwater's Prairie-chicken ( Tympanuchus cupido attwateri; APC), REV has plagued APC recovery efforts. While REV frequently occurs in captive bird flocks throughout the world, including commercial poultry, the reservoir for initial infection of flocks is poorly understood. From 2008-2016, 412 blood samples and 216 liver samples collected from 32 species of birds on or near Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge in Colorado County, Texas, US, and 89 blood samples obtained from a Texas game farm that provides thousands of Northern Bobwhites ( Colinus virginianus ) and Ring-necked Pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) for hunting throughout Texas, were tested for REV by real-time PCR...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088402/historical-relationships-of-three-enigmatic-phasianid-genera-aves-galliformes-inferred-using-phylogenomic-and-mitogenomic-data
#17
Ning Wang, Peter A Hosner, Bin Liang, Edward L Braun, Rebecca T Kimball
The phylogeny of the Phasianidae (pheasants, partridges, and allies) has been studied extensively. However, these studies have largely ignored three enigmatic genera because of scarce DNA source material and limited overlapping phylogenetic data: blood pheasants (Ithaginis), snow partridges (Lerwa), and long-billed partridges (Rhizothera). Thus, phylogenetic positions of these three genera remain uncertain in what is otherwise a well-resolved phylogeny. Previous studies using different data types place Lerwa and Ithaginis in similar positions, but the absence of overlapping data means the relationship between them could not be inferred...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904800/cervical-contribution-to-functional-shoulder-impingement-two-case-reports
#18
Steven Pheasant
BACKGROUND: Subacromial impingement is a common condition among overhead athletes. The cause of subacromial impingement can be multifactorial and often involves impaired rotator cuff function. CASE DESCRIPTION: The following cases outline the presentation, examination and intervention of two overhead athletes, a high school football quarterback and a collegiate swimmer, each presenting with signs and symptoms of subacromial impingement. The unique feature in each case was the manifestation of the cervical spine as the apparent source of rotator cuff weakness, which contributed to functional subacromial impingement although other overt signs of cervical or associated nerve root involvement were absent...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862403/egg-production-performance-egg-yolk-antioxidant-profile-and-excreta-concentration-of-corticosterone-in-golden-pheasants-chrysolophus-pictus-fed-diets-containing-different-levels-of-green-vegetables
#19
S S Kullu, A Das, S K Bajpai, A K Garg, R K Yogi, M Saini, A K Sharma
In order to study the effect of feeding graded levels of green vegetables on egg production performance and egg yolk antioxidant status, 27 female golden pheasants (GP) were randomly distributed into three groups of nine each in an experiment based on completely randomized design. The diets of the birds in groups T1 , T2 and T3 contained 1.4%, 2.7% and 5.0% of green vegetables respectively. Feeding of experimental diets started on 12th February (day 1) and was continued till 30 June 2012. Average number of eggs laid and egg mass produced by the hens in group T3 was higher (p < 0...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781161/determining-the-distribution-loss-of-brown-eared-pheasant-crossoptilon-mantchuricum-using-historical-data-and-potential-distribution-estimates
#20
Yilin Li, Xinhai Li, Zitan Song, Changqing Ding
We analyzed the synchronous relationship between forest cover and species distribution to explain the contraction in the distribution range of the brown eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in China. Historical resources can provide effective records for reconstructing long-term distribution dynamics. The brown eared-pheasant's historical distribution from 25 to 1947 CE, which included the three provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei based on this species' habitat selection criteria, the history of the forests, ancient climate change records, and fossil data...
2016: PeerJ
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