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Cristina Cano-Gómez, Francisco Llorente, Elisa Pérez-Ramírez, Ramón C Soriguer, Mathieu Sarasa, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero
Bagaza virus (BAGV; synonymous to Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, ITV) is a relevant arthropod-borne epornitic flavivirus. In its first emergence in Europe (southern Spain, 2010) BAGV caused an outbreak, severely affecting red-legged partridges and common pheasants. The effects (pathogenicity, role as reservoir host) of BAGV in other European phasianids are unknown. To fill this gap, grey partridges were experimentally infected with BAGV. The clinical course of the disease was severe, with neurological signs, significant weight loss and 40% mortality...
May 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
Chien-Yueh Lee, Ping-Han Hsieh, Li-Mei Chiang, Amrita Chattopadhyay, Kuan-Yi Li, Yi-Fang Lee, Tzu-Pin Lu, Liang-Chuan Lai, En-Chung Lin, Hsinyu Lee, Shih-Torng Ding, Mong-Hsun Tsai, Chien-Yu Chen, Eric Y Chuang
Background: The Mikado pheasant (Syrmaticus mikado) is a nearly endangered species indigenous to high-altitude regions of Taiwan. This pheasant provides an opportunity to investigate evolutionary processes following geographic isolation. Currently, the genetic background and adaptive evolution of the Mikado pheasant remain unclear. Results: We present the draft genome of the Mikado pheasant, which consists of 1.04 Gb of DNA and 15,972 annotated protein-coding genes...
May 1, 2018: GigaScience
Alessandro Seguino, Cosmin Chintoan-Uta, Sionagh H Smith, Darren J Shaw
Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. Chicken meat is considered the main source of human infection; however, C. jejuni and C. coli have also been reported in a range of livestock and wildlife species, including pheasants. Wild pheasant meat reaches the consumer's table because of hunting but there is a lack of information concerning the risk of Campylobacter infection in humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in wild game pheasants in Scotland, to identify the main sequence types (STs) present and to evaluate their impact on public health...
September 2018: Food Microbiology
Xue Lian, Xin Ming, Jiarong Xu, Wangkun Cheng, Xunhai Zhang, Hongjun Chen, Chan Ding, Yong-Sam Jung, Yingjuan Qian
BACKGROUND: Marek's disease virus (MDV) resides in the genus Mardivirus in the family Herpesviridae. MDV is a highly contagious virus that can cause neurological lesions, lymphocytic proliferation, immune suppression, and death in avian species, including Galliformes (chickens, quails, partridges, and pheasants), Strigiformes (owls), Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans), and Falconiformes (kestrels). CASE PRESENTATION: In 2015, two red-crowned cranes died in Nanjing (Jiangsu, China)...
April 3, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Maria Júlia Rodrigues da Cunha, Márcia Cristina Cury, Monica Santín
Cryptosporidiosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Cryptosporidium. Infections in birds are mainly caused by C. meleagridis, C. baileyi, and C. galli. C. meleagridis is the third most common cause of cryptosporidiosis in humans and the only Cryptosporidium species known to infect both birds and mammals. One hundred and fifty-five fecal specimens from different poultry species (chicken, turkey, ostrich, helmeted guinea fowl, quail, pheasant, and emu) were collected at local markets in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil...
March 21, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Jayden O van Horik, Ellis J G Langley, Mark A Whiteside, Philippa R Laker, Christine E Beardsworth, Joah R Madden
Transparent Cylinder and Barrier tasks are used to purportedly assess inhibitory control in a variety of animals. However, we suspect that performances on these detour tasks are influenced by non-cognitive traits, which may result in inaccurate assays of inhibitory control. We therefore reared pheasants under standardized conditions and presented each bird with two sets of similar tasks commonly used to measure inhibitory control. We recorded the number of times subjects incorrectly attempted to access a reward through transparent barriers, and their latencies to solve each task...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
C W C Gomes, G Funkler, I Andretta, M O Gonçalves, H F Santos, C E F Cruz
The breeding of wild birds in captivity assumes an increasingly important role in conservation due to the loss of species and their habitats. Providing the environmental and nutritional needs of species kept in captivity is the key for achieving success in such initiatives. Among the flock health practices, we highlight here wild bird vaccination, a scarcely studied subject. This study clinically and serologically evaluates the effect of applying a vaccination protocol against Newcastle disease in three groups of ornamental wild birds...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ellis J G Langley, Jayden O van Horik, Mark A Whiteside, Joah R Madden
Dominant individuals differ from subordinates in their performances on cognitive tasks across a suite of taxa. Previous studies often only consider dyadic relationships, rather than the more ecologically relevant social hierarchies or networks, hence failing to account for how dyadic relationships may be adjusted within larger social groups. We used a novel statistical method: randomized Elo-ratings, to infer the social hierarchy of 18 male pheasants, Phasianus colchicus , while in a captive, mixed-sex group with a linear hierarchy...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Steven Pheasant, Richard Haydt, Thomas Gottstein, Anthony Grasso, Nicholas Lombard, Brandon Stone
Background: The forward head rounded shoulder (FHRS) sitting posture has been associated with decreased shoulder complex muscle strength and function. Upon clinical observation, the adverse effects of the FHRS sitting posture on shoulder complex isometric muscle strength is also present when testing controls for scapular position. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of various sitting postures on shoulder external rotator muscle isometric strength when the strength testing controls for scapular position...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Euon Jung Tak, Hyun Sik Kim, June-Young Lee, Woorim Kang, Hojun Sung, Pil Soo Kim, Dong-Wook Hyun, Na-Ri Shin, Jeong Rae Roh, Sun Duk Park, Hyung Eun Shim, Jin-Woo Bae
A rod-shaped, Gram-stain-positive, motile and aerobic bacterium, designated LM2416T , was isolated from faeces of Lophuras winhoii living in Seoul Grand Park, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain LM2416T belonged to the genus Virgibacillus, sharing high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Virgibacillus necropolis LMG 19488T (99.0 %), Virgibacillus carmonensis LMG 20964T (98.4 %), Virgibacillus arcticus Hal 1T (98.3 %) and Virgibacillus flavescens S1-20T (97...
April 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
D Zapletal, M Macháček, P Suchý, E Straková, F Vitula
1. The aim of this study was to investigate if male-to-female aggression of common pheasants in the course of the breeding season was related to the concentration of plasma testosterone and/or other biochemical plasma indicators in male pheasants housed in breeding cages. The influence of season on the concentration of testosterone and biochemical indicators was also investigated. 2. Males were divided into non-aggressive and aggressive groups during the breeding season based on ethological evaluation. At the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the breeding season, a blood sample was taken from all males on the same day and the concentration of selected biochemical indicators and the total circulating testosterone in the plasma were determined...
March 6, 2018: British Poultry Science
Ian A Dwight, Peter S Coates, Simone T Stoute, C Gabriel Senties-Cue, Radhika V Gharpure, Maurice E Pitesky
We investigated exposure to infectious diseases in wild ( n=33) and pen-reared ( n=12) Ring-necked Pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus) in the Central Valley of California during 2014 and 2015. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against hemorrhagic enteritis (HE), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in both wild and pen-reared pheasants.
December 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Lyndsie S Wszola, Victoria L Simonsen, Erica F Stuber, Caitlyn R Gillespie, Lindsey N Messinger, Karie L Decker, Jeffrey J Lusk, Christopher F Jorgensen, Andrew A Bishop, Joseph J Fontaine
Understanding species-habitat relationships is vital to successful conservation, but the tools used to communicate species-habitat relationships are often poorly suited to the information needs of conservation practitioners. Here we present a novel method for translating a statistical species-habitat model, a regression analysis relating ring-necked pheasant abundance to landcover, into an interactive online tool. The Pheasant Habitat Simulator combines the analytical power of the R programming environment with the user-friendly Shiny web interface to create an online platform in which wildlife professionals can explore the effects of variation in local landcover on relative pheasant habitat suitability within spatial scales relevant to individual wildlife managers...
2017: PloS One
Ming-Xia Zhang, Myint Kyaw, Guo-Gang Li, Jiang-Bo Zhao, Xiang-Le Zeng, Kyaw Swa, Rui-Chang Quan
We conducted four bird biodiversity surveys in the Putao area of northern Myanmar from 2015 to 2017. Combined with anecdotal information collected between 2012 and 2015, we recorded 319 bird species, including two species ( Arborophila mandellii and Lanius sphenocercus ) previously unrecorded in Myanmar. Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae), babblers (Timaliidae), pigeons and doves (Columbidae), and pheasants and partridges (Phasianidae) were the most abundant groups of birds recorded. Species richness below 1 500 m a. s...
September 18, 2017: Zoological Research
A A Prince Milton, R K Agarwal, G B Priya, M Saminathan, M Aravind, A Reddy, C K Athira, Anjay, T P Ramees, K Dhama, A K Sharma, A Kumar
Campylobacteriosis is an important zoonotic disease and the prevalence of Campylobacter is largely unknown in the wildlife of India. A total of 370 samples, comprising of 314 fresh faecal samples from apparently healthy captive wild animals and birds, 30 stool swabs from animal care takers and 26 samples of the animals' food and water were collected from G. B. Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital, Kanpur Zoo, Wildlife Park, IVRI and the Post Graduate Research Institute in Animal Sciences (PGRIAS), Chennai, Tamilnadu from August 2014 to May 2015...
2017: Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research
Joah R Madden, Sarah E Perkins
Pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) are commonly killed on UK roads, presenting a threat to motorists and a loss to the game shooting industry. Pheasants may be inherently susceptible, or the recent increase in their artificial rearing and release may have exacerbated the situation, either through population increases or because artificial rearing has altered movement behaviour. We compared intra-annual patterns of roadkill reported in the UK from the 1960s (prior to the onset of mass release programmes) with that from the 2010s (when pheasant release was well established and widespread), considering roadkill sex and locations and accounting for changes in traffic levels...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Christina Meier, Sara Raj Pant, Jayden O van Horik, Philippa R Laker, Ellis J G Langley, Mark A Whiteside, Frederick Verbruggen, Joah R Madden
Inhibitory control enables subjects to quickly react to unexpectedly changing external demands. We assessed the ability of young (8 weeks old) pheasants Phasianus colchicus to exert inhibitory control in a novel response-inhibition task that required subjects to adjust their movement in space in pursuit of a reward across changing target locations. The difference in latencies between trials in which the target location did and did not change, the distance travelled towards the initially indicated location after a change occurred, and the change-signal reaction time provided a consistent measure that could be indicative of a pheasant's inhibitory control...
November 2017: Animal Cognition
Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, Charles Balzli, David L Suarez, David E Swayne
In 2014 and 2015, the United States experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. Initial cases affected mainly wild birds and mixed backyard poultry species, while later outbreaks affected mostly commercial chickens and turkeys. The pathogenesis, transmission, and intrahost evolutionary dynamics of initial Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade HPAI viruses in the United States were investigated in minor gallinaceous poultry species (i...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Mark A Whiteside, Jayden O van Horik, Ellis J G Langley, Christine E Beardsworth, Philippa R Laker, Joah R Madden
ABSTRACT: Hypotheses for why animals sexually segregate typically rely on adult traits, such as differences in sexual roles causing differential habitat preferences, or size dimorphism inducing differences in diet or behaviour. However, segregation can occur in juveniles before such roles or size dimorphism is well established. In young humans, leading hypotheses suggest that (1) sexes differ in their activity and the synchronisation of behaviour causes segregation and (2) sexes separate in order to learn and maximise future reproductive roles...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
R S Dzikamunhenga, R W Griffith, S Hostetter, P Fisher, W Larson
Chinese ring-necked pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) are commonly farmed in intensive operations for purposes such as meat production, hunting preserves, or research. Under these conditions, pheasants frequently suffer medical ailments such as bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections or nutritional or metabolic disorders. Relatively little scientific information exists regarding clinical pathology reference intervals (RIs) for farm-reared pheasants. The objective of this study was to determine RIs for hematologic and serum biochemical variables for Chinese ring-necked pheasants from Minnesota at 6 wk of age...
June 2017: Avian Diseases
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