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Mengyin Xiong, Dajun Wang, Hongliang Bu, Xinning Shao, Dan Zhang, Sheng Li, Rongjiang Wang, Meng Yao
Dietary information is lacking in most of small to mid-sized carnivores due to their elusive predatory behaviour and versatile feeding habits. The leopard cat (LPC; Prionailurus bengalensis) and the Asiatic golden cat (AGC; Catopuma temminckii) are two important yet increasingly endangered carnivore species in the temperate mountain forest ecosystem in Southwest China, a global biodiversity hotspot and a significant reservoir of China's endemic species. We investigated the vertebrate prey of the two sympatric felids using faecal DNA and a next-generation sequencing (NGS)/metabarcoding approach...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pamela J Ferro, Michael E Morrow, Joseph P Flanagan, Brent Ortego, Rebecca E Chester, James M Mueller, Blanca Lupiani
Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infects a wide range of avian species. Since 1998, when it was first reported in a captive flock of the endangered Attwater's Prairie-chicken ( Tympanuchus cupido attwateri; APC), REV has plagued APC recovery efforts. While REV frequently occurs in captive bird flocks throughout the world, including commercial poultry, the reservoir for initial infection of flocks is poorly understood. From 2008-2016, 412 blood samples and 216 liver samples collected from 32 species of birds on or near Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge in Colorado County, Texas, US, and 89 blood samples obtained from a Texas game farm that provides thousands of Northern Bobwhites ( Colinus virginianus ) and Ring-necked Pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) for hunting throughout Texas, were tested for REV by real-time PCR...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Ning Wang, Peter A Hosner, Bin Liang, Edward L Braun, Rebecca T Kimball
The phylogeny of the Phasianidae (pheasants, partridges, and allies) has been studied extensively. However, these studies have largely ignored three enigmatic genera because of scarce DNA source material and limited overlapping phylogenetic data: blood pheasants (Ithaginis), snow partridges (Lerwa), and long-billed partridges (Rhizothera). Thus, phylogenetic positions of these three genera remain uncertain in what is otherwise a well-resolved phylogeny. Previous studies using different data types place Lerwa and Ithaginis in similar positions, but the absence of overlapping data means the relationship between them could not be inferred...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Steven Pheasant
BACKGROUND: Subacromial impingement is a common condition among overhead athletes. The cause of subacromial impingement can be multifactorial and often involves impaired rotator cuff function. CASE DESCRIPTION: The following cases outline the presentation, examination and intervention of two overhead athletes, a high school football quarterback and a collegiate swimmer, each presenting with signs and symptoms of subacromial impingement. The unique feature in each case was the manifestation of the cervical spine as the apparent source of rotator cuff weakness, which contributed to functional subacromial impingement although other overt signs of cervical or associated nerve root involvement were absent...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
S S Kullu, A Das, S K Bajpai, A K Garg, R K Yogi, M Saini, A K Sharma
In order to study the effect of feeding graded levels of green vegetables on egg production performance and egg yolk antioxidant status, 27 female golden pheasants (GP) were randomly distributed into three groups of nine each in an experiment based on completely randomized design. The diets of the birds in groups T1 , T2 and T3 contained 1.4%, 2.7% and 5.0% of green vegetables respectively. Feeding of experimental diets started on 12th February (day 1) and was continued till 30 June 2012. Average number of eggs laid and egg mass produced by the hens in group T3 was higher (p < 0...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Yilin Li, Xinhai Li, Zitan Song, Changqing Ding
We analyzed the synchronous relationship between forest cover and species distribution to explain the contraction in the distribution range of the brown eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in China. Historical resources can provide effective records for reconstructing long-term distribution dynamics. The brown eared-pheasant's historical distribution from 25 to 1947 CE, which included the three provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei based on this species' habitat selection criteria, the history of the forests, ancient climate change records, and fossil data...
2016: PeerJ
C A Torres, V Listorti, C Lupini, G Franzo, M Drigo, E Catelli, P E Brandão, M Cecchinato
In view of the restricted knowledge on the diversity of coronaviruses in poultry other than chicken, this study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of coronaviruses in quail, pheasant, and partridge from two regions of Northern Italy. To this end, pools of tracheal and cloacal swabs from European quail (Coturnix Coturnix) and intestinal tract from pheasants (Phasianus Colchicus) and partridge (Perdix Perdix) flocks, with or without enteric signs, were collected during 2015. Avian coronavirus (Gammacoronavirus) was detected in quail not vaccinated against Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) and in pheasants vaccinated with an IBV Massachusetts serotype...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
D K Ajithdoss, M K Torchetti, L Badcoe, D S Bradway, T V Baszler
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major viral disease of poultry characterized by acute onset, systemic infection, and rapid death. In January 2015, H5N2 HPAI was identified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and gene sequencing as the cause of rapid death in 40 of 390 ring-necked pheasants (approximately 10% mortality), raised in a game bird farm in Washington State. We report clinicopathologic findings and viral antigen distribution in pheasants that died during the outbreak...
March 2017: Veterinary Pathology
O J Gethings, R B Sage, E R Morgan, S R Leather
The role that parasites play in regulating animal populations is debated, however recent research hints at their pervasiveness among free-living animal populations. Parasites exert both direct and indirect effects on host populations, and can act to regulate populations. The Ring-necked pheasant is an important game-bird species in the UK, and large numbers of birds are released annually. The impact of the ubiquitous tracheal nematode, Syngamus trachea on pheasant populations through effects on host condition was assessed on two pheasant estates in the south west of England...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Singray Saleb Kullu, Asit Das, Mohini Saini, Anil Kumar Garg, Ravindra Kumar Yogi, Shyamal Kumar Soren, Anil Kumar Sharma
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of green forages on feed consumption, nutrient and mineral utilization in Golden pheasants (GP). Twenty-seven female GP (BW 617-635 g) were randomly distributed into three groups of nine birds each in an experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD). Birds in group T1 were fed a conventional zoo diet containing 1.4% green forages; however, the diets of the birds in groups T2 and T3 contained 2.7% and 5.0% of green forages, respectively...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
Kehinde O Okonjo
The Bohr effect data for bar-headed goose, greylag goose and pheasant hemoglobins can be fitted with the Wyman equation for the Bohr effect, but under one proviso: that the pKa of His146β does not change following the T→R quaternary transition. This assumption is based on the x-ray structure of bar-headed goose hemoglobin, which shows that the salt-bridge formed between His146β and Asp94β in human deoxyhemoglobin is not formed in goose deoxyhemoglobin. When the Bohr data for chicken hemoglobin were fitted by making the same assumption, the pKa of the NH3(+) terminal group of Val1α decreased from 7...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Katrin Ronnenberg, Egbert Strauß, Ursula Siebert
BACKGROUND: The grey partridge (Perdix perdix) and the common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) are galliform birds typical of arable lands in Central Europe and exhibit a partly dramatic negative population trend. In order to understand general habitat preferences we modelled grey partridge and common pheasant densities over the entire range of Lower Saxony. Spatially explicit developments in bird densities were modelled using spatially explicit trends of crop cultivation. Pheasant and grey partridge densities counted annually by over 8000 hunting district holders over 10 years in a range of 3...
2016: BMC Ecology
(no author information available yet)
Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in aborting cows on rough grazingLead poisoning in bullocksPersistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection and colisepticaemia in a 20-hour-old calfAbortion due to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a four-year-old cowTickborne fever in lambsInfectious sinusitis due to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for May 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).
August 20, 2016: Veterinary Record
Khola Khan, Aoife Harrington, Rupinder Pannu, Sian Bentley, Sukeshi Makhecha, Nimla Pentayya, Clare Pheasant
INTRODUCTION: Children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) have complex medication regimens, where responsibility for administration usually lies with the parent/carer until the child is older and able to take over this role.1 On admission to hospital this role is usually undertaken by nurses, leaving patients/parents/carers feeling disempowered, and unprepared for discharge. AIMS: All CF admissions to be offered the Self-Administration Of Medicines Scheme (SAM).▸ Empower patients/parents/carers with responsibility of administering their own medications▸ Reduce nursing time▸ Educate patients/parents/carers about their medications▸ Cost-saving by utilising Patients Own Medicines (PODs)...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Andrzej Kowalski
In a previous work (Górnicka-Michalska et al. (1998)), an occurrence of genetic variants in the chicken erythrocyte histone H5 has been presented. Here, the pheasant histone H5 heterogeneity is characterized to verify if the interspecies variability of this protein is caused by the analogous determinants. During screening histone H1 preparations isolated from the pheasant erythrocytes, histone H5 was identified as differently located in the electrophoretic gels. According to the rate of electrophoretic migration, two histone H5 phenotypes (H5a and H5b) possessing similar quantitative proportion (P>0...
September 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Keiko Tagami, Brenda J Howard, Shigeo Uchida
Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, monitoring of tissues from hunted game animals ensures compliance with the standard food limits for radionuclides in Japan. We quantified the transfer of (137)Cs from contaminated land to game animals using the Aggregated transfer factor (Tag = activity concentration in meat [Bq kg(-1) fw]/amount in soil [Bq m(-2)]) of (137)Cs for Asian black bear, wild boar, sika deer, green pheasant, copper pheasant and wild duck, collected between 2011 and 2015. Open data sources were used from Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma prefectures...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Frances Pheasant-Kelly
This article considers differences between the representation of mutation in science fiction films from the 1950s and the present, and identifies distinctive changes over this time period, both in relation to the narrative causes of genetic disruption and in the aesthetics of its visual display. Discerning an increasingly abject quality to science fiction mutations from the 1970s onwards-as a progressive tendency to view the physically opened body, one that has a seemingly fluid interior-exterior reversal, or one that is almost beyond recognition as humanoid-the article connects a propensity for disgust to the corresponding socio-cultural and political zeitgeist...
December 2016: Medical Humanities
Jayden O van Horik, Ellis J G Langley, Mark A Whiteside, Joah R Madden
Failure to participate in a cognitive test may result in sampling biases when measuring inter-individual variation in cognitive performances in both captive and wild populations. This would be problematic if particular classes of individuals consistently fail to participate, skewing data and making generalisations or comparisons difficult. We presented 144 pheasant chicks, raised under standardised conditions, with a battery of cognitive tests to investigate whether sex, body condition or personality traits, measured by differences in latencies to explore a novel object, novel environment or unknown conspecific, predicted individual variation in voluntary participation across 37 test sessions...
January 2017: Behavioural Processes
Andrew M Ramey, Mia Kim Torchetti, Rebecca L Poulson, Deborah Carter, Andrew B Reeves, Paul Link, Patrick Walther, Camille Lebarbenchon, David E Stallknecht
In August 2014, a low-pathogenic H7N3 influenza A virus was isolated from pheasants at a New Jersey gamebird farm and hunting preserve. In this study, we use phylogenetic analyses and calculations of genetic similarity to gain inference into the genetic ancestry of this virus and to identify potential routes of transmission. Results of maximum-likelihood (ML) and maximum-clade-credibility (MCC) phylogenetic analyses provide evidence that A/pheasant/New Jersey/26996-2/2014 (H7N3) had closely related H7 hemagglutinin (HA) and N3 neuraminidase (NA) gene segments as compared to influenza A viruses circulating among wild waterfowl in the central and eastern USA...
September 2016: Archives of Virology
Yanwei Shen, Menglian He, Ji Zhang, Manda Zhao, Guihua Wang, Ziqiang Cheng
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian retrovirus that can induce myelocytomas. A high-frequency mutation in gene envelope endows ALV-J with the potential for cross-species transmission. We wished to ascertain if the ALV-J can spread across species under selection pressure in susceptible and resistant hosts. First, we inoculated (in turn) two susceptible host birds (specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and turkeys). Then, we inoculated three resistant hosts (pheasants, quails and ducks) to detect the viral shedding, pathologic changes, and genetic evolution of different isolates...
January 2016: Bing du Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Virology
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