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C W C Gomes, G Funkler, I Andretta, M O Gonçalves, H F Santos, C E F Cruz
The breeding of wild birds in captivity assumes an increasingly important role in conservation due to the loss of species and their habitats. Providing the environmental and nutritional needs of species kept in captivity is the key for achieving success in such initiatives. Among the flock health practices, we highlight here wild bird vaccination, a scarcely studied subject. This study clinically and serologically evaluates the effect of applying a vaccination protocol against Newcastle disease in three groups of ornamental wild birds...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ellis J G Langley, Jayden O van Horik, Mark A Whiteside, Joah R Madden
Dominant individuals differ from subordinates in their performances on cognitive tasks across a suite of taxa. Previous studies often only consider dyadic relationships, rather than the more ecologically relevant social hierarchies or networks, hence failing to account for how dyadic relationships may be adjusted within larger social groups. We used a novel statistical method: randomized Elo-ratings, to infer the social hierarchy of 18 male pheasants, Phasianus colchicus , while in a captive, mixed-sex group with a linear hierarchy...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Steven Pheasant, Richard Haydt, Thomas Gottstein, Anthony Grasso, Nicholas Lombard, Brandon Stone
Background: The forward head rounded shoulder (FHRS) sitting posture has been associated with decreased shoulder complex muscle strength and function. Upon clinical observation, the adverse effects of the FHRS sitting posture on shoulder complex isometric muscle strength is also present when testing controls for scapular position. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of various sitting postures on shoulder external rotator muscle isometric strength when the strength testing controls for scapular position...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Euon Jung Tak, Hyun Sik Kim, June-Young Lee, Woorim Kang, Hojun Sung, Pil Soo Kim, Dong-Wook Hyun, Na-Ri Shin, Jeong Rae Roh, Sun Duk Park, Hyung Eun Shim, Jin-Woo Bae
A rod-shaped, Gram-stain-positive, motile and aerobic bacterium, designated LM2416T , was isolated from faeces of Lophuras winhoii living in Seoul Grand Park, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain LM2416T belonged to the genus Virgibacillus, sharing high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Virgibacillus necropolis LMG 19488T (99.0 %), Virgibacillus carmonensis LMG 20964T (98.4 %), Virgibacillus arcticus Hal 1T (98.3 %) and Virgibacillus flavescens S1-20T (97...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
D Zapletal, M Macháček, P Suchý, E Straková, F Vitula
1. The aim of this study was to investigate if male-to-female aggression of common pheasants in the course of the breeding season was related to the concentration of plasma testosterone and/or of other biochemical plasma indicators of male pheasants housed in breeding cages. The influence of season on the concentration of testosterone and biochemical indicators was also investigated. 2. Males were divided into a non-aggressive and an aggressive group during the breeding season based on ethological evaluation...
February 2, 2018: British Poultry Science
Ian A Dwight, Peter S Coates, Simone T Stoute, C Gabriel Senties-Cue, Radhika V Gharpure, Maurice E Pitesky
We investigated exposure to infectious diseases in wild ( n=33) and pen-reared ( n=12) Ring-necked Pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus) in the Central Valley of California during 2014 and 2015. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against hemorrhagic enteritis (HE), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in both wild and pen-reared pheasants.
December 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Lyndsie S Wszola, Victoria L Simonsen, Erica F Stuber, Caitlyn R Gillespie, Lindsey N Messinger, Karie L Decker, Jeffrey J Lusk, Christopher F Jorgensen, Andrew A Bishop, Joseph J Fontaine
Understanding species-habitat relationships is vital to successful conservation, but the tools used to communicate species-habitat relationships are often poorly suited to the information needs of conservation practitioners. Here we present a novel method for translating a statistical species-habitat model, a regression analysis relating ring-necked pheasant abundance to landcover, into an interactive online tool. The Pheasant Habitat Simulator combines the analytical power of the R programming environment with the user-friendly Shiny web interface to create an online platform in which wildlife professionals can explore the effects of variation in local landcover on relative pheasant habitat suitability within spatial scales relevant to individual wildlife managers...
2017: PloS One
Ming-Xia Zhang, Myint Kyaw, Guo-Gang Li, Jiang-Bo Zhao, Xiang-Le Zeng, Kyaw Swa, Rui-Chang Quan
We conducted four bird biodiversity surveys in the Putao area of northern Myanmar from 2015 to 2017. Combined with anecdotal information collected between 2012 and 2015, we recorded 319 bird species, including two species ( Arborophila mandellii and Lanius sphenocercus ) previously unrecorded in Myanmar. Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae), babblers (Timaliidae), pigeons and doves (Columbidae), and pheasants and partridges (Phasianidae) were the most abundant groups of birds recorded. Species richness below 1 500 m a. s...
September 18, 2017: Zoological Research
A A Prince Milton, R K Agarwal, G B Priya, M Saminathan, M Aravind, A Reddy, C K Athira, Anjay, T P Ramees, K Dhama, A K Sharma, A Kumar
Campylobacteriosis is an important zoonotic disease and the prevalence of Campylobacter is largely unknown in the wildlife of India. A total of 370 samples, comprising of 314 fresh faecal samples from apparently healthy captive wild animals and birds, 30 stool swabs from animal care takers and 26 samples of the animals' food and water were collected from G. B. Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital, Kanpur Zoo, Wildlife Park, IVRI and the Post Graduate Research Institute in Animal Sciences (PGRIAS), Chennai, Tamilnadu from August 2014 to May 2015...
2017: Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research
Joah R Madden, Sarah E Perkins
Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) are commonly killed on UK roads, presenting a threat to motorists and a loss to the game shooting industry. Pheasants may be inherently susceptible, or the recent increase in their artificial rearing and release may have exacerbated the situation, either through population increases or because artificial rearing has altered movement behaviour. We compared intra-annual patterns of roadkill reported in the UK from the 1960s (prior to the onset of mass release programmes) with that from the 2010s (when pheasant release was well established and widespread), considering roadkill sex and locations and accounting for changes in traffic levels...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Christina Meier, Sara Raj Pant, Jayden O van Horik, Philippa R Laker, Ellis J G Langley, Mark A Whiteside, Frederick Verbruggen, Joah R Madden
Inhibitory control enables subjects to quickly react to unexpectedly changing external demands. We assessed the ability of young (8 weeks old) pheasants Phasianus colchicus to exert inhibitory control in a novel response-inhibition task that required subjects to adjust their movement in space in pursuit of a reward across changing target locations. The difference in latencies between trials in which the target location did and did not change, the distance travelled towards the initially indicated location after a change occurred, and the change-signal reaction time provided a consistent measure that could be indicative of a pheasant's inhibitory control...
November 2017: Animal Cognition
Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, Charles Balzli, David L Suarez, David E Swayne
In 2014 and 2015, the United States experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. Initial cases affected mainly wild birds and mixed backyard poultry species, while later outbreaks affected mostly commercial chickens and turkeys. The pathogenesis, transmission, and intrahost evolutionary dynamics of initial Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade HPAI viruses in the United States were investigated in minor gallinaceous poultry species (i...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Mark A Whiteside, Jayden O van Horik, Ellis J G Langley, Christine E Beardsworth, Philippa R Laker, Joah R Madden
ABSTRACT: Hypotheses for why animals sexually segregate typically rely on adult traits, such as differences in sexual roles causing differential habitat preferences, or size dimorphism inducing differences in diet or behaviour. However, segregation can occur in juveniles before such roles or size dimorphism is well established. In young humans, leading hypotheses suggest that (1) sexes differ in their activity and the synchronisation of behaviour causes segregation and (2) sexes separate in order to learn and maximise future reproductive roles...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
R S Dzikamunhenga, R W Griffith, S Hostetter, P Fisher, W Larson
Chinese ring-necked pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) are commonly farmed in intensive operations for purposes such as meat production, hunting preserves, or research. Under these conditions, pheasants frequently suffer medical ailments such as bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections or nutritional or metabolic disorders. Relatively little scientific information exists regarding clinical pathology reference intervals (RIs) for farm-reared pheasants. The objective of this study was to determine RIs for hematologic and serum biochemical variables for Chinese ring-necked pheasants from Minnesota at 6 wk of age...
June 2017: Avian Diseases
Martín A Zordan, Michael M Garner, Rebecca Smedley, Dana Neelis, Carlos R Sánchez
A 15-year-old, female Vieilott's fireback pheasant (Lophura rufa) presented with a 2-day history of a drooping right wing. Examination revealed severe soft tissue swelling in the area extending from the right shoulder to the humeral-radio-ulnar joint with associated bruising and feather loss. Results of a complete blood cell count revealed marked heterophilia and lymphocytosis, and results of serum biochemical analysis showed severe increases in creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, hypoproteinemia, and hypoalbuminemia...
June 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Rafał Łopucki, Daniel Klich, Sylwia Gielarek
Most studies on the effects of wind energy on animals have focused on avian and bat activity, habitat use, and mortality, whereas very few have been published on terrestrial, non-volant wildlife. In this paper, we studied the utilization of functioning wind farm areas by four terrestrial animals common to agricultural landscapes: European roe deer, European hare, red fox, and the common pheasant. Firstly, we expected that the studied animals do not avoid areas close to turbines and utilize the whole area of functioning wind farms with a frequency similar to the control areas...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Xuehua Liu, Pengfeng Wu, Xiaoming Shao, Melissa Songer, Qiong Cai, Xiangbo He, Yun Zhu
Environmental heterogeneity contributes to various habitats and may influence the diversity and activity patterns of wildlife among habitats. We used camera traps to assess wildlife habitat use in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve from 2009 to 2012. We focused on four types of habitat including open areas with gentle slope (<15°) (Type1), low elevation areas (about 1500-1700 m) with high bamboo coverage (Type2), high elevation areas (about 2100-2300 m) with high canopy coverage (Type3), and wildlife migration passages (Type4)...
July 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
T Stenzel, D Pestka, B Tykałowski, M Śmiałek, A Koncicki, A Bancerz-Kisiel
Bordetella avium, the causing agent of bordetellosis, a highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract in young poultry, causes significant losses in poultry farming throughout the world. Wildlife birds can be a reservoir of various pathogens that infect farm animals. For this reason the studies were conducted to estimate the prevalence of Bordetella avium in wildlife birds in Poland. Tracheal swab samples were collected from 650 birds representing 27 species. The bacterial DNA was isolated directly from the swabs and screened for Bordetella avium by TaqMan real-time PCR...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
J Jeffrey Root, Susan A Shriner, Jeremy W Ellis, Kaci K VanDalen, Alan B Franklin
Live bird markets are common in certain regions of the U.S. and in other regions of the world. We experimentally tested the ability of a wild bird influenza A virus to transmit from index animals to naïve animals at varying animal densities in stacked cages in a simulated live bird market. Two and six mallards, five and twelve quail, and six and nine pheasants were used in the low-density and high-density stacks of cages, respectively. Transmission did not occur in the high-density stack of cages likely due to the short duration and relatively low levels of shedding, a dominance of oral shedding, and the lack of transmission to other mallards in the index cage...
September 2017: Archives of Virology
Jung Yong Kim, Jae Woo You, Mi Sook Kim
Considering the many emerging markets in East Asia, access to contemporary anthropometric data for this region is important for designers and manufacturers seeking to produce the best fitting products and living environments for consumers. The purpose of this paper is to describe Korean anthropometric data collection and survey techniques for those who are interested in ethnic characteristics, conducting surveys, and formulating ergonomic product designs for South Korean and, more broadly, East Asian populations...
November 2017: Ergonomics
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