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P Rebelo, A L Green, T Z Aziz, A Kent, D Schafer, L Venkatesan, B Cheeran
BACKGROUND: Directional Deep Brain Stimulation (D-DBS) allows axially asymmetric electrical field shaping, away from structures causing side-effects. However, concerns regarding the impact on device lifespan and complexity of the monopolar survey have contributed to sparing use of these features. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether chronically implanted D-DBS systems can improve the therapeutic window, without a negative impact on device lifespan, in thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
January 6, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Noah Kittner, Raj P Fadadu, Heather L Buckley, Megan R Schwarzman, Daniel M Kammen
More than 6600 coal-fired power plants serve an estimated five billion people globally and contribute 46% of annual CO2 emissions. Gases and particulate matter from coal combustion are harmful to humans and often contain toxic trace metals. The decades-old Kosovo power stations, Europe's largest point source of air pollution, generate 98% of Kosovo's electricity and are due for replacement. Kosovo will rely on investment from external donors to replace these plants. Here, we examine non-CO2 emissions and health impacts by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to analyze trace metal content in lignite coal from Obilic, Kosovo...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Moshe Giladi, Mijal Munster, Rosa S Schneiderman, Tali Voloshin, Yaara Porat, Roni Blat, Katarzyna Zielinska-Chomej, Petra Hååg, Ze'ev Bomzon, Eilon D Kirson, Uri Weinberg, Kristina Viktorsson, Rolf Lewensohn, Yoram Palti
BACKGROUND: Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) are an anti-neoplastic treatment modality delivered via application of alternating electric fields using insulated transducer arrays placed directly on the skin in the region surrounding the tumor. A Phase 3 clinical trial has demonstrated the effectiveness of continuous TTFields application in patients with glioblastoma during maintenance treatment with Temozolomide. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combining TTFields with radiation treatment (RT) in glioma cells...
December 29, 2017: Radiation Oncology
Wouter Poortinga, Nikki Jones, Simon Lannon, Huw Jenkins
BACKGROUND: While existing research indicates that housing improvements are associated with health improvements, less is known about the wider social and health benefits of meeting national housing standards, as well as those of their specific constituent measures. This study evaluates the impacts of a managed housing upgrade programme through a repeated cross-sectional survey design. METHODS: A five-wave repeated cross-sectional survey was conducted over a seven-year period from 2009 to 2016 (n = 2075; n = 2219; n = 2015; n = 1991; and n = 1709, respectively)...
December 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
Wu Li, Thomas S H Leong, Muthupandian Ashokkumar, Gregory J O Martin
Three essential experimental parameters in the ultrasonic emulsification process, namely sonication time, acoustic amplitude and processing volume, were individually investigated, theoretically and experimentally, and correlated to the emulsion droplet sizes produced. The results showed that with a decrease in droplet size, two kinetic regions can be separately correlated prior to reaching a steady state droplet size: a fast size reduction region and a steady state transition region. In the fast size reduction region, the power input and sonication time could be correlated to the volume-mean diameter by a power-law relationship, with separate power-law indices of -1...
December 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Violeta Rajeckaitė, Baltramiejus Jakštys, Arnas Rafanavičius, Martynas Maciulevičius, Milda Jakutavičiūtė, Saulius Šatkauskas
The aim of this study was to investigate the dependence of calcein extraction and cell viability on the parameters of pulsed electric field (PEF). Two different approaches concerning PEF parameters were investigated: (1) extraction efficiency and cell viability dependence on pulse number, exploiting 1200 V/cm 100 µs duration high voltage (HV) electric pulses and (2) extraction efficiency and cell viability dependence on the pulses with different duration (44-400 µs) and electric field strength (600-1800 V/cm) that result in the same amount of electric field energy delivered to Chinese hamster ovary cells...
February 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
Ann-Kristin Helmers, Isabel Lübbing, Günther Deuschl, Karsten Witt, Michael Synowitz, Hubertus Maximilian Mehdorn, Daniela Falk
OBJECTIVE: Nonrechargeable deep brain stimulation (DBS) generators must be replaced when the battery capacity is exhausted. Battery life depends on many factors and differs between generator models. A new nonrechargeable generator model replaced the previous model in 2008. Our clinical impression is that the earlier model had a longer battery life than the new one. We conducted this study to substantiate this. METHODS: We determined the battery life of every DBS generator that had been implanted between 2005 and 2012 in our department for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and compared the battery lives of the both devices...
November 3, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Juan Manuel Martínez, Elisa Luengo, Guillermo Saldaña, Ignacio Álvarez, Javier Raso
This paper assesses the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) to the fresh biomass of Artrhospira platensis in order to enhance the extraction of C-phycocyanin into aqueous media. Electroporation of A. platensis depended on both electric field strength and treatment duration. The minimum electric field intensity for detecting C-phycocyanin in the extraction medium was 15kV/cm after the application of a treatment time 150μs (50 pulses of 3μs). However higher electric field strength were required when shorter treatment times were applied...
September 2017: Food Research International
Zhiming Lin, Jun Chen, Xiaoshi Li, Zhihao Zhou, Keyu Meng, Wei Wei, Jin Yang, Zhong Lin Wang
Heart-rate monitoring plays a critical role in personal healthcare management. A low-cost, noninvasive, and user-friendly heart-rate monitoring system is highly desirable. Here, a self-powered wireless body sensor network (BSN) system is developed for heart-rate monitoring via integration of a downy-structure-based triboelectric nanogenerator (D-TENG), a power management circuit, a heart-rate sensor, a signal processing unit, and Bluetooth module for wireless data transmission. By converting the inertia energy of human walking into electric power, a maximum power of 2...
September 26, 2017: ACS Nano
Giorgio Provolo, Francesca Perazzolo, Gabriele Mattachini, Alberto Finzi, Ezio Naldi, Elisabetta Riva
This study assessed a novel technique for removing nitrogen from digested organic waste based on a slow release of ammonia that was promoted by continuous mixing of the digestate and delivering a continuous air stream across the surface of the liquid. Three 10-day experiments were conducted using two 50-L reactors. In the first two, nitrogen removal efficiencies were evaluated from identical digestates maintained at different temperatures (30°C and 40°C). At the start of the first experiment, the digestates were adjusted to pH 9 using sodium hydroxide, while in the second experiment pH was not adjusted...
November 2017: Waste Management
C T Schäff, U Pliquett, A Tuchscherer, R Pfuhl, S Görs, C C Metges, H M Hammon, C Kröger-Koch
Body fatness and degree of body fat mobilization in cows vary enormously during their reproduction cycle and influence energy partitioning and metabolic adaptation. The objective of the study was to test bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) as a method for predicting fat depot mass (FDM), in living cows. The FDM is defined as the sum of subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and carcass fat mass. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is compared with the prediction of FDM from the deuterium oxide (DO) dilution method and from body conformation measurements...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Jiaxi Wang, Manfred Gronalt, Yan Sun
Due to its environmentally sustainable and energy-saving characteristics, railway transportation nowadays plays a fundamental role in delivering passengers and goods. Emerged in the area of transportation planning, the crew (workforce) sizing problem and the crew scheduling problem have been attached great importance by the railway industry and the scientific community. In this paper, we aim to solve the two problems by proposing a novel two-stage optimization approach in the context of the electric multiple units (EMU) depot shunting driver assignment problem...
2017: PloS One
David A Provenzano, Jared Rebman, Cody Kuhel, Hilary Trenz, Jason Kilgore
OBJECTIVES: Methods of energy delivery for traditional spinal cord stimulation (SCS) systems consist of adjusting programming parameters to affect the total charge delivered per unit time. One high electrical charge delivery method being considered is subthreshold high density (HD) programming. To date, there is limited clinical evidence for the efficacy and safety of paresthesia-free HD programming. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of HD programming. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on HD-programmed SCS patients with a minimum of one year follow-up...
October 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Elżbieta Ewertowska, Borja Mercadal, Víctor Muñoz, Antoni Ivorra, Macarena Trujillo, Enrique Berjano
BACKGROUND: The thermal and electrical effects of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) for pain relief can be controlled by modifying the characteristics of the RF pulses applied. Our goal was to evaluate the influence of such modifications on the thermal and electric performance in tissue. METHODS: A computational model was developed to compare the temperature and electric field time courses in tissue between a standard clinical protocol (45 V pulses, 20 ms duration, 2 Hz repetition frequency) and a new protocol (55 V pulses, 5 ms duration, 5 Hz repetition frequency) with a higher applied electric field but a smaller impact on temperature alterations in tissue...
February 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Tao Xie, Mahesh Padmanaban, Lisa Bloom, Ellen MacCracken, Breanna Bertacchi, Abraham Dachman, Peter Warnke
Some studies have shown that low frequency stimulation (LFS, most commonly 60 Hz), compared to high frequency stimulation (HFS, most commonly 130 Hz), has beneficial effects, short-term or even long-term, on improving freezing of gait (FOG) and other axial symptoms, including speech and swallowing function, in Parkinson disease (PD) patients with bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). However, other studies failed to confirm this. It seems not clear what determines the difference in response to LFS...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
Shinsuke Miyazaki, Shigeki Kusa, Hitoshi Hachiya, Hiroshi Taniguchi, Takayuki Niida, Sadamitsu Ichijo, Kenzo Hirao, Yoshito Iesaka
BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic compound motor action potential (CMAP) amplitude monitoring is a standard technique to anticipate phrenic nerve injury during cryoballoon ablation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel superior vena cava isolation (SVCI) technique using simultaneous pacing and ablation through the tip of a single mapping/ablation catheter. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with atrial fibrillation were included...
May 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Jun Ming, Mengliu Li, Pushpendra Kumar, Lain-Jong Li
Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0...
June 28, 2016: ACS Nano
Christoph van Riesen, Georg Tsironis, Doreen Gruber, Fabian Klostermann, Patricia Krause, Gerd Helge Schneider, Andreas Kupsch
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents an established and internationally approved therapy for movement disorders. In the present retrospective analysis, we evaluated disease-specific longevity of dual channel impulse generators (IPG) used in different movement disorders. We correlated the battery lifetime with electrical stimulation settings, "total electrical energy delivered" (TEED), stimulation modi (monopolar, double monopolar and bipolar) and targets. Specifically, we reviewed the longevity and stimulation settings of 464 IPGs implanted between 1996 until 2011 in a single university center...
June 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Jonathan P Miller, Sam Eldabe, Eric Buchser, Lisa M Johanek, Yun Guan, Bengt Linderoth
OBJECTIVE: All spinal cord stimulation (SCS) parameters (amplitude, pulse width, frequency) influence the interaction of stimulation with the nervous system and impact the delivery of charge. Regardless of the stimulation pattern, there are certain crucial elements related to dose, and a basic fundamental knowledge of the parameters used to administer the therapy is fundamentally important. METHODS: This paper reviews basic concepts of energy delivery in neurostimulation (amplitude, pulse width, and frequency) and introduces the concept of the duty cycle and charge per sec as another way to characterize stimulation patterns...
June 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Shinsuke Miyazaki, Noboru Ichihara, Hiroaki Nakamura, Hiroshi Taniguchi, Hitoshi Hachiya, Makoto Araki, Takamitsu Takagi, Jin Iwasawa, Akio Kuroi, Kenzo Hirao, Yoshito Iesaka
BACKGROUND: Right phrenic nerve injury (PNI) is a major concern during superior vena cava (SVC) isolation due to the anatomical close proximity. The functional and histological severity of PNI parallels the degree of the reduction in the compound motor action potential (CMAP) amplitude. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring CMAPs during SVC isolation to anticipate PNI during atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. METHODS: Thirty-nine paroxysmal AF patients were prospectively enrolled...
April 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
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