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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931035/neuroprotection-with-hypothermia-and-allopurinol-in-an-animal-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-is-it-a-gender-question
#1
Javier Rodríguez-Fanjul, Cristina Durán Fernández-Feijóo, Míriam Lopez-Abad, Maria Goretti Lopez Ramos, Rafael Balada Caballé, Soledad Alcántara-Horillo, Marta Camprubí Camprubí
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the most important causes of neonatal brain injury. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the standard treatment for term newborns after perinatal hypoxic ischemic injury (HI). Despite this, TH does not provide complete neuroprotection. Allopurinol seems to be a good neuroprotector in several animal studies, but it has never been tested in combination with hypothermia. Clinical findings show that male infants with (HI) fare more poorly than matched females in cognitive outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930290/alcohol-adipose-tissue-and-liver-disease-mechanistic-links-and-clinical-considerations
#2
REVIEW
Richard Parker, Seung-Jin Kim, Bin Gao
Adipose tissue represents a large volume of biologically active tissue that exerts substantial systemic effects in health and disease. Alcohol consumption can profoundly disturb the normal functions of adipose tissue by inducing adipocyte death and altering secretion of adipokines, pro-inflammatory mediators and free fatty acids from adipose tissue, which have important direct and indirect effects on the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Cessation of alcohol intake quickly reverses inflammatory changes in adipose tissue, and pharmacological treatment that normalizes adipose tissue function improves experimental ALD...
September 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930079/epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-and-cardiovascular-risk-indices-among-asymptomatic-women-with-and-without-hiv
#3
Suman Srinivasa, Michael T Lu, Kathleen V Fitch, Travis R Hallett, Timothy K O'Malley, Lauren A Stone, Amanda Martin, Alexandra J Coromilas, Tricia H Burdo, Virginia A Triant, Janet Lo, Sara E Looby, Tomas G Neilan, Markella V Zanni
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the heightened myocardial infarction risk among HIV-infected women (versus non-HIV-infected women) remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and its associations among asymptomatic women with and without HIV. METHODS: Fifty-five HIV-infected and 27 non-HIV-infected women without known cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac CT and metabolic/immune phenotyping were included. EAT volume derived from CT was compared among women with and without HIV, and within-group EAT associations were assessed...
September 20, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929924/the-search-for-a-subtype-selective-pet-imaging-agent-for-the-gabaa-receptor-complex-evaluation-of-the-radiotracer-11-c-ado-in-nonhuman-primates
#4
Shu-Fei Lin, Frederic Bois, Daniel Holden, Nabeel Nabulsi, Richard Pracitto, Hong Gao, Michael Kapinos, Jo-Ku Teng, Anupama Shirali, Jim Ropchan, Richard E Carson, Charles S Elmore, Neil Vasdev, Yiyun Huang
The myriad physiological functions of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) are mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex comprising of the GABAA, GABAB, and GABAC groups. The various GABAA subunits with region-specific distributions in the brain subserve different functional and physiological roles. For example, the sedative and anticonvulsive effects of classical benzodiazepines are attributed to the α1 subunit, and the α2 and α3 subunits mediate the anxiolytic effect. To optimize pharmacotherapies with improved efficacy and devoid of undesirable side effects for the treatment of anxiety disorders, subtype-selective imaging radiotracers are required to assess target engagement at GABA sites and determine the dose-receptor occupancy relationships...
January 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918935/dense-intra-adipose-sympathetic-arborizations-are-essential-for-cold-induced-beiging-of-mouse-white-adipose-tissue
#5
Haochen Jiang, Xiaofan Ding, Ying Cao, Huanhuan Wang, Wenwen Zeng
Efferent signals from the central nervous system represent a key layer of regulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the mechanism by which efferent neural signals control WAT metabolism remains to be better understood. Here, we exploit the volume fluorescence-imaging technique to visualize the neural arborizations in mouse inguinal WAT at single-fiber resolution. The imaging reveals a dense network of sympathetic arborizations that had been previously undetected by conventional methods, with sympathetic fibers being in close apposition to > 90% of adipocytes...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918686/sensitivity-of-post-treatment-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-to-detect-inter-fractional-range-variations-in-scanned-ion-beam-therapy
#6
Josefine Handrack, Thomas Tessonnier, Wenjing Chen, Jakob Liebl, Jürgen Debus, Julia Bauer, Katia Parodi
BACKGROUND: Ion therapy, especially with modern scanning beam delivery, offers very sharp dose gradients for highly conformal cancer treatment. However, it is very sensitive to uncertainties of tissue stopping properties as well as to anatomical changes and setup errors, making range verification highly desirable. To this end, positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to measure decay products of β(+)-emitters created in interactions inside the patient. This work investigates the sensitivity of post treatment PET/CT (computed tomography) to detect inter-fractional range variations...
September 18, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916388/differential-effects-of-fxr-or-tgr5-activation-in-cholangiocarcinoma-progression
#7
O Erice, I Labiano, A Arbelaiz, A Santos-Laso, P Munoz-Garrido, R Jimenez-Agüero, P Olaizola, A Caro-Maldonado, N Martín-Martín, A Carracedo, E Lozano, J J Marin, C J O'Rourke, J B Andersen, J Llop, V Gómez-Vallejo, D Padro, A Martin, M Marzioni, L Adorini, M Trauner, L Bujanda, M J Perugorria, J M Banales
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive tumor type affecting cholangiocytes. CCAs frequently arise under certain cholestatic liver conditions. Intrahepatic accumulation of bile acids may facilitate cocarcinogenic effects by triggering an inflammatory response and cholangiocyte proliferation. Here, the role of bile acid receptors FXR and TGR5 in CCA progression was evaluated. METHODS: FXR and TGR5 expression was determined in human CCA tissues and cell lines...
September 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914752/ct-attenuation-of-pericoronary-adipose-tissue-in-normal-versus-atherosclerotic-coronary-segments-as-defined-by-intravascular-ultrasound
#8
Mohamed Marwan, Michaela Hell, Annika Schuhbäck, Sören Gauss, Daniel Bittner, Tobias Pflederer, Stephan Achenbach
BACKGROUND: The factors influencing genesis of atherosclerosis at specific regions within the coronary arterial system are currently uncertain. Local mechanical factors such as shear stress as well as metabolic factors, including inflammatory mediators released from epicardial fat, have been proposed. We analyzed computed tomographic (CT) attenuation of pericoronary adipose tissue in normal versus atherosclerotic coronary segments as defined by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the data sets of 29 patients who were referred for invasive coronary angiography and in whom IVUS of 1 coronary vessel was performed for clinical reasons...
September 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912751/decreased-secondary-lesion-growth-and-attenuated-immune-response-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-tlr2-4-mice
#9
Sandro M Krieg, Florian Voigt, Pascal Knuefermann, Carsten Jürgen Kirschning, Nikolaus Plesnila, Florian Ringel
Danger-associated molecular patterns are released by damaged cells and trigger neuroinflammation through activation of non-specific pattern recognition receptors, e.g., toll-like receptors (TLRs). Since the role of TLR2 and 4 after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still unclear, we examined the outcome and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators after experimental TBI in Tlr2/4(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. Tlr2/4(-/-) and WT mice were subjected to controlled cortical injury and contusion volume and brain edema formation were assessed 24 h thereafter...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912359/left-ventricular-strain-rate-is-reduced-during-voluntary-apnea-in-healthy-humans
#10
Joshua R Smith, Shelbi L Sutterfield, Dryden R Baumfalk, Kaylin D Didier, Shane M Hammer, Jacob Troy Caldwell, Carl J Ade
During an apneic event, sympathetic nerve activity increases resulting in subsequent increases in left ventricular afterload and myocardial work. It is unknown how cardiac mechanics are acutely impacted by the increased myocardial work during an apneic event. 10 healthy individuals (23 ± 3 yrs) performed multiple voluntary end-expiratory apnea (VEEA) maneuvers exposed to room air, while a subset (n=7) completed multiple VEEA exposed to hyperoxic air (100% FiO2). Beat-by-beat blood pressure, heart rate and stroke volume were measured continuously...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905453/sexual-steroids-in-serum-and-prostatic-tissue-of-human-non-cancerous-prostate-sterproser-trial
#11
Yann Neuzillet, Jean-Pierre Raynaud, Camélia Radulescu, Jean Fiet, Franck Giton, Jean-François Dreyfus, Tarek P Ghoneim, Thierry Lebret, Henry Botto
BACKGROUND: The specific involvement of the sex steroids in the growth of the prostatic tissue remains unclear. Sex steroid concentrations in plasma and in fresh surgical samples of benign central prostate were correlated to prostate volume. METHODS: Monocentric prospective study performed between September 2014 and January 2017. Age, obesity parameters, and both serum and intraprostatic concentrations of sex steroids were collected complying with the latest Endocrine Society guidelines and the steroids assessed by GC/MS...
September 14, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905399/microdosimetric-measurements-of-a-clinical-proton-beam-with-micrometer-sized-solid-state-detector
#12
Sarah E Anderson, Keith M Furutani, Linh T Tran, Lachlan Chartier, Marco Petasecca, Michael Lerch, Dale A Prokopovich, Mark Reinhard, Vladimir L Perevertaylo, Anatoly B Rosenfeld, Michael G Herman, Chris Beltran
PURPOSE: Microdosimetry is a vital tool for assessing the microscopic patterns of energy deposition by radiation, which ultimately govern biological effect. Solid-state, silicon-on-insulator microdosimeters offer an approach for making microdosimetric measurements with high spatial resolution (on the order of tens of micrometers). These high-resolution, solid-state microdosimeters may therefore play a useful role in characterizing proton radiotherapy fields, particularly for making highly-resolved measurements within the Bragg peak region...
September 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903624/repair-of-calvarial-bone-defect-using-jarid1a-knockdown-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-rats
#13
Yuan Deng, Tao Guo, Jipeng Li, Li Guo, Ping Gu, Xianqun Fan
Histone methylation is regarded as an important epigenetic event during stem cell differentiation. Jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1A (Jarid1a) is a histone demethylase that specifically catalyzes demethylation of dimethyl or trimethyl histone H3K4me3, which is normally associated with transcriptionally active genes. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) has been identified as a key transcription factor in the early stage of osteogenesis. A better understanding of this epigenetic mechanism that governs osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can provide new insights into BMSCs based bone tissue engineering...
September 13, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893586/effects-of-diisononyl-phthalate-on-osteopenia-in-intact-mice
#14
Yun-Ho Hwang, Young-Jin Son, Man-Jeong Paik, Sung-Tae Yee
Osteopenia is characterized by bone loss and deterioration of trabecular bone, which leads to osteoporotic fractures. This disease is highly prevalent in industrialized areas and is associated with exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is one of these EDCs and is mainly used as a plasticizer in flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products. Although it is well known that exposure to DINP is harmful to humans, no studies have been reported concerning its contribution to osteopenia...
September 8, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892928/anti-inflammatory-and-analgesic-activities-of-topical-formulations-of-pterocarpus-santalinus-powder-in-rat-model-of-chronic-inflammation
#15
Priti Pravin Dhande, Amit O Gupta, Sourav Jain, Jayshree Shriram Dawane
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of arthritis is quite high and there is a need for the search of natural products to halt the progression of disease or provide symptomatic relief without significant adverse effects. AIM: This study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of topical Pterocarpus santalinus in an animal model of chronic inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats of either sex were divided into five groups of six rats each (Group I - Control, Group II -Gel base, Group III -P...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892037/induction-and-micro-ct-imaging-of-cerebral-cavernous-malformations-in-mouse-model
#16
Jaesung P Choi, Xi Yang, Matthew Foley, Xian Wang, Xiangjian Zheng
Mutations in the CCM1 (aka KRIT1), CCM2, or CCM3 (aka PDCD10) gene cause cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) in humans. Mouse models of CCM disease have been established by tamoxifen induced deletion of Ccm genes in postnatal animals. These mouse models provide invaluable tools to investigate molecular mechanism and therapeutic approaches for CCM disease. An accurate and quantitative method to assess lesion burden and progression is essential to harness the full value of these animal models. Here, we demonstrate the induction of CCM disease in a mouse model and the use of the contrast enhanced X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) method to measure CCM lesion burden in mouse brains...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890201/enhanced-anticancer-effect-and-reduced-toxicity-of-doxorubicin-in-combination-with-thymoquinone-released-from-poly-n-acetyl-glucosamine-nanomatrix-in-mice-bearing-solid-ehrlish-carcinoma
#17
Nahla E El-Ashmawy, Eman G Khedr, El-Zeiny M Ebeid, Mohamed L Salem, Abdel-Aziz A Zidan, Esraa M Mosalam
The incidence of breast cancer remarkably increases all over the world. Therefore, there is a great demand to introduce new approaches into cancer treatment field. The current study was designated to evaluate the role of doxorubicin (DOX) and/or thymoquinone (TQ) nanomatrix in potentiating the cytotoxicity of either drug, and to investigate the ability of TQ to reduce cardiotoxicity of DOX in solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC)-bearing mice. DOX and TQ were loaded into F2 gel, which is a fully-acetylated poly-N-acetyl glucosamine nanofiber...
September 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887029/urocortins-actions-in-health-and-heart-failure
#18
REVIEW
Miriam T Rademaker, A Mark Richards
The urocortins (Ucns), endogenous peptides belonging to the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family, are increasingly recognized as having diverse and important multi-system functions, especially within the cardiovascular system. The biological actions of the three Ucns (Ucn1, Ucn2, Ucn3) are mediated via G-protein-coupled CRF receptors, with both peptides and receptors widely distributed throughout tissues and organs contributing to pressure/volume homeostasis including the heart, vasculature, kidneys and adrenals...
September 5, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886582/protective-effects-of-ghrelin-in-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-in-rats
#19
Guang Li, Jiao Liu, Wen-Fang Xia, Chen-Liang Zhou, Li-Qiong Lv
Ghrelin has exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects on various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of ghrelin on a model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) established in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: low volume ventilation (LV, Vt=8ml/kg) group, a VILI group (Vt=30ml/kg), and a VILI group pretreated with ghrelin (GH+VILI). For the LV group, for the VILI and GH+VILI groups, the same parameters were applied except the tidal volume was increased to 40ml/kg...
September 5, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883752/rhglp-1-7-36-protects-diabetic-rats-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-up-regulating-expression-of-nrf2-ho-1-and-increasing-the-activities-of-sod
#20
Yi Fang, Xiaofang Liu, Libo Zhao, Zhongna Wei, Daoli Jiang, Hua Shao, Yannan Zang, Jia Xu, Qian Wang, Yang Liu, Ye Peng, Xiaoxing Yin
The present study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect and possible mechanisms of rhGLP-1 (7-36) against transient ischemia/reperfusion injuries induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in type 2 diabetic rats. First, diabetic rats were established by a combination of a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Second, they were subjected to MCAO for 2 h, then treated with rhGLP-1 (7-36) (10, 20, 40 µg/kg i.p.) at the same time of reperfusion. In the following 3 days, they were injected with rhGLP-1 (7-36) at the same dose and route for three times each day...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
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