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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351251/compatibility-with-panax-notoginseng-and-rehmannia-glutinosa-alleviates-the-hepatotoxicity-and-nephrotoxicity-of-tripterygium-wilfordii-via-modulating-the-pharmacokinetics-of-triptolide
#1
Qichun Zhang, Yiqun Li, Mengzhu Liu, Jinao Duan, Xueping Zhou, Huaxu Zhu
Tripterygium wilfordii (TW) and the representative active component triptolide show positive therapeutic effect on the autoimmune disorders and simultaneously ineluctable hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Combinational application of Panax notoginseng (PN) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RG) weakens the toxicity of TW according the clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine. This article was aimed at the mechanism of decreasing toxicity of TW by the combinational application of PN and RG. Biochemical and pathohistological analysis were utilized to assess the toxicity on liver and kidney in rats administrated with TW, TW-PN, TW-RG and TW-PN-RG for 3 and 7 days...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350685/re-orchestration-of-blood-flow-by-micro-circulations
#2
P A R Meyer
Haemoglobin Video Imaging (HVI) demonstrates conjunctival and episcleral blood flow in man with the resolution of a single erythrocyte. A new method for establishing vessel hierarchy in micro-circulations is described, which recognises either delivery or drainage vessels and references vessel order to the capillary. These tools have been used to characterise blood flow.Anterior ciliary arteries show pulsatile variation in diameter. The episcleral arterial circle that they supply has functional apices with pulsatile flow reversal...
January 19, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349289/mixed-neurodevelopmental-and-neurodegenerative-pathology-in-nhe6-null-mouse-model-of-christianson-syndrome
#3
Meiyu Xu, Qing Ouyang, Jingyi Gong, Matthew F Pescosolido, Brandon S Pruett, Sasmita Mishra, Michael Schmidt, Richard N Jones, Ece D Gamsiz Uzun, Sofia B Lizarraga, Eric M Morrow
Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked disorder resulting from loss-of-function mutations in SLC9A6, which encodes the endosomal Na+/H+ exchanger 6 (NHE6). Symptoms include early developmental delay, seizures, intellectual disability, nonverbal status, autistic features, postnatal microcephaly, and progressive ataxia. Neuronal development is impaired in CS, involving defects in neuronal arborization and synaptogenesis, likely underlying diminished brain growth postnatally. In addition to neurodevelopmental defects, some reports have supported neurodegenerative pathology in CS with age...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348672/soluble-lrp1-is-an-independent-biomarker-of-epicardial-fat-volume-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#4
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Cristina Colom, David Vilades, Andrea Rivas-Urbina, Abdel-Hakim Moustafa, Montserrat Pérez-Cuellar, Jose Luis Sánchez-Quesada, Antonio Pérez, Vicenta LLorente-Cortes
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a metabolically active tissue intimately associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Quantification of EAT volume is an interesting clinical tool for the evaluation of cardiometabolic disease. Nevertheless, current methodology presents serious disadvantages. The soluble form of the receptor LRP1 (sLRP1) is a non-invasive biomarker of EAT in general population. Here, we analysed the potential of circulating sLRP1 as biomarker of EAT volume in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348535/umbilical-cord-extracts-improve-osteoporotic-abnormalities-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-promote-their-therapeutic-effects-on-ovariectomised-rats
#5
Akira Saito, Kanna Nagaishi, Kousuke Iba, Yuka Mizue, Takako Chikenji, Miho Otani, Masako Nakano, Kazusa Oyama, Toshihiko Yamashita, Mineko Fujimiya
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are the most valuable source of autologous cells for transplantation and tissue regeneration to treat osteoporosis. Although BM-MSCs are the primary cells responsible for maintaining bone metabolism and homeostasis, their regenerative ability may be attenuated in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. Therefore, we first examined potential abnormalities of BM-MSCs in an oestrogen-deficient rat model constructed by ovariectomy (OVX-MSCs). Cell proliferation, mobilisation, and regulation of osteoclasts were downregulated in OVX-MSCs...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347785/discontinuous-fluidization-transition-in-time-correlated-assemblies-of-actively-deforming-particles
#6
Elsen Tjhung, Ludovic Berthier
Tracking experiments in dense biological tissues reveal a diversity of sources for local energy injection at the cell scale. The effect of cell motility has been largely studied, but much less is known about the effect of the observed volume fluctuations of individual cells. We consider a microscopic model of "actively deforming" particles where local fluctuations of the particle size constitute a unique source of motion. We demonstrate that collective motion can emerge under the sole influence of such active volume fluctuations...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346247/concurrent-versus-sequential-intrapleural-instillation-of-tissue-plasminogen-activator-and-deoxyribonuclease-for-pleural-infection
#7
Fayez Kheir, George Cheng, Estefania Rivera, Alejandro Folch, Erik Folch, Fernandez-Bussy Sebastian, Colleen Keyes, Mihir Parikh, Colleen Channick, Alex Chee, Adnan Majid
BACKGROUND: Treatment of pleural infection with instillation of sequential intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and human recombinant deoxyribonuclease (DNase) twice daily for a total of 6 doses has been shown to decrease surgical referral and improve radiographic imaging. This labor-intensive regimen was empirically chosen. Thus, it remains unclear whether the 2 drugs can be administered immediately one after the other (concurrent administration) instead of instilling them separately with a 1-hour to 2-hour interval in between (sequential administration)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344983/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-4-methylcyclopentadecanonein-rats-submitted-to-ischemic-stroke
#8
Yan Jin, Fang Wei, Xiaoli Dai, Min Qi, Yukui Ma
The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of 4-methylcyclopentadecanone (4-MCPC) in rats suffering from a cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, the focal cerebral ischemia in rats was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h, and the rats were treated with 4-MCPC (8 mg/kg) just 0.5 h before reperfusion. The ischemic infarct volume was recorded 24 h after the MCAO. In addition, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the ischemic cerebral cortex were determined by ELISA, while nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit and expression of p-IκBα were investigated by western blotting...
January 18, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344828/neuroprotective-effect-of-p-coumaric-acid-in-mice-with-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injuries
#9
Romgase Sakamula, Wachiryah Thong-Asa
Cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) is associated with neuronal death, which leads to disability and cognitive decline. The pathomechanism occurs because ischemia is exacerbated during the reperfusion period. Neuronal damage susceptibility depends on the affected brain areas and the duration of ischemia. Prevention and supplementation to neurons may help them endure during IR and further benefit them in rehabilitation. We investigated the protective effect of p-coumaric acid (PC) on cerebral IR injuries in mice...
January 17, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341020/mri-in-the-study-of-animal-models-of-stroke
#10
Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Daniel Padro
Stroke consists of the loss of cerebral functions resulting from the interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, and represents the second cause of death and the leading cause of major disability in adults in Europe. Stroke is a very active field of research at preclinical and clinical levels, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most powerful tools that scientist and clinicians have for the study of the onset, evolution and consequences of this devastating disease, as well as for the monitoring of the success of available treatments, or for the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340326/mtorc1-inhibition-is-an-effective-treatment-for-sporadic-renal-angiomyolipoma
#11
Oren Pleniceanu, Dorit Omer, Einat Azaria, Orit Harari-Steinberg, Benjamin Dekel
Introduction: Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is the most common benign renal tumor. Despite a generally benign histology, AML can result in significant morbidity, from intra-abdominal hemorrhage and reduction in kidney function. While classically associated with the autosomal dominant disorder tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) or with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis, most AMLs are sporadic. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitors (e.g., sirolimus) have been found to be effective in treating TSC- or lymphangioleiomyomatosis-associated AML, but to date it is unknown whether this strategy is effective for sporadic AML...
January 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339400/intact-glucose-uptake-despite-deteriorating-signaling-in-adipocytes-with-high-fat-feeding
#12
Björn Hansson, Sebastian Wasserstrom, Björn Moren, Vipul Periwal, Petter Vikman, Sam Cushman, Olga Göransson, Petter Storm, Karin Stenkula
To capture immediate cellular changes during diet-induced expansion of adipocyte cell volume and number, we characterized mature adipocytes during a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) intervention. Male C57BL6/J mice were fed chow diet, and then switched to HFD for 2, 4, 6 or 14 days. Systemic glucose clearance was assessed by glucose tolerance test. Adipose tissue was dissected for RNA-seq and cell size distribution analysis using coulter counting. Insulin response in isolated adipocytes was monitored by glucose uptake assay and western blotting, and confocal microscopy was used to assess autophagic activity...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339399/ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-in-tnf%C3%AE-and-il6-knockout-mice-is-regulated-by-different-mechanisms
#13
Siyi Zhu, Hongchen He, Chengfei Gao, Guojing Luo, Ying Xie, Haiming Wang, Li Tian, Chen Xiang, Yu Xijie, Chengqi He
Female wild-type (WT), TNFα knockout (TNFα-/-) or IL6 knockout (IL6-/-) mice aged 12 weeks were sham-operated (SHAM) or subjected to OVX and euthanized after 4 weeks. Bone mass and skeletal microarchitecture were determined using micro-CT. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from all three groups were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts or osteoclasts. Bone metabolism was assessed by histological analysis and qRT-PCR. OVX significantly increased the body weight only in WT mice and decreased the uterine weight in all three genotypes...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339188/the-enhancement-of-siplk1-penetration-across-bbb-and-its-anti-glioblastoma-activity-in-vivo-by-magnet-and-transferrin-co-modified-nanoparticle
#14
Dao-Zhou Liu, Ying Cheng, Rong-Qiao Cai, Wen-Wen Wang, Han Cui, Miao Liu, Bang-le Zhang, Qi-Bing Mei, Si-Yuan Zhou
In order to enhance the penetration of small interference RNA against the polo-like kinase I (siPLK1) across BBB to treat glioblastoma (GBM), transferrin (Tf) modified magnetic nanoparticle (Tf-PEG-PLL/MNP@siPLK1) was prepared. The in vitro experiments indicated that Tf-PEG-PLL/MNP@siPLK1 enhanced the cellular uptake of siPLK1, which resulted in an increase of gene silencing effect and cytotoxicity of Tf-PEG-PLL/MNP@siPLK1 on U87 cells. Besides, Tf-PEG-PLL/MNP@siPLK1 significantly inhibited the growth of U87 glioblastoma spheroids and markedly increased the BBB penetration efficiency of siPLK1 with the application of external magnetic field in in-vitro BBB model...
January 12, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336053/specific-modulation-of-vertebral-marrow-adipose-tissue-by-physical-activity
#15
Daniel L Belavy, Matthew J Quittner, Nicola D Ridgers, Adnan Shiekh, Timo Rantalainen, Guy Trudel
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) accumulation with normal aging impacts the bone, hemopoiesis, and metabolic pathways. We investigated whether exercise was associated with lower MAT, as measured by vertebral marrow fat fraction (VFF) on magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 101 healthy individuals (54 females) aged 25 to 35 years without spine or bone disease but with distinct exercise histories were studied. Long-distance runners (67 km/wk, n = 25) exhibited lower mean lumbar VFF (27.9% [8.6%] versus 33...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332251/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-telavancin-compared-with-the-other-glycopeptides
#16
REVIEW
Valentin Al Jalali, Markus Zeitlinger
Telavancin was discovered by modifying the chemical structure of vancomycin and belongs to the group of lipoglycopeptides. It employs its antimicrobial potential through two distinct mechanisms of action: inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis and induction of bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization. In this article we review the clinically relevant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of telavancin. For comparison, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of the other glycopeptides are presented...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332162/roles-of-irisin-in-the-linkage-from-muscle-to-bone-during-mechanical-unloading-in-mice
#17
Naoyuki Kawao, Akihiro Moritake, Kohei Tatsumi, Hiroshi Kaji
Mechanical unloading induces disuse muscle atrophy and bone loss, but the details in mechanism involved in those pathophysiological conditions are not fully understood. Interaction between muscle and bone has been recently noted. Here, we investigated the roles of humoral factors linking muscle to bone during mechanical unloading using mice with hindlimb unloading (HU) and sciatic neurectomy (SNX). HU and SNX reduced muscle volume surrounding the tibia, tissue weights of soleus and gastrocnemius muscle, and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in the tibia of mice...
January 13, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331761/prevention-of-articular-cartilage-degeneration-in-a-rat-model-of-monosodium-iodoacetate-induced-osteoarthritis-by-oral-treatment-with-withaferin-a
#18
Dharmendra Choudhary, Sulekha Adhikary, Naseer Ahmad, Priyanka Kothari, Ashwni Verma, Prabodh Kumar Trivedi, Prabhat Ranjan Mishra, Ritu Trivedi
Withaferin A (WFA), a highly oxygenated withanolide is used for anti-osteoporotic, fracture healing, obesity control as medicine and dietary supplement in Ayurveda and Unani medicine but its potential remains to be investigate for the osteoarthritis studies. In the present study, chondro-protective effects of WFA, under in vitro and in vivo conditions were evaluated. In-vitro pharmacological activity of WFA was tested on rat articular chondrocytes through MTT, DPPH, different staining, FACS and translation studies...
January 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331449/quantifying-axonal-responses-in-patient-specific-models-of-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation
#19
Kabilar Gunalan, Bryan Howell, Cameron C McIntyre
Medical imaging has played a major role in defining the general anatomical targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapies. However, specifics on the underlying brain circuitry that is directly modulated by DBS electric fields remain relatively undefined. Detailed biophysical modeling of DBS provides an approach to quantify the theoretical responses to stimulation at the cellular level, and has established a key role for axonal activation in the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS. Estimates of DBS-induced axonal activation can then be coupled with advances in defining the structural connectome of the human brain to provide insight into the modulated brain circuitry and possible correlations with clinical outcomes...
January 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331300/cigarette-smoking-and-hip-volumetric-bone-mineral-density-and-cortical-volume-loss-in-older-adults-the-ages-reykjavik-study
#20
Elisa A Marques, Martine Elbejjani, Vilmundur Gudnason, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Thomas Lang, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Thor Aspelund, Kristin Siggeirsdottir, Lenore Launer, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Tamara B Harris
This study aimed to explore the relationships of several indicators of cigarette smoking habits (smoking status, pack-years, age at smoking initiation and smoking cessation) with quantitative computed tomographic (QCT)-derived proximal femur bone measures (trabecular vBMD, integral vBMD and the ratio of cortical to total tissue volume (cvol/ivol)) and with subsequent change in these measures over the next five years. A total of 2673 older adults (55.9% women), aged 66-92 years at baseline from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study, who had two QCT scans of the hip were studied...
January 10, 2018: Bone
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