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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210398/injection-adipolysis-mechanisms-agents-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
Shahraam Kamalpour, Keith Leblanc
Noninvasive procedures targeting the elimination of unwanted adipose tissues have recently been developed. injection adipolysis is the term for the injection of cytotoxic substances into these tissues, with the intent of cosmetic improvement by volume reduction. initial attempts in the field utilized intravenous preparations of sodium deoxycholate and soy-derived phosphatidylcholine, approved for the intravenous treatment of fat emboli and dyslipidemias in countries outside the United States. it was initially purported that the active ingredient in these injections was phosphatidylcholine...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210032/a-histomorphometric-study-of-necrotic-femoral-head-in-rabbits-treated-with-extracorporeal-shock-waves
#2
Huan-Zhi Ma, Dong-Sheng Zhou, Dong Li, Wei Zhang, Bing-Fang Zeng
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effectiveness and mechanisms of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis. [Subjects and Methods] Histomorphometric analysis of necrotic femoral head in rabbits treated with shock waves was performed. Bilateral osteonecrosis of femoral heads was induced with methylprednisolone and lipopolysaccharide in eight rabbits. The left limb (study side) received shock waves to the femoral head. The right limb (control side) received no shock waves...
January 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209530/slc39a6-promotes-aggressiveness-of-esophageal-carcinoma-cells-by-increasing-intracellular-levels-of-zinc-activating-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-signaling-and-upregulating-genes-that-regulate-metastasis
#3
Xinxin Cheng, Lixuan Wei, Xudong Huang, Jian Zheng, Mingming Shao, Ting Feng, Jun Li, Yaling Han, Wenle Tan, Wen Tan, Dongxin Lin, Chen Wu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A common variant in the solute carrier family 39 member 6 gene (SLC39A6) has been associated with survival times of patients with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC). We investigated the function of SLC39A6 and ways in which this variant affects tumor progression by studying ESCC samples and cell lines. METHODS: SLC39A6 was expressed, or knocked down by expression of small hairpin RNAs, in ESCC cells (KYSE30 and KYSE450) and HeLa cells using lentiviral vectors; we analyzed effects on proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion in vitro...
February 13, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202726/two-tonoplast-mate-proteins-function-as-turgor-regulating-chloride-channels-in-arabidopsis
#4
Haiwen Zhang, Fu-Geng Zhao, Ren-Jie Tang, Yuexuan Yu, Jiali Song, Yuan Wang, Legong Li, Sheng Luan
The central vacuole in a plant cell occupies the majority of the cellular volume and plays a key role in turgor regulation. The vacuolar membrane (tonoplast) contains a large number of transporters that mediate fluxes of solutes and water, thereby adjusting cell turgor in response to developmental and environmental signals. We report that two tonoplast Detoxification efflux carrier (DTX)/Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion (MATE) transporters, DTX33 and DTX35, function as chloride channels essential for turgor regulation in Arabidopsis Ectopic expression of each transporter in Nicotiana benthamiana mesophyll cells elicited a large voltage-dependent inward chloride current across the tonoplast, showing that DTX33 and DTX35 each constitute a functional channel...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194003/lower-levels-of-the-glial-cell-marker-tspo-in-drug-naive-first-episode-psychosis-patients-as-measured-using-pet-and-11-c-pbr28
#5
K Collste, P Plavén-Sigray, H Fatouros-Bergman, P Victorsson, M Schain, A Forsberg, N Amini, S Aeinehband, S Erhardt, C Halldin, L Flyckt, L Farde, S Cervenka
Several lines of evidence are indicative of a role for immune activation in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and radioligands for the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker for glial activation, have yielded inconsistent results. Whereas early studies using a radioligand with low signal-to-noise in small samples showed increases in patients, more recent studies with improved methodology have shown no differences or trend-level decreases. Importantly, all patients investigated thus far have been on antipsychotic medication, and as these compounds may dampen immune cell activity, this factor limits the conclusions that can be drawn...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192650/facile-adhesion-tuning-of-superhydrophobic-surfaces-between-lotus-and-petal-effect-and-their-influence-on-icing-and-de-icing-properties
#6
Md Julker Nine, Tran Thanh Tung, Faisal Khalid Alotaibi, Diana N H Tran, Dusan Losic
Adhesion behaviour of superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces is an active research field related to various engineering applications in controlled microdroplet transportation, self-cleaning, de-icing, biochemical separation, tissue engineering, and water harvesting. Herein, we report a facile approach to control droplet adhesion, bouncing and rolling on properties of SH surfaces by tuning their air-gap and roughness-height by altering the concentrations of poly-dimethyl-siloxane (PDMS). The optimal use of PDMS (4 wt% to 16 wt%) in a dual-scale (nano and micro-particles) composite enables to control specific surface area (SSA), pore-volume, and roughness of matrices that results in a well-controlled adhesion between water droplets and SH surfaces...
February 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192085/influence-of-peptide-transporter-2-pept2-on-the-distribution-of-cefadroxil-in-mouse-brain-a-microdialysis-study
#7
Xiaomei Chen, Richard F Keep, Yan Liang, Hao-Jie Zhu, Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes, Yongjun Hu, David E Smith
Peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2) is a high-affinity low-capacity transporter belonging to the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter family. Although many aspects of PEPT2 structure-function are known, including its localization in choroid plexus and neurons, its regional activity in brain, especially extracellular fluid (ECF), is uncertain. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and regional brain distribution of cefadroxil, a ß-lactam antibiotic and PEPT2 substrate, were investigated in wildtype and Pept2 null mice using in vivo intracerebral microdialysis...
February 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190472/gastroprotective-and-anti-secretory-mechanisms-of-2-phenylquinoline-an-alkaloid-isolated-from-galipea-longiflora
#8
Eduardo Breviglieri, Luisa Mota da Silva, Thaise Boeing, Lincon Bordignon Somensi, Benhur Judah Cury, Alberto Gimenez, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
BACKGROUND: We previously described the gastroprotective effect of 2-phenylquinoline (2-PQ), the main alkaloid isolated from the bark of Galipea longiflora (Rutaceae). However, despite the significant and promising results, the pharmacological mechanisms of the gastroprotection induced by 2-PQ have not been investigated. PURPOSE: To evaluate the mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effects of 2-PQ. STUDY DESIGN: We used an in vivo mouse ulcer model and in vitro methodologies involving H⁺/K⁺-ATPase and L929 murine fibroblasts...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187460/effects-of-renal-denervation-on-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-remodeling
#9
Qian Liu, Jiyang Song, Dasheng Lu, Jie Geng, Zhixin Jiang, Kai Wang, Bin Zhang, Qijun Shan
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a rapidly progressive disorder, which leads to right heart failure and even death. Overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system accounts for the development and progression of PAH. The role of renal denervation (RDN) in different periods of PAH has not been fully elucidated. A single intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg) was used to induce pulmonary remodeling in male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 40). After 24-hour of MCT administration, a subset of rats underwent RDN (RDN24h, n = 10); after 2-week of MCT injection, another ten rats received RDN treatment (RDN2w, n = 10) and the left 20 rats were divided to MCT group with sham RDN operation (MCT, n = 20)...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185295/irreversible-electroporation-for-the-ablation-of-pancreatic-malignancies-a-patient-specific-methodology
#10
Eduardo L Latouche, Michael B Sano, Melvin F Lorenzo, Rafael V Davalos, Robert C G Martin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) is a focal ablation technique highly attractive to surgical oncologists due to its non-thermal nature that allows for eradication of unresectable tumors in a minimally invasive procedure. In this study, our group sought to address the challenge of predicting the ablation volume with IRE for pancreatic procedures. METHODS: In compliance with HIPAA and hospital IRB approval, we established a pre-treatment planning methodology for IRE procedures in pancreas, which optimized treatment protocols for individual cases of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183677/hierarchical-micro-nano-structured-ti6al4v-surface-topography-via-two-step-etching-process-for-enhanced-hydrophilicity-and-osteoblastic-responses
#11
Byeong-Seok Moon, Sungwon Kim, Hyoun-Ee Kim, Tae-Sik Jang
Hierarchical micro-nano (HMN) surface structuring of dental implants is a fascinating strategy for achieving fast and mechanically stable fixation due to the synergetic effect of micro- and nano-scale surface roughness with surrounding tissues. However, the introduction of a well-defined nanostructure on a microstructure having complex surface geometry is still challenging. As a means of fabricating HMN surface on Ti6Al4V-ELI, target-ion induced plasma sputtering (TIPS) was used onto a sand-blasted, large-grit and acid-etched substrate...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183451/the-novel-exercise-induced-hormone-irisin-protects-against-neuronal-injury-via-activation-of-the-akt-and-erk1-2-signaling-pathways-and-contributes-to-the-neuroprotection-of-physical-exercise-in-cerebral-ischemia
#12
Dong-Jie Li, Yong-Hua Li, Hong-Bin Yuan, Le-Feng Qu, Pei Wang
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a novel exercise-induced myokine involved in the regulation of adipose browning and thermogenesis. In this study, we investigated the potential role of irisin in cerebral ischemia and determined whether irisin is involved in the neuroprotective effect of physical exercise in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was used to produce cerebral ischemia in mice. First, the plasma irisin levels and changes in expression of the irisin precursor protein FNDC5 in skeletal muscle were determined post ischemic stroke...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183276/peginterferon-beta-1a-improves-mri-measures-and-increases-the-proportion-of-patients-with-no-evidence-of-disease-activity-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-2-year-results-from-the-advance-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Douglas L Arnold, Peter A Calabresi, Bernd C Kieseier, Shifang Liu, Xiaojun You, Damian Fiore, Serena Hung
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a has previously been shown to reduce the number of T2-hyperintense and gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions over 2 years in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and to reduce T1-hypointense lesion formation and the proportion of patients showing evidence of disease activity, based on both clinical and radiological measures, compared with placebo over 1 year of treatment. The objectives of the current analyses were to evaluate T1 lesions and other magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures, including whole brain volume and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of normal appearing brain tissue (NABT), and the proportions of patients with no evidence of disease activity (NEDA), over 2 years...
February 10, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181119/visual-evaluation-of-kinetic-characteristics-of-pet-probe-for-neuroreceptors-using-a-two-phase-graphic-plot-analysis
#14
Hiroshi Ito, Yoko Ikoma, Chie Seki, Yasuyuki Kimura, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki Takuwa, Masanori Ichise, Tetsuya Suhara, Iwao Kanno
Objectives In PET studies for neuroreceptors, tracer kinetics are described by the two-tissue compartment model (2-TCM), and binding parameters, including the total distribution volume (V T), non-displaceable distribution volume (V ND), and binding potential (BPND), can be determined from model parameters estimated by kinetic analysis. The stability of binding parameter estimates depends on the kinetic characteristics of radioligands. To describe these kinetic characteristics, we previously developed a two-phase graphic plot analysis in which V ND and V T can be estimated from the x-intercept of regression lines for early and delayed phases, respectively...
February 8, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176823/volumetric-spatial-correlations-of-neurovascular-coupling-studied-using-single-pulse-opto-fmri
#15
Isabel N Christie, Jack A Wells, Sergey Kasparov, Alexander V Gourine, Mark F Lythgoe
Neurovascular coupling describes the link between neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow. This relationship has been the subject of intense scrutiny, with most previous work seeking to understand temporal correlations that describe neurovascular coupling. However, to date, the study of spatial correlations has been limited to two-dimensional mapping of neuronal or vascular derived signals emanating from the brain's surface, using optical imaging techniques. Here, we investigate spatial correlations of neurovascular coupling in three dimensions, by applying a single 10 ms pulse of light to trigger optogenetic activation of cortical neurons transduced to express channelrhodopsin2, with concurrent fMRI...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176198/constituents-of-leaves-from-bauhinia-curvula-benth-exert-gastroprotective-activity-in-rodents-role-of-quercitrin-and-kaempferol
#16
Ana Paula Beber, Priscila de Souza, Thaise Boeing, Lincon Bordignon Somensi, Luísa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Benhur Judah Cury, Ligia Moura Burci, Cristiane Bezerra da Silva, Euclésio Simionatto, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Luísa Mota da Silva
The Bauhinia genus is known as "Pata-de-Vaca" and a wide variety of these species are used in Brazilian folk medicine due to their gastroprotective properties. This study aimed to investigate the antiulcer efficacy of the hydroalcoholic extract from B. curvula (HEBC) leaves, as well as its semi-purified fraction (SPFr) and the contribution of their phytochemicals constituents for this effect. For that, ethanol 60%/HCl 0.3 M- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer were performed in rodents. Gastric ulcerated tissues were processed for histological, histochemical and biochemical analysis...
February 7, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168937/outcomes-of-spatially-fractionated-radiotherapy-grid-for-bulky-soft-tissue-sarcomas-in-a-large-animal-model
#17
Michael W Nolan, Tracy L Gieger, Alexander A Karakashian, Mariana N Nikolova-Karakashian, Lysa P Posner, Donald M Roback, Judith N Rivera, Sha Chang
GRID directs alternating regions of high- and low-dose radiation at tumors. A large animal model mimicking the geometries of human treatments is needed to complement existing rodent systems (eg, microbeam) and clarify the physical and biological attributes of GRID. A pilot study was undertaken in pet dogs with spontaneous soft tissue sarcomas to characterize responses to GRID. Subjects were treated with either 20 Gy (3 dogs) or 25 Gy (3 dogs), delivered using 6 MV X-rays and a commercial GRID collimator. Acute toxicity and tumor responses were assessed 2, 4, and 6 weeks later...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168372/high-b-value-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-hiv-patients
#18
Claudia Godi, Enrico De Vita, Enrico Tombetti, Indran Davagnanam, Lewis Haddow, Hans Rolf Jäger
OBJECTIVES: An ill-defined hyperintense edge and hypointense core on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is typical of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). We aimed to investigate whether a b-value of 3,000 s/mm(2) (b3000) can improve visualisation of PML, or provide different structural information compared to 1,000 s/mm(2) (b1000). METHODS: We retrospectively identified HIV-positive patients with confirmed PML studied under a clinical protocol including both b1000 and b3000 DWI...
February 6, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168011/semipurified-ethyl-acetate-partition-of-methanolic-extract-of-melastoma-malabathricum-leaves-exerts-gastroprotective-activity-partly-via-its-antioxidant-antisecretory-anti-inflammatory-action-and-synergistic-action-of-several-flavonoid-based-compounds
#19
Noor Wahida Ismail Suhaimy, Ahmad Khusairi Noor Azmi, Norhafizah Mohtarrudin, Maizatul Hasyima Omar, Siti Farah Md Tohid, Manraj Singh Cheema, Lay Kek Teh, Mohd Zaki Salleh, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria
Recent study has demonstrated the gastroprotective activity of crude methanolic extract of M. malabathricum leaves. The present study evaluated the gastroprotective potential of semipurified extracts (partitions): petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EAMM), and aqueous obtained from the methanolic extract followed by the elucidation of the gastroprotective mechanisms of the most effective partition. Using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer assay, all partitions exerted significant gastroprotection, with EAMM being the most effective partition...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164762/regulation-of-ion-channels-cellular-carriers-and-na-k-atpase-by-janus-kinase-3
#20
Mentor Sopjani, Shpëtim Thaçi, Berat Krasniqi, Miranda Selmonaj, Mark Rinnerthaler, Miribane Dërmaku-Sopjani
Janus kinase-3 (JAK3), a tyrosine kinase, is expressed in a variety of tissues, including the brain, and is involved in the signaling of cytokine receptors. JAK3 participates in numerous functions, among other the cell survival and proliferation, neuroprotection, apoptosis, as well as cellular response to hypoxia and ischemia-reperfusion. This kinase further contributes in the signaling of hematopoietic cell cytokine receptors, dendritic cells activation, maturation, and immune suppression as well as to cell volume regulation...
February 3, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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