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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940888/mediatorless-reversible-optical-nanosensor-enabled-through-enzymatic-pocket-doping
#1
Vitalijs Zubkovs, Nils Schuergers, Benjamin Lambert, Esra Ahunbay, Ardemis A Boghossian
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit intrinsic near-infrared fluorescence that benefits from indefinite photostability and tissue transparency, offering a promising basis for in vivo biosensing. Existing SWCNT optical sensors that rely on charge transfer for signal transduction often require exogenous mediators that compromise the stability and biocompatibility of the sensors. This study presents a reversible, mediatorless, near-infrared glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase-wrapped SWCNTs (GOx-SWCNTs)...
September 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940767/human-mesenchymal-factors-induce-rat-hippocampal-and-human-neural-stem-cell-dependent-oligodendrogenesis
#2
Janusz J Jadasz, Lena Tepe, Felix Beyer, Iria Samper Agrelo, Rainer Akkermann, Lucas-Sebastian Spitzhorn, Maria Elena Silva, Richard O C Oreffo, Hans-Peter Hartung, Alessandro Prigione, Francisco J Rivera, James Adjaye, Patrick Küry
The generation of new oligodendrocytes is essential for adult brain repair in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. We previously identified the multifunctional p57kip2 protein as a negative regulator of myelinating glial cell differentiation and as an intrinsic switch of glial fate decision in adult neural stem cells (aNSCs). In oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs), p57kip2 protein nuclear exclusion was recently found to be rate limiting for differentiation to proceed. Furthermore, stimulation with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived factors enhanced oligodendrogenesis by yet unknown mechanisms...
September 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940734/warming-up-to-the-idea-of-wet-wraps
#3
Chelsea A Cooper, Cynthia M C DeKlotz
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent condition in the pediatric population that can have a significant effect on a child's quality of life. Management is multifactorial, involving topical pharmacotherapy, emollients, and a bathing regimen in conjunction with close supervision from the caregiver and physician. In the case of moderate to severe or refractory AD, wet wraps can be used. As part of our wet wrap regimen, we propose warming damp cotton pajamas in the dryer before application. This makes the wet wraps more comfortable for children, increasing adherence to the prescribed regimen...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940651/mechanical-plasticity-during-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-and-myelination
#4
REVIEW
Helena S Domingues, Andrea Cruz, Jonah R Chan, João B Relvas, Boris Rubinstein, Inês Mendes Pinto
In the central nervous system, oligodendrocyte precursor cells are exclusive in their potential to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells migrate within the parenchyma and extend cell membrane protrusions that ultimately evolve into myelinating sheaths able to wrap neuronal axons and significantly increase their electrical conductivity. The subcellular force generating mechanisms driving morphological and functional transformations during oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination remain elusive...
September 21, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939917/use-of-a-fibrinogen-thrombin-sponge-in-rhinoplasty
#5
A Berghaus, M San Nicoló, C Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Although several methods have been described to address nasal dorsum augmentation and smoothing of irregularities in rhinoplasty, establishing the ideal method has proven controversial. OBJECTIVE: Here, we introduce a novel technique of cartilage grafting for nasal dorsum augmentation by wrapping cartilage in a fibrinogen- and thrombin-coated collagen patch called TachoSil®. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a pilot study comprising ten cases, the use of the collagen patch was examined in various indications in rhinoplasty...
September 22, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939774/bacterial-dnab-helicase-interacts-with-the-excluded-strand-to-regulate-unwinding
#6
Sean M Carney, Shivasankari Gomathinayagam, Sanford H Leuba, Michael A Trakselis
Replicative hexameric helicases are thought to unwind duplex DNA by steric exclusion (SE), where one DNA strand is encircled by the hexamer and the other is excluded from the central channel. However, interactions with the excluded strand on the exterior surface of hexameric helicases have also been shown to be important for DNA unwinding, giving rise to the steric exclusion and wrapping (SEW) model. For example, the archaeal SsoMCM helicase has been shown to unwind DNA via a SEW mode to enhance unwinding efficiency...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939539/falxuplication-a-novel-method-for-wrap-clipping-a-fusiform-aneurysm-a-technical-note
#7
Martin M Mortazavi, Tania Hassanzadeh, Kianoush Khalili, Sajid S Suriya, M Asif Taqi, Salman A Fard, R Shane Tubbs
BACKGROUND: Various techniques have been used for wrap-clipping a ruptured, fusiform intracranial aneurysm. However, there is no available literature on use of the falx cerebri for wrap-clipping. OBJECTIVE: We present a review of the literature with an illustrative case, with a ruptured fusiform pericallosal artery aneurysm firmly attached to the lower edge of the falx cerebri and not amenable to endovascular intervention. METHODS: While the firm attachment between the inferior falx and the fusiform aneurysm was maintained, a section of the lower thinner part of the falx cerebri firmly attached to the aneurysm was dissected and wrapped around the fusiform aneurysm, stabilized with a fenestrated clip...
September 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937225/photoluminescence-brightening-of-isolated-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#8
Zhentao Hou, Todd D Krauss
Addition of dithiothreitol (DTT) to a suspension consisting of either DNA or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) caused significant photoluminescence (PL) brightening from the SWCNTs, while PL quenching to different extents was observed for other surfactant-SWCNT suspensions. PL lifetime studies with high temporal resolution show that addition of DTT mitigates non-radiative decay processes, but also surprisingly increases the radiative decay rate for DNA- and SDS-SWCNTs...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937206/rod-like-sb2se3-wrapped-with-carbon-the-exploring-of-electrochemical-properties-in-sodium-ion-batteries
#9
Peng Ge, Xiao-Yu Cao, Hongshuai Hou, Sijie Li, Xiaobo Ji
One-dimensional Sb2Se3/C rods are prepared through self-assembly from the inducing of anisotropy, and the corresponding sodium storage behaviors are evaluated, presenting excellent electrochemical performances with superior cycle stability and rate capability. The Sb2Se3 delivers a high initial charge capacity of 657.6 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.2 A g-1 between 2.5 and 0.01 V. After 100 cycles, the reversible capacity of Sb2Se3/C remain 485.2 mAh g-1. Even at high rate current density of 2.0 A g-1, the charge capacity still remains 311...
September 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935770/crystal-structure-of-the-human-lysosomal-mtorc1-scaffold-complex-and-its-impact-on-signaling
#10
Mariana E G de Araujo, Andreas Naschberger, Barbara G Fürnrohr, Taras Stasyk, Theresia Dunzendorfer-Matt, Stefan Lechner, Stefan Welti, Leopold Kremser, Giridhar Shivalingaiah, Martin Offterdinger, Herbert H Lindner, Lukas A Huber, Klaus Scheffzek
LAMTOR (Late endosomal and lysosomal adaptor and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activator) also known as "Ragulator," controls the activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) on the lysosome. The crystal structure of LAMTOR consists of two roadblock/LC7 domain folded heterodimers wrapped and apparently held together by LAMTOR1, which assembles the complex on lysosomes. In addition, the Rag GTPases associated with the pentamer through their C-terminal domains, predefining the orientation for interaction with mTORC1...
September 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934550/structural-and-mechanical-roles-for-the-c-terminal-non-repetitive-domain-become-apparent-in-recombinant-spider-aciniform-silk
#11
Lingling Xu, Thierry Lefèvre, Kathleen E Orrell, Qing Meng, Michèle Auger, Xiang-Qin Liu, Jan K Rainey
Spider aciniform (or wrapping) silk is the toughest of the seven types of spider silks/glue due to a combination of high elasticity and strength. Like most spider silk proteins (spidroins), aciniform spidroin (AcSp1) has a large core repetitive domain flanked by relatively short N- and C-terminal non-repetitive domains (the NTD and CTD, respectively). The major ampullate silk protein (MaSp) CTD has been shown to control protein solubility and fiber formation, but the aciniform CTD function remains unknown. Here, we compare fiber mechanical properties, solution-state structuring, and fibrous state secondary structural composition and orientation relative to native aciniform silk for two AcSp1 repeat units with or without fused AcSp1- and MaSp-derived CTDs alongside three AcSp1 repeat units without a CTD...
September 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934496/activities-of-gyrase-and-topoisomerase-iv-on-positively-supercoiled-dna
#12
Rachel E Ashley, Andrew Dittmore, Sylvia A McPherson, Charles L Turnbough, Keir C Neuman, Neil Osheroff
Although bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase IV have critical interactions with positively supercoiled DNA, little is known about the actions of these enzymes on overwound substrates. Therefore, the abilities of Bacillus anthracis and Escherichia coli gyrase and topoisomerase IV to relax and cleave positively supercoiled DNA were analyzed. Gyrase removed positive supercoils ∼10-fold more rapidly and more processively than it introduced negative supercoils into relaxed DNA. In time-resolved single-molecule measurements, gyrase relaxed overwound DNA with burst rates of ∼100 supercoils per second (average burst size was 6...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934144/the-recognition-of-calmodulin-to-the-target-sequence-of-calcineurin-a-novel-binding-mode
#13
Chia-Lin Chyan, Deli Irene, Sin-Mao Lin
Calcineurin (CaN) is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent Ser/Thr protein phosphatase, which plays essential roles in many cellular and developmental processes. CaN comprises two subunits, a catalytic subunit (CaN-A, 60 kDa) and a regulatory subunit (CaN-B, 19 kDa). CaN-A tightly binds to CaN-B in the presence of minimal levels of Ca(2+), but the enzyme is inactive until activated by CaM. Upon binding to CaM, CaN then undergoes a conformational rearrangement, the auto inhibitory domain is displaced and thus allows for full activity...
September 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934116/experimental-comparison-of-different-carbon-fiber-composites-in-reinforcement-layouts-for-wooden-beams-of-historical-buildings
#14
Francisco J Rescalvo, Ignacio Valverde-Palacios, Elisabet Suarez, Antolino Gallego
This paper offers a detailed, quantitative and exhaustive experimental comparison in terms of mechanical properties of three different layouts of carbon composite materials (CFRP) used to strengthen existing old timber beams highly affected by diverse natural defects and biological attacks, testing the use of pultruded laminate attached on the tension side of the element (LR), CFRP fabrics totally U-shape wrapping the timber element (UR), and the combined use of both reinforcement solutions (UR-P). Moreover, unidirectional and bidirectional fabrics were considered and compared...
September 21, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933687/tagging-of-the-vaccinia-virus-protein-f13-with-mcherry-causes-aberrant-virion-morphogenesis
#15
David C J Carpentier, Michael S Hollinshead, Helen A Ewles, Stacey-Ann Lee, Geoffrey L Smith
Vaccinia virus produces two distinct infectious virions; the single-enveloped intracellular mature virus (IMV), which remains in the cell until cell lysis, and the double-enveloped extracellular enveloped virus (EEV), which mediates virus spread. The latter is derived from a triple-enveloped intracellular enveloped virus (IEV) precursor, which is transported to the cell periphery by the kinesin-1 motor complex. This transport involves the viral protein A36 as well as F12 and E2. A36 is an integral membrane protein associated with the outer virus envelope and is the only known direct link between virion and kinesin-1 complex...
September 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932658/the-process-of-wrapping-virus-revealed-by-a-force-tracing-technique-and-simulations
#16
Yangang Pan, Fuxian Zhang, Liuyang Zhang, Shuheng Liu, Mingjun Cai, Yuping Shan, Xianqiao Wang, Hanzhong Wang, Hongda Wang
Viral entry into the host cell is the first step of virus infection; however, its dynamic process via endocytosis remains largely elusive. Here, the force tracing technique and single particle simulation are combined to investigate the invagination of single human enterovirus 71 (HEV71, a positive single-stranded RNA virus that is associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease) via cell membranes during its host cell entry. The experimental results reveal that the HEV71 invaginates in membrane vesicles at a force of 58 ± 16 pN, a duration time of 278 ± 68 ms...
September 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931933/buckling-structured-stretchable-pseudocapacitor-yarn
#17
Duck Weon Lee, Jung Han Lee, Nam Ki Min, Joon-Hyung Jin
Cable-type stretchable electrochemical pseudocapacitors based on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheets and two different metal oxide nanopowders (NP), i.e., MnO2 and RuO2 are developed using a newly-devised dry painting method to mechanically fix the NP to the elastic rubber-based MWCNT electrode substrate, resulting in a porous buckling structured pseudocapacitor yarn. Highly stretchable stylene-ethylene/butylene-stylene (SEBS) is used as the supporting elastomeric core for wrapping with the MWCNT sheets and the electroactive NP...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931522/three-dimensional-morphometric-analysis-of-the-renal-vasculature
#18
Zohaib Khan, Jennifer P Ngo, Bianca Le, Roger G Evans, James Todd Pearson, Bruce S Gardiner, David W Smith
Vascular topology and morphology is critical in the regulation of blood flow and the transport of small solutes including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide. Renal vascular morphology is particularly challenging as many arterial walls are partially wrapped by the walls of veins. In the absence of a precise characterization of three-dimensional branching vascular geometry, accurate computational modeling of the intrarenal transport of small diffusible molecules is impossible. An enormous manual effort was required to achieve a relatively precise characterization of rat renal vascular geometry, highlighting the need for an automated method for analysis of branched vasculature morphology to allow characterization of the renal vascular geometry of other species, including humans...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931193/bacterial-cellulose-as-a-new-graft-model-for-the-turkish-delight-technique-in-rhinoplasty-an-experiment-in-20-rats
#19
Sevim Aydinli, Sultan Bişkin, Aykut Erdem Dinç, Yusuf Orhan Uçal, Nilüfer Kandemir, İshak Özel Tekin
We conducted an experiment to investigate the effectiveness of bacterial cellulose, a new graft material, in correcting and preventing dorsal nasal disorder in rhinoplasty. The experiment was performed on 20 Wistar albino rats. The rats were evenly divided into two groups: a fascia group and a cellulose group. In the fascia group, grafts from the conchal cartilage were removed, shredded, and then wrapped in temporal muscle fascia. In the cellulose group, shredded cartilage was wrapped in the bacterial cellulose...
September 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929612/comparison-of-laparoscopic-toupet-and-laparoscopic-nissen-fundoplications-in-neurologically-normal-children
#20
Go Miyano, Masaya Yamoto, Hiromu Miyake, Masakatsu Kaneshiro, Keiichi Morita, Hiroshi Nouso, Mariko Koyama, Manabu Okawada, Takashi Doi, Hiroyuki Koga, Geoffrey J Lane, Koji Fukumoto, Atsuyuki Yamataka, Naoto Urushihara
INTRODUCTION: We compared laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) in neurologically normal children. METHODS: Forty neurologically normal children who were followed up for more than 3 years after LTF (n = 22) or LNF (n = 18) were reviewed retrospectively. LTF and LNF were performed between 2006 and 2012. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in gender (LTF, 15 male and 7 female patients; LNF:, 12 male and 6 female patients), mean age at surgery (LTF vs LNF: 2...
September 20, 2017: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
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