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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936158/modulation-of-re-initiation-of-measles-virus-transcription-at-intergenic-regions-by-pxd-to-ntail-binding-strength
#1
Louis-Marie Bloyet, Joanna Brunel, Marion Dosnon, Véronique Hamon, Jenny Erales, Antoine Gruet, Carine Lazert, Christophe Bignon, Philippe Roche, Sonia Longhi, Denis Gerlier
Measles virus (MeV) and all Paramyxoviridae members rely on a complex polymerase machinery to ensure viral transcription and replication. Their polymerase associates the phosphoprotein (P) and the L protein that is endowed with all necessary enzymatic activities. To be processive, the polymerase uses as template a nucleocapsid made of genomic RNA entirely wrapped into a continuous oligomer of the nucleoprotein (N). The polymerase enters the nucleocapsid at the 3'end of the genome where are located the promoters for transcription and replication...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935359/microsurgical-and-endoscopic-approaches-to-the-pulvinar
#2
Osamu Akiyama, Ken Matsushima, Abuzer Gungor, Satoshi Matsuo, Dylan J Goodrich, R Shane Tubbs, Paul Klimo, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol, Hajime Arai, Albert L Rhoton
OBJECTIVE Approaches to the pulvinar remain challenging because of the depth of the target, surrounding critical neural structures, and complicated arterial and venous relationships. The purpose of this study was to compare the surgical approaches to different parts of the pulvinar and to examine the efficacy of the endoscope as an adjunct to the operating microscope in this area. METHODS The pulvinar was examined in 6 formalin-fixed human cadaveric heads through 5 approaches: 4 above and 1 below the tentorium...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934990/kinetics-of-receptor-mediated-endocytosis-of-elastic-nanoparticles
#3
Xin Yi, Huajian Gao
It is now widely recognized that mechanical properties play critical roles in the cell uptake of nanomaterials. Here we conduct a theoretical study on the kinetics of receptor-mediated endocytosis of elastic nanoparticles that is limited by receptor diffusion, specifically focusing on how the uptake rate depends on the nanoparticle stiffness and size, membrane tension and binding strength between membrane receptors and ligands grafted on the nanoparticle surface. It is shown that, while soft nanoparticles are energetically less prone to full wrapping than stiff ones, the wrapping of the former is kinetically faster than that of the latter...
December 9, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934185/one-step-synthesis-of-cagelike-hollow-silica-spheres-with-large-through-holes-for-macromolecule-delivery
#4
Shengnan Wang, Min Chen, Limin Wu
A facile, one-step method to prepare cagelike hollow silica nanospheres with large through-holes (HSNLs) using a lysozyme-assisted O/W miniemulsion technique is presented. The tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-xylene mixture forms oil droplets which are stabilized by the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), cosurfactant hexadecane (HD), and protein lysozyme. HSNLs (with diameter of 300-460 nm) with large through-holes (10-30 nm) were obtained directly after ultrasonic treatment and aging. Lysozyme can not only stabilize the oil/water interface, assist the hydrolysis of TEOS, and interact with silica particles to assemble into silica-lysozyme clusters but also contribute to the formation of through-holes due to its hydrophilicity variation at different pH conditions...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933146/operationalising-the-lean-principles-in-maternity-service-design-using-3p-methodology
#5
Iain Smith
The last half century has seen significant changes to Maternity services in England. Though rates of maternal and infant mortality have fallen to very low levels, this has been achieved largely through hospital admission. It has been argued that maternity services may have become over-medicalised and service users have expressed a preference for more personalised care. NHS England's national strategy sets out a vision for a modern maternity service that continues to deliver safe care whilst also adopting the principles of personalisation...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932766/-microsurgical-techniques-for-dorsal-wall-aneurysms-%C3%A2-in-the-internal-carotid-artery
#6
Fenghua Chen, Kun Hu, Junyu Wang, Jun Huang
To seek a reasonable microsurgical technique for dorsal wall aneurysms in the internal carotid artery (ICA), and to evaluate its efficacy.
 Methods: A total of 21 patients with dorsal wall aneurysms in the ICA who received microsurgical techniques were retrospectively analyzed. The directive surgical clapping was applied for saccular aneurysm, while the techniques of stitching and wrapping, simple wrapping, and trapping with extracranial-intracranial bypass were used for cystic and blood blister false aneurysms...
November 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932036/flame-retardant-wrapped-polyphosphazene-nanotubes-a-novel-strategy-for-enhancing-the-flame-retardancy-and-smoke-toxicity-suppression-of-epoxy-resins
#7
Shuilai Qiu, Xin Wang, Bin Yu, Xiaming Feng, Xiaowei Mu, Richard K K Yuen, Yuan Hu
The structure of polyphosphazene nanotubes (PZS) is similar to that of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) before modification. For applications of CNTs in polymer composites, surface wrapping is an economically attractive route to achieve functionalized nanotubes. Based on this idea, functionalized polyphosphazene nanotubes (FR@PZS) wrapped with a cross-linked DOPO-based flame retardant (FR) were synthesized via one-step strategy and well characterized. Then, the obtained FR@PZS was introduced into epoxy resin (EP) to investigate flame retardancy and smoke toxicity suppression performance...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932018/the-determinants-of-essential-newborn-care-for-home-births-in-bangladesh
#8
T Akter, A Dawson, D Sibbritt
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of sociodemographic, antenatal and delivery care factors with the essential newborn care (ENC) practices of neonates born at home in Bangladesh. STUDY DESIGN: This study analyzed data of a cross-sectional survey-the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. METHODS: This analysis considered 3190 most recent live-born infants who were delivered at home within three years of the survey. Logistic regression models were used to identify the factors affecting the implementation of six ENC practices, namely using disinfected instruments to cut the umbilical cord, avoidance of application of any substances to the umbilical cord stump, immediate drying and wrapping of newborns, delayed bathing of newborns, and immediate initiation of breastfeeding...
December 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931160/preparation-of-hollow-core-shell-fe3o4-graphene-oxide-composites-as-magnetic-targeting-drug-nanocarriers
#9
Junmei Wang, Jianjun Fang, Pan Fang, Xian Li, Shijie Wu, Wenjing Zhang, Sufang Li
A main challenge for anticancer drugs is that the drugs can not arrive the cancer tissue at right time. In this work, a magnetic targeting nanoparticle based on hollow Fe3O4/graphene oxide (Fe3O4/GO) was developed as a potential tumor targeting drug carriers. The morphology results showed the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were uniformly wrapped by graphene oxide. After coating with graphene oxide, the Fe3O4/GO showed a higher saturation magnetization of 71.47 emu g(-1) as compared to neat Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The drug loading and releasing experiment indicated the obtained Fe3O4/GO has a good loading capacity of of 0...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930837/the-view-from-the-back-row
#10
EDITORIAL
Meghan A Campbell
Taking it all in: Exploring the role of editors at conferences will help you understand how to make the most of such an interaction. After wrapping up a successful 2016 conference season, the Editor-in-Chief explains the importance of these visits. Also included, is a summary of Volume 17 and a preview of the coming year.
December 8, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929061/structural-basis-for-epstein-barr-virus-host-cell-tropism-mediated-by-gp42-and-ghgl-entry-glycoproteins
#11
Karthik Sathiyamoorthy, Yao Xiong Hu, Britta S Möhl, Jia Chen, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S Jardetzky
Herpesvirus entry into host cells is mediated by multiple virally encoded receptor binding and membrane fusion glycoproteins. Despite their importance in host cell tropism and associated disease pathology, the underlying and essential interactions between these viral glycoproteins remain poorly understood. For Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), gHgL/gp42 complexes bind HLA class II to activate membrane fusion with B cells, but gp42 inhibits fusion and entry into epithelial cells. To clarify the mechanism by which gp42 controls the cell specificity of EBV infection, here we determined the structure of gHgL/gp42 complex bound to an anti-gHgL antibody (E1D1)...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928178/successful-foaling-by-a-standardbred-mare-with-a-ruptured-prepubic-tendon
#12
Kerry J V Schutten
A 12-year-old Standardbred mare was diagnosed with a ruptured prepubic tendon 1 month prepartum. The mare was treated with analgesia, stall rest, and an abdominal support wrap that was tightened daily. Both a live foal born 1 month later and the mare are doing well.
December 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927911/comparison-of-methodologies-in-determining-bone-marrow-fat-percentage-under-different-environmental-conditions-assessing-a-tool-for-ruminant-welfare-investigations
#13
David Murden, Jaimie Hunnam, Bert De Groef, Grant Rawlin, Christina McCowan
The use of bone marrow fat percentage has been recommended in assessing body condition at the time of death in wild and domestic ruminants, but few studies have looked at the effects of time and exposure on animal bone marrow. We investigated the utility of bone marrow fat extraction as a tool for establishing antemortem body condition in postmortem specimens from sheep and cattle, particularly after exposure to high heat, and compared different techniques of fat extraction for this purpose. Femora were collected from healthy and "skinny" sheep and cattle...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926841/broken-tales-transcription-activator-like-effectors-populate-partly-folded-states
#14
Kathryn Geiger-Schuller, Doug Barrick
Transcription activator-like effector proteins (TALEs) contain large numbers of repeats that bind double-stranded DNA, wrapping around DNA to form a continuous superhelix. Since unbound TALEs retain superhelical structure, it seems likely that DNA binding requires a significant structural distortion or partial unfolding. In this study, we use nearest-neighbor "Ising" analysis of consensus TALE (cTALE) repeat unfolding to quantify intrinsic folding free energies, coupling energies between repeats, and the free energy distribution of partly unfolded states, and to determine how those energies depend on the sequence that determines DNA-specificity (called the "RVD")...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923925/biliary-secretion-of-quasi-enveloped-human-hepatitis-a-virus
#15
Asuka Hirai-Yuki, Lucinda Hensley, Jason K Whitmire, Stanley M Lemon
: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an unusual picornavirus that is released from cells cloaked in host-derived membranes. These quasi-enveloped virions (eHAV) are the only particle type circulating in blood during infection, whereas only nonenveloped virions are shed in feces. The reason for this is uncertain. Hepatocytes, the only cell type known to support HAV replication in vivo, are highly polarized epithelial cells with basolateral membranes facing onto hepatic (blood) sinusoids and apical membranes abutting biliary canaliculi from which bile is secreted to the gut...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920533/effect-of-inserted-spacer-in-hepatic-cell-penetrating-multifunctional-peptide-component-on-the-dna-intracellular-delivery-of-quaternary-complexes-based-on-modular-design
#16
Luchen Zhang, Zhenbo Li, Fangli Sun, Yuhong Xu, Zixiu Du
A safe and efficient quaternary gene delivery system (named Q-complexes) was constructed based on self-assembly of molecules through noncovalent bonds. This system was formulated through the cooperation and competing interactions of cationic liposomes, multifunctional peptides, and DNA, followed by coating hyaluronic acid on the surface of the ternary complexes. The multifunctional peptide was composed of two functional domains: penetrating hepatic tumor-targeted cell moiety (KRPTMRFRYTWNPMK) and a wrapping gene sequence (polyarginine 16)...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920430/biomimetic-antimicrobial-cloak-by-graphene-oxide-agar-hydrogel
#17
Massimiliano Papi, Valentina Palmieri, Francesca Bugli, Marco De Spirito, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Carlotta Ciancico, Maria Chiara Braidotti, Silvia Gentilini, Luca Angelani, Claudio Conti
Antibacterial surfaces have an enormous economic and social impact on the worldwide technological fight against diseases. However, bacteria develop resistance and coatings are often not uniform and not stable in time. The challenge is finding an antibacterial coating that is biocompatible, cost-effective, not toxic, and spreadable over large and irregular surfaces. Here we demonstrate an antibacterial cloak by laser printing of graphene oxide hydrogels mimicking the Cancer Pagurus carapace. We observe up to 90% reduction of bacteria cells...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918318/alternative-treatment-for-residual-aortobronchial-fistula-after-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair
#18
Kosuke Ujihira, Yoshihiko Kurimoto, Ryushi Maruyama, Yutaka Iba, Naritomo Nishioka, Akira Yamada, Katsuhiko Nakanishi, Hiroaki Kato, Masaru Abe, Yoshiaki Narita, Masayuki Osawa
A patient with an aortobronchial fistula secondary to a thoracic endovascular aortic repair was successfully treated with a re-thoracic endovascular aortic repair with debranching technique. Five months postoperatively, the aneurysm had shrunk; however, computed tomography revealed air in the thrombo-excluded aortic aneurysmal sac without signs of infection. Because of worsening air finding at the eighth month, we performed a resection of the residual fistula and wrapped the stent graft in a pedicled muscle flap...
December 1, 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917819/pulsatile-flow-conditioning-of-three-dimensional-bioengineered-cardiac-ventricle
#19
Nikita M Patel, Ravi K Birla
Current physical stimuli mechanical stretch bioreactor studies focus on conditioning planar and/or tubular engineered cardiac constructs. The current 3D bioreactor models in cardiac tissue engineering use differential pressure loading for structural support as opposed to conditioning. The development of the pulsatile flow conditioned ventricle (PFCV) provides a 3D mechanical stretch conditioning method to generate pump function in the engineered cardiac left ventricle. The study utilizes a chitosan bioengineered open ventricle scaffold, to produce the in vitro PFCV model...
December 5, 2016: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913962/bathing-and-associated-treatments-in-atopic-dermatitis
#20
REVIEW
Julia K Gittler, Jason F Wang, Seth J Orlow
Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common complaints presenting to dermatologists, and patients typically inquire as to appropriate bathing recommendations. Although many dermatologists, allergists, and primary-care practitioners provide explicit bathing instructions, recommendations regarding frequency of bathing, duration of bathing, and timing related to emollient and medication application relative to bathing vary widely. Conflicting and vague guidelines stem from knowledge related to the disparate effects of water on skin, as well as a dearth of studies, especially randomized controlled trials, evaluating the effects of water and bathing on the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis...
December 3, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
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