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J S Gomes, A P Trevizol, D V Ducos, A Gadelha, B B Ortiz, A O Fonseca, H T Akiba, C C Azevedo, L S P Guimaraes, P Shiozawa, Q Cordeiro, A Lacerda, A M Dias
Background: The lack of efficacy of pharmacological treatments for cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia highlights the need for new interventions. We investigated the effects of tDCS on working memory and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Method: Double-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial, investigating the effects of 10 sessions of tDCS in schizophrenia subjects. Stimulation used 2 mA, for 20 min, with electrodes of 25 cm2 wrapped in cotton material soaked in saline solution...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Breann L Brown, Julia R Kardon, Robert T Sauer, Tania A Baker
5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS) catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis. We present the crystal structure of a eukaryotic ALAS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this homodimeric structure, one ALAS subunit contains covalently bound cofactor, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), whereas the second is PLP free. Comparison between the subunits reveals PLP-coupled reordering of the active site and of additional regions to achieve the active conformation of the enzyme. The eukaryotic C-terminal extension, a region altered in multiple human disease alleles, wraps around the dimer and contacts active-site-proximal residues...
March 5, 2018: Structure
Yu-Han Su, Elham Rastegri, Shih-Han Kao, Chun-Min Lai, Kun-Yang Lin, Hung-Yu Liao, Mu-Hsiang Wang, Hwei-Jan Hsu
Diet is an important regulator of stem cell homeostasis, however, the underlying mechanisms of this regulation are not fully known. Here, we report that insulin signaling mediates dietary maintenance of Drosophila ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) by promoting the extension of niche escort cell (EC) membranes to wrap around GSCs. This wrapping may facilitate the delivery of BMP stemness factors from ECs in the niche to GSCs. In addition to the effects on GSCs, insulin signaling-mediated regulation of EC number and protrusions controls the division and growth of GSC progeny...
March 16, 2018: Development
Eunji Kim, Hyeri Kim, Byung-Jun Park, Young-Hee Han, Jong Hyuk Park, Jinhan Cho, Sang-Soo Lee, Jeong Gon Son
From graphene oxide wrapped iron oxide particles with etching/reduction process, high-performance anode and cathode materials of lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors are obtained in the same process with different etching conditions, which consist of partially etched crumpled graphene (CG) wrapped spiky iron oxide particles (CG@SF) for a battery-type anode, and fully etched CG for a capacitive-type cathode. The CG is formed along the shape of spikily etched particles, resulting in high specific surface area and electrical conductivity, thus the CG-based cathode exhibits remarkable capacitive performance of 210 F g-1 and excellent rate capabilities...
March 15, 2018: Small
Tanchen Ren, Anne Faust, Yolandi van der Merwe, Bo Xiao, Scott Johnson, Apoorva Kandakatla, Vijay S Gorantla, Stephen F Badylak, Kia M Washington, Michael B Steketee
In peripheral nerve (PN) injuries requiring surgical repair, as in PN transection, cellular and ECM remodeling at PN epineurial repair sites is hypothesized to reduce PN functional outcomes by slowing, misdirecting, or preventing axons from regrowing appropriately across the repair site. Herein this study reports on deriving and analyzing fetal porcine urinary bladder extracellular matrix (fUB-ECM) by vacuum assisted decellularization, fabricating fUBM-ECM nerve wraps, and testing fUB-ECM nerve wrap biocompatibility and bioactivity in a trigeminal, infraorbital nerve (ION) branch transection and direct end-to-end repair model in rat...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peter Bryk, Matthew G Brewer, Brian M Ward
The vaccinia virus protein F13, encoded by the F13L gene, is conserved across the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae and is critical among orthopoxviruses to produce the wrapped form of virus that is required for cell-to-cell spread. F13 is the major envelope protein on the membrane of extracellular forms of virus, however it is not known if F13 is required in steps post-wrapping. In this report, we utilize two temperature-sensitive vaccinia virus mutants from the Condit collection of temperature-sensitive viruses whose small plaque phenotypes have been mapped to the F13L gene...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Steven J Holochwost, Vanessa V Volpe, Noa Gueron-Sela, Cathi B Propper, W Roger Mills-Koonce
BACKGROUND: Deficits of inhibitory control in early childhood are linked to externalizing behaviors and attention problems. While environmental factors and physiological processes are associated with its etiology, few studies have examined how these factors jointly predict inhibitory control. This study examined whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) functioned as a mediator or moderator of both cumulative sociodemographic risk and parenting behaviors on inhibitory control during early childhood...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Anthony M Rossi, Vilaiwan M Fernandes
Various regions of the developing brain coordinate their construction so that the correct types and numbers of cells are generated to build a functional network. We previously discovered that wrapping glia in the Drosophila visual system are essential for coordinating retinal and lamina development. We showed that wrapping glia, which ensheath photoreceptor axons, respond to an epidermal growth factor cue from photoreceptors by secreting insulins. Wrapping glial insulins activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway downstream of insulin receptor in lamina precursors to induce neuronal differentiation...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Vineet Choudhary, Gonen Golani, Amit S Joshi, Stéphanie Cottier, Roger Schneiter, William A Prinz, Michael M Kozlov
Lipid droplets (LDs) store fats and play critical roles in lipid and energy homeostasis. They form between the leaflets of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and consist of a neutral lipid core wrapped in a phospholipid monolayer with proteins. Two types of ER-LD architecture are thought to exist and be essential for LD functioning. Maturing LDs either emerge from the ER into the cytoplasm, remaining attached to the ER by a narrow membrane neck, or stay embedded in the ER and are surrounded by ER membrane...
March 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Ruipeng Ren, Jing Ren, Yongkang Lv
Carbon nanomaterials, especially graphene and carbon nanotube, with high specific surface area, electrical conductivity and excellent mechanical flexibility have been considered as favorable alternatives to graphite anodes in Li-ion batteries. However, the limited Li ion storage sites within the sp2 carbon hexahedrons leads to the low storage capacity. Thus, the rational structure design is essential to prepare the high performance carbon-based anode materials. Here, we have used flexible single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) with ultra-high electrical conductivity to wrap the three-dimensional graphene foam (GF) by a facile dip-coating process to form the binary network structure...
March 10, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Jean-Patrick Benigni, Jean-François Uhl, Florence Balet, Pascal Filori, Maxime Chahim
BACKGROUND: Prolonged immobility in the sitting position in the elderly is known to produce venous stasis with leg edema and possible skin changes. Compression stockings are often applied for this clinical problem. There are few experienced nursing staff available to supervise the difficult task of stocking application. METHODS: The authors have researched other effective and simple devices that may be suitable alternatives. This article reports the results of three different devices to reduce leg edema, as measured by reduction in leg volume : an electro- stimulation device, an adjustable compression Velcro® wrap and a short stretch bandage, each tested over a two-hour period...
March 8, 2018: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
Felix J Berger, Thomas M Higgins, Marcel Rother, Arko Graf, Yuriy Zakharko, Sybille Allard, Maik Matthiesen, Jan M Gotthardt, Ullrich Scherf, Jana Zaumseil
Dense layers of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) serve as electrochromic materials in the near-infrared with high optical density and high conductivity. Electrochromic cells with tunable notch filter properties instead of broadband absorption are created via highly selective dispersion of specific semiconducting SWNTs through polymer-wrapping followed by deposition of thick films by aerosol-jet printing. A simple planar geometry with spray-coated mixed SWNTs as the counter electrode renders transparent metal oxides redundant and facilitates complete bleaching within a few seconds through iongel electrolytes with high ionic conductivities...
March 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Joaquín García-Gómez, Roberto Gil-Pita, Manuel Rosa-Zurera, Antonio Romero-Camacho, Jesús Antonio Jiménez-Garrido, Víctor García-Benavides
Pipeline inspection is a topic of particular interest to the companies. Especially important is the defect sizing, which allows them to avoid subsequent costly repairs in their equipment. A solution for this issue is using ultrasonic waves sensed through Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) actuators. The main advantage of this technology is the absence of the need to have direct contact with the surface of the material under investigation, which must be a conductive one. Specifically interesting is the meander-line-coil based Lamb wave generation, since the directivity of the waves allows a study based in the circumferential wrap-around received signal...
March 7, 2018: Sensors
Miao Ren, Haiyang Liu, Jiao Qu, Yanan Zhang, Ying Ma, Xing Yuan
The graphene (GR)/TiO2 membrane was prepared by the sol-gel method and coated on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, which showed high and stable photo(-electro)-catalytic activities to rhodamine B (Rh-B) in water. Characterization results showed that the GR was dispersed and wrapped in the needle-like TiO2 . With GR/TiO2 membrane and simulated sunlight irradiation, the removal efficiency of Rh-B (10 mg l-1 and pH at 5.4) arrived at 87.6% within 300 min. However, the higher removal efficiency for Rh-B reached to 97...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhengzheng Li
MnO2 -graphene nanosheets wrapped mesoporous carbon/sulfur (MGN@MC/S) composite is successfully synthesized derived from metal-organic frameworks and investigated as cathode for lithium-ion batteries. Used as cathode, MGN@MC/S composite possesses electronic conductivity network for redox electron transfer and strong chemical bonding to lithium polysulfides, which enables low capacity loss to be achieved. MGN@MC/S cathodes exhibit high reversible capacity of 1475 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and an ultra-low capacity fading of 0...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Hironori Funabiki, Christopher Jenness, Christian Zierhut
The majority of eukaryotic chromosomal DNA exists in the form of nucleosomes, where ∼147 bp DNA wraps around histone hetero-octamers, composed of histone H3, H4, H2A, and H2B. Despite their obvious importance in DNA compaction and accessibility, studying their specific roles, such as regulation of mitotic progression, in a physiological environment is associated with critical caveats because of their major contributions in transcriptional control. Through establishing a method to deplete endogenous histones H3 and H4 from frog egg extracts and complementing their functions using recombinant nucleosome arrays, we are now able to analyze their roles in mitotic progression without affecting overall transcriptomic profiles...
March 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Caroline Daiane Nath, Marcela Abbado Neres, Kácia Carine Scheidt, Luciano Dos Santos Bersot, Samantha Mariana Monteiro Sunahara, Jaqueline Rocha Wobeto Sarto, José Renato Stangarlin, Simone Damasceno Gomes, Mallu Jagnow Sereno, Ana Paula Perin
Objective: The objective was to characterize the fermentative and microbiological profile of Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage with different layers of polyethylene film and storage time. Methods: The experimental design consisted of a randomized block design with four and six wrapping layers (100 and 150 microns in total. respectively) allocated in the main plots, through repeated measures analysis (30, 60, and 90 days of storage) with four replicates. Results: The storage time and number of wrapping layers did not show changes in the population of Clostridium and lactic acid bacteria...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Tomoya Kamide, Halima Tabani, Sirin Gandhi, Arnau Benet, Michael T Lawton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Ping Chen, Jun Ouyang, Jiangwei Xiao, Zhongyu Han, Qiang Yu, Jing Tian, Li Zhang
The objective of this study was to investigate whether the co-injection of human adipose stromal cells (hASCs) and rhBMP-2/fibrin gel into the bone tunnels of anterior cruciate-ligament reconstructions can effectively enhance tendon graft osteointegration. We performed bilateral reconstructions using autologous semitendinosus tendons in 45 New Zealand rabbits, which we divided into three groups. We injected the bone tunnels with fibrin gel for group 1, rhBMP-2 (1 μg/ml)/fibrin gel for group 2, and hASCs wrapped in rhBMP-2 (1 μg/ml)/fibrin gel for group 3...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Tobias Brandmann, Hana Fakim, Zoya Padamsi, Ji-Young Youn, Anne-Claude Gingras, Marc R Fabian, Martin Jinek
The LSM domain-containing protein LSM14/Rap55 plays a role in mRNA decapping, translational repression, and RNA granule (P-body) assembly. How LSM14 interacts with the mRNA silencing machinery, including the eIF4E-binding protein 4E-T and the DEAD-box helicase DDX6, is poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of the LSM domain of LSM14 bound to a highly conserved C-terminal fragment of 4E-T. The 4E-T C-terminus forms a bi-partite motif that wraps around the N-terminal LSM domain of LSM14. We also determined the crystal structure of LSM14 bound to the C-terminal RecA-like domain of DDX6...
March 6, 2018: EMBO Journal
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