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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454296/effect-of-multiple-low-dose-pgf-2-%C3%AE-injections-on-the-mature-corpus-luteum-in-non-pregnant-bitches
#1
Eyyup H Ucar, Hayrettin Cetin, Mehmet O Atli
This study investigated molecular regulation in the canine corpus luteums/corpora lutea (CL) following multiple low-dose prostaglandin F 2 alpha (PGF 2 α) injections in non-pregnant bitches around 30-35 days after ovulation. The CL were obtained by ovariohysterectomy 1 h after the last PGF 2 α injection. The subjects were divided into the following groups: control (no PGF 2 α injection, n = 4), one PGF 2 α injection (injection at 0 h, 1PGF, n = 4), two PGF 2 α injection (injection at 0 and 8 h, 2PGF, n = 4), and three PGF 2 α injection (injection at 0, 8 and 24 h, 3PGF, n = 4)...
February 14, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454257/infants-agent-individuation-it-s-what-s-on-the-insides-that-counts
#2
Hernando Taborda-Osorio, Erik W Cheries
Adults and preschool-aged children believe that internal properties are more important than external properties when determining an agent's identity over time. The current study examined the developmental origins of this understanding using a manual-search individuation task with 13-month-old infants. Subjects observed semi-transparent objects that looked and behaved like animate agents placed into box that they could reach but not see into. Across trials infants observed objects with either the same- or different-colored insides placed into the box...
February 14, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454154/age-related-functional-changes-in-domain-specific-medial-temporal-lobe-pathways
#3
David Berron, Katja Neumann, Anne Maass, Hartmut Schütze, Klaus Fliessbach, Verena Kiven, Frank Jessen, Magdalena Sauvage, Dharshan Kumaran, Emrah Düzel
There is now converging evidence from studies in animals and humans that the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) harbor anatomically distinct processing pathways for object and scene information. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans suggest that this domain-specific organization may be associated with a functional preference of the anterior-lateral part of the entorhinal cortex (alErC) for objects and the posterior-medial entorhinal cortex (pmErC) for scenes. As MTL subregions are differentially affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases, the question was raised whether aging may affect the 2 pathways differentially...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454153/muscle-carnosine-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Charly Keytsman, Laura Blancquaert, Inez Wens, Maarten Missine, Pieter Van Noten, Frank Vandenabeele, Wim Derave, Bert O Eijnde
BACKGROUND: Muscle carnosine is related to contractile function (Ca ++ handling) and buffering of exercise-induced acidosis. As these muscular functions are altered in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) it is relevant to understand muscle carnosine levels in MS. METHODS: Tibialis anterior muscle carnosine was measured in an animal MS model (EAE, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, n = 40) and controls (CON, n = 40) before and after exercise training (EAE EX , CON EX , 10d, 1 h/d, 24 m/min treadmill running) or sedentary conditions (EAE SED , CON SED )...
February 11, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454113/identification-of-two-novel-cress-dna-viruses-associated-with-an-avipoxvirus-lesion-of-a-blue-and-gray-tanager-thraupis-episcopus
#5
Michaël A J Moens, Javier Pérez-Tris, Martí Cortey, Laura Benítez
The discovery of circular rep-encoding single stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses has increased spectacularly over the past decade. They represent the smallest animal viruses known worldwide infecting a wide variety of invertebrates and vertebrates in different natural and human-made environments. The extremely low similarity of nucleotide and protein sequences among different CRESS DNA genomes has challenged their classification. Moreover, the existence of capsid proteins (Cp) remains difficult to demonstrate which is crucial to understand the structural properties of these viruses...
February 14, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454084/augmented-voluntary-consumption-of-ethanol-induced-by-reward-downshift-increases-locomotor-activity-of-male-wistar-rats-in-the-elevated-plus-maze
#6
Rocio Donaire, Shannon E Conrad, Joanna B Thompson, Mauricio R Papini, Carmen Torres
Rats exposed to unexpected reward loss increase voluntary oral consumption of ethanol. Such consumption has been assumed to attenuate loss-induced negative affect (called emotional self-medication). To test this assumption, food-deprived male Wistar rats were exposed to 10 sessions of access to 32% sucrose followed by 5 sessions of access to 4% sucrose (reward downshift). A two-bottle preference test was initiated immediately after each consummatory session to assess ethanol intake. The experimental group received access to 2% ethanol and water, whereas the control group received access to two water bottles...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454075/the-g-protein-coupled-p2y-6-receptor-promotes-colorectal-cancer-tumorigenesis-by-inhibiting-apoptosis
#7
Morgane Placet, Guillaume Arguin, Caroline M Molle, Jean-Philippe Babeu, Christine Jones, Julie C Carrier, Bernand Robaye, Sameh Geha, Francois Boudreau, Fernand-Pierre Gendron
Colorectal tumors are immersed in an array of tumor-promoting factors including extracellular nucleotides such as uridine 5'‑diphosphate (UDP). UDP is the endogenous agonist of the G protein-coupled P2Y 6 receptor (P2Y 6 R), which may contribute to the formation of a tumor-promoting microenvironment by coordinating resistance to apoptosis. Colorectal cancer (CRC) was chemically induced in P2ry6 knockout (P2ry6 -/- ) mice using azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium challenges. Mice were euthanatized and their tumor load determined...
February 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454067/considering-our-methods-methodological-issues-with-rodent-models-of-appetite-and-obesity-research
#8
Thomas A Lutz
A large number of animal models are currently used in appetite and obesity research. Because the worldwide incidence of obesity continues to climb, it is imperative that animal models sharing characteristics of human obesity and its co-morbidities be used appropriately in the quest for novel preventions or treatments. There is probably no animal model, at least in rodents, that recapitulates all aspects of "common" human obesity and its comorbidities, but rodent models allow insight into specific mechanisms of disease or its consequences...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454035/high-and-low-doses-of-cocaine-intake-are-differentially-regulated-by-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-and-the-nucleus-accumbens
#9
R Chen, S McIntosh, S E Hemby, H Sun, T Sexton, Thomas Martin, S R Childers
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are associated with vulnerability to addiction; however, whether D2Rs in these two brain regions play differential roles in regulation of drug intake is unknown. Here, we compared the effect of decreased mRNA level of Drd2 in each region on cocaine self-administration in a dose-response function. Drd2 mRNA levels in rat VTA or NAc were knocked down by bilateral microinjection of lentivirus coding shRNAs against rat Drd2...
February 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454023/interaction-between-hypothermia-and-delayed-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#10
Josephine Herz, Christian Köster, Barbara S Reinboth, Mark Dzietko, Wiebke Hansen, Hemmen Sabir, Cindy van Velthoven, Ivo Bendix, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser
Acute hypothermia treatment (HT) is the only clinically established intervention following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. However, almost half of all cooled infants still die or suffer from long-lasting neurological impairments. Regenerative therapies, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) appear promising as adjuvant therapy. In the present study, we hypothesized that HT combined with delayed MSC therapy results in augmented protection, improving long-term neurological outcome. Postnatal day 9 (P9) C57BL/6 mice were exposed to hypoxia-ischemia followed by 4 hours HT...
February 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454012/immunologic-effects-of-chronic-administration-of-tofacitinib-a-janus-kinase-inhibitor-in-cynomolgus-monkeys-and-rats-comparison-of-juvenile-and-adult-responses
#11
Mark Collinge, Douglas J Ball, Christopher J Bowman, Andrea L Nilson, Zaher A Radi, W Mark Vogel
Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, targets JAK1, JAK3, and to a lesser extent JAK2 and TYK2. JAK1/3 inhibition impairs gamma common chain cytokine receptor signaling, important in lymphocyte development, homeostasis and function. Adult and juvenile cynomolgus monkey and rat studies were conducted and the impact of tofacitinib on immune parameters (lymphoid tissues and lymphocyte subsets) and function (T-dependent antibody response (TDAR), mitogen-induced T cell proliferation) assessed...
February 14, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454007/destruction-of-noradrenergic-terminals-increases-dopamine-concentration-and-reduces-dopamine-metabolism-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Rita Gálosi, Zoltán Petykó, Veronika Kállai, Attila Tóth, Tamás Ollmann, László Péczely, Anita Kovács, Beata Berta, László Lénárd
Effects of destroyed noradrenergic (NE) innervation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were examined on dopamine (DA) content and metabolism. 6-hydroxy-DOPA (6-OHDOPA) or 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in combination with a potent DA reuptake inhibitor GBR 12935 or 6-OHDA were injected bilaterally into the mPFC in separate groups of animals. In addition, GBR 12935 or vehicle was injected into the mPFC in two other groups of animals as control experiments. NE and DA concentrations from postmortem tissue of the mPFC were measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454001/brain-bioenergetics-in-rats-with-acute-hyperphenylalaninemia
#13
Nádia Weber Dimer, Bruna Klippel Ferreira, Jotele Fontana Agostini, Maria Luiza Gomes, Luiza Wilges Kist, Fernanda Malgarin, Milena Carvalho-Silva, Lara Mezari Gomes, Joyce Rebelo, Marisa Jádna Silva Frederico, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto Silva, Eduardo Pacheco Rico, Mauricio Reis Bogo, Emilio Luiz Streck, Gustavo Costa Ferreira, Patrícia Fernanda Schuck
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disorder of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism caused by deficient phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. The deficiency results in increased levels of Phe and its metabolites in fluids and tissues of patients. PKU patients present neurological signals and symptoms including hypomyelination and intellectual deficit. This study assessed brain bioenergetics at 1 h after acute Phe administration to induce hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) in rats. Wistar rats were randomized in two groups: HPA animals received a single subcutaneous administration of Phe (5...
February 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453997/effects-of-para-methoxyamphetamine-pma-on-agonistic-encounters-between-male-mice
#14
Mercedes Martín-López, Ana T Muela, María Cavas, José Francisco Navarro
Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) is a synthetic drug chemically similar to the recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") and often replaces MDMA in tablets that show an "ecstasy" logo. PMA displays a higher toxic potential than MDMA, but the behavioral profile of PMA has been scarcely studied in animal models. Here we evaluated the effects of PMA (2, 4, 8, and 12 mg/kg, i.p.) on agonist encounters between male mice using an ethopharmacological approach, the isolation-induced aggression model...
February 14, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453978/venlafaxine-prevents-morphine-antinociceptive-tolerance-the-role-of-neuroinflammation-and-the-l-arginine-nitric-oxide-pathway
#15
Mohammad Taghi Mansouri, Bahareh Naghizadeh, Behnam Ghorbanzadeh, Soheila Alboghobeish, Neda Amirgholami, Gholamreza Houshmand, Omar Cauli
Opioid-induced neuroinflammation and the nitric oxide (NO) signal-transduction pathway are involved in the development of opioid analgesic tolerance. The antidepressant venlafaxine (VLF) modulates NO in nervous tissues, and so we investigated its effect on induced tolerance to morphine, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress in mice. Tolerance to the analgesic effects of morphine were induced by injecting mice with morphine (50 mg/kg) once a day for three consecutive days; the effect of co-administration of VLF (5 or 40 mg/kg) with morphine was similarly tested in a separate group...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453974/genetically-modified-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-tgf-%C3%AE-3-improve-wound-healing-and-reduce-scar-tissue-formation-in-a-rabbit-model
#16
Mingyong Li, Lin Qiu, Wei Hu, Xiang Deng, Hanfeng Xu, Youhan Cao, Zijian Xiao, Liangyu Peng, Shawn Johnson, Lyundup Alexey, Paul A Kingston, Qing Li, Yuanyuan Zhang
Extensive scar tissue formation often occurs after severe burn injury, trauma, or as one of complications after surgical intervention. Despite significant therapeutic advances, it is still a significant challenge to manage massive scar tissue formation while also promoting normal wound healing. The goal of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) that were genetically modified to overexpress transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-β 3 ), an inhibitor of myofibroblast proliferation and collagen type I deposition, on full-thickness cutaneous wound healing in a rabbit model...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453960/synaptic-dysfunction-and-altered-excitability-in-c9orf72-als-ftd
#17
Alexander Starr, Rita Sattler
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by a progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in fatal paralysis due to denervation of the muscle. Due to genetic, pathological and symptomatic overlap, ALS is now considered a spectrum disease together with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the second most common cause of dementia in individuals under the age of 65. Interestingly, in both diseases, there is a large prevalence of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are mutated and considered disease-causing, or whose dysfunction contribute to disease pathogenesis...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453913/chronic-fluoxetine-treatment-induces-lipid-accumulation-but-does-not-alter-the-expression-of-pref-1-in-rat-adipose-tissue
#18
László-István Bába, Zsolt Gáll, István Lóránt Bíró, Tibor Mezei, Imre Zoltán Kun, Melinda Kolcsár
This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment on preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) expression in subcutaneous, visceral and brown adipose tissues, and on the size of vacuoles in a dipocytes obtained from the perirenal regions in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were treated with FLX at two different doses and fourteen animals received vehicle. After 40 days of treatment, the subcutaneous, perirenal and interscapular adipose tissues were collected. Pref-1 expression was examined using an immunohistochemical method and the vacuolar area was measured in stained sections...
March 1, 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453900/downregulation-of-reticulocalbin-1-differentially-facilitates-apoptosis-and-necroptosis-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#19
Xiaofei Liu, Nianzhao Zhang, Dawei Wang, Deyu Zhu, Quan Yuan, Xiulei Zhang, Lilin Qian, Huanmin Niu, Yi Lu, Guijie Ren, Keli Tian, Huiqing Yuan
Reticulocalbin 1 (RCN1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident Ca 2+ -binding protein, is dysregulated in cancers, but its pathophysiological roles are largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RCN1 is overexpressed in clinical prostate cancer (PCa) samples, associated with Cyclin B, not Cyclin D1 expression, compared to that of benign tissues in a Chinese Han population. Downregulation of endogenous RCN1 significantly suppresses PCa cell viability and arrests the cell cycles of DU145 and LNCaP cells at the S and G2/M phases, respectively...
February 17, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453851/dicer-inactivation-stimulates-limb-regeneration-ability-in-xenopus-laevis
#20
Mengshi Zhang, Li Yang, Feng Yuan, Ying Chen, Gufa Lin
The ontogenetic decline of regeneration capacity in the anuran amphibian Xenopus makes it an excellent model for regeneration studies. However, the cause of the regeneration ability decline is not fully understood. MicroRNAs regulate animal development, and have been indicated in various regeneration situations. However, little is known about the role of microRNAs during limb regeneration in Xenopus. This study investigates the effect of Dicer, an enzyme responsible for microRNA maturation, on limb development and regeneration in Xenopus...
February 17, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
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