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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679950/morbidity-and-mortality-following-total-hip-replacement-in-dogs
#1
William D Liska, Sarah K Israel
OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to determine morbidity and mortality rates in dogs that had undergone a total hip replacement surgery with implantation of either a cemented or a cementless prosthesis (BioMedtrix LLC, Whippany, NJ). METHODS:  The survival time after surgery, the date of death and the cause of death were collated from an ongoing registry maintained on consecutive total hip replacement procedures by a single surgeon. RESULTS:  A review of the 1,864 dogs entered in the total hip replacement registry revealed 642 in which the date of death and cause of death were known...
April 21, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679946/extensive-depolarization-and-lack-of-recovery-of-leech-retzius-neurons-caused-by-2-4-diaminobutyric-acid
#2
S Spasic, M Stanojevic, J Nesovic Ostojic, S Kovacevic, M Prostran, S Lopicic
In this paper we present, for the first time, a detailed account of electrophysiological effects of 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DABA). 2,4-DABA is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid produced by Cyanobacteria with a possible link to neurodegenerative disorders in animals and humans. Intracellular recordings were performed on Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga using glass microelectrodes filled with 3 mol/L KCl. Our results show that 2,4-DABA is an excitatory amino acid, causing membrane depolarization in a concentration-dependent manner...
March 31, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679940/nmr-based-metabolic-toxicity-of-low-level-hg-exposure-to-earthworms
#3
Ronggui Tang, Changfeng Ding, Fei Dang, Yibing Ma, Junsong Wang, Taolin Zhang, Xingxiang Wang
Mercury is a globally distributed toxicant to aquatic animals and mammals. However, the potential risks of environmental relevant mercury in terrestrial systems remain largely unclear. The metabolic profiles of the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to soil contaminated with mercury at 0.77 ± 0.09 mg/kg for 2 weeks were investigated using a two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance-based (1 H-13 C NMR) metabolomics approach. The results revealed that traditional endpoints (e.g., mortality and weight loss) did not differ significantly after exposure...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679938/exposure-to-nanoplastics-disturbs-the-gut-microbiome-in-the-soil-oligochaete-enchytraeus-crypticus
#4
Bo-Kai Zhu, Yi-Meng Fang, Dong Zhu, Peter Christie, Xin Ke, Yong-Guan Zhu
Microplastics are emerging pollutants that have recently aroused considerable concern but most toxicological studies have focused on marine biota, with little investigation of the influence of microplastics on terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we fed the soil oligochaete Enchytraeus crypticus with oatmeal containing 0, 0.025, 0.5, and 10% (dry weight basis) nano-polystyrene (0.05-0.1 μm particle size) to elucidate the impact of microplastics on the growth and gut microbiome of Enchytraeus crypticus. We observed a significant reduction of weight in the animals fed 10% polystyrene and an increase in the reproduction of those fed 0...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679883/protective-effects-of-stigmasterol-against-ketamine-induced-psychotic-symptoms-possible-behavioral-biochemical-and-histopathological-changes-in-mice
#5
Monu Yadav, Milind Parle, Deepak Kumar Jindal, Sameer Dhingra
BACKGROUND: Stigmasterol, a naturally occurring phytoestrogen has been reported to possess many pharmacological activities. The aim of the present study was to screen the effect of stigmasterol against ketamine-induced mice model of psychosis. METHODS: The behavioural studies included an assessment of locomotor activity, stereotypic behaviours, immobility duration, step down latency and effects on catalepsy. Biochemical estimations involved the estimations of GABA, dopamine, GSH, MDA, TNF-α, total protein content and AChE activity...
January 11, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679855/rutin-and-rutin-conjugated-gold-nanoparticles-ameliorate-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-rats-through-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-inos-activation
#6
Anum Gul, Bimal Kunwar, Maryam Mazhar, Shaheen Faizi, Dania Ahmed, Muhammad Raza Shah, Shabana U Simjee
Numerous studies have suggested that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important mediators of inflammatory response in human and animal models of arthritis. Besides, oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide (NO) and peroxide (PO) are also major contributors in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Over expression of these inflammatory mediators leads to the extracellular matrix degradation, and excessive cartilage and bone resorption, ultimately leading to the irreversible damage to joints...
April 18, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679836/physical-immobility-as-a-sensitive-indicator-of-hydraulic-fracturing-fluid-toxicity-towards-daphnia-magna
#7
Tamzin A Blewett, Perrine L M Delompré, Chris N Glover, Greg G Goss
The process of extracting hydrocarbon resources by hydraulic fracturing is an increasingly utilised technique worldwide, resulting in an effluent called flowback and produced water (FPW). This effluent is a complex mixture of salts, metals and organic compounds, and has been shown to be highly toxic to aquatic biota, an effect attributed mainly to its salt and organic components. However, in the current study we show that the water flea, Daphnia magna, is physically impaired by, and rendered immobile at the surface of, test waters containing FPW...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679812/protective-role-of-nimbolide-against-chemotherapeutic-drug-hydroxyurea-induced-genetic-and-oxidative-damage-in-an-animal-model
#8
Md Fahim Ahmad, Mohd Owais Ansari, Sana Jameel, Ab Latif Wani, Nuzhat Parveen, Hifzur R Siddique, G G H A Shadab
Nimbolide is known to be an antioxidant found in neem plant. Hydroxyurea is a medication frequently used in sickle-cell disease, different cancers and HIV infection. The present study aimed to evaluate the adverse effect of HU and possible amelioration by nimbolide in Wistar rats. To test our hypothesis, we performed genotoxicity tests, biochemical assays, and histopathological studies. We observed that HU caused higher levels of genotoxicity in the treated animals. The observed genetic and oxidative damage might be due to the presence of reactive species as HU increased the level of the malondialdehyde-a biomarker of oxidative damage...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679786/simultaneous-analysis-of-historical-emerging-and-novel-brominated-flame-retardants-in-food-and-feed-using-a-common-extraction-and-purification-method
#9
Emmanuelle Bichon, Ingrid Guiffard, Anaïs Vénisseau, Elodie Lesquin, Vincent Vaccher, Philippe Marchand, Bruno Le Bizec
Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) are still widely used for industrial purposes. These contaminants may enter the food chain where they mainly occur in food of animal origin. The aim of our work was to provide a unique method able to quantify the widest range of BFRs in feed and food items. After freeze-drying and grinding, a pressurized liquid extraction was carried out. The extract was purified on acidified silica, Florisil® and carbon columns, the four separated fractions were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution and tandem mass spectrometry...
April 13, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679779/biomimetic-3d-in-vitro-model-of-biofilm-triggered-osteomyelitis-for-investigating-hematopoiesis-during-bone-marrow-infections
#10
Annamarija Raic, Sophie Riedel, Elena Kemmling, Karen Bieback, Joerg Overhage, Cornelia Lee-Thedieck
In this work, we define the requirements for a human-based osteomyelitis model which overcomes the limitations of state of the art animal models. Osteomyelitis is a severe and difficult to treat infection of the bone that develops rapidly, making it difficult to study in humans. We have developed a 3D in vitro model of the bone marrow, comprising a macroporous material, human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Inclusion of biofilms grown on an implant into the model system allowed us to study the effects of postoperative osteomyelitis-inducing bacteria on the bone marrow...
April 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679696/effect-of-neuromonitor-guided-titrated-care-on-brain-tissue-hypoxia-after-opioid-overdose-cardiac-arrest
#11
Jonathan Elmer, Katharyn L Flickinger, Maighdlin W Anderson, Allison Koller, Matthew Sundermann, Cameron Dezfulian, David O Okonkwo, Lori A Shutter, David Salcido, Clifton W Callaway, James J Menegazzi
INTRODUCTION: Brain tissue hypoxia may contribute to preventable secondary brain injury after cardiac arrest. We developed a porcine model of opioid overdose cardiac arrest and post-arrest care including invasive, multimodal neurological monitoring of regional brain physiology. We hypothesized brain tissue hypoxia is common with usual post-arrest care and can be prevented by modifying mean arterial pressure (MAP) and arterial oxygen concentration (PaO2 ). METHODS: We induced opioid overdose and cardiac arrest in sixteen swine, attempted resuscitation after 9 minutes of apnea, and randomized resuscitated animals to three alternating 6-hour blocks of standard or titrated care...
April 18, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679684/expression-profile-and-reproductive-regulation-of-apgwamide-in-pacific-abalone-haliotis-discus-hannai
#12
Kyeong Seop Kim, Tae Ha Kim, Mi Ae Kim, Jung Sick Lee, Young Chang Sohn
Neuropeptides in the central nervous system regulate reproductive activities in vertebrates. Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 (APGWamide), a neuromediator expressed in the neural ganglia of mollusks, controls sexual maturation and reproduction. To clarify the role of APGWamide in sexual behavior regulation and gamete cell maturation in mollusks, we cloned the cDNA of APGWamide precursor (Hdh-APGWamide) and examined the spatiotemporal expression of the transcript in the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The 222-amino acid sequence of the precursor deduced from the cDNA sequence showed typical features of gastropod APGWamide precursors...
April 18, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679660/effects-of-aerobic-training-resistance-training-or-both-on-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-adolescents-with-obesity-the-hearty-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Gary S Goldfield, Glen P Kenny, Denis Prud'Homme, Martin Holcik, Angela S Alberga, Margaret Fahnestock, Jameason D Cameron, Steve Doucette, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Heather Tulloch, Mark S Tremblay, Jeremy Walsh, Eva Guerin, Katie E Gunnell, Amedeo D'Angiulli, Ronald J Sigal
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that plays a critical role in modulating cognition in animals and humans. Aerobic exercise often increases BDNF in adults, but effects of this exercise modality and others among adolescents remain uncertain. This study examined the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, and combined training on resting serum BDNF levels in adolescents with overweight and obesity. After a 4-week pre-randomization treatment, 304 post-pubertal, adolescents with overweight or obesity (70% females) aged 14-18 years were randomized to one of four groups for 22 weeks: aerobic training (N = 75), resistance training (N = 78), combined aerobic and resistance training (N = 75), or non-exercising control (N = 76)...
April 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679619/a-global-perspective-on-carotenoids-metabolism-biotechnology-and-benefits-for-nutrition-and-health
#14
REVIEW
Manuel Rodriguez Concepcion, Javier Avalos, M Luisa Bonet, Albert Boronat, Lourdes Gomez-Gomez, Damaso Hornero-Mendez, M Carmen Limon, Antonio J Meléndez-Martínez, Begoña Olmedilla-Alonso, Andreu Palou, Joan Ribot, Maria J Rodrigo, Lorenzo Zacarias, Changfu Zhu
Carotenoids are lipophilic isoprenoid compounds synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and some non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi. With some notable exceptions, animals (including humans) do not produce carotenoids de novo but take them in their diets. In photosynthetic systems carotenoids are essential for photoprotection against excess light and contribute to light harvesting, but perhaps they are best known for their properties as natural pigments in the yellow to red range. Carotenoids can be associated to fatty acids, sugars, proteins, or other compounds that can change their physical and chemical properties and influence their biological roles...
April 18, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679605/circulating-cell-free-dna-in-patients-with-alveolar-echinococcosis
#15
Alice Baraquin, Eric Hervouet, Carine Richou, Pierre Flori, Paul Peixoto, Amel Azizi, Eric Delabrousse, Oleg Blagosklonov, Gerald Umhang, Solange Bresson-Hadni, Benoit Valot, Frédéric Grenouillet
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a parasitic disease, due to Echinococcus multilocularis. Often compared to liver cancer, it develops by infiltration from its primary site to the surrounding tissue, and can then metastasize to other organs. Detection of circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) is a useful analytical tool in oncology, for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy monitoring. This study sought to investigate the presence of ccfDNA in patients with AE, and its potential usefulness for the evaluation of treatment efficiency...
April 18, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679594/design-and-synthesis-of-a-new-peptide-derived-from-fasciola-gigantica-cathepsin-l1-with-potential-application-in-serodiagnosis-of-fascioliasis
#16
Behnam Meshgi, Fatemeh Jalousian, Saeid Fathi, Zahra Jahani
Fascioliasis is a global parasitic disease that affects domestic animals and causes considerable economic losses in the process of domestic animal breeding in endemic regions. The cause of the disease involves a liver trematode of the genus Fasciola, which secretes materials into a host's body (mainly proteins) in order to protect it from the host's immune system. These materials can be involved in the migration, growth, and nutrition of the parasite. Among the expressive proteins of Fasciola, proteases have been introduced as the appropriate targets for diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination against parasites...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679568/induction-of-s100a9-homodimer-formation-in-vivo
#17
Eva Källberg, Sahar Tahvili, Fredrik Ivars, Tomas Leanderson
We show here that increased S100A8 and S100A9 protein expression is induced in spleen of animals with active inflammation or with inoculated tumors. In tumor bearing animals an increased expression was also detected in the lung. To further analyze the induced proteins, we performed chemical cross-linking followed by Western blotting. We observed in protein extracts from spleen that both S100A8/S100A9 heterodimers as well as S100A9 homodimers were formed, both after tumor and inflammatory challenge. The cellular source for S100A9 homodimers were CD11b+ GR1+ cells...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679556/a-novel-smac-mimetic-apg-1387-exhibited-dual-antitumor-effect-on-hbv-positive-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-high-expression-of-ciap2-by-inducing-apoptosis-and-enhancing-innate-anti-tumor-immunity
#18
Wentao Pan, Qiuyun Luo, Xianglei Yan, Luping Yuan, Hanjie Yi, Lin Zhang, Baoxia Li, Yuxin Zhang, Jian Sun, Miao-Zhen Qiu, Da-Jun Yang
Check point inhibitor anti-PD1 antibody produced some efficacy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) patients previously treated with sorafenib. Unfortunately, HCC patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection did not respond as well as uninfected patients. Previously, SMAC mimetics-the antagonist for inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) can rapidly reduce serum hepatitis B virus DNA in animal model. APG-1387 is a novel SMAC-mimetic, small molecule inhibitor targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs)...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679549/chm-1-a-novel-microtubule-destabilizing-agent-exhibits-antitumor-activity-via-inducing-the-expression-of-sirt2-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Chin-Wei Liu, Ying-Chao Lin, Chao-Ming Hung, Bing-Lan Liu, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Chi-Tang Ho, Tzong-Der Way, Chih-Hsin Hung
Breast cancer is a major public health problem throughout the world. In this report, we investigated whether CHM-1, a novel synthetic antimitotic agent could be developed into a potent antitumor agent for treating human breast cancer. CHM-1 induced growth inhibition in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453 and MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, CHM-1 is less toxic to normal breast (HBL-100) cells. CHM-1 interacted with tubulin, markedly inhibited tubulin polymerization, and disrupted microtubule organization...
April 18, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679548/the-effect-of-myelotomy-following-low-thoracic-spinal-cord-compression-injury-in-rats
#20
Carolin Meyer, Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Robin Gensch, Robert Seitz, Gregor Stein, Marilena Manthou, Theodora Papamitsou, Makoto Nakamura, Bertil Bouillon, Mary Galea, Peter Batchelor, Sarah Dunlop, Doychin Angelov
Myelotomy is a surgical procedure allowing removal of extravasated blood and necrotic tissue that is thought to attenuate secondary injury as well as promote recovery in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) models and humans. Here we examined in rat whether myelotomy at 48 h after low-thoracic compressive SCI provided any benefit over a 12 week period. Compared to animals receiving SCI alone, myelotomy worsened BBB scores (p < 0.05) and also did not improve plantar stepping, ladder climbing, urinary bladder voiding or sensory function (thermal latency) during the 12-week period...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Neurology
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