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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241514/antivenom-evaluation-by-electrophysiological-analysis
#1
Rita Restano-Cassulini, Walter Garcia, Jorge F Paniagua-Solís, Lourival D Possani
Scorpion stings on humans are medically relevant because they may contain toxins that specifically target ion channels. During antivenom production, pharmaceutical companies must use a large number of experimental animals to ensure the antivenom's efficacy according to pharmacopeia methods. Here we present an electrophysiological alternative for the evaluation of horse antivenoms produced against two species of Moroccan scorpions: Buthus mardochei and Androctonus mauretanicus. Human sodium and potassium channels and acetylcholine nicotinic receptors were analyzed by standard patch-clamp techniques...
February 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241486/modulation-of-ras-erk-and-phosphoinositide-signaling-by-long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-breast-cancer-and-their-potential-complementary-role-in-combination-with-targeted-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Simona Serini, Gabriella Calviello
A potential complementary role of the dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) in combination with innovative mono-targeted therapies has recently been proposed. These compounds are thought to act pleiotropically to prevent the development and progression of a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. We hereinafter critically analyze the reports investigating the ability of LCn-3 PUFA to modulate the Ras/ERK and the phosphoinositide survival signaling pathways often aberrantly activated in breast cancer and representing the main targets of innovative therapies...
February 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241461/quorum-sensing-inhibitors-from-the-sea-discovered-using-bacterial-n-acyl-homoserine-lactone-based-biosensors
#3
REVIEW
Kumar Saurav, Valeria Costantino, Vittorio Venturi, Laura Steindler
Marine natural products with antibiotic activity have been a rich source of drug discovery; however, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has turned attention towards the discovery of alternative innovative strategies to combat pathogens. In many pathogenic bacteria, the expression of virulence factors is under the regulation of quorum sensing (QS). QS inhibitors (QSIs) present a promising alternative or potential synergistic treatment since they disrupt the signaling pathway used for intra- and interspecies coordination of expression of virulence factors...
February 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241441/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-naphthalimide-derivatives-as-potential-anticancer-agents-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Chaochao Ge, Liping Chang, Ying Zhao, Congcong Chang, Xiaojuan Xu, Haoying He, Yuxia Wang, Fujun Dai, Songqiang Xie, Chaojie Wang
Two kinds of naphthalimide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro their anti-hepatocellular carcinoma properties. Compound 3a with a fused thiazole fragment to naphthalimide skeleton inhibited cell migration of SMMC-7721 and HepG2, and further in vivo trials with two animal models confirmed that compound 3a moderately inhibited primary H22 tumor growth (52.6%) and potently interrupted lung metastasis (75.7%) without obvious systemic toxicity at the therapeutic dose. Mechanistic research revealed that compound 3a inhibited cancerous liver cell growth mostly by inducing G2/M phase arrest...
February 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241430/the-importance-of-endophenotypes-to-evaluate-the-relationship-between-genotype-and-external-phenotype
#5
REVIEW
Marinus F W Te Pas, Ole Madsen, Mario P L Calus, Mari A Smits
With the exception of a few Mendelian traits, almost all phenotypes (traits) in livestock science are quantitative or complex traits regulated by the expression of many genes. For most of the complex traits, differential expression of genes, rather than genomic variation in the gene coding sequences, is associated with the genotype of a trait. The expression profiles of the animal's transcriptome, proteome and metabolome represent endophenotypes that influence/regulate the externally-observed phenotype. These expression profiles are generated by interactions between the animal's genome and its environment that range from the cellular, up to the husbandry environment...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241421/age-related-loss-in-bone-mineral-density-of-rats-fed-lifelong-on-a-fish-oil-based-diet-is-avoided-by-coenzyme-q10-addition
#6
Alfonso Varela-López, Julio J Ochoa, José M Llamas-Elvira, Magdalena López-Frías, Elena Planells, MCarmen Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L Ramirez-Tortosa, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino, José L Quiles
During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur...
February 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241420/antiosteoporotic-activity-of-genistein-aglycone-in-postmenopausal-women-evidence-from-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Vincenzo Arcoraci, Marco Atteritano, Francesco Squadrito, Rosario D'Anna, Herbert Marini, Domenico Santoro, Letteria Minutoli, Sonia Messina, Domenica Altavilla, Alessandra Bitto
Genistein has a preventive role against bone mass loss during menopause. However, experimental data in animal models of osteoporosis suggest an anti-osteoporotic potential for this isoflavone. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a previously published trial investigating the effects of genistein in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. The parent study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving postmenopausal women with a femoral neck (FN) density <0.795 g/cm². A cohort of the enrolled women was, in fact, identified at the baseline as osteoporotic (n = 121) on the basis of their T-score and analyzed thereafter for the 24 months' treatment with either 1000 mg of calcium and 800 IU vitamin D3 (placebo; n = 59); or calcium, vitamin D3, and Genistein aglycone (54 mg/day; genistein; n = 62)...
February 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241417/long-term-amperometric-recordings-in-the-brain-extracellular-fluid-of-freely-moving-immunocompromised-nod-scid-mice
#8
Caroline H Reid, Niall J Finnerty
We describe the in vivo characterization of microamperometric sensors for the real-time monitoring of nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O₂) in the striatum of immunocompromised NOD SCID mice. The latter strain has been utilized routinely in the establishment of humanized models of disease e.g., Parkinson's disease. NOD SCID mice were implanted with highly sensitive and selective NO and O₂ sensors that have been previously characterized both in vitro and in freely moving rats. Animals were systemically administered compounds that perturbed the amperometric current and confirmed sensor performance...
February 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241407/survival-assays-using-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Hae-Eun H Park, Yoonji Jung, Seung-Jae V Lee
Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism with many useful features, including rapid development and aging, easy cultivation, and genetic tractability. Survival assays using C. elegans are powerful methods for studying physiological processes. In this review, we describe diverse types of C. elegans survival assays and discuss the aims, uses, and advantages of specific assays. C. elegans survival assays have played key roles in identifying novel genetic factors that regulate many aspects of animal physiology, such as aging and lifespan, stress response, and immunity against pathogens...
February 27, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241390/patterns-of-parental-care-in-neotropical-glassfrogs-fieldwork-alters-hypotheses-of-sex-role-evolution
#10
Jesse Delia, Laura Bravo-Valencia, Karen M Warkentin
Many animals provide parental care to offspring. Parental sex-roles vary extensively across taxa, and such patterns are considered well documented. However, information on amphibians is lacking relative to other vertebrate groups. We combine natural history observations with functional and historical analyses to examine the evolution of egg care in glassfrogs (Centrolenidae). Parental care was considered rare and predominately provided by males. Our field observations of 40 species revealed that care occurs throughout the family, and the caregiving sex changes across lineages...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241388/two-centuries-of-masting-data-for-european-beech-and-norway-spruce-across-the-european-continent
#11
Davide Ascoli, Janet Maringer, Andy Hacket-Pain, Marco Conedera, Igor Drobyshev, Renzo Motta, Mara Cirolli, Władysław Kantorowicz, Christian Zang, Silvio Schueler, Luc Croisé, Pietro Piussi, Roberta Berretti, Ciprian Palaghianu, Marjana Westergren, Jonathan G A Lageard, Anton Burkart, Regula Gehrig Bichsel, Peter A Thomas, Burkhard Beudert, Rolf Övergaard, Giorgio Vacchiano
Tree masting is one of the most intensively studied ecological processes. It affects nutrient fluxes of trees, regeneration dynamics in forests, animal population densities, and ultimately influences ecosystem services. Despite a large volume of research focused on masting, its evolutionary ecology, spatial and temporal variability and environmental drivers are still matter of debate. Understanding the proximate and ultimate causes of masting at broad spatial and temporal scales will enable us to predict tree reproductive strategies and their response to changing environment...
February 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241309/a-rabbit-model-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis-use-of-infected-soft-contact-lenses-after-corneal-epithelium-debridement-with-a-diamond-burr
#12
Ángel Ortillés, Pilar Goñi, Encarnación Rubio, Marta Sierra, Ekaterina Gámez, María T Fernández, María Benito, José Á Cristóbal, Begoña Calvo
Purpose: To develop a rabbit model of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) as the best method to reproduce the natural course of this disease. Methods: To induce AK, infected contact lenses (1000 amoebae/mm2, 90% trophozoites) were placed over the previously debrided corneal surface, in combination with a temporary tarsorrhaphy. Environmental and clinical strains of Acanthamoeba spp. (genotype T4) were used. Three groups (1L, n = 32; 2L-21d, n = 5; 2L-3d, n = 23) were established according to the number of contact lenses used (1L, 1 lens; 2L-21d and 2L-3d, 2 lenses) and the placement day of these (1L, day 1; 2L-21d, days 1 and 21; 2L-3d, days 1 and 3)...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241305/dry-coupling-for-whole-body-small-animal-photoacoustic-computed-tomography
#13
Chenghung Yeh, Lei Li, Liren Zhu, Jun Xia, Chiye Li, Wanyi Chen, Alejandro Garcia-Uribe, Konstantin I Maslov, Lihong V Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241140/enzymatic-mineralization-generates-ultrastiff-and-tough-hydrogels-with-tunable-mechanics
#14
Nicolas Rauner, Monika Meuris, Mirjana Zoric, Joerg C Tiller
The cartilage and skin of animals, which are made up of more than fifty per cent water, are rather stiff (having elastic moduli of up to 100 megapascals) as well as tough and hard to break (with fracture energies of up to 9,000 joules per square metre). Such features make these biological materials mechanically superior to existing synthetic hydrogels. Lately, progress has been made in synthesizing tough hydrogels, with double-network hydrogels achieving the toughness of skin and inorganic-organic composites showing even better performance...
March 1, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241073/mated-drosophila-melanogaster-females-consume-more-amino-acids-during-the-dark-phase
#15
Shun Uchizono, Yumi Tabuki, Natsumi Kawaguchi, Teiichi Tanimura, Taichi Q Itoh
To maintain homeostasis, animals must ingest appropriate quantities, determined by their internal nutritional state, of suitable nutrients. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an amino acid deficit induces a specific appetite for amino acids and thus results in their increased consumption. Although multiple processes of physiology, metabolism, and behavior are under circadian control in many organisms, it is unclear whether the circadian clock also modulates such motivated behavior driven by an internal need...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241061/a-computational-model-of-the-integration-of-landmarks-and-motion-in-the-insect-central-complex
#16
Alex J Cope, Chelsea Sabo, Eleni Vasilaki, Andrew B Barron, James A R Marshall
The insect central complex (CX) is an enigmatic structure whose computational function has evaded inquiry, but has been implicated in a wide range of behaviours. Recent experimental evidence from the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and the cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis) has demonstrated the existence of neural activity corresponding to the animal's orientation within a virtual arena (a neural 'compass'), and this provides an insight into one component of the CX structure. There are two key features of the compass activity: an offset between the angle represented by the compass and the true angular position of visual features in the arena, and the remapping of the 270° visual arena onto an entire circle of neurons in the compass...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241007/gaze-informed-task-situated-representation-of-space-in-primate-hippocampus-during-virtual-navigation
#17
Sylvia Wirth, Pierre Baraduc, Aurélie Planté, Serge Pinède, Jean-René Duhamel
To elucidate how gaze informs the construction of mental space during wayfinding in visual species like primates, we jointly examined navigation behavior, visual exploration, and hippocampal activity as macaque monkeys searched a virtual reality maze for a reward. Cells sensitive to place also responded to one or more variables like head direction, point of gaze, or task context. Many cells fired at the sight (and in anticipation) of a single landmark in a viewpoint- or task-dependent manner, simultaneously encoding the animal's logical situation within a set of actions leading to the goal...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240959/comparison-of-elastography-contrast-enhanced-ultrasonography-and-computed-tomography-for-assessment-of-lesion-margin-after-radiofrequency-ablation-in-livers-of-healthy-dogs
#18
Sohyeon Moon, Seungjo Park, Sang-Kwon Lee, Byunggyu Cheon, Sunghwa Hong, Hyun Cho, Jun-Gyu Park, Mia Madel Alfajaro, Kyoung-Oh Cho, Dong Woo, Jihye Choi
OBJECTIVE To assess by use of various diagnostic imaging modalities acute changes in livers of healthy dogs after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and determine the capability of each imaging modality to monitor ablation lesion changes. ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES 12 ablation lesions were created in the liver of the dogs (2 lesions/dog). Ablation lesions were evaluated by use of conventional ultrasonography, strain elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography immediately after (time 0), 30 to 60 minutes after, and 3 days after RFA, and by use of CT 30 minutes and 3 days after RFA...
March 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240958/comparison-of-the-diagnostic-performance-of-bacterial-culture-of-nasopharyngeal-swab-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-samples-obtained-from-calves-with-bovine-respiratory-disease
#19
Sarah F Capik, Brad J White, Brian V Lubbers, Michael D Apley, Keith D DeDonder, Robert L Larson, Greg P Harhay, Carol G Chitko-McKown, Dayna M Harhay, Ted S Kalbfleisch, Gennie Schuller, Michael L Clawson
OBJECTIVE To compare predictive values, extent of agreement, and gamithromycin susceptibility between bacterial culture results of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). ANIMALS 28 beef calves with clinical BRD. PROCEDURES Pooled bilateral NPS samples and BALF samples were obtained for bacterial culture from calves immediately before and at various times during the 5 days after gamithromycin (6 mg/kg, SC, once) administration...
March 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240957/evaluation-of-gene-expression-and-dna-copy-number-profiles-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells-and-consecutive-neurosphere-like-cells-generated-from-dogs-with-naturally-occurring-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Ji-Hey Lim, Sehwon Koh, Rachael Thomas, Matthew Breen, Natasha J Olby
OBJECTIVE To evaluate gene expression and DNA copy number in adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) and in ADSC-derived neurosphere-like cell clusters (ADSC-NSCs) generated from tissues of chronically paraplegic dogs. ANIMALS 14 client-owned paraplegic dogs. PROCEDURES Dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue (< 1 cm(3)) was collected under general anesthesia; ADSCs were isolated and cultured. Third-passage ADSCs were cultured in neural cell induction medium to generate ADSC-NSCs. Relative gene expression of mesenchymal cell surface marker CD90 and neural progenitor marker nestin was assessed in ADSCs and ADSC-NSCs from 3 dogs by quantitative real-time PCR assay; expression of these and various neural lineage genes was evaluated for the same dogs by reverse transcription PCR assay...
March 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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