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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223123/differentiation-of-human-blood-from-animal-blood-using-raman-spectroscopy-a-survey-of-forensically-relevant-species
#1
Kyle C Doty, Igor K Lednev
The identification of blood samples is a crucial facet of forensic investigations, particularly for violent crimes. One step in forensic serology (i.e., the analysis of bodily fluids) that is often skipped or overlooked is the determination that a bloodstain is of human or nonhuman origin. Typically, subsequent to identifying a stain as blood using a presumptive blood test, which have the propensity of providing false positive results, the stain is submitted for extraction of a DNA profile to compare with those in a database...
November 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223087/oxidative-stress-in-birds-along-a-nox-and-urbanisation-gradient-an-interspecific-approach
#2
Pablo Salmón, Emilie Stroh, Amparo Herrera-Dueñas, Maria von Post, Caroline Isaksson
Urbanisation is regarded as one of the most threatening global issues for wildlife, however, measuring its impact is not always straight forward. Oxidative stress physiology has been suggested to be a useful biomarker of health and therefore, a potentially important indicator of the impact that urban environmental stressors, especially air pollution, can have on wildlife. For example, nitrogen oxides (NOx), released during incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, are highly potent pro-oxidants, thus predicted to affect either the protective antioxidants and/or cause oxidative damage to bio-molecules...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223009/influence-of-spermatozoal-lipidomic-profile-on-the-cryoresistance-of-frozen-spermatozoa-from-stallions
#3
T Cabrera, C Ramires-Neto, K R A Belaz, C P Freitas-Dell'aqua, D Zampieri, A Tata, M N Eberlin, M A Alvarenga, F F Souza
The membrane of spermatozoa, which contributes to cellular cryoresistance, contains numerous lipids with a composition that directly affects membrane fluidity and the fertilization process. In light of variations in the degree of sensitivity in equine seminal freezing, this study aimed to correlate equine semen lipids with post-thawing characteristics of spermatozoa. We used ejaculates from 34 stallions, which were evaluated (total motility ≥ 60%), frozen and thawed and reevaluated for motility of spermatozoa, membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation...
November 26, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222959/development-of-depth-encoding-small-animal-pet-detectors-by-using-dual-ended-readout-of-pixelated-scintillator-arrays-with-sipms
#4
Zhonghua Kuang, Ziru Sang, Xiaohui Wang, Xin Fu, Ning Ren, Xianming Zhang, Yunfei Zheng, Qian Yang, Zhanli Hu, Junwei Du, Dong Liang, Xin Liu, Hairong Zheng, Yongfeng Yang
PURPOSE: The performance of current small animal PET scanners is mainly limited by the detector performance and depth encoding detectors are required to develop PET scanner to simultaneously achieve high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. Among all depth encoding PET detector approaches, dual-ended readout detector has the advantage to achieve the highest depth of interaction (DOI) resolution and spatial resolution. Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is believed to be the photodetector of the future for PET detector due to its excellent properties as compared to the traditional photodetectors such as photomultiplier tube (PMT) and avalanche photodiode (APD)...
December 9, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222905/premorbid-dietary-intake-of-protein-is-associated-with-early-outcomes-but-not-with-severity-of-ischemic-stroke
#5
Minhui Dai, Ling Tian, Wenjie Zi, Biyang Cai, Lulu Xiao, Keting Liu, Shuyu Zhou, Zhizhong Zhang, Wusheng Zhu, Fang Yang, Xinfeng Liu, Gelin Xu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dietary protein intake has been associated with reduced risk of stroke. This study aimed to examine the relationship between premorbid dietary intake of protein and both stroke severity and neurological outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic stroke in Jinling Hospital were screened for eligibility of participation. A validated foodfrequency questionnaire (FFQ) was performed to collect necessary data for calculating pre-stroke dietary intakes...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222798/a-controlled-cortical-impact-preclinical-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Michela Campolo, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Over the past three decades, attempts at understanding the multifaceted mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have seen the development of numerous animal models to investigate changes in molecular and cellular pathways and neurobehavioral outcomes. Until now, controlled cortical impact (CCI) represents the most frequently used mechanical model to induce TBI, given its accuracy, easy of control, and, most importantly, its ability to produce brain injuries similar to those seen in humans...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222797/an-in-vivo-compression-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Irene Paterniti, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Animal spinal cord injury (SCI) models have proven highly useful for investigating the mechanisms involved in the injury process and evaluating the effectiveness of experimental therapeutic interventions. Over the last years, substantial improvements have been made in producing consistent and reproducible animal SCI models. Different SCI models have been developed to address the mechanism of injury, being divided into contusion, compression, distraction, dislocation, transection, or chemical models. The method described here is a mouse compression model of SCI that, in many respects, faithfully reproduces SCI in man...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222796/spared-nerve-injury-as-a-long-lasting-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#8
Serena Boccella, Francesca Guida, Enza Palazzo, Ida Marabese, Vito de Novellis, Sabatino Maione, Livio Luongo
This chapter describes surgical procedures for the induction of neuropathic pain using an animal model (rat or mouse) of spared nerve injury. In addition to technical details of the surgical technique, details of anesthesia and perioperative care are also included.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222794/active-induction-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#9
Gabriella Contarini, Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper
The protocol in this chapter presents a method to actively induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), one of the most widely used animal models to study efficacy of potential drugs for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of chronic neurological impairment in young people. In this model EAE is induced in female C57BL/6 mice by immunization with an emulsion of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (fragment 35-55) in complete Freund's adjuvant, followed by administration of pertussis toxin in phosphate-buffered saline...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222793/an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-disease-based-on-the-intrahippocampal-injection-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-1-42
#10
Roberta Facchinetti, Maria Rosanna Bronzuoli, Caterina Scuderi
The intrahippocampal injection of amyloid beta peptide (1-42) (Aβ(1-42)) represents one of the most useful animal models of Alzheimer disease. Since none of these available models fully represents the main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease, stereotaxic Aβ(1-42) infusion provides researchers with an in vivo alternative paradigm. When performed by well-trained individuals, this model is the best-suited one for short-term studies focusing on the effects of Aβ(1-42) on a specific brain region or circuitry...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222770/ocular-nerve-growth-factor-ngf-and-ngf-eye-drop-application-as-paradigms-to-investigate-ngf-neuroprotective-and-reparative-actions
#11
Paola Tirassa, Pamela Rosso, Angela Iannitelli
The eye is a central nervous system structure that is uniquely accessible to local treatment. Through the ocular surface, it is possible to access the retina, optic nerve, and brain. Animal models of retina degeneration or optic nerve crush could thus serve as tools to investigate whether and how factors, which are anterogradely or retrogradely transported through the optic nerve, might contribute to activate neuroprotection and eventually regeneration. Among these factors, nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role during development of the visual system, as well as during the entire life span, and in pathological conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222709/successful-treatment-of-canine-sporotrichosis-with-terbinafine-case-reports-and-literature-review
#12
Paula Gonçalves Viana, Anna Barreto Fernandes Figueiredo, Isabella Dib Ferreira Gremião, Luisa Helena Monteiro de Miranda, Isabela Maria da Silva Antonio, Jéssica Sepulveda Boechat, Ana Caroline de Sá Machado, Manoel Marques Evangelista de Oliveira, Sandro Antonio Pereira
Sporotrichosis occurs worldwide, and the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a main endemic area, with a large number of human and animal cases in the last 19 years. This mycosis is more frequently described in cats rather than in dogs. There are a limited number of oral antifungal agents for the treatment of sporotrichosis in animals. In this context, the effectiveness of terbinafine in the treatment of sporotrichosis in humans, as well as the promising results of in vitro susceptibility tests, inspired us to use this drug in the therapy of this mycosis in dogs...
December 8, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222698/efficacy-evaluation-of-iclaprim-in-a-neutropenic-rat-lung-infection-model-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-entrapped-in-alginate-microspheres
#13
David B Huang, Ian Morrissey, Timothy Murphy, Stephen Hawser, Mark H Wilcox
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of iclaprim in a neutropenic rat lung infection model with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) entrapped in alginate beads. An inoculum of 5.25 × 105 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of S. aureus strain AH1252 was administered intratracheally to rats with prepared alginate bacteria suspensions. Beginning 2 h post-infection, rats received: (1) iclaprim 80 mg/kg (n = 16); (2) iclaprim 60 mg/kg (n = 16), or (3) vancomycin 50 mg/kg (n = 24), for 3 days via subcutaneous (SC) injection every 12 h...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222687/chrysophyllum-cainito-apple-star-a-fruit-with-gastroprotective-activity-in-experimental-ulcer-models
#14
Roseane Leandra da Rosa, Camila Leandra de Almeida, Lincon Bordigon Somensi, Thaise Boeing, Luisa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Clarissa de Medeiros Amorim Krueger, Priscila de Souza, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
The gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extracts from peels (MEPe), seeds (MESe) and pulp (MEPu) of Chrysophyllum cainito L. (Sapotaceae) fruits was evaluated in mice using ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer, as well as the antiulcer effect of the juice and flour from this fruit. The lowest oral gastroprotective dose of MEPe, MESe and MEPu against ethanol/HCl was 3, 3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, all extracts increased mucin secretion at 176, 198 and 193%. Intraperitoneal administration of MEPe (0...
December 8, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222605/the-endocannabinoid-system-in-cardiovascular-function-novel-insights-and-clinical-implications
#15
REVIEW
Salvador Sierra, Natasha Luquin, Judith Navarro-Otano
RATIONALE: Cardiovascular disease is now recognized as the number one cause of death in the world, and the size of the population at risk continues to increase rapidly. The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a central role in a wide variety of conditions including cardiovascular disorders. Cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, as well as enzymes conferring their synthesis and degradation, exhibit overlapping distributions in the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, the pharmacological manipulation of the eCB system has effects on blood pressure, cardiac contractility, and endothelial vasomotor control...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222602/endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-biliary-drainage-using-a-newly-designed-metal-stent-with-a-thin-delivery-system-a-preclinical-study-in-phantom-and-porcine-models
#16
Kosuke Minaga, Masayuki Kitano, Masahiro Itonaga, Hajime Imai, Takeshi Miyata, Kentaro Yamao, Takashi Tamura, Junya Nuta, Kenji Warigaya, Masatoshi Kudo
PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a newly designed self-expandable metal stent for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) when it was delivered via three different stent delivery systems: a 7.5Fr delivery catheter with a bullet-shaped tip (7.5Fr-bullet), a 7Fr catheter with a bullet-shaped tip (7Fr-bullet), or a 7Fr catheter with a tee-shaped tip (7Fr-tee). METHODS: This experimental study utilized a porcine model of biliary dilatation involving ten pigs...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222591/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-current-concepts-and-controversies
#17
REVIEW
Kurt A Jellinger
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease-dementia (PDD), although sharing many clinical, neurochemical and morphological features, according to DSM-5, are two entities of major neurocognitive disorders with Lewy bodies of unknown etiology. Despite considerable clinical overlap, their diagnosis is based on an arbitrary distinction between the time of onset of motor and cognitive symptoms: dementia often preceding parkinsonism in DLB and onset of cognitive impairment after onset of motor symptoms in PDD...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222552/animal-models-of-retinal-vein-occlusion
#18
Meiaad Khayat, Noemi Lois, Michael Williams, Alan W Stitt
Purpose: To provide a comprehensive and current review on the available experimental animal models of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and to identify their strengths and limitations with the purpose of helping researchers to plan preclinical studies on RVO. Methods: A systematic review of the literature on experimental animal models of RVO was undertaken. Medline, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases were searched. Studies published between January 1, 1965, and March 31, 2017, and that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222533/elastic-fibers-and-large-artery-mechanics
#19
M G Espinosa, Marius C Staiculescu, Jungsil Kim, Eric Marin, Jessica E Wagenseil
Development of a closed circulatory system requires that large arteries adapt to the mechanical demands of high, pulsatile pressure. Elastin and collagen uniquely address these design criteria in the low and high stress regimes, resulting in a nonlinear mechanical response. Elastin is the core component of elastic fibers, which provide the artery wall with energy storage and recoil. The integrity of the elastic fiber network is affected by component insufficiency or disorganization, leading to an array of vascular pathologies and compromised mechanical behavior...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222525/conserved-gene-microsynteny-unveils-functional-interaction-between-protein-disulfide-isomerase-and-rho-guanine-dissociation-inhibitor-families
#20
Ana I S Moretti, Jessyca C Pavanelli, Patrícia Nolasco, Matthias S Leisegang, Leonardo Y Tanaka, Carolina G Fernandes, João Wosniak, Daniela Kajihara, Matheus H Dias, Denise C Fernandes, Hanjoong Jo, Ngoc-Vinh Tran, Ingo Ebersberger, Ralf P Brandes, Diego Bonatto, Francisco R M Laurindo
Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) support endoplasmic reticulum redox protein folding and cell-surface thiol-redox control of thrombosis and vascular remodeling. The family prototype PDIA1 regulates NADPH oxidase signaling and cytoskeleton organization, however the related underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that genes encoding human PDIA1 and its two paralogs PDIA8 and PDIA2 are each flanked by genes encoding Rho guanine-dissociation inhibitors (GDI), known regulators of RhoGTPases/cytoskeleton...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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