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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549285/environmental-response-to-long-term-mariculture-activities-in-the-weihai-coastal-area-china
#1
Hongmei Li, Xiaomin Li, Qiang Li, Ying Liu, Jide Song, Yongyu Zhang
The environmental impacts of rapid expansion of mariculture have garnered worldwide attention. China is currently one of the largest countries to engage in this practice. In this study, a representative mariculture zone, the Weihai coastal area in China, was explored to determine the temporal variations in regional nutrients, N/P ratio, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chlorophyll a (Chl-a), and cellular abundance of diatoms and dinoflagellates in response to the rapid growth in mariculture activities between 2006 and 2014...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549159/a-non-photosynthetic-diatom-reveals-early-steps-of-reductive-evolution-in-plastids
#2
Ryoma Kamikawa, Daniel Moog, Stefan Zauner, Goro Tanifuji, Ken-Ichiro Ishida, Hideaki Miyashita, Shigeki Mayama, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Uwe-G Maier, John M Archibald, Yuji Inagaki
Non-photosynthetic plastids retain important biological functions and are indispensable for cell viability. However, the detailed processes underlying the loss of plastidal functions other than photosynthesis remain to be fully understood. In this study, we used transcriptomics, subcellular localization, and phylogenetic analyses to characterize the biochemical complexity of the non-photosynthetic plastids of the apochlorotic diatom Nitzschia sp. NIES-3581. We found that these plastids have lost isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) biosynthesis and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO)-based carbon fixation but have retained various proteins for other metabolic pathways, including amino acid biosynthesis, and a portion of the Calvin-Benson cycle comprised only of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and the reductive pentose phosphate pathway (rPPP)...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544612/ecology-adaptation-and-function-of-methane-sulfidic-spring-water-biofilm-microorganisms-including-a-strain-of-anaerobic-fungus-mucor-hiemalis
#3
Enamul Hoque, Johannes Fritscher
Ecological aspects, adaptation, and some functions of a special biofilm and its unique key anaerobic fungus Mucor hiemalis strain EH11 isolated from a pristine spring (Künzing, Bavaria, Germany) are described. The spring's pure nature is characterized by, for example, bubbling methane, marine-salinity, mild hydrothermal (~19.1°C), sulfidic, and reductive-anoxic (Eh : -241 to -253 mV, O2 : ≤ 0.1 mg/L) conditions. It is geoecologically located at the border zone between Bavarian Forest (crystalline rocky mountains) and the moor-like Danube River valley, where geological displacements bring the spring's water from the deeper layers of former marine sources up to the surface...
May 24, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542308/lipid-content-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-porosira-glacialis-and-attheya-longicornis-in-response-to-carbon-dioxide-co2-aeration
#4
E Y Artamonova, T Vasskog, H C Eilertsen
In the current study two novel psychrophilic diatoms Porosira glacialis and Attheya longicornis were tested for suitability to CO2 mitigation coupled with production of the physiologically requisite omega- 3 fatty acids. This study is in line with the worldwide conducted research aimed at applying biorefinery concept to heavy polluting industries. Since the production of algal high value compounds, i.e. essential fatty acids, relies on utilization of residual CO2 emissions coming from industry, the costs of such production maybe substantially reduced...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536565/piecewise-structural-equation-model-sem-disentangles-the-environmental-conditions-favoring-diatom-diazotroph-associations-ddas-in-the-western-tropical-north-atlantic-wtna
#5
Marcus Stenegren, Carlo Berg, Cory C Padilla, Stefan-Sebastian David, Joseph P Montoya, Patricia L Yager, Rachel A Foster
Diatom diazotroph associations (DDAs) are important components in the world's oceans, especially in the western tropical north Atlantic (WTNA), where blooms have a significant impact on carbon and nitrogen cycling. However, drivers of their abundances and distribution patterns remain unknown. Here, we examined abundance and distribution patterns for two DDA populations in relation to the Amazon River (AR) plume in the WTNA. Quantitative PCR assays, targeting two DDAs (het-1 and het-2) by their symbiont's nifH gene, served as input in a piecewise structural equation model (SEM)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534583/size-dependent-conformational-change-in-halogen-%C3%AF-interaction-from-benzene-to-graphene
#6
Dong Yeon Kim, Jenica Marie L Madridejos, Miran Ha, Jun-Hyeong Kim, David ChangMo Yang, Chunggi Baig, Kwang S Kim
Diatomic halogen molecules X2 (X = Cl/Br) favor the edge-to-face conformation on benzene with significant electrostatic interaction via halogen bonding. In contrast, they favor the stacked conformation on graphene with negligible electrostatic interaction. As the aromatic ring expands, the inner facial side becomes almost electrostatically neutral. On coronene, the two conformations are compatible.
May 23, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530764/sb10-2-and-sb2-2-found-in-k-18-crown-6-6-sb10-sb4-mo-co-3-2-%C3%A2-2en-two-missing-family-members
#7
Huapeng Ruan, Lulu Wang, Zhenyu Li, Li Xu
Reaction of KMnSb and C7H8Mo(CO)3 produced Sb10(2-) and Sb2(2-) found in [K(18-crown-6)]6[Sb10][Sb4{Mo(CO)3}2]·2en (1·2en) adding two new family members for antimony polyanions. The unusually short Sb-Sb bond in the Sb2 subunits of 1 reveals the formation of the second doubly bonded diatomic anion between heavy elements following Bi2(2-), and the first example of such doubly bonded anions stabilized by metal carbonyl groups.
May 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526796/sulfide-induced-dissimilatory-nitrate-reduction-to-ammonium-supports-anammox-in-an-open-water-unit-process-wetland
#8
Zackary L Jones, Justin T Jasper, David L Sedlak, Jonathan O Sharp
Open-water unit process wetlands host a benthic diatomaceous and bacterial assemblage capable of nitrate removal from treated municipal wastewater with unexpected contributions from anammox processes. In exploring mechanistic drivers of anammox, 16S rRNA gene sequencing profiles of the biomat revealed significant microbial community shifts along the flow path and with depth. Notably there was an increasing abundance of sulfate reducers (Desulfococcus and other Deltaproteobacteria) and anammox microorganisms (Brocadiaceae) with depth...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523651/microstructure-and-nanomechanical-properties-of-single-stalks-from-diatom-didymosphenia-geminata-and-their-change-due-to-adsorption-of-selected-metal-ions
#9
Izabela Zgłobicka, Adrian Chlanda, Michał Woźniak, Maciej Łojkowski, Robert Szoszkiewicz, Marta Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Wojciech Święszkowski, Elżbieta Wyroba, Krzysztof J Kurzydłowski
We present topographical and nanomechanical characterization of single Didymosphenia geminata stalks. We compared the samples before and after adsorption of metal ions from fresh water samples. Transmission electron microscopy studies of single stalks cross-sections have shown three distinct layers and an additional thin extra coat on the external layer (called here "EL"). Using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) we found that topography of single stalks after ionic adsorption differs significantly from topography of pristine stalks...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520433/toward-a-rigorous-definition-of-a-strength-of-any-interaction-between-bader-s-atomic-basins
#10
Ivan V Ananyev, Valentina A Karnoukhova, Artem O Dmitrienko, Konstantin A Lyssenko
Strength of interaction between Bader's atomic basins, enclosed by zero-flux surfaces of electron distribution, was proposed to be a measure of elastic deformation of an interaction. The set containing 53 atomic aggregate and covering all range of interaction strength (from van-der-Waals interactions to triple covalent bonds) was calculated by DFT and perturbation theory methods. Further analysis was performed to seek correlations between various local quantities based on electron density and effective force constants of stretching diatomic vibrations...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515872/increasing-copper-alters-cellular-elemental-composition-mo%C3%A2-and-p-of-marine-diatom
#11
Deli Wang, Weiwei Xia, K Suresh Kumar, Kunshan Gao
The elemental composition (surface adsorbed and internalized fraction of Cu, Mo and P) in marine phytoplankton was first examined in cultures of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum which were exposed to various levels of Cu concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 16 μmol/L with equivalent free [Cu(2+)] concentrations of 0.4-26 nmol/L. We observed an acceleration of algal growth rates (20-40%) with increasing ambient Cu levels, as well as slightly increased levels of internalized Cu in cells (2-13 × 10(-18) mol/cell) although cellular Cu mostly accumulated onto the cell surface (>50% of the total: intracellular + surface adsorbed)...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511941/effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-the-physiological-performance-and-carbon-production-of-the-antarctic-sea-ice-diatom-nitzschia-sp-ice-h
#12
Chang-Feng Qu, Fang-Ming Liu, Zhou Zheng, Yi-Bin Wang, Xue-Gang Li, Hua-Mao Yuan, Ning Li, Mei-Ling An, Xi-Xi Wang, Ying-Ying He, Lu-Lu Li, Jin-Lai Miao
Ocean acidification (OA) resulting from increasing atmospheric CO2 strongly influences marine ecosystems, particularly in the polar ocean due to greater CO2 solubility. Here, we grew the Antarctic sea ice diatom Nitzschia sp. ICE-H in a semicontinuous culture under low (~400ppm) and high (1000ppm) CO2 levels. Elevated CO2 resulted in a stimulated physiological response including increased growth rates, chlorophyll a contents, and nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rates. Furthermore, high CO2 enhanced cellular particulate organic carbon production rates, indicating a greater shift from inorganic to organic carbon...
May 13, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510780/design-and-testing-of-a-new-diatom-based-index-for-heavy-metal-pollution
#13
M R Fernández, G Martín, J Corzo, A de la Linde, E García, M López, M Sousa
The Tinto and Odiel river basins (SW Spain) are known worldwide for their unique water characteristics. Such uniqueness is a consequence of their flow through the Iberian Pyrite Belt (an area rich in metal sulphides) and the mining activities in the basins. A process of sulphide oxidation occurs in this region, which acidifies the water and increases the amount of heavy metals in it. As a result, the rivers suffer the so-called "acid mine drainage" (AMD). Traditional biotic diatom-based indexes (IPS, IBD, EPI-D, etc...
May 16, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510761/the-diversity-of-carbon-dioxide-concentrating-mechanisms-in-marine-diatoms-as-inferred-from-their-genetic-content
#14
Chen Shen, Christopher L Dupont, Brian M Hopkinson
Marine diatoms are one of the most ecologically significant primary producers in the ocean. Most diatoms use a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) to overcome the scarcity of CO2 in the ocean and limitations of the carbon-fixing enzyme Rubisco. However, the CCMs in model diatoms differ substantially in their genetic make-up and structural organization. To assess the extent of CCM diversity in marine diatoms more generally, we analyzed genome and transcriptome data from 31 diatom strains to identify putative CCM genes, examine the overall CCM architecture, and study CCM development in the context of the evolutionary history of these diatoms...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508711/surface-sensing-and-stress-signalling-in-ulva-and-fouling-diatoms-potential-targets-for-antifouling-a-review
#15
Stephanie E M Thompson, Juliet C Coates
Understanding the underlying signalling pathways that enable fouling algae to sense and respond to surfaces is essential in the design of environmentally friendly coatings. Both the green alga Ulva and diverse diatoms are important ecologically and economically as they are persistent biofoulers. Ulva spores exhibit rapid secretion, allowing them to adhere quickly and permanently to a ship, whilst diatoms secrete an abundance of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are highly adaptable to different environmental conditions...
May 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508710/transported-biofilms-and-their-influence-on-subsequent-macrofouling-colonization
#16
L Holly Sweat, Geoffrey W Swain, Kelli Z Hunsucker, Kevin B Johnson
Biofilm organisms such as diatoms are potential regulators of global macrofouling dispersal because they ubiquitously colonize submerged surfaces, resist antifouling efforts and frequently alter larval recruitment. Although ships continually deliver biofilms to foreign ports, it is unclear how transport shapes biofilm microbial structure and subsequent macrofouling colonization. This study demonstrates that different ship hull coatings and transport methods change diatom assemblage composition in transported coastal marine biofilms...
May 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505770/resonance-phonon-approach-to-phonon-relaxation-time-and-mean-free-path-in-one-dimensional-nonlinear-lattices
#17
Lubo Xu, Lei Wang
We extend a previously proposed resonance phonon approach that is based on the linear response theory. By studying the complex response function in depth, we work out the phonon relaxation time besides the oscillating frequency of the phonons in a few one-dimensional nonlinear lattices. The results in the large wave-number-k regime agree with the expectations of the effective phonon theory. However, in the small-k limit they follow different scaling laws. The phonon mean free path can also be calculated indirectly...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504699/expansion-of-the-redox-sensitive-proteome-coincides-with-the-plastid-endosymbiosis
#18
Christian Woehle, Tal Dagan, Giddy Landan, Assaf Vardi, Shilo Rosenwasser
The redox-sensitive proteome (RSP) consists of protein thiols that undergo redox reactions, playing an important role in coordinating cellular processes. Here, we applied a large-scale phylogenomic reconstruction approach in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to map the evolutionary origins of the eukaryotic RSP. The majority of P. tricornutum redox-sensitive cysteines (76%) is specific to eukaryotes, yet these are encoded in genes that are mostly of a prokaryotic origin (57%). Furthermore, we find a threefold enrichment in redox-sensitive cysteines in genes that were gained by endosymbiotic gene transfer during the primary plastid acquisition...
May 15, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501963/salinity-driven-decadal-changes-in-phytoplankton-community-in-the-nw-arabian-gulf-of-kuwait
#19
Turki Al-Said, Aws Al-Ghunaim, D V Subba Rao, Faiza Al-Yamani, Kholood Al-Rifaie, Ali Al-Baz
Evaluation of hydrological data obtained between 2000 and 2013 from a time series station in Kuwait Bay (station K6) and an offshore southern location (station 18) off Kuwait showed drastic increase in salinity by 6 units. We tested the hypothesis that increased salinity impacted phytoplankton community characteristics in these semiarid waters. The Arabian Gulf receives seasonal freshwater discharge in the north via Shatt Al-Arab estuary with a peak during March-July. A north to south gradient in the proportion of the freshwater exists between station A in the vicinity of Shatt Al-Arab estuary and station 18 in the southern offshore area...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500335/nutrient-consumption-and-chain-tuning-in-diatoms-exposed-to-storm-like-turbulence
#20
Gianluca Dell'Aquila, Maria I Ferrante, Marco Gherardi, Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino, Maurizio Ribera d'Alcalà, Daniele Iudicone, Alberto Amato
Current information on the response of phytoplankton to turbulence is linked to cell size and nutrient availability. Diatoms are considered to be favored by mixing as dissolved nutrients are more easily accessible for non-motile cells. We investigated how diatoms exploit microscale turbulence under nutrient repletion and depletion conditions. Here, we show that the chain-forming diatom Chaetoceros decipiens, continues to take up phosphorus and carbon even when silicon is depleted during turbulence. Our findings indicate that upon silica depletion, during turbulence, chain spectra of C...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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