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Ramganesh Selvarajan, Timothy Sibanda, Memory Tekere
Microbial mats are occasionally reported in thermal springs and information on such mats is very scarce. In this study, microbial mats were collected from two hot springs (Brandvlei (BV) and Calitzdorp (CA)), South Africa and subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and targeted 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Spring water temperature was 55°C for Brandvlei and 58°C for Calitzdorp while the pH of both springs was slightly acidic, with an almost identical pH range (6...
December 15, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Viji Selvaraj, Neethi Thomas, Allen Joseph Anthuvan, Ponpandian Nagamony, Viswanathan Chinnuswamy
In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a proof of concept for the detection of nitroaromatic explosive derivatives through the photoluminescence (PL) quenching process using functionalized diatom frustules as a sensing platform. The diatom frustules are composed of nanostructured, highly porous biogenic silica material and emit strong, visible blue PL upon UV excitation. PL-active biosilica was isolated from the marine diatom Nitzschia sp. and was amine-functionalized to develop a sensing platform...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zuozhu Wen, Wenfang Lin, Rong Shen, Haizheng Hong, Shuh-Ji Kao, Dalin Shi
Recent studies have demonstrated that dinitrogen fixation can be important in nutrient-rich coastal upwelling regions. During a cruise to the Taiwan Strait in summer 2015, we found that the nitrogen fixation rate in surface waters ranged from below detection limits to 7.51 nmol N L-1 d-1. Higher rates accompanied by low N:P ratios (1-10.4:1) associated with low temperatures occurred in the surface water where the Pingtan and the Dongshan upwelling regions met (the NE area). In contrast, insignificant rates were observed in the southwest area of the Dongshan upwelling region (the SW area) with sufficient N and deficient P, and therefore high N:P ratios (e...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Anil Kumar, Michael D Sevilla
Conventionally, the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) of a radical species is considered to be the highest occupied molecular orbital but this is not the case always. In this study, we considered a number of radicals from smallest diatomic anion radicals such as superoxide anion radical to one-electron oxidized DNA related base radicals which show the SOMO is energetically lower than one or more doubly occupied MOs (SOMO-HOMO level inversion). The electronic configurations are calculated employing the B3LYP/6-31++G** method with the inclusion of aqueous phase via the IEF-PCM solvation model...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Meng-Hsuen Chiu, Zafir A Khan, Santiago G Garcia, Andre D Le, Agnes Kagiri, Javier Ramos, Shih-Ming Tsai, Hunter W Drobenaire, Peter H Santschi, Antonietta Quigg, Wei-Chun Chin
Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), products from modern nanotechnologies, can potentially impact the marine environment to pose serious threats to marine ecosystems. However, the cellular responses of marine phytoplankton to ENPs are still not well established. Here, we investigate four different diatom species (Odontella mobiliensis, Skeletonema grethae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Thalassiosira pseudonana) and one green algae (Dunaliella tertiolecta) for their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) release under model ENP treatments: 25 nm titanium dioxide (TiO2), 10-20 nm silicon dioxide (SiO2), and 15-30 nm cerium dioxide (CeO2)...
December 13, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Wentao Li, Jiuchuang Yuan, Meiling Yuan, Yong Zhang, Minghai Yao, Zhigang Sun
A new global potential energy surface (PES) of the O+ + H2 system was constructed with the permutation invariant polynomial neural network method, using about 63 000 ab initio points, which were calculated by employing the multi-reference configuration interaction method with aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets. For improving the accuracy of the PES, the basis set was extrapolated to the complete basis set limit by the two-point extrapolation method. The root mean square error of fitting was only 5.28 × 10-3 eV...
December 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Brendan J Main, Carly J Italiano, Kenneth J Rodgers
There is a strong body of evidence linking the non-protein amino acid (NPAA) β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) to the development of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. BMAA has been found globally, is produced by a number of organisms including cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates; and has been shown to biomagnify through trophic levels. The role of BMAA in neurodegenerative disease is highlighted by its presence in the brains of a number of neurodegenerative disease patients, where it was found in a protein-bound form...
December 12, 2017: Amino Acids
Zhi Sun, Kevin B Moore, J Grant Hill, Kirk A Peterson, Henry F Schaefer, Roald Hoffmann
The alkali metal trihalides MX3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs; X = Cl, Br, and I) are systematically studied using coupled-cluster methods. Benchmarks using CCSD(T) against diatomic experimental results suggest satisfactory performance for the weighted core-valence basis sets (new basis sets for K, Rb, and Cs) selected for predicting reliable structures and harmonic vibrational frequencies. An isomer search using the B3LYP functional yields a planar, yet asymmetric T-shaped Cs structure as the global minimum for all MX3 species...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
J Yao, W J Kan
OBJECTIVES: To detect diatom in the organs of drowners by enzyme combined with strong acid digestion method, and evaluate its application value. METHODS: A total of 40 cases which have been identified as drowning in local region were collected. Samples of the lung, liver, kidney, and the water of the scene were also gathered from each case. Strong acid digestion method, enzyme combined with strong acid digestion method, and enzymic digestion method were respectively performed to detect the diatom in the samples...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Jan Jansen, Nicole A Hill, Piers K Dunstan, John McKinlay, Michael D Sumner, Alexandra L Post, Marc P Eléaume, Leanne K Armand, Jonathan P Warnock, Benjamin K Galton-Fenzi, Craig R Johnson
Most seafloor communities at depths below the photosynthesis zone rely on food that sinks through the water column. However, the nature and strength of this pelagic-benthic coupling and its influence on the structure and diversity of seafloor communities is unclear, especially around Antarctica where ecological data are sparse. Here we show that the strength of pelagic-benthic coupling along the East Antarctic shelf depends on both physical processes and the types of benthic organisms considered. In an approach based on modelling food availability, we combine remotely sensed sea-surface chlorophyll-a, a regional ocean model and diatom abundances from sediment grabs with particle tracking and show that fluctuating seabed currents are crucial in the redistribution of surface productivity at the seafloor...
December 11, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Tjaart P J Krüger, Pavel Malý, Maxime T A Alexandre, Tomáš Mančal, Claudia Büchel, Rienk van Grondelle
Strong excitonic interactions are a key design strategy in photosynthetic light harvesting, expanding the spectral cross-section for light absorption and creating considerably faster and more robust excitation energy transfer. These molecular excitons are a direct result of exceptionally densely packed pigments in photosynthetic proteins. The main light-harvesting complexes of diatoms, known as fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins (FCPs), are an exception, displaying surprisingly weak excitonic coupling between their chlorophyll (Chl) a's, despite a high pigment density...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A E Mironov, J G Eden
Anisotropic coherent radiation has been generated from an isotropic medium, in the absence of an external magnetic field, by the spin polarization of an atomic excited state. Lasing on specific hyperfine lines of the 6p2P32→6s2S12 (D2) transition of Cs at 852.1 nm has been realized by photoexciting Cs-rare gas thermal collision pairs with a circularly-polarized (σ+) optical field. Subsequent dissociation of the transient Cs-rare gas B2Σ12+ diatomic molecule selectively populates the F = 4, 5 hyperfine levels of the Cs 6p2P32 state...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Carlo Mealli, Andrea Ienco, Maurizio Peruzzini, Gabriele Manca
A detailed mechanism of the I2-induced transformation of white phosphorus into PI3 emerges from a DFT analysis. This multi-step process implies that at any stage one P-P and two I-I bonds cleavages, associated with the formation of two P-I bonds plus an in situ generated brand new I2 molecule. Significant electron transfer between the atoms is observed at any step, but the reactions are better defined as concerted rather than redox. Along the steepest descent to the product, no significant barrier is encountered except for the very first P4 activation, which costs +14...
December 8, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Gaëlle Speeckaert, Alberto V Borges, Willy Champenois, Colin Royer, Nathalie Gypens
The influence of abiotic and biotic variables on the concentration of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), were investigated during an annual cycle in 2016 in the Belgian Coastal Zone (BCZ, North Sea). We reported strong seasonal variations in the concentration of these compounds linked to the phytoplankton succession with high DMS(P,O) producers (mainly Phaeocystis globosa) occurring in spring and low DMS(P,O) producers (various diatoms species) occurring in early spring and autumn...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Arnau Vilà, Miguel Paniagua, Miguel González
The vibrational energy relaxation (VER) of a homonuclear diatomic molecule (X2) in a 4He superfluid nanodroplet (HeND; T = 0.37 K) was studied adapting appropriately a hybrid theoretical quantum approach recently proposed by us. In the first application the interesting case of the I2(X) molecule was examined and, as far as we know, this corresponds to the first theoretical investigation on the VER of molecules embedded in HeND. Vibrational relaxation of I2 takes place according to a cascade mechanism [sequential transitions between two consecutive vibrational levels (ν → ν - 1; ν - 1 → ν - 2; …; 2 → 1; 1 → 0), where an arbitrary relaxation, e...
December 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mark I McCormick, Randall P Barry, Bridie J M Allan
Habitat degradation alters the chemical landscape through which information about community dynamics is transmitted. Olfactory information is crucial for risk assessment in aquatic organisms as predators release odours when they capture prey that lead to an alarm response in conspecific prey. Recent studies show some coral reef fishes are unable to use alarm odours when surrounded by dead-degraded coral. Our study examines the spatial and temporal dynamics of this alarm odour-nullifying effect, and which substratum types may be responsible...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alejandro Valderrama, Radamés Reynoso, Raúl W Gómez, Manuel Quintana, Martín Romero
First principles calculations have been performed for C60@C180 carbon double-layer endofullerenes with up to: three diatomic radioiodine molecules (131I2), two potassium radio-iodide (K131I), and three sodium radio-iodide (Na131I) inside. The plane-wave pseudopotential (PP) method within the general gradient approximation (GGA) in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) was used to perform geometric optimizations (GOs) and molecular dynamics (MD) at 310 K and atmospheric pressure...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Melania Abrahamian, Meenakshi Kagda, Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Howard S Judelson
BACKGROUND: An important feature of eukaryotic evolution is metabolic compartmentalization, in which certain pathways are restricted to the cytosol or specific organelles. Glycolysis in eukaryotes is described as a cytosolic process. The universality of this canon has been challenged by recent genome data that suggest that some glycolytic enzymes made by stramenopiles bear mitochondrial targeting peptides. RESULTS: Mining of oomycete, diatom, and brown algal genomes indicates that stramenopiles encode two forms of enzymes for the second half of glycolysis, one with and the other without mitochondrial targeting peptides...
December 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Bethany R Smith, David C Aldridge, Andrew J Tanentzap
Litterfall is an important resource subsidy for lake ecosystems that primarily accumulates in littoral zones. Bivalves are abundant within littoral zones and may modify the effects of terrestrial resource subsidies through trophic interactions and engineering their surrounding habitat. Leaf inputs to lakes and freshwater mussel abundances are changing throughout the boreal ecoregion so we set out to investigate how the co-occurring benthic community might respond. We set up an in situ mesocosm experiment in Ramsey Lake, Sudbury, ON, Canada...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Gaëtan Vanier, Szymon Stelter, Jessica Vanier, Franziska Hempel, Uwe G Maier, Patrice Lerouge, Julian Ma, Muriel Bardor
Microalgae are unicellular eukaryotic organisms which represent an emerging alternative to other cell biofactories commonly used to produce monoclonal antibodies. Microalgae display several biotechnological advantages such as their rapid growth rate and their phototrophic lifestyle allowing low production costs as protein expression is solar-fueled. Recently, a fully-assembled recombinant IgG antibody directed against Hepatitis B surface antigen was produced and secreted in the culture medium of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum...
November 30, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
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