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Chronic lung disease

Edinson Dante Meregildo Rodriguez
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis includes three clinical entities: tuberculous meningitis, intracranial tuberculoma, and spinal tuberculous arachnoiditis. All three categories are encountered frequently in regions of the world where the incidence of TB is high. Meningeal tuberculosis is a medical emergency: it is the most severe, lethal and disabling form of tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and treatment can be lifesaving. Even, in developed countries the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis is difficult, frequently delayed or missed, and is often not microbiologically confirmed...
September 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Nurdan Kokturk, Fatma Yıldırım, Pınar Yıldız Gülhan, Yeon Mok Oh
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease that has a major impact worldwide. The currently-available drugs mainly focus on relieving the symptoms of COPD patients. However, in the latter stages of the disease, the airways become largely obstructed and lung parenchyma becomes destructed due to underlying inflammation. The inappropriate repair of lung tissue after injury may contribute to the development of disease. Novel regenerative therapeutic approaches have been investigated with the aim of repairing or replacing the injured functional structures of the respiratory system...
2018: American Journal of Stem Cells
Mariano Marrodan, Catalina Bensi, Lucas Alessandro, Alejandro D Muggeri, Mauricio F Farez
Background and Purpose: Although incidence rates vary, infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases can all cause chronic and subacute meningitis (CSM). We report a Latin-American, single center, CSM case series, analyzing the main clinical characteristics as well as ancillary diagnostic methods differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic etiologies. Methods: Retrospective review of CSM cases from a single center in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Results: Seventy patients with CSM diagnosis were identified, 49 with neoplastic and 21 with non-neoplastic meningitis...
October 2018: Neurohospitalist
Bing Liu, Lisa A Maier, Nabeel Hamzeh, Kristyn MacPhail, Margaret M Mroz, Hongbo Liu, Li Li
Previously we showed that alveolar macrophages (AMs) from patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and beryllium sensitization (BeS) demonstrated significantly greater cell surface CD16 (encoded by the FCGR3A gene) than controls. We hypothesized that these differences were related to polymorphisms in the FCGR3A gene. This study was to determine the association between FCGR3A polymorphisms in CBD, BeS versus controls as well as clinical data, providing potential information about disease pathogenesis, risk, and activity...
September 24, 2018: Genes and Immunity
B Hammer, C Wagner, A Divac Rankov, S Reuter, S Bartel, M N Hylkema, A Krüger, C Svanes, S Krauss-Etschmann
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has risen markedly over the last decades and is reaching epidemic proportions. However, underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood, hampering the urgently needed development of approaches to prevent these diseases. It is well established from epidemiological studies that prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is one of the main risk factors for aberrant lung function development or reduced fetal growth, but also for the development of asthma and possibly COPD later in life...
September 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Michel Jadoul, Marina C Berenguer, Wahid Doss, Fabrizio Fabrizi, Jacques Izopet, Vivekanand Jha, Nassim Kamar, Bertram L Kasiske, Ching-Lung Lai, José M Morales, Priti R Patel, Stanislas Pol, Marcelo O Silva, Ethan M Balk, Craig E Gordon, Amy Earley, Mengyang Di, Paul Martin
Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has adverse liver, kidney, and cardiovascular consequences in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including those on dialysis therapy and in those with a kidney transplant. Since the publication of the original Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) HCV Guideline in 2008, major advances in HCV management, particularly with the advent of direct-acting antiviral therapies, have now made the cure of HCV possible in CKD patients. In addition, diagnostic techniques have evolved to enable the noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis...
October 2018: Kidney International
Anita Somborac-Bačura, Lada Rumora, Ruđer Novak, Dubravka Rašić, Jerka Dumić, Ivana Čepelak, Tihana Žanić-Grubišić
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Cigarette smoking is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in lungs. Our aim was to examine the effect of cigarette smoke on cell death, oxidative damage, expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in A549 alveolar epithelial cells. What is the main finding and its importance? Cigarette smoke induces cytotoxicity and oxidative damage to A549 cells, increases expression of different HSPs and activates MAPK signaling pathways...
September 22, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Kate H Regan, Adam T Hill
Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disorder characterized by persistent productive cough and recurrent chest infections secondary to permanent structural airway damage. The current treatment strategies for this debilitating disorder are limited to prompt antibiotic treatment of infective exacerbations and regular airway clearance techniques. Despite its high morbidity and associated mortality across all age groups, it has been a neglected area of research in respiratory medicine and there remain no licensed disease-modifying therapies...
September 21, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Allan R Brasier
Acute exacerbations of chronic lung disease account for substantial morbidity and health costs. Repeated inflammatory episodes and attendant bronchoconstriction cause structural remodeling of the airway. Remodeling is a multicellular response to mucosal injury that results in epithelial cell state changes, enhanced extracellular deposition and expansion of pro-fibrotic myofibroblast populations. Areas covered: This manuscript overviews mechanistic studies identifying key sentinel cell populations in the airway and how pattern recognition signaling induces maladaptive mucosal changes and airway remodeling...
September 21, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Spiros Vlahopoulos, Maria Adamaki, Nikolas Khoury, Vassilis Zoumpourlis, Istvan Boldogh
Cytokines are pivotal mediators of the immune response, and their coordinated expression protects host tissue from excessive damage and oxidant stress. Nevertheless, the development of lung pathology, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and ozone-induced lung injury, is associated with oxidant stress; as evidence, there is a significant increase in levels of the modified guanine base 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) in the genome. 8-OxoG is primarily recognized by 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), which catalyzes the first step in the DNA base excision repair pathway...
September 19, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Thavarak Ouk, Camille Potey, Ilaria Maestrini, Maud Petrault, Anne-Marie Mendyk, Didier Leys, Regis Bordet, Sophie Gautier
The risk of intracerebral hemorrhage still greatly limits the use of tPA in stroke patients. Research is ongoing in order to identify the pathophysiological mechanisms at play, detect predictive biomarkers and discover new pharmacological targets to develop preventive or curative treatments. Going through experimental and clinical studies, this review focuses on the role of neutrophils as key predictive biomarkers for thrombolysis-induced hemorrhages and as pharmacological targets to limit their occurrence...
September 18, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sara Gago, David W Denning, Paul Bowyer
Aspergillus colonization of the lower respiratory airways is common in normal people, and of little clinical significance. However, in some patients, colonization is associated with severe disease including poorly controlled asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) with sputum plugs, worse lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary aspergillosis (COPD), invasive aspergillosis, and active infection in patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Therefore, understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of fungal colonization in disease is essential to develop strategies to avert or minimise disease...
September 15, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Joanna Kaluza, Holly R Harris, Anders Linden, Alicja Wolk
Background: Fruits and vegetables, due to high antioxidant capacity, may protect the lung from oxidative damage caused by tobacco smoke and potentially prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Only one study based on baseline diet has examined fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to risk of COPD, and no previous studies have examined long-term diet. Methods: We investigated whether long-term fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with COPD incidence among 34 739 women (age 48-83 years) in the population-based prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Sanne C van Kampen, Rupert Jones, Harriet Kisembo, Rein M G J Houben, Yinghui Wei, Frank R Mugabe, Elizeus Rutebemberwa, Bruce Kirenga
Background: People with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are at risk of developing chronic respiratory disorders due to residual lung damage. So far, the scope of the problem in high burden TB countries is relatively unknown. Methods: Chronic respiratory symptoms (cough and phlegm lasting >2 weeks) and radiological lung abnormalities were compared between adults with and without a history of TB among the general population of Uganda. Multivariable regression models were used to estimate odds ratios with adjustment for age, gender, smoking, education, setting and region...
September 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Eleonora Duscio, Francesco Cipulli, Francesco Vasques, Francesca Collino, Francesca Rapetti, Federica Romitti, Tim Behnemann, Julia Niewenhuys, Tommaso Tonetti, Iacopo Pasticci, Francesco Vassalli, Verena Reupke, Onnen Moerer, Michael Quintel, Luciano Gattinoni
OBJECTIVES: Minimally invasive extracorporeal CO2 removal is an accepted supportive treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Conversely, the potential of such technique in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome patients remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was: 1) to quantify membrane lung CO2 removal (VCO2ML) under different conditions and 2) to quantify the natural lung CO2 removal (VCO2NL) and to what extent mechanical ventilation can be reduced while maintaining total expired CO2 (VCO2tot = VCO2ML + VCO2NL) and arterial PCO2 constant...
September 19, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Smiljana Spasic, Iva Brcic, Rochelle Freire, Monica T Garcia-Buitrago, Andrew E Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an uncommon malignant endothelial neoplasm that most commonly arises in soft tissue, bone, lung, and liver. Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology that is frequently associated with complications including strictures, fistulas/fissures, and neoplasms. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 43-year-old woman with a 6-year history of severe CD presented with anal pain and bleeding. She had prior partial colectomy for a stricture and a diverting ileostomy for perianal fissures and stricture...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Aiyuan Zhou, Zijing Zhou, Yating Peng, Yiyang Zhao, Jiaxi Duan, Ping Chen
Background: The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Assessment Test (CAT) questionnaire is a short patient-completed questionnaire, which is used to assess the health status of patients with stable COPD. However, whether it is a good tool to evaluate the response to treatment in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) has been less studied. Methods: The patients were assessed at two visits, at admission and on the seventh day. Anthropometric variables were collected at admission...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Keisaku Fujimoto, Haruna Yamazaki, Akikazu Uematsu
Objective/background: This study was performed to evaluate the association of nocturnal autonomic nerve (AN) dysfunction, especially parasympathetic nerve (PN) function instability, and nocturnal oxygen desaturation (NOD) in patients with chronic lung diseases (CLD). Patients and methods: Twenty-nine stable CLD patients with irreversible pulmonary dysfunction and mild-to-moderate daytime hypoxemia, 13 CLD patients receiving long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) with maintained SpO2 >90%, and 17 senior healthy volunteers underwent two-night examinations of nocturnal AN function by pulse rate variability (PRV) instead of heart rate variation using a photoelectrical plethysmograph simultaneously monitoring SpO2 and the presence of sleep disordered breathing at home...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Xiao Sun, Zhonghua Dong, Nan Li, Xiuli Feng, Yan Liu, Ang Li, Xiaosong Zhu, Chunyan Li, Zhongxi Zhao
Background: Ophiocordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ) extracts have been found to have a therapeutic effect on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory mediators and correlates with lung function and COPD exacerbations. The objective of this work was to explore the anti-inflammatory effect and preliminary pathways of nucleosides from cultured C. sinensis on RAW264.7 macrophages and COPD mice...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Tom M Quinn, Adam T Hill
Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease with permanently damaged airways predisposing to recurrent respiratory tract infections. There is an increasing prevalence of bronchiectasis in the elderly, affecting approximately 10 patients per 1,000 population. Studies have shown that older, frailer patients tend to have a more severe and symptomatic disease, with those aged 80 and above with worse quality of life, increased hospitalization and increased mortality. These patients will be encountered by clinicians working in all aspects of elderly care...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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