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Daniel J Friedman, Haikun Bao, Erica S Spatz, Jeptha P Curtis, James P Daubert, Sana M Al-Khatib
BACKGROUND: -A prolonged PR interval is common among cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) candidates; however, the association between PR interval and outcomes is unclear, and data are conflicting. METHODS: -We conducted inverse probability weighted (IPW) analyses of 26,451 CRT eligible (EF≤35, QRS≥120ms) patients from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD Registry to assess the association between a prolonged PR interval (≥230ms), receipt of CRT with defibrillator (CRT-D) versus implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), and outcomes...
October 19, 2016: Circulation
Christopher Rabender, Eleonora Mezzaroma, Adolfo G Mauro, Ramesh Mullangi, Antonio Abbate, Mitchell Anscher, Barry Hart, Ross Mikkelsen
There is an ongoing and significant need for radiation countermeasures to reduce morbidities and mortalities associated with exposure of the heart and lungs from a radiological or nuclear incidents. Radiation-induced late effects occur months to years after exposure, stemming from significant tissue damage and remodeling, resulting in fibrosis and loss of function. TGF-β is reported to play a role in both pulmonary and cardiac fibrosis. We investigated the ability of a small molecule TGF-β receptor 1 inhibitor, IPW-5371, to mitigate the effects of thoracic irradiation in C57L/J mice, a murine model that most closely resembles that observed in humans in the induction of fibrosis and dose response...
September 19, 2016: Radiation Research
Yukihiro Sato, Jun Aida, Katsunori Kondo, Toru Tsuboya, Richard G Watt, Tatsuo Yamamoto, Shihoko Koyama, Yusuke Matsuyama, Ken Osaka
OBJECTIVES: To describe associations between tooth loss and changes in higher-level functional capacity. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Twenty-four Japanese municipalities between 2010 and 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Functionally independent community-dwelling persons aged 65 and older (N = 62,333). MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported number of teeth was used as an exposure variable. The outcome was changes in higher-level functional capacity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC), which consists of three domains: instrumental activities of daily living, intellectual activity, and social roles...
September 9, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
P Neumair, L Joos, R Warschkow, A Dutly, S Ess, F Hitz, M Früh, M Brutsche, F Baty, S Krähenbühl, T Cerny, M Joerger
OBJECTIVES: Controversy exists about the integration of erlotinib in patients with EGFR wildtype, advanced NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included patients with advanced NSCLC receiving at least two lines of palliative systemic treatment between January 2005 and December 2014 and not harbouring targetable driver mutations. Primary study endpoint was overall survival (OS), secondary endpoint progression-free survival (PFS). We used Kaplan-Meier statistics, multivariate Cox regression and Propensity score or Inverse Probability Weights (IPW) matching to compare clinical outcome between patients receiving erlotinib in second or further line and those receiving chemotherapy only...
October 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Wataru Yamazaki, Tomoko Amano, Hanako Bai, Masashi Takahashi, Manabu Kawahara
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that switches the expression of imprinted genes involved in normal embryonic growth and development in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. Changes in DNA methylation statuses from polyploidization are a well characterized epigenetic modification in plants. However, how changes in ploidy affect both imprinted gene expression and methylation status in mammals remains unclear. To address this, we used quantitative real time PCR to analyze expression levels of imprinted genes in mouse tetraploid fetuses...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yuan-Cheng Wang, Adrian Tang, Di Chang, Chun-Qiang Lu, Shi-Jun Zhang, Shenghong Ju
The relative incidence of long-term adverse effects between low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) and iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM) after coronary angiography is still unclear. We analyzed cardiology patients undergoing coronary angiography from January 2006 to July 2013 using either LOCM (iohexol, iopromide) or IOCM (iodixanol) at a single institution. For each contrast medium, primary (all-cause mortality, n = 6,992) and secondary outcomes (long-term renal injury and cardiovascular events beyond 90 days, n = 2,792) were recorded...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Melika Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Phuong Bui, Andrew Donini
Larvae of Chironomus riparius respond to ion-poor and brackish water (IPW, BW) conditions by activating ion uptake mechanisms in the anal papillae and reducing ion absorption at the rectum, respectively. The role that the Malpighian tubules play in ion and osmoregulation under these conditions is not known in this species. This study examines rates of fluid secretion and major cation composition of secreted fluid from tubules of C. riparius reared in IPW, freshwater (FW) and BW. Fluid secretion of tubules from FW and BW larvae was similar but tubules from IPW larvae secrete fluid at higher rates, are more sensitive to serotonin stimulation, and the secreted fluid contains less Na(+) ...
October 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Laura Pryor, Sandrine Lioret, Judith van der Waerden, Éric Fombonne, Bruno Falissard, Maria Melchior
PURPOSE: Food insecurity has been found to be related to anxiety and depression; however, the association with other psychiatric disorders, particularly among young adults, is not well known. We examined whether food insecurity is independently associated with four common mental health problems among a community sample of young adults in France. METHODS: Data are from the TEMPO longitudinal cohort study. In 1991, participants' parents provided information on health and family socioeconomic characteristics...
August 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Chun Chih Chen, Dennis Kolosov, Scott P Kelly
To consider the idea that a dietary botanical supplement could act as an adaptogen in a teleost fish, the effect of a liquorice root derivative (18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, 18βGA) on rainbow trout following an acute ionoregulatory stressor was examined. Freshwater (FW) trout were fed a control or 18βGA supplemented diet (0, 5, or 50μg 18βGA/g diet) for 2weeks, then abruptly exposed to ion-poor water (IPW) for 24h. Following IPW exposure, muscle moisture content and serum cortisol levels elevated and serum [Na(+)] and/or [Cl(-)] reduced in control and 50μg/g 18βGA-fed fish...
September 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
S Reza Jafarzadeh, Benjamin S Thomas, David K Warren, Jeff Gill, Victoria J Fraser
BACKGROUND: The long-term and cumulative effect of multiple episodes of bacteremia and sepsis across multiple hospitalizations on the development of cardiovascular (CV) events is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of 156 380 hospitalizations in 47 009 patients (≥18 years old) who had at least 2 inpatient admissions at an academic tertiary care center in St Louis, Missouri, from 1 January 2008 through 31 December 2012. We used marginal structural models, estimated by inverse probability weighting (IPW) of bacteremia or sepsis and IPW of censoring, to estimate the marginal causal effects of bacteremia and sepsis on developing the first observed incident CV event, including stroke, transient ischemic attack, and myocardial infarction (MI), during the study period...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Young Youn Cho, Minjong Lee, Hyo-Cheol Kim, Jin Wook Chung, Yun Hwan Kim, Geum-Youn Gwak, Si Hyun Bae, Do Young Kim, Jeong Heo, Yoon Jun Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Limited treatment options are available for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Transarterial radioembolization using Yttrium-90 microspheres is a new treatment modality for HCC with PVT. For this analysis, we compared responses to treatment with radioembolization and with sorafenib. METHODS: We evaluated 32 patients who were part of a multicenter retrospective cohort. All patients had PVT without extrahepatic metastasis and were treated with radioembolization in one of six tertiary referral hospitals in Korea...
2016: PloS One
Sherene Loi, Urania Dafni, Dimitris Karlis, Varvara Polydoropoulou, Brandon M Young, Scooter Willis, Bradley Long, Evandro de Azambuja, Christos Sotiriou, Giuseppe Viale, Josef Rüschoff, Martine J Piccart, Mitch Dowsett, Stefan Michiels, Brian Leyland-Jones
IMPORTANCE: A number of studies suggest that response to antihuman epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (currently known as ERBB2, butreferred to asHER2 in this study) agents differs by estrogen receptor (ER) level status. The clinical relevance of this is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude of trastuzumab benefit according to quantitative levels of ER and HER2 in the HERceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The HERA trial was an international, multicenter, randomized trial that included 5099 patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer, randomized between 2001 and 2005 to receive either no trastuzumab or trastuzumab, after adjuvant chemotherapy...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Oncology
Dennis Kolosov, Scott P Kelly
This study utilized dietary salt loading and ion-poor water (IPW) exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to further understand the role of fish gill epithelium tight junction (TJ) physiology in salt and water balance. Gill morphology, biochemistry and molecular physiology were examined, with an emphasis on genes encoding TJ proteins. Fish were either fed a control or salt-enriched diet (~10 % NaCl) for 4 weeks prior to IPW exposure for 24 h. Serum [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and muscle moisture content were unaltered by salt feeding, but changed in response to IPW irrespective of diet...
August 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Melanie Prague, Rui Wang, Alisa Stephens, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen, Victor DeGruttola
Semi-parametric methods are often used for the estimation of intervention effects on correlated outcomes in cluster-randomized trials (CRTs). When outcomes are missing at random (MAR), Inverse Probability Weighted (IPW) methods incorporating baseline covariates can be used to deal with informative missingness. Also, augmented generalized estimating equations (AUG) correct for imbalance in baseline covariates but need to be extended for MAR outcomes. However, in the presence of interactions between treatment and baseline covariates, neither method alone produces consistent estimates for the marginal treatment effect if the model for interaction is not correctly specified...
April 8, 2016: Biometrics
R H H Groenwold, K G M Moons, R Pajouheshnia, D G Altman, G S Collins, T P A Debray, J B Reitsma, R D Riley, L M Peelen
OBJECTIVE: To compare different methods to handle treatment when developing a prognostic model that aims to produce accurate probabilities of the outcome of individuals if left untreated. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Simulations were performed based on two normally distributed predictors, a binary outcome, and a binary treatment, mimicking a randomised trial or an observational study. Comparison was made between simply ignoring treatment (SIT), restricting the analytical dataset to untreated individuals (AUT), inverse probability weighting (IPW), and explicit modelling of treatment (MT)...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Timofey S Rozhdestvensky, Thomas Robeck, Chenna R Galiveti, Carsten A Raabe, Birte Seeger, Anna Wolters, Leonid V Gubar, Jürgen Brosius, Boris V Skryabin
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder caused by loss of paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15q11-q13. The PWS-critical region (PWScr) contains an array of non-protein coding IPW-A exons hosting intronic SNORD116 snoRNA genes. Deletion of PWScr is associated with PWS in humans and growth retardation in mice exhibiting ~15% postnatal lethality in C57BL/6 background. Here we analysed a knock-in mouse containing a 5'HPRT-LoxP-Neo(R) cassette (5'LoxP) inserted upstream of the PWScr. When the insertion was inherited maternally in a paternal PWScr-deletion mouse model (PWScr(p-/m5'LoxP)), we observed compensation of growth retardation and postnatal lethality...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yanwei Pang, Jiale Cao, Xuelong Li
Object detection is an important task in computer vision and machine intelligence systems. Multistage particle windows (MPW), proposed by Gualdi et al., is an algorithm of fast and accurate object detection. By sampling particle windows (PWs) from a proposal distribution (PD), MPW avoids exhaustively scanning the image. Despite its success, it is unknown how to determine the number of stages and the number of PWs in each stage. Moreover, it has to generate too many PWs in the initialization step and it unnecessarily regenerates too many PWs around object-like regions...
January 6, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Veronica O'Carroll, Linda McSwiggan, Martin Campbell
The healthcare setting is a rich learning environment for students to experience interprofessional working (IPW) and interprofessional education (IPE). However, opportunities for IPE are limited, and student experiences of effective IPW are varied. This raises the question of how IPW and IPE are valued by health or social care professionals. A search of the literature was carried out to identify studies of health and social care staff attitudes to IPW and IPE. This review provides a summary of the main factors found to influence attitudes and the strengths and limitations of these studies...
2016: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Rebecca Payne, Matey Neykov, Majken Karoline Jensen, Tianxi Cai
Large assembled cohorts with banked biospecimens offer valuable opportunities to identify novel markers for risk prediction. When the outcome of interest is rare, an effective strategy to conserve limited biological resources while maintaining reasonable statistical power is the case cohort (CCH) sampling design, in which expensive markers are measured on a subset of cases and controls. However, the CCH design introduces significant analytical complexity due to outcome-dependent, finite-population sampling...
June 2016: Biometrics
Joe Bible, James D Beck, Somnath Datta
Ignorance of the mechanisms responsible for the availability of information presents an unusual problem for analysts. It is often the case that the availability of information is dependent on the outcome. In the analysis of cluster data we say that a condition for informative cluster size (ICS) exists when the inference drawn from analysis of hypothetical balanced data varies from that of inference drawn on observed data. Much work has been done in order to address the analysis of clustered data with informative cluster size; examples include Inverse Probability Weighting (IPW), Cluster Weighted Generalized Estimating Equations (CWGEE), and Doubly Weighted Generalized Estimating Equations (DWGEE)...
June 2016: Biometrics
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