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Chen Jin, Yi Xu, Shubin Qiao, Xinran Tang, Yongjian Wu, Hongbing Yan, Kefei Dou, Bo Xu, Jingang Yang, Ying Xian, Yuejin Yang
Despite increasing adoption of the transradial approach for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in clinical practice, the role of transradial intervention (TRI) in women remains a significant debate. We identified 1392 women from a consecutive cohort of patients undergoing PCI in China in 2010 and compared the efficacy and hospital costs between TRI and transfemoral intervention. An inverse probability weighting (IPW) method was used to control for potential bias. After IPW adjustment, patients receiving TRI were less likely to experience post-PCI bleeding (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
Paula W Rushton, Ben W Mortenson, Pooja Viswanathan, Rosalie H Wang, William C Miller, Laura Hurd Clarke
PURPOSE: Long-term care (LTC) residents with cognitive impairments frequently experience limited mobility and participation in preferred activities. Although a power wheelchair could mitigate some of these mobility and participation challenges, this technology is often not prescribed for this population due to safety concerns. An intelligent power wheelchair (IPW) system represents a potential intervention that could help to overcome these concerns. The purpose of this study was to explore a) how residents experienced an IPW that used three different modes of control and b) what perceived effect the IPW would have on their daily lives...
December 16, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Y Chen, Y T Zhang, C Chen, Y R Jiang, Y J Song, S J Liu, F Jiang
Objective: To investigate the current prevalence of pubertal development in healthy Shanghai schoolchildren. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional investigation focused on current pubertal development conducted in healthy Shanghai schoolchildren by multi-stage cluster sampling. The sample included 17 571 children in grades 1-5 investigated in June 2014. The data were weighted by inverse probability weighting (IPW) to make them more representative. At examination, stages of breast and pubic hair development were rated according to the Tanner method...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Menglan Pang, Tibor Schuster, Kristian B Filion, Mireille E Schnitzer, Maria Eberg, Robert W Platt
Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPW) and targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) are relatively new methods proposed for estimating marginal causal effects. TMLE is doubly robust, yielding consistent estimators even under misspecification of either the treatment or the outcome model. While IPW methods are known to be sensitive to near violations of the practical positivity assumption (e. g., in the case of data sparsity), the consequences of this violation in the TMLE framework for binary outcomes have been less widely investigated...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Biostatistics
Raymond A Harvey, Jennifer D Hayden, Pravin S Kamble, Jonathan R Bouchard, Joanna C Huang
PURPOSE: We compared methods to control bias and confounding in observational studies including inverse probability weighting (IPW) and stabilized IPW (sIPW). These methods often require iteration and post-calibration to achieve covariate balance. In comparison, entropy balance (EB) optimizes covariate balance a priori by calibrating weights using the target's moments as constraints. METHODS: We measured covariate balance empirically and by simulation by using absolute standardized mean difference (ASMD), absolute bias (AB), and root mean square error (RMSE), investigating two scenarios: the size of the observed (exposed) cohort exceeds the target (unexposed) cohort and vice versa...
November 13, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
A Overwater, K Kessels, S G Elias, Y Backes, B W M Spanier, T C J Seerden, H J M Pullens, W H de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, A van den Blink, G J A Offerhaus, J van Bergeijk, M Kerkhof, J M J Geesing, J N Groen, N van Lelyveld, F Ter Borg, F Wolfhagen, P D Siersema, M M Lacle, L M G Moons
OBJECTIVE: It is difficult to predict the presence of histological risk factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM) before endoscopic treatment of T1 colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, endoscopic therapy is propagated to obtain adequate histological staging. We examined whether secondary surgery following endoscopic resection of high-risk T1 CRC does not have a negative effect on patients' outcomes compared with primary surgery. DESIGN: Patients with T1 CRC with one or more histological risk factors for LNM (high risk) and treated with primary or secondary surgery between 2000 and 2014 in 13 hospitals were identified in the Netherlands Cancer Registry...
November 3, 2016: Gut
Daniel J Friedman, Haikun Bao, Erica S Spatz, Jeptha P Curtis, James P Daubert, Sana M Al-Khatib
BACKGROUND: A prolonged PR interval is common among cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) candidates; however, the association between PR interval and outcomes is unclear, and the data are conflicting. METHODS: We conducted inverse probability weighted analyses of 26 451 CRT-eligible (ejection fraction ≤35, QRS ≥120 ms) patients from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD Registry to assess the association between a prolonged PR interval (≥230 ms), receipt of CRT with defibrillator (CRT-D) versus implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), and outcomes...
November 22, 2016: Circulation
Christopher Rabender, Eleonora Mezzaroma, Adolfo G Mauro, Ramesh Mullangi, Antonio Abbate, Mitchell Anscher, Barry Hart, Ross Mikkelsen
There is an ongoing and significant need for radiation countermeasures to reduce morbidities and mortalities associated with exposure of the heart and lungs from a radiological or nuclear incidents. Radiation-induced late effects occur months to years after exposure, stemming from significant tissue damage and remodeling, resulting in fibrosis and loss of function. TGF-β is reported to play a role in both pulmonary and cardiac fibrosis. We investigated the ability of a small molecule TGF-β receptor 1 inhibitor, IPW-5371, to mitigate the effects of thoracic irradiation in C57L/J mice, a murine model that most closely resembles that observed in humans in the induction of fibrosis and dose response...
September 19, 2016: Radiation Research
Yukihiro Sato, Jun Aida, Katsunori Kondo, Toru Tsuboya, Richard G Watt, Tatsuo Yamamoto, Shihoko Koyama, Yusuke Matsuyama, Ken Osaka
OBJECTIVES: To describe associations between tooth loss and changes in higher-level functional capacity. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Twenty-four Japanese municipalities between 2010 and 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Functionally independent community-dwelling persons aged 65 and older (N = 62,333). MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported number of teeth was used as an exposure variable. The outcome was changes in higher-level functional capacity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC), which consists of three domains: instrumental activities of daily living, intellectual activity, and social roles...
November 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
P Neumair, L Joos, R Warschkow, A Dutly, S Ess, F Hitz, M Früh, M Brutsche, F Baty, S Krähenbühl, T Cerny, M Joerger
OBJECTIVES: Controversy exists about the integration of erlotinib in patients with EGFR wildtype, advanced NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included patients with advanced NSCLC receiving at least two lines of palliative systemic treatment between January 2005 and December 2014 and not harbouring targetable driver mutations. Primary study endpoint was overall survival (OS), secondary endpoint progression-free survival (PFS). We used Kaplan-Meier statistics, multivariate Cox regression and Propensity score or Inverse Probability Weights (IPW) matching to compare clinical outcome between patients receiving erlotinib in second or further line and those receiving chemotherapy only...
October 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Wataru Yamazaki, Tomoko Amano, Hanako Bai, Masashi Takahashi, Manabu Kawahara
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that switches the expression of imprinted genes involved in normal embryonic growth and development in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. Changes in DNA methylation statuses from polyploidization are a well characterized epigenetic modification in plants. However, how changes in ploidy affect both imprinted gene expression and methylation status in mammals remains unclear. To address this, we used quantitative real time PCR to analyze expression levels of imprinted genes in mouse tetraploid fetuses...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yuan-Cheng Wang, Adrian Tang, Di Chang, Chun-Qiang Lu, Shi-Jun Zhang, Shenghong Ju
The relative incidence of long-term adverse effects between low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) and iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM) after coronary angiography is still unclear. We analyzed cardiology patients undergoing coronary angiography from January 2006 to July 2013 using either LOCM (iohexol, iopromide) or IOCM (iodixanol) at a single institution. For each contrast medium, primary (all-cause mortality, n = 6,992) and secondary outcomes (long-term renal injury and cardiovascular events beyond 90 days, n = 2,792) were recorded...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Melika Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Phuong Bui, Andrew Donini
Larvae of Chironomus riparius respond to ion-poor and brackish water (IPW, BW) conditions by activating ion uptake mechanisms in the anal papillae and reducing ion absorption at the rectum, respectively. The role that the Malpighian tubules play in ion and osmoregulation under these conditions is not known in this species. This study examines rates of fluid secretion and major cation composition of secreted fluid from tubules of C. riparius reared in IPW, freshwater (FW) and BW. Fluid secretion of tubules from FW and BW larvae was similar but tubules from IPW larvae secrete fluid at higher rates, are more sensitive to serotonin stimulation, and the secreted fluid contains less Na(+) ...
October 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Laura Pryor, Sandrine Lioret, Judith van der Waerden, Éric Fombonne, Bruno Falissard, Maria Melchior
PURPOSE: Food insecurity has been found to be related to anxiety and depression; however, the association with other psychiatric disorders, particularly among young adults, is not well known. We examined whether food insecurity is independently associated with four common mental health problems among a community sample of young adults in France. METHODS: Data are from the TEMPO longitudinal cohort study. In 1991, participants' parents provided information on health and family socioeconomic characteristics...
August 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Chun Chih Chen, Dennis Kolosov, Scott P Kelly
To consider the idea that a dietary botanical supplement could act as an adaptogen in a teleost fish, the effect of a liquorice root derivative (18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, 18βGA) on rainbow trout following an acute ionoregulatory stressor was examined. Freshwater (FW) trout were fed a control or 18βGA supplemented diet (0, 5, or 50μg 18βGA/g diet) for 2weeks, then abruptly exposed to ion-poor water (IPW) for 24h. Following IPW exposure, muscle moisture content and serum cortisol levels elevated and serum [Na(+)] and/or [Cl(-)] reduced in control and 50μg/g 18βGA-fed fish...
September 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
S Reza Jafarzadeh, Benjamin S Thomas, David K Warren, Jeff Gill, Victoria J Fraser
BACKGROUND: The long-term and cumulative effect of multiple episodes of bacteremia and sepsis across multiple hospitalizations on the development of cardiovascular (CV) events is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of 156 380 hospitalizations in 47 009 patients (≥18 years old) who had at least 2 inpatient admissions at an academic tertiary care center in St Louis, Missouri, from 1 January 2008 through 31 December 2012. We used marginal structural models, estimated by inverse probability weighting (IPW) of bacteremia or sepsis and IPW of censoring, to estimate the marginal causal effects of bacteremia and sepsis on developing the first observed incident CV event, including stroke, transient ischemic attack, and myocardial infarction (MI), during the study period...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Young Youn Cho, Minjong Lee, Hyo-Cheol Kim, Jin Wook Chung, Yun Hwan Kim, Geum-Youn Gwak, Si Hyun Bae, Do Young Kim, Jeong Heo, Yoon Jun Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Limited treatment options are available for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Transarterial radioembolization using Yttrium-90 microspheres is a new treatment modality for HCC with PVT. For this analysis, we compared responses to treatment with radioembolization and with sorafenib. METHODS: We evaluated 32 patients who were part of a multicenter retrospective cohort. All patients had PVT without extrahepatic metastasis and were treated with radioembolization in one of six tertiary referral hospitals in Korea...
2016: PloS One
Sherene Loi, Urania Dafni, Dimitris Karlis, Varvara Polydoropoulou, Brandon M Young, Scooter Willis, Bradley Long, Evandro de Azambuja, Christos Sotiriou, Giuseppe Viale, Josef Rüschoff, Martine J Piccart, Mitch Dowsett, Stefan Michiels, Brian Leyland-Jones
IMPORTANCE: A number of studies suggest that response to antihuman epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (currently known as ERBB2, butreferred to asHER2 in this study) agents differs by estrogen receptor (ER) level status. The clinical relevance of this is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude of trastuzumab benefit according to quantitative levels of ER and HER2 in the HERceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The HERA trial was an international, multicenter, randomized trial that included 5099 patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer, randomized between 2001 and 2005 to receive either no trastuzumab or trastuzumab, after adjuvant chemotherapy...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Oncology
Dennis Kolosov, Scott P Kelly
This study utilized dietary salt loading and ion-poor water (IPW) exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to further understand the role of fish gill epithelium tight junction (TJ) physiology in salt and water balance. Gill morphology, biochemistry and molecular physiology were examined, with an emphasis on genes encoding TJ proteins. Fish were either fed a control or salt-enriched diet (~10 % NaCl) for 4 weeks prior to IPW exposure for 24 h. Serum [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and muscle moisture content were unaltered by salt feeding, but changed in response to IPW irrespective of diet...
August 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Melanie Prague, Rui Wang, Alisa Stephens, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen, Victor DeGruttola
Semi-parametric methods are often used for the estimation of intervention effects on correlated outcomes in cluster-randomized trials (CRTs). When outcomes are missing at random (MAR), Inverse Probability Weighted (IPW) methods incorporating baseline covariates can be used to deal with informative missingness. Also, augmented generalized estimating equations (AUG) correct for imbalance in baseline covariates but need to be extended for MAR outcomes. However, in the presence of interactions between treatment and baseline covariates, neither method alone produces consistent estimates for the marginal treatment effect if the model for interaction is not correctly specified...
December 2016: Biometrics
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