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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302611/the-health-benefits-of-secondary-education-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-an-international-analysis-in-186-low-middle-and-high-income-countries-from-1990-to-2013
#1
Russell M Viner, Dougal S Hargreaves, Joseph Ward, Chris Bonell, Ali H Mokdad, George Patton
Background: The health benefits of secondary education have been little studied. We undertook country-level longitudinal analyses of the impact of lengthening secondary education on health outcomes amongst 15-24 year olds. Methods: Exposures: average length of secondary and primary education from 1980 to 2013.Data/Outcomes: Country level adolescent fertility rate (AFR), HIV prevalence and mortality rate from 1989/90 to 2013 across 186 low-, middle- and high-income countries...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281984/the-alarming-problems-of-confounding-equivalence-using-logistic-regression-models-in-the-perspective-of-causal-diagrams
#2
Yuanyuan Yu, Hongkai Li, Xiaoru Sun, Ping Su, Tingting Wang, Yi Liu, Zhongshang Yuan, Yanxun Liu, Fuzhong Xue
BACKGROUND: Confounders can produce spurious associations between exposure and outcome in observational studies. For majority of epidemiologists, adjusting for confounders using logistic regression model is their habitual method, though it has some problems in accuracy and precision. It is, therefore, important to highlight the problems of logistic regression and search the alternative method. METHODS: Four causal diagram models were defined to summarize confounding equivalence...
December 28, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280181/modeling-time-varying-exposure-using-inverse-probability-of-treatment-weights
#3
Nathalie Grafféo, Aurélien Latouche, Ronald B Geskus, Sylvie Chevret
For estimating the causal effect of treatment exposure on the occurrence of adverse events, inverse probability weights (IPW) can be used in marginal structural models to correct for time-dependent confounding. The R package ipw allows IPW estimation by modeling the relationship between the exposure and confounders via several regression models, among which is the Cox model. For right-censored data and time-dependent exposures such as treatment switches, the ipw package allows a single switch, assuming that patients are treated once and for all...
December 27, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228098/association-of-household-opioid-availability-and-prescription-opioid-initiation-among-household-members
#4
Marissa J Seamans, Timothy S Carey, Daniel J Westreich, Stephen R Cole, Stephanie B Wheeler, G Caleb Alexander, Virginia Pate, M Alan Brookhart
Importance: Increases in prescription opioid use in the United States have been attributed to changing prescribing guidelines and attitudes toward pain relief; however, the spread of opioid use within households through drug diversion may also be a contributing factor. Objective: To investigate whether individuals living in a household with a prescription opioid user are more likely to initiate prescription opioids themselves, compared with individuals in households with a prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) user...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206926/impact-of-cleaner-fuel-use-and-improved-stoves-on-acute-respiratory-infections-evidence-from-india
#5
Prabhat Lamichhane, Anurag Sharma, Ajay Mahal
Background: The use of cleaner fuel and improved stoves has been promoted as a means to lower harmful emissions from solid fuels. However, little is known about how exclusive use of cleaner fuels, mixed fuel use and improved stoves influences children's health. Methods: We compared the impact of using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) exclusively with mixed fuel use (LPG plus polluting fuels) and with exclusive use of polluting fuels on acute respiratory infections (ARI) among 16 157 children 0-4 years of age from households in the 2012 Indian Human Development Survey...
December 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096630/trajectories-of-physical-function-prior-to-death-and-brain-neuropathology-in-a-community-based-cohort-the-act-study
#6
Andrea Z LaCroix, Rebecca A Hubbard, Shelly L Gray, Melissa L Anderson, Paul K Crane, Joshua A Sonnen, Oleg Zaslavsky, Eric B Larson
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms linking cognitive and physical functioning in older adults are unclear. We sought to determine whether brain pathological changes relate to the level or rate of physical performance decline. METHODS: This study analyzed data from 305 participants in the autopsy subcohort of the prospective Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study. Participants were aged 65+ and free of dementia at enrollment. Physical performance was measured at baseline and every two years using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)...
November 2, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090122/effects-of-bodily-retraction-of-mandibular-incisors-versus-mandibular-setback-surgery-on-pharyngeal-airway-space-a-comparative-study
#7
Byeong-Tak Keum, Sung-Hwan Choi, Yoon Jeong Choi, Hyoung-Seon Baik, Kee-Joon Lee
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the changes induced in the pharyngeal airway space by orthodontic treatment with bodily retraction of the mandibular incisors and mandibular setback surgery without extraction. METHODS: This retrospective study included 63 adult patients (32 men and 31 women). Thirty-three patients who had been treated via four-bicuspid extraction and bodily retraction of the mandibular incisors (incisor retraction, IR group) were compared with 30 patients who had been treated via mandibular setback surgery (MS group) without extraction...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078141/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-childhood-obesity-in-an-italian-birth-cohort
#8
Sara Fioravanti, Giulia Cesaroni, Chiara Badaloni, Paola Michelozzi, Francesco Forastiere, Daniela Porta
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is associated with several adverse health outcomes in children, such as respiratory illnesses and cognitive development impairment. There are suggestions of an effect of traffic-related air pollution on the occurrence of childhood obesity, but the results are not consistent. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to analyse whether air pollution and vehicular traffic exposure, during the first two years of life, influence obesity- related measures among 4 and 8-year-old children from a prospective birth cohort in Rome...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028922/methods-for-handling-longitudinal-outcome-processes-truncated-by-dropout-and-death
#9
Lan Wen, Graciela Muniz Terrera, Shaun R Seaman
Cohort data are often incomplete because some subjects drop out of the study, and inverse probability weighting (IPW), multiple imputation (MI), and linear increments (LI) are methods that deal with such missing data. In cohort studies of ageing, missing data can arise from dropout or death. Methods that do not distinguish between these reasons for missingness typically provide inference about a hypothetical cohort where no one can die (immortal cohort). It has been suggested that inference about the cohort composed of those who are still alive at any time point (partly conditional inference) may be more meaningful...
September 26, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025097/measuring-the-impact-of-differences-in-risk-factor-distributions-on-cross-population-differences-in-disease-occurrence-a-causal-approach
#10
Margarita Moreno-Betancur, Jennifer J Koplin, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, John Lynch, John B Carlin
Background: In cross-population comparisons of disease occurrence (prevalence, incidence), a common public health question is the extent to which variations in the distribution of risk factors for the disease explain observed differences. Limited work has been done on formalizing this problem, which is conceptually tantamount to quantifying the degree of confounding for the 'population effect' induced by different factors. A common approach is to compare 'unadjusted' and 'adjusted' regression-based estimates of that parameter, but the interpretation of the resulting 'contribution' measures may be hindered by other confounding sources and non-collapsibility issues...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969265/morphometric-analysis-of-odontometric-parameters-for-gender-determination
#11
Dilpreet Singh Grewal, Rajbir Kaur Khangura, Keya Sircar, Krishan Kumar Tyagi, Gurkirat Kaur, Simon David
INTRODUCTION: In contemporary human population, males exhibit larger size of dentition as compared to females. Additionally, these odontometric parameters show variation in members of same species and also show regional variation. AIM: To evaluate sexual dimorphism of four maxillary odontometric parameters such as Intercanine Width (ICW), Interpremolar Width (IPW), Arch Length (AL) and Combined Width (CW) of six maxillary anterior teeth, to determine percentage of sexual dimorphism of all four odontometric parameters singly or in combination and also to determine sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of odontometric parameters for sex determination...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966291/development-of-an-inter-professional-educational-program-for-home-care-professionals-evaluation-of-short-term-effects-in-suburban-areas
#12
Rumiko Tsuchiya, Satoru Yoshie, Shohei Kawagoe, Satoshi Hirahara, Hirotaka Onishi, Hiroshi Murayama, Masanori Nishinaga, Katsuya Iijima, Tetsuo Tsuji
Objective To examine the short-term effects of an inter-professional educational program developed for physicians and other home care specialists to promote home care in the community.Methods From March 2012 to January 2013, an inter-professional educational program (IEP) was held four times in three suburban areas (Kashiwa city and Matsudo city in the Chiba prefecture, and Omori district in the Ota ward). This program aimed to motivate physicians to increase the number of home visits and to encourage home care professionals to work together in the same community areas by promoting inter-professional work (IPW)...
2017: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956743/transradial-versus-transfemoral-approach-for-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-elderly-patients-in-china-a-retrospective-analysis
#13
Chen Jin, Yi Xu, Shu-Bin Qiao, Xin-Ran Tang, Yong-Jian Wu, Hong-Bing Yan, Ke-Fei Dou, Bo Xu, Jin-Gang Yang, Yue-Jin Yang
Objective To compare hospital costs and clinical outcomes between transradial intervention (TRI) and transfemoral intervention (TFI) in elderly patients aged over 65 years. Methods We identified 1229 patients aged over 65 years who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in Fuwai Hospital, Beijing, China, between January 1 and December 31, 2010. Total hospital costs and in-hospital outcomes were compared between TRI and TFI. An inverse probability weighting (IPW) model was introduced to control potential biases...
September 27, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947095/high-dose-corticosteroids-improve-the-prognosis-of-bell-s-palsy-compared-with-low-dose-corticosteroids-a-propensity-score-analysis
#14
Takashi Fujiwara, Yasuharu Haku, Takuya Miyazaki, Atsuhiro Yoshida, Shin-Ich Sato, Hisanobu Tamaki
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of high-dose corticosteroid (120mg prednisolone equivalent daily) in Bell's palsy compared with low-dose corticosteroid (60mg PSL equivalent). METHODS: A single-center retrospective observational study was performed. We included adult Bell's palsy patients who were treated within 7days after disease onset. We compared high- and low-dose corticosteroid for the non-recovery rate at 6 months after disease onset using inverse probability-weighted propensity score analysis (IPW-PS)...
September 22, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943991/improving-efficiency-in-biomarker-incremental-value-evaluation-under-two-phase-designs
#15
Yingye Zheng, Marshall Brown, Anna Lok, Tianxi Cai
Cost-effective yet efficient designs are critical to the success of biomarker evaluation research. Two-phase sampling designs, under which expensive markers are only measured on a subsample of cases and non-cases within a prospective cohort, are useful in novel biomarker studies for preserving study samples and minimizing cost of biomarker assaying. Statistical methods for quantifying the predictiveness of biomarkers under two-phase studies have been proposed (Cai and Zheng, 2012; Liu, Cai and Zheng, 2012)...
June 2017: Annals of Applied Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938735/the-age-of-fathers-in-the-usa-is-rising-an-analysis-of-168-867-480-births-from-1972-to-2015
#16
Yash S Khandwala, Chiyuan A Zhang, Ying Lu, Michael L Eisenberg
STUDY QUESTION: How has the mean paternal age in the USA changed over the past 4 decades? SUMMARY ANSWER: The age at which men are fathering children in the USA has been increasing over time, although it varies by race, geographic region and paternal education level. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: While the rise in mean maternal age and its implications for fertility, birth outcomes and public health have been well documented, little is known about paternal characteristics of births within the USA...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926372/attrition-bias-related-to-missing-outcome-data-a-longitudinal-simulation-study
#17
Antoine Lewin, Ruben Brondeel, Tarik Benmarhnia, Frédérique Thomas, Basile Chaix
BACKGROUND: Most longitudinal studies do not address potential selection biases due to selective attrition. Using empirical data and simulating additional attrition, we investigated the effectiveness of common approaches to handle missing outcome data from attrition in the association between individual education level and change in body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Using data from the two waves of the French RECORD Cohort Study (N = 7,172), we first examined how inverse probability weighting (IPW) and multiple imputation handled missing outcome data from attrition in the observed data (stage 1)...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925746/impact-of-extended-monitoring-guided-intensive-care-on-outcome-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study-paris-tbi-study
#18
Joaquim Mateo, Didier Payen, Idir Ghout, Fabrice Vallée, Thomas Lescot, Stephane Welschbillig, Karim Tazarourte, Philippe Azouvi, Jean-Jacques Weiss, Philippe Aegerter, Bernard Vigué
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether an integrated monitoring with systemic and specific monitoring affect mortality and disability in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). METHODS: Adults with severeTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] ≤ 8) admitted alive in intensive care units (ICUs) were prospectively included. Primary endpoints were in-hospital 30-day mortality and extended Glasgow outcome score (GOSE) at 3 years. Association with the intensity of monitoring and outcome was studied by comparing a high level of monitoring (HLM) (systemic and ≥3 specific monitoring) and low level of monitoring (LLM) (systemic and 0-2 specific monitoring) and using inverse probability weighting procedure...
September 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798081/a-role-for-tight-junction-associated-marvel-proteins-in-larval-sea-lamprey-petromyzon-marinus-osmoregulation
#19
Dennis Kolosov, Phuong Bui, Andrew Donini, Mike P Wilkie, Scott P Kelly
This study reports on tight junction-associated MARVEL proteins of larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and their potential role in ammocoete osmoregulation. Two occludin isoforms (designated Ocln and Ocln-a) and a tricellulin (Tric) were identified. Transcripts encoding ocln, ocln-a and tric were broadly expressed in larval lamprey, with the greatest abundance of ocln in the gut, liver and kidney, ocln-a in the gill and skin, and tric in the kidney. Ocln and Ocln-a resolved as ∼63 kDa and ∼35 kDa MW proteins, respectively, while Tric resolved as a ∼50 kDa protein...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790119/complementary-value-of-contralateral-parenchymal-enhancement-on-dce-mri-to-prognostic-models-and-molecular-assays-in-high-risk-er-her2-breast-cancer
#20
Bas H M van der Velden, Sjoerd G Elias, Tycho Bismeijer, Claudette E Loo, Max A Viergever, Lodewyk F A Wessels, Kenneth G A Gilhuijs
Purpose: To determine whether markers of healthy breast stroma are able to select a subgroup of patients at low risk of death or metastasis from patients considered at high risk according to routine markers of the tumor.Experimental Design: Patients with ER(+)/HER2(-) breast cancer were consecutively included for retrospective analysis. The contralateral parenchyma was segmented automatically on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), where upon the average of the top-10% late enhancement was calculated...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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