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Alberto Repossini, Lorenzo Di Bacco, Fabrizio Rosati, Maurizio Tespili, Antonio Saino, Alfonso Ielasi, Claudio Muneretto
AIMS: Hybrid revascularization (HCR) has been recently proposed as an alternative strategy in multivessel coronary disease, particularly in patients with high SYNTAX scores and risk scores. The objective of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of HCR versus percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) drug-eluting stenting in left main treatment. METHODS: A series of 198 consecutive patients with left main stenosis have been treated. HCR, was performed in 77 patients (G1) whereas 121 patients (G2) received PCI on left main...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Takuya Hada, Ryo Momosaki, Masahiro Abo
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of leg orthotic therapy for improving activities of daily living after spinal cord injury. SETTING: Participating acute care and rehabilitation hospitals across Japan. METHODS: We retrospectively identified individuals with spinal cord injury admitted to eight participating hospitals in 2015-2016 from the Japan Rehabilitation Database. Data for 293 individuals were analyzed...
March 7, 2018: Spinal Cord
Isaac C Rhew, Sabrina Oesterle, Donna Coffman, J David Hawkins
Earlier intention-to-treat (ITT) findings from a community-randomized trial demonstrated effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on reducing problem behaviors among youth. In ITT analyses, youth were analyzed according to their original study community's randomized condition even if they moved away from the community over the course of follow-up and received little to no exposure to intervention activities. Using inverse probability weights (IPWs), this study estimated effects of CTC in the same randomized trial among youth who remained in their original study communities throughout follow-up...
January 1, 2018: Evaluation & the Health Professions
Yuka Nakatani, Takeo Nakayama, Kei Nishiyama, Yoshimitsu Takahashi
AIM: Target temperature management (TTM) is used in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients, but the recommended temperature range is wide. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of TTM at 32 to 34 °C while considering the degree of cerebral injury and cerebral circulation, as assessed by regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of prospectively collected registry data from comatose patients who were transferred to 15 hospitals in Japan after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) from 2011 to 2013...
February 9, 2018: Resuscitation
Meghashyam Bhat, Loc G Do, Kaye Roberts-Thomson
AIM: The aim of the present study was to determine the association between dental visiting and missing teeth using propensity score (PS) adjustment to control for confounding bias, and to compare the estimates with those obtained from traditional regression models. METHODS: A population-based study was conducted on adults aged 35-54 years in India. Multistage stratified cluster random sampling was used. Data were collected through interviews and oral examinations...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Leonard Westermann, Carolin Spemes, Peer Eysel, Marvin Simons, Max J Scheyerer, Jan Siewe, Dominik Baschera
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to examine the specific dimensions of cervical pedicles in a large Caucasian cohort on high dissolving CT scans. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 100 cervical spine CT scans with a maximum slice thickness of 1 mm in axial, sagittal, and coronal reconstructions was performed. The pedicle axial length (PAL), inner and outer pedicle diameter (IPD/OPD), pedicle sagittal and transverse angle (PSA/PTA), pedicle height (PH), pedicle width (PW), and the cortical thickness (COT) at different margins were measured by two independent observers...
February 6, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Asako Doi, Takeshi Morimoto, Kentaro Iwata
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of short duration antimicrobial therapy for acute cholangitis with bacteraemia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with acute bacteraemic cholangitis with successful biliary duct drainage at a single centre in Japan. We compared short-course antimicrobial therapy (SCT, ≤7 days) and long-course therapy (LCT, ≥8 days), with a primary outcome of 30-day mortality. We constructed logistic regression models for mortality and a composite outcome, including mortality, recurrence, recrudescence, new bacteraemia, liver abscess or other complications related to cholangitis...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
R M Thallman, L A Kuehn, W M Snelling, K J Retallick, J M Bormann, H C Freetly, K E Hales, G L Bennett, R L Weaber, D W Moser, M D MacNeil
Shortening the period of recording individual feed intake may improve selection response for feed efficiency by increasing the number of cattle that can be recorded given facilities of fixed capacity. Individual DMI and ADG records of 3,462 steers and 2,869 heifers over the entire intake recording period (range 62 to 154 d; mean 83 d; DMI83 and ADG83, respectively), DMI and ADG for the first 42 d of the recording period (DMI42 and ADG42, respectively) and postweaning ADG based on the difference between weaning and yearling weights (PADG) were analyzed...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Jesse M Pines, Mark S Zocchi, Bernard S Black
OBJECTIVE: We compare case-mix, hospitalization rates, length of stay (LOS), and resource use in independent freestanding emergency departments (FSEDs) and hospital-based emergency departments (H-EDs). METHODS: Data from 74 FSEDs (2013-5) in Texas and Colorado, were compared to H-ED data from the 2013-14 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. In the unrestricted sample, large differences in visit characteristics (e.g. payer and case mix) were found between patients that use FSEDs compared to H-EDs...
January 30, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Russell M Viner, Dougal S Hargreaves, Joseph Ward, Chris Bonell, Ali H Mokdad, George Patton
Background: The health benefits of secondary education have been little studied. We undertook country-level longitudinal analyses of the impact of lengthening secondary education on health outcomes amongst 15-24 year olds. Methods: Exposures: average length of secondary and primary education from 1980 to 2013.Data/Outcomes: Country level adolescent fertility rate (AFR), HIV prevalence and mortality rate from 1989/90 to 2013 across 186 low-, middle- and high-income countries...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
Yuanyuan Yu, Hongkai Li, Xiaoru Sun, Ping Su, Tingting Wang, Yi Liu, Zhongshang Yuan, Yanxun Liu, Fuzhong Xue
BACKGROUND: Confounders can produce spurious associations between exposure and outcome in observational studies. For majority of epidemiologists, adjusting for confounders using logistic regression model is their habitual method, though it has some problems in accuracy and precision. It is, therefore, important to highlight the problems of logistic regression and search the alternative method. METHODS: Four causal diagram models were defined to summarize confounding equivalence...
December 28, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Nathalie Grafféo, Aurélien Latouche, Ronald B Geskus, Sylvie Chevret
For estimating the causal effect of treatment exposure on the occurrence of adverse events, inverse probability weights (IPW) can be used in marginal structural models to correct for time-dependent confounding. The R package ipw allows IPW estimation by modeling the relationship between the exposure and confounders via several regression models, among which is the Cox model. For right-censored data and time-dependent exposures such as treatment switches, the ipw package allows a single switch, assuming that patients are treated once and for all...
December 27, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
Marissa J Seamans, Timothy S Carey, Daniel J Westreich, Stephen R Cole, Stephanie B Wheeler, G Caleb Alexander, Virginia Pate, M Alan Brookhart
Importance: Increases in prescription opioid use in the United States have been attributed to changing prescribing guidelines and attitudes toward pain relief; however, the spread of opioid use within households through drug diversion may also be a contributing factor. Objective: To investigate whether individuals living in a household with a prescription opioid user are more likely to initiate prescription opioids themselves, compared with individuals in households with a prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) user...
January 1, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Prabhat Lamichhane, Anurag Sharma, Ajay Mahal
Background: The use of cleaner fuel and improved stoves has been promoted as a means to lower harmful emissions from solid fuels. However, little is known about how exclusive use of cleaner fuels, mixed fuel use and improved stoves influences children's health. Methods: We compared the impact of using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) exclusively with mixed fuel use (LPG plus polluting fuels) and with exclusive use of polluting fuels on acute respiratory infections (ARI) among 16 157 children 0-4 years of age from households in the 2012 Indian Human Development Survey...
November 1, 2017: International Health
Andrea Z LaCroix, Rebecca A Hubbard, Shelly L Gray, Melissa L Anderson, Paul K Crane, Joshua A Sonnen, Oleg Zaslavsky, Eric B Larson
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms linking cognitive and physical functioning in older adults are unclear. We sought to determine whether brain pathological changes relate to the level or rate of physical performance decline. METHODS: This study analyzed data from 305 participants in the autopsy subcohort of the prospective Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study. Participants were aged 65+ and free of dementia at enrollment. Physical performance was measured at baseline and every two years using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)...
November 2, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
Byeong-Tak Keum, Sung-Hwan Choi, Yoon Jeong Choi, Hyoung-Seon Baik, Kee-Joon Lee
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the changes induced in the pharyngeal airway space by orthodontic treatment with bodily retraction of the mandibular incisors and mandibular setback surgery without extraction. METHODS: This retrospective study included 63 adult patients (32 men and 31 women). Thirty-three patients who had been treated via four-bicuspid extraction and bodily retraction of the mandibular incisors (incisor retraction, IR group) were compared with 30 patients who had been treated via mandibular setback surgery (MS group) without extraction...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
Sara Fioravanti, Giulia Cesaroni, Chiara Badaloni, Paola Michelozzi, Francesco Forastiere, Daniela Porta
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is associated with several adverse health outcomes in children, such as respiratory illnesses and cognitive development impairment. There are suggestions of an effect of traffic-related air pollution on the occurrence of childhood obesity, but the results are not consistent. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to analyse whether air pollution and vehicular traffic exposure, during the first four years of life, influence obesity- related measures among 4 and 8-year-old children from a prospective birth cohort in Rome...
January 2018: Environmental Research
Lan Wen, Graciela Muniz Terrera, Shaun R Seaman
Cohort data are often incomplete because some subjects drop out of the study, and inverse probability weighting (IPW), multiple imputation (MI), and linear increments (LI) are methods that deal with such missing data. In cohort studies of ageing, missing data can arise from dropout or death. Methods that do not distinguish between these reasons for missingness typically provide inference about a hypothetical cohort where no one can die (immortal cohort). It has been suggested that inference about the cohort composed of those who are still alive at any time point (partly conditional inference) may be more meaningful...
September 26, 2017: Biostatistics
Margarita Moreno-Betancur, Jennifer J Koplin, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, John Lynch, John B Carlin
Background: In cross-population comparisons of disease occurrence (prevalence, incidence), a common public health question is the extent to which variations in the distribution of risk factors for the disease explain observed differences. Limited work has been done on formalizing this problem, which is conceptually tantamount to quantifying the degree of confounding for the 'population effect' induced by different factors. A common approach is to compare 'unadjusted' and 'adjusted' regression-based estimates of that parameter, but the interpretation of the resulting 'contribution' measures may be hindered by other confounding sources and non-collapsibility issues...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
Dilpreet Singh Grewal, Rajbir Kaur Khangura, Keya Sircar, Krishan Kumar Tyagi, Gurkirat Kaur, Simon David
INTRODUCTION: In contemporary human population, males exhibit larger size of dentition as compared to females. Additionally, these odontometric parameters show variation in members of same species and also show regional variation. AIM: To evaluate sexual dimorphism of four maxillary odontometric parameters such as Intercanine Width (ICW), Interpremolar Width (IPW), Arch Length (AL) and Combined Width (CW) of six maxillary anterior teeth, to determine percentage of sexual dimorphism of all four odontometric parameters singly or in combination and also to determine sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of odontometric parameters for sex determination...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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