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Ryan D Sheldon, Kayla M Kanosky, Kevin D Wells, Lili Miles, James W Perfield, Stavra Xanthakos, Thomas H Inge, R Scott Rector
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms responsible for progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to steatohepatitis (NASH) remain poorly defined. METHODS: To examine the potential contribution of adipose tissue to NAFLD progression, we performed a complete transcriptomic analysis using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) on intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAT) from severely obese adolescents (Mage 16.9±0.4 yrs; BMI z-score 2.7±0.1) undergoing bariatric surgery and liver biopsy categorized into 3 groups; No steatosis (Normal, n=8), steatosis only (n=13), or NASH (n=10) by liver histology...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Marin L Gantner, Bethany C Hazen, Elodie Eury, Erin L Brown, Anastasia Kralli
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis relies on a high abundance of mitochondria and the unique expression of the mitochondrial protein UCP1, which uncouples substrate oxidation from ATP synthesis. Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocytes activates UCP1-mediated thermogenesis; it also induces the expression of Ucp1 and other genes important for thermogenesis, thereby endowing adipocytes with higher oxidative and uncoupling capacities. Adipocyte mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity are controlled by multiple transcription factors, including the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα)...
October 20, 2016: Endocrinology
Jie-Hua Chen, Jia Song, Yan Chen, Qiang Ding, Anfang Peng, Limei Mao
Vegan protein-based diet has attracted increasing interest in the prevention of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Meanwhile, adiponectin has become a highly potential molecular target in the prevention of MetS. Our study will identify a potential vegan protein diet for the prevention of MetS using rat models. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups and given diets containing one of the following proteins for 12 weeks: casein (CAS, control diet), soy protein (SOY), and gluten-soy mixed protein (GSM)...
October 18, 2016: Nutrients
Margie Steffens, Lisa Jamieson, Kostas Kapellas
Discrimination is a very real facet of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) life. Paradies has detailed the strong links between racism and chronic stress and the influence this may have on general health, confounding the pre-supposed notion that ATSI populations are more genetically predisposed to chronic diseases. For example a genetic predisposition promoting central adipose storage in populations with recent (in evolutionary terms) changes to hunter-gatherer dietary patterns is thought to contribute to the higher rates of diabetes seen in ATSI and other Native populations...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Amanda Faria Assoni, Giuliana Castello, Marcos Valadares, Melinda Beccari, Juliana Gomes, Mayra Pelatti, Miguel Mitne-Neto, Valdemir Melechco Carvalho, Mayana Zatz
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-linked disorder caused by null mutations in the dystrophin gene. Although the primary defect is the deficiency of muscle dystrophin, secondary events, including chronic inflammation, fibrosis and muscle regeneration failure are thought to actively contribute to disease progression. Despite several advances, there is still no effective therapy for DMD. Therefore, the potential regenerative capacities, as well as immune-privileged properties of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs), have been the focus of intense investigation in different animal models aiming the treatment of these disorders...
October 20, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Hui-Jie Zhang, Ling-Ling Pan, Zhi-Min Ma, Zheng Chen, Zhu-Feng Huang, Qian Sun, Yan Lu, Cheng-Kun Han, Ming-Zhu Lin, Xue-Jun Li, Shu-Yu Yang, Xiao-Ying Li
Exercise training can reduce hepatic fat accumulation and cardiovascular risk among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but how long these benefits extend beyond the period of active intervention is unclear. Intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and metabolic risk factors were assessed among 220 obese subjects with NAFLD who were randomly assigned to vigorous-moderate exercise, moderate exercise, or control over the subsequent 1 year after 12-month exercise intervention...
October 19, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Ning Xia, Huige Li
Under physiological conditions, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) attenuates agonist-induced vasoconstriction by releasing vasoactive molecules including hydrogen peroxide, angiotensin 1-7, adiponectin, methyl palmitate, hydrogen sulfide, nitric oxide (NO) and leptin. This anticontractile function of PVAT is lost under conditions of obesity. The central mechanism underlying PVAT dysfunction in obesity is likely to be an "obesity triad" (consisting of PVAT hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress) that leads to dysregulation of PVAT-derived vasoregulators...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Alina Constantin, Madalina Dumitrescu, Maria Cristina Mihai Corotchi, Dana Jianu, Maya Simionescu
CO2 laser has a beneficial effect on stem cells by mechanisms that are not clearly elucidated. We hypothesize that the effect of fractional CO2 laser on human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) could be due to changes in redox homeostasis and secretion of factors contributing to cellular proliferation and angiogenic potential. ADSC incubated in medium containing 0.5 or 10 % FBS were exposed to a single irradiation of a 10,600-nm fractional CO2 laser; non-irradiated ADSC were used as control. Viability/proliferation of ADSC was assessed by MTT assay; the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) were determined with DCFH-DA and JC-1 fluorescent probes, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Justyna Wyszyńska, Justyna Podgórska-Bednarz, Justyna Drzał-Grabiec, Maciej Rachwał, Joanna Baran, Ewelina Czenczek-Lewandowska, Justyna Leszczak, Artur Mazur
Introduction. Excessive body mass in turn may contribute to the development of many health disorders including disorders of musculoskeletal system, which still develops intensively at that time. Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between children's body mass composition and body posture. The relationship between physical activity level of children and the parameters characterizing their posture was also evaluated. Material and Methods. 120 school age children between 11 and 13 years were enrolled in the study, including 61 girls and 59 boys...
2016: BioMed Research International
Emma V Morris, Claire M Edwards
Adipocytes are a significant component of the bone marrow microenvironment. Although bone marrow adipocytes were first identified more than 100 years ago, it is only in recent years that an understanding of their complex physiological role is emerging. Bone marrow adipocytes act as local regulators of skeletal biology and homeostasis, with recent studies suggesting that marrow adipose tissue is metabolically active, and can function as an endocrine organ. As such, bone marrow adipocytes have the potential to interact with tumour cells, influencing both tumour growth and bone disease...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Nassib Bezerra Bueno, Telma Toledo Florêncio, Fabiana Albuquerque Cavalcante, Isabela Lopes Lins, Ana Grotti Clemente, Ana Lydia Sawaya
BACKGROUND: Short stature in adult life, a possible consequence of poor perinatal conditions, is associated with higher risk of mortality and social disabilities. We aimed to determine whether low-income, overweight/obese, short-stature (SS) women show alterations in body composition, self-body-image perception, and biochemical profile compared to their non-short (NS) counterparts. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with women living in shantytowns and mother or relatives to undernourished children treated in a center for recuperation and nutritional education...
2016: PeerJ
Shaun S Tan, Zhi Yang Ng, Weiqing Zhan, Warren Rozen
Autologous fat grafting is commonly utilised to reconstruct soft tissue defects caused by ageing, trauma, chronic wounds and cancer resection. The benefits of fat grafting are minimal donor site morbidity and ease of availability through liposuction or lipectomy. Nonetheless, survival and longevity of fat grafts remain poor post-engraftment. Various methods to enhance fat graft survival are currently under investigation and its stem cell constituents are of particular interest. Cell-assisted lipotransfer refers to the addition of adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) rich component of stromal vascular fraction to lipoaspirate, the results of which have proven promising...
July 2016: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Adam Stepien, Natalia L Dabrowska, Marzena Maciagowska, Renata Piusinska Macoch, Aleksandra Zolocinska, Slawomir Mazur, Katarzyna Siennicka, Emilia Frankowska, Rafał Kidzinski, Małgorzata Chalimoniuk, Zygmunt Pojda
The clinical outcome of autologous adipose stem cell (ASC) treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was investigated following one year of observation. Methods. The clinical and MRI outcomes of 16 ASC-treated patients with RRMS and SPMS are reported after a one-year follow-up period. Results. At 18 months of follow-up, some patients showed "enticing" improvements on some exploratory efficacy measures, although a significant benefit was not observed for any measure across the entire group. Neither the progression of disability nor relapses were observed in any cases...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
B S Wang, H Y Yang, Y Han
Objective: To determine the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the survival rate of flaps by transplanting ADSCs into the experimental flaps pre-operatively. Methods: ADSCs were isolated from fresh human fat and cultured in vitro. Their morphological characters were observed, and flowcytometry and differentiation test and evaluation were conducted. A total of 40 BALB/c mice were divided into 5 groups randomly with each of 8 mice. 1 cm×4 cm random skin flap was designed on the mice back, ADSCs were injected in advance into subcutaneous tissues of 3 groups, the operation was performed on the 2(nd,) 5(th) and 7(th) day after the ADSCs injection, meanwhile skin flap operation was conducted in the immediate injection group and control group...
September 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Meilin Zhang, Li Zheng, Ping Li, Yufeng Zhu, Hong Chang, Xuan Wang, Weiqiao Liu, Yuwen Zhang, Guowei Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our aim was to evaluate whether visceral adiposity index (VAI) could predict the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in different genders and to compare the predictive ability between VAI and other fatness indices. METHODS: Four thousand seventy-eight participants including 1,817 men and 2,261 women, aged 18 and older and free of T2D at baseline were enrolled in 2010 and followed up for 4 years. New cases of T2D were identified via the annual medical examination...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Daniel Haselbach, Wassim Raffoul, Lorenz Larcher, Mathias Tremp, Daniel F Kalbermatten, Pietro G di Summa
INTRODUCTION: Hindlimb autophagy is common after rat sciatic total axotomy and is considered as a sign of neuropathic pain. We applied adult stem cells in a fibrin conduit in a total sciatic axotomy model to improve nerve regeneration, investigating whether a correlation could be detected between stem cells effects on regeneration and limb autophagy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After sciatic nerve section, a 1-cm sciatic gap was crossed using fibrin conduits. EXPERIMENTAL: groups included empty fibrin conduits, fibrin conduits seeded with primary Schwann cells, and fibrin conduits seeded with Schwann cell-like differentiated mesenchymal or adipose-derived stem cells (dMSCs and dASCs)...
October 16, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Delphine Duteil, Milica Tosic, Franziska Lausecker, Hatice Z Nenseth, Judith M Müller, Sylvia Urban, Dominica Willmann, Kerstin Petroll, Nadia Messaddeq, Laura Arrigoni, Thomas Manke, Jan-Wilhelm Kornfeld, Jens C Brüning, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Michael Meret, Jörn Dengjel, Toufike Kanouni, Roland Schüle
Previous work indicated that lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) can positively regulate the oxidative and thermogenic capacities of white and beige adipocytes. Here we investigate the role of Lsd1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and find that BAT-selective Lsd1 ablation induces a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism. This shift is associated with downregulation of BAT-specific and upregulation of white adipose tissue (WAT)-selective gene expression. This results in the accumulation of di- and triacylglycerides and culminates in a profound whitening of BAT in aged Lsd1-deficient mice...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Maria Helena Gusmao-Sena, Karine Curvello-Silva, Jairza Maria Barreto-Medeiros, Carla Hilário Da-Cunha-Daltro
INTRODUCTION: The main changes in the body composition refer to the increase of adipose tissue and/or the decrease of muscular mass, and these changes have effect in many clinical outcomes. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) consists of the presence of excessive adipose tissue and deficit of muscular mass simultaneously. People with SO may have synergistic effect due to obesity and sarcopenia, with increases cardiovascular risk more than obesity itself. OBJECTIVE: To describe the findings in the literature about the association between SO and risk factors and/or cardiometabolic disease (CMD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Fabián Vásquez, Gabriela Salazar, Erik Díaz, Lydia Lera, Alyerina Anziani, Raquel Burrows
INTRODUCTION: Determine body composition changes in adiposity can assess an individual. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate total body fat percentage based on two and four compartment models in obese Chilean school children, adjusting for differences in sex and puberty status. METHODS: Sixty-one obese school children (33 boys and 28 girls) between 8 and 13 years of age were evaluated. Two compartment measurements of body fat percentage considered isotope dilution, plethysmography, radiographic absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance; using the four compartment model as a benchmark...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
L Mo-Suwan, E McNeil, P Sangsupawanich, U Chittchang, C Choprapawon
AIM: The association between adiposity rebound and insulin resistance in middle childhood has seldom been studied. We examined the effect of body mass index (BMI) velocity and early adiposity rebound on the insulin resistance of prepubertal children. METHODS: BMI data from a longitudinal follow-up of a birth cohort in Thailand were used. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from 12-hour fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin at 8...
October 19, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
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