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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351550/differential-actions-of-ppar-%C3%AE-and-ppar-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-on-beige-adipocyte-formation-a-study-in-the-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-male-mice
#1
Tamiris Lima Rachid, Flavia Maria Silva-Veiga, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Isabele Bringhenti, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity compromises adipocyte physiology. PPARs are essential to adipocyte plasticity, but its isolated role in the browning phenomenon is not clear. This study aimed to examine whether activation of PPAR-α or PPAR-β/δ could induce beige cell depots in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids) or a high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids) for ten weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351490/significant-improvement-in-cardiometabolic-health-in-healthy-non-obese-individuals-during-caloric-restriction-induced-weight-loss-and-weight-loss-maintenance
#2
Jasper Most, L Anne Gilmore, Steven R Smith, Hongmei Han, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman
Caloric restriction (CR) triggers benefits for healthspan including decreased risk of cardiometabolic disease. In an ancillary study to CALERIE 2, a 24-month 25% CR study, we assessed the cardiometabolic effects of CR in 53 non-obese (BMI: 22-28 kg/m2) men (n=17) and women (n=36). According to the energy-balance method (doubly labeled water and changes in body energy stores), the 25% CR intervention (n=34) produced 17{plus minus}1% (mean{plus minus}SE) and 14{plus minus}1% CR after 12 and 24 months (M12, M24), resulting in significant weight loss (M12: -9{plus minus}0...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351486/different-physiological-roles-of-insulin-receptors-in-mediating-nutrient-metabolism-in-zebrafish
#3
Bin-Yuan Yang, Gang Zhai, Yu-Long Gong, Jing-Zhi Su, Xu-Yan Peng, Guo-Hui Shang, Dong Han, Jun-Yan Jin, Hao-Kun Liu, Zhen-Yu Du, Zhan Yin, Shou-Qi Xie
Insulin, the most potent anabolic hormone, is critical for somatic growth and metabolism in vertebrates. Type 2 diabetes, which is the primary cause of hyperglycemia, results from an inability of insulin to signal glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Our previous study showed that double knockout of insulin receptor a (insra) and b (insrb) caused β-cell hyperplasia and lethality from 5 dpf to 16 dpf. In this study, we characterized the physiological roles of Insra and Insrb, in somatic growth and fueling metabolism, respectively...
December 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351482/suppression-of-gut-dysbiosis-reverses-western-diet-induced-vascular-dysfunction
#4
Micah L Battson, Dustin M Lee, Dillon K Jarrell, Shuofei Hou, Kayl E Ecton, Tiffany L Weir, Christopher L Gentile
OBJECTIVE: Vascular dysfunction represents a critical pre-clinical step in the development of cardiovascular disease. We examined the role of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity-related vascular dysfunction. Approach and Results. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard diet (SD) (n=12) or western diet (WD) (n=24) for 5m, after which time, WD mice were randomized to receive either un-supplemented drinking water or water containing a broad-spectrum antibiotic cocktail (WD+Abx) (n=12/group) for 2m...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351481/regulation-of-glucose-metabolism-in-non-diabetic-metabolically-obese-normal-weight-asians
#5
Cherlyn Ding, Zhiling Chan, Yu Chung Chooi, John Choo, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Amanda Chang, S Sasikala, Navin Michael, S Sendhil Velan, Faidon Magkos
Type 2 diabetes in Asia occurs largely in the absence of obesity. The metabolically-obese normal-weight (MONW) phenotype refers to lean subjects with metabolic dysfunction that is typically observed in people with obesity, and is associated with increased risk for diabetes. Previous studies evaluated MONW subjects who had greater BMI or total body fat than respective control groups, making interpretation of the results difficult. We evaluated insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), insulin secretion (mixed meal with oral minimal modeling), intra-abdominal, muscle, and liver fat contents (magnetic resonance), and fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in 18 MONW subjects and 18 metabolically-healthy controls matched for age (43{plus minus}3 and 40{plus minus}3 y; P=0...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351479/using-2h-water-to-quantify-the-contribution-of-de-novo-palmitate-synthesis-in-plasma-enabling-back-to-back-studies
#6
Stephen F Previs, Kithsiri Herath, Andrea R Nawrocki, Carlos G Rodriguez, Deborah Slipetz, Sheo B Singh, Ling Kang, Gowri Bhat, Thomas P Roddy, Stacey Conarello, Jenna Terebetski, Mark D Erion, David E Kelley
An increased contribution of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) may play a role in cases of dyslipidemia and adipose accretion, this suggests that inhibition of fatty acid synthesis may affect clinical phenotypes. Since it is not clear whether modulation of one step in the lipogenic pathway is more important than another, the use of tracer methods can provide a deeper level of insight regarding the control of metabolic activity. Although [2H]water is generally considered a reliable tracer for quantifying DNL in vivo (it yields a homogenous and quantifiable precursor labeling), the relatively long half-life of body water is thought to limit the ability of performing repeat studies in the same subjects; this can create a bottleneck in the development and evaluation of novel therapeutics for inhibiting DNL...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351429/removal-of-interscapular-brown-adipose-tissue-increases-aortic-stiffness-despite-normal-systemic-glucose-metabolism-in-mice
#7
Zachary Ian Grunewald, Nathan C Winn, Michelle L Gastecki, Makenzie L Woodford, James R Ball, Sarah A Hansen, Harold S Sacks, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Jaume Padilla
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is considered protective against obesity and related cardiometabolic dysfunction. Indeed, activation of BAT improves glucose homeostasis and attenuates cardiovascular disease development. However, whether a reduction in BAT mass perturbs metabolic function and increases risk for cardiovascular disease remains largely unknown. To address this question, C57BL/6J male mice underwent sham or surgical bilateral excision of interscapular BAT (iBATx) and were fed a normal chow or Western diet (WD) for 18 weeks, creating four groups (n=10/group)...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351359/cyr61-ccn1-regulates-sclerostin-levels-and-bone-maintenance
#8
Gexin Zhao, Bau-Lin Huang, Diana Rigueur, Weiguang Wang, Chimay Bhoot, Kemberly R Charles, Jongseung Baek, Subburaman Mohan, Jie Jiang, Karen M Lyons
CYR61/CCN1 is a matricellular protein that resides in the extracellular matrix, but serves regulatory rather than structural roles. CYR61/CCN1 is found in mineralized tissues and has been shown to influence bone healing in vivo and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In this study we generated Cyr61 bone specific knockout mice to examine the physiological role of CYR61/CCN1 in bone development and maintenance in vivo. Extensive analysis of Cyr61 conditional knockout mice showed a significant decrease in both trabecular and cortical bone mass as compared to WT littermate...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350403/influence-of-contrast-administration-on-computed-tomography-based-analysis-of-visceral-adipose-and-skeletal-muscle-tissue-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#9
Michael T Paris, Helena F Furberg, Stacey Petruzella, Oguz Akin, Andreas M Hötker, Marina Mourtzakis
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) scans are being utilized to examine the influence of skeletal muscle and visceral adipose quantity and quality on health-related outcomes in clinical populations. However, little is known about the influence of contrast administration on these parameters. METHODS: Precontrast, arterial, and 3-minute postcontrast CT images of 45 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma were downloaded from The Cancer Imaging Archive and retrospectively analyzed for visceral adipose cross-sectional area (CSA) and density, and muscle CSA and density at the third lumbar vertebrae...
January 19, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349831/aortic-dysfunction-in-metabolic-syndrome-mediated-by-perivascular-adipose-tissue-tnf%C3%AE-and-nox2-dependent-pathway
#10
Evan DeVallance, Kayla W Branyan, Kent Lemaster, I Mark Olfert, David M Smith, Emidio E Pistilli, Jefferson C Frisbee, Paul D Chantler
AIMS: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is recognized for its vaso-active effects, however it's unclear how Metabolic Syndrome impact thoracic-aorta (t)PVAT and the subsequent effect on functional and structural aortic stiffness. METHODS & RESULTS: Thoracic aorta and tPVAT were removed from 16-17 week old lean (LZR, n = 16) and obese Zucker (OZR, n = 16) rats. OZR presented with aortic endothelial dysfunction, assessed by wire-myography, and increased aortic stiffness, assessed by elastic modulus...
January 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348847/distinct-roles-of-traf6-and-tak1-in-the-regulation-of-adipocyte-survival-thermogenesis-program-and-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#11
Yann S Gallot, Joseph D McMillan, Guangyan Xiong, Kyle R Bohnert, Alex R Straughn, Bradford G Hill, Ashok Kumar
Chronic low-grade inflammation, adipocyte hypertrophy, and glucose intolerance are common features of obesity and a risk factor for cancer. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an adaptor protein that also possesses a non-conventional E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. In response to receptor-mediated events, TRAF6 activates transforming growth factor-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which leads to activation of the MAPK and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways. However, the roles of TRAF6 and TAK1 in the regulation of adipocyte function remain less understood...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348715/ginseng-and-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Zhipeng Li, Geun Eog Ji
Although ginseng has been shown to have an antiobesity effect, antiobesity-related mechanisms are complex and have not been completely elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated ginseng's effects on food intake, the digestion, and absorption systems, as well as liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle in order to identify the mechanisms involved. A review of previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that ginseng and ginsenosides can increase energy expenditure by stimulating the adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase pathway and can reduce energy intake...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348672/soluble-lrp1-is-an-independent-biomarker-of-epicardial-fat-volume-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#13
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Cristina Colom, David Vilades, Andrea Rivas-Urbina, Abdel-Hakim Moustafa, Montserrat Pérez-Cuellar, Jose Luis Sánchez-Quesada, Antonio Pérez, Vicenta LLorente-Cortes
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a metabolically active tissue intimately associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Quantification of EAT volume is an interesting clinical tool for the evaluation of cardiometabolic disease. Nevertheless, current methodology presents serious disadvantages. The soluble form of the receptor LRP1 (sLRP1) is a non-invasive biomarker of EAT in general population. Here, we analysed the potential of circulating sLRP1 as biomarker of EAT volume in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348623/fetal-vitamin-d-concentration-and-growth-adiposity-and-neurodevelopment-during-infancy
#14
H Wang, X D Yu, L S Huang, Q Chen, F X Ouyang, X Wang, J Zhang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with growth, adiposity and neurodevelopment during infancy. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Serum 25(OH)D was measured in cord blood by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) from the Shanghai's "Allergy and Obesity Cohort study" (n = 1244). Weight, length, head circumference, and body mass index (BMI) z-scores for age were calculated based on World Health Organization Standard (at 6 months, 1 years, and 2 years)...
January 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348600/chinese-olive-extract-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-regulating-lipid-metabolism
#15
Yu-Te Yeh, Yan-Yu Cho, Shu-Chen Hsieh, An-Na Chiang
Chinese olive contains plenty of polyphenols, which possess a wide range of biological actions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the ethyl acetate fraction of Chinese olive fruit extract (CO-EtOAc) in the modulation of lipid accumulation in vitro and in vivo. In cellular studies, CO-EtOAc attenuated oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation; we then elucidated the molecular mechanisms of CO-EtOAc in FL83B mouse hepatocytes. CO-EtOAc suppressed the mRNA levels of fatty acid transporter genes (CD36 and FABP) and lipogenesis genes (SREBP-1c, FAS, and ACC1), but upregulated genes that govern lipolysis (HSL) and lipid oxidation (PPARα, CPT-1, and ACOX)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348508/adipose-tissue-tm-cells
#16
Ioana Visan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348496/natriuretic-peptides-promote-glucose-uptake-in-a-cgmp-dependent-manner-in-human-adipocytes
#17
Marine Coué, Valentin Barquissau, Pauline Morigny, Katie Louche, Corinne Lefort, Aline Mairal, Christian Carpéné, Nathalie Viguerie, Peter Arner, Dominique Langin, Mikael Rydén, Cedric Moro
Robust associations between low plasma level of natriuretic peptides (NP) and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been recently reported in humans. Adipose tissue (AT) is a known target of NP. However it is unknown whether NP signalling in human AT relates to insulin sensitivity and modulates glucose metabolism. We here show in two European cohorts that the NP receptor guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) expression in subcutaneous AT was down-regulated as a function of obesity grade while adipose NP clearance receptor (NPRC) was up-regulated...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348470/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-increases-insulin-sensitivity-through-specific-expansion-of-subcutaneous-fat
#18
Huating Li, Guangyu Wu, Qichen Fang, Mingliang Zhang, Xiaoyan Hui, Bin Sheng, Liang Wu, Yuqian Bao, Peng Li, Aimin Xu, Weiping Jia
Although the pharmacological effects of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are well-documented, uncertainty about its role in regulating excessive energy intake remains. Here, we show that FGF21 improves systemic insulin sensitivity by promoting the healthy expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Serum FGF21 levels positively correlate with the SAT area in insulin-sensitive obese individuals. FGF21 knockout mice (FGF21KO) show less SAT mass and are more insulin-resistant when fed a high-fat diet. Replenishment of recombinant FGF21 to a level equivalent to that in obesity restores SAT mass and reverses insulin resistance in FGF21KO, but not in adipose-specific βklotho knockout mice...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348256/flavonoids-dairy-foods-and-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-health-a-review-of-emerging-biologic-pathways
#19
REVIEW
Dariush Mozaffarian, Jason H Y Wu
A growing body of nutritional science highlights the complex mechanisms and pleiotropic pathways of cardiometabolic effects of different foods. Among these, some of the most exciting advances are occurring in the area of flavonoids, bioactive phytochemicals found in plant foods; and in the area of dairy, including milk, yogurt, and cheese. Many of the relevant ingredients and mechanistic pathways are now being clarified, shedding new light on both the ingredients and the pathways for how diet influences health and well-being...
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348118/targeted-deletion-of-adipocyte-abca1-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-a1-impairs-diet-induced-obesity
#20
Helen Cuffe, Mingxia Liu, Chia-Chi C Key, Elena Boudyguina, Janet K Sawyer, Allison Weckerle, Alexander Bashore, Susan K Fried, Soonkyu Chung, John S Parks
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue cholesterol increases with adipocyte triglyceride content and size during development of obesity. However, how adipocyte cholesterol affects adipocyte function is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the cellular cholesterol exporter, Abca1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1), on adipose tissue function during diet-induced obesity. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Adiponectin Cre recombinase transgenic mice were crossed with Abca1flox/flox mice to generate ASKO (adipocyte-specific Abca1 knockout) mice...
January 18, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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