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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926859/rapamycin-reverses-metabolic-deficits-in-lamin-a-c-deficient-mice
#1
Chen-Yu Liao, Sydney S Anderson, Nicole H Chicoine, Jarrott R Mayfield, Emmeline C Academia, Joy A Wilson, Chalermkwan Pongkietisak, Morgan A Thompson, Earl P Lagmay, Delana M Miller, Yueh-Mei Hsu, Mark A McCormick, Monique N O'Leary, Brian K Kennedy
The role of the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, in regulation of adiposity remains controversial. Here, we evaluate mTOR signaling in lipid metabolism in adipose tissues of Lmna(-/-) mice, a mouse model for dilated cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy. Lifespan extension by rapamycin is associated with increased body weight and fat content, two phenotypes we link to suppression of elevated energy expenditure. In both white and brown adipose tissue of Lmna(-/-) mice, we find that rapamycin inhibits mTORC1 but not mTORC2, leading to suppression of elevated lipolysis and restoration of thermogenic protein UCP1 levels, respectively...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926779/3t3-l1-cells-and-perivascular-adipocytes-are-not-equivalent-in-amine-transporter-expression
#2
Alex Ismail, Nadia Ayala-Lopez, Maleeha Ahmad, Stephanie W Watts
Rat perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) stores, takes up, and releases norepinephrine (NE; Ayala-Lopez et al 2014). We hypothesized that 3T3-L1 adipocytes would exhibit similar behaviors and, thus, could serve as a model for PVAT adipocytes. However, basal levels of NE were not detected in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. While incubation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with exogenous NE increased their cellular NE content, the expression of mRNAs of several NE transporters [e.g. norepinephrine transporter (NET)] were not detected in these cells...
December 7, 2016: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926595/impact-of-skeletal-muscle-mass-index-intramuscular-adipose-tissue-content-and-visceral-to-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-area-ratio-on-early-mortality-of-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#3
Yuhei Hamaguchi, Toshimi Kaido, Shinya Okumura, Atsushi Kobayashi, Hisaya Shirai, Shintaro Yagi, Naoko Kamo, Hideaki Okajima, Shinji Uemoto
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle depletion has been shown to be an independent risk factor for poor survival in various diseases. However, in surgery, the significance of other body components including visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue remains unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study included 250 adult patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) between January 2008 and April 2015. Using preoperative plain CT imaging at the third lumbar vertebra level, skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality, and visceral adiposity were evaluated by the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VSR), respectively...
December 6, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925657/population-pharmacokinetics-of-cefazolin-in-serum-and-adipose-tissue-from-overweight-and-obese-women-undergoing-cesarean-delivery
#4
Mordechai Grupper, Joseph L Kuti, Morgan L Swank, Lindsay Maggio, Brenna L Hughes, David P Nicolau
The optimal antibiotic prophylaxis dosing regimen of cefazolin for cesarean delivery (CD) in overweight and obese women is unknown. This study was done to compare the duration that cefazolin concentrations remain above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in adipose tissue (AT). Serum and AT concentrations from 3 previous studies in CD patients were comodeled using the nonparametric adaptive grid algorithm in Pmetrics. AT concentrations for 5000 overweight and obese patients receiving 1-, 2-, and 3-g cefazolin regimens were simulated to calculate the probability that free drug concentrations remained above an MIC of 2 μg/mL at 1, 1...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925477/relevance-of-meniscal-cell-regional-phenotype-to-tissue-engineering
#5
Shawn P Grogan, Chantal Pauli, Martin K Lotz, Darryl D D'Lima
PURPOSE: Meniscus contains heterogeneous populations of cells that have not been fully characterized. Cell phenotype is often lost during culture; however, culture expansion is typically required for tissue engineering. We examined and compared cell surface molecule expression levels on human meniscus cells from the vascular and avascular regions and articular chondrocytes while documenting changes during culture-induced dedifferentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of 16 different surface molecules were examined by flow cytometry after monolayer culture for 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks...
December 7, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925445/relationship-between-obesity-and-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-in-reproductive-aged-african-american-women
#6
Lia A Bernardi, Mercedes R Carnethon, Peter J de Chavez, Deborah E Ikhena, Lisa M Neff, Donna D Baird, Erica E Marsh
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an association between obesity and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) among reproductive-aged African American women (AAW). METHODS: From the women participating in an ongoing National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences study, 1,654 AAW aged 23 to 35 were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements, personal health information, and serum AMH and adipokine levels were analyzed. RESULTS: The median body mass index (BMI) was 32...
December 7, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925358/castration-induced-changes-in-the-expression-profiles-and-promoter-methylation-of-the-ghr-gene-in-huainan-male-pigs
#7
Jing Wang, Junfeng Chen, Jiaqing Zhang, Binwen Gao, Xianxiao Bai, Yali Lan, Ping Lin, Hongxia Guo, Yuan Gao, Baosong Xing
Castration plays a regulatory role in growth and carcass traits, particularly in fat deposition, but its molecular mechanisms are still not clear. The present study showed that castration significantly reduced the serum growth hormone and the responses of the growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), IGF-IR and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to castration were similar in different adipose tissues. However, the GHR expression trends were opposite between the liver and the adipose tissues; bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) showed that its methylation in these two tissues was different...
December 7, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925313/isolation-proliferation-and-characterization-of-endometrial-canine-stem-cells
#8
V De Cesaris, S Grolli, C Bresciani, V Conti, G Basini, E Parmigiani, E Bigliardi
In the last decade, progenitor cells isolated from dissociated endometrial tissue have been the subject of many studies in several animal species. Recently, endometrial cells showing characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been demonstrated in human, pig and cow uterine tissue samples. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of stromal cells from the endometrium of healthy bitches, a tissue that after elective surgery is routinely discarded. Multipotent stromal cells could be isolated from all bitches enrolled in the study (n = 7)...
December 7, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925245/helminths-hygiene-hypothesis-and-type-2-diabetes
#9
Karin de Ruiter, Dicky L Tahapary, Erliyani Sartono, Pradana Soewondo, Taniawati Supali, Johannes W A Smit, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
Worldwide, there is little overlap between the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Helminth-induced type 2 immune responses and immune regulatory network might modulate the obesity-induced activation of inflammatory pathways that are associated with the development of insulin resistance, a strong predictor of the development of T2D. However, other factors such as helminth-associated changes in adiposity and gut microbiome might also contribute to improved metabolic outcomes. In this review we summarize epidemiological evidence for the link between helminths and T2D and discuss the potential mechanisms, based on findings from experimental studies as well as the limited number of studies in humans...
December 7, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925206/opposite-effects-of-mechanical-action-of-fluid-flow-on-proangiogenic-factor-secretion-from-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-with-and-without-oxidative-stress
#10
Beatriz Bravo, Cira García de Durango, Álvaro González, Arancha R Gortázar, Xavier Santos, Jerónimo Forteza-Vila, Fernando Vidal-Vanaclocha
Mechanical forces, hypoxia and oxidative stress contribute to skin renewal, perfusion and wound healing, but how are they regulating subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in the inflammatory microenvironment associated to skin repair and disorders is unknown. In this study, ASCs were isolated from lipoaspirate samples from plastic surgery patients, primary cultured and their differentiation and secretion of a panel of cytokines with pronounced effects on skin repair and angiogenesis were studied under mechanical stimulation by intermittent fluid flow, 1% hypoxia and oxidative stress by glutathione (GSH) depletion with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) treatment...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925195/palmitoleic-acid-improves-metabolic-functions-in-fatty-liver-by-ppar%C3%AE-dependent-ampk-activation
#11
Camila O Souza, Alexandre A S Teixeira, Luana A Biondo, Edson A Lima, Helena A P Batatinha, Jose C Rosa Neto
BACKGROUND: Palmitoleic acid, since described as lipokine, increases glucose uptake by modulation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as increasing lipolysis by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), in adipose tissue. However in liver, the effects of palmitoleic acid on glucose metabolism and the role of PPARα remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether palmitoleic acid improved the hepatic insulin sensitivity of obese mice...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925193/systemic-and-local-adipose-tissue-in-knee-osteoarthritis
#12
REVIEW
Elisa Belluzzi, Hamza El Hadi, Marnie Granzotto, Marco Rossato, Roberta Ramonda, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro, Roberto Vettor, Marta Favero
Osteoarthritis is a common chronic joint disorder affecting older people. The knee is the major joint affected. The symptoms of osteoarthritis include limited range of motion, joint swelling, and pain causing disability. There are no disease modifying drugs available, and treatments are mainly focused on pain management. Total knee replacement performed at the end stage of the disease is considered the only cure available. It has been found that obese people have an increased risk to develop not only knee but also hand osteoarthritis...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925007/viability-in-vitro-differentiation-and-molecular-characterization-of-equine-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cryopreserved-in-serum-and-serum-free-medium
#13
B Merlo, S Pirondi, E Iacono, B Rossi, F Ricci, G Mari
BACKGROUND: The effect of freezing-thawing equine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (eATMSCs) have been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study is to test the influence of cryopreservation solution and temperature when adding the cryoprotectant for freezing eATMSCs, and to investigate the effects of cryopreservation on their stemness features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four freezing protocols were evaluated. Viability and proliferation ability of cryopreserved cells were investigated by MTT assay...
July 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924862/mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-can-restore-lupus-disease-associated-mirna-expression-and-th1-th2-ratios-in-a-murine-model-of-sle
#14
Eun Wha Choi, MinJae Lee, Ji Woo Song, Il Seob Shin, Sung Joo Kim
C3.MRL-Fas(lpr)/J mice spontaneously develop high titers of anti-dsDNA, mild glomerular nephritis, and severe lymphoproliferation symptoms. This study aimed to compare the effects of long-term serial administration of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), and cyclophosphamide treatment in C3.MRL-Fas(lpr)/J mice using a murine SLE model. C3.MRL-Fas(lpr)/J mice were divided into saline (C), cyclophosphamide (Y), and ASC (H) treatment groups. Background-matched control C3H mice treated with saline (N) were also compared...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924729/conjugated-linoleic-acid-isomers-exert-differential-effects-on-an-adipocyte-model-of-hiv-associated-lipodystrophy
#15
Cathríona R Loonam, Sandra D O Dell, Anne Mullen
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated lipodystrophy is associated with decreased expression of PPAR-γ in adipose tissue. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers (cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12) are putative PPAR-γ agonists, but have not previously been investigated in the context of HIV-associated lipodystrophy. METHODS: 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated in the presence of ritonavir (20 μM as per previous experimental models) and 100 μM cis9,trans11, trans10,cis12 or vehicle control, DMSO...
December 7, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924610/growing-adipose-derived-stem-cells-under-serum-free-conditions
#16
Diogo Godoy Zanicotti, Dawn E Coates
Growing adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) in serum-free conditions is important as it represents a way of expanding multipotent cells in a clinical grade medium. Most cultured ADSC are expanded and tested in serum-containing media, which can pose significant health risks if these cells were used in clinical applications. Moreover, cells grown in serum-free conditions behave significantly different than those cultured in serum-containing media. Here, we present a technique to culture adipose-derived stem cells in serum-free conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924203/the-effects-of-etomidate-and-midazolam-on-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-proliferation
#17
Ho Park, Kyoungho Ryu, Yun-Hong Kim, Won-Jun Choi, Dongchan Ko
BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy using adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs), which are capable of multipotent differentiation, is currently being investigated in the field of tissue regeneration and the treatment of patients in intensive care units. It is known that type-A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor activity has an influence on stem cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated the effects of the clinically available GABAA receptor agonists, etomidate and midazolam, on ADSC proliferation measured by the cell counting kit-8 assay...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923872/dopamine-directly-increases-mitochondrial-mass-and-thermogenesis-in-brown-adipocytes
#18
Rose Kohlie, Nina Perwitz, Julia Resch, Sebastian Michael Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert, Johannes Klein, Karl Alexander Iwen
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is key to energy homeostasis. By virtue of its thermogenic potential it may dissipate excessive energy, regulate body weight, and increase insulin sensitivity. Catecholamines are critically involved in the regulation of BAT-thermogenesis, yet research has focussed on the effects of noradrenaline and adrenaline. Some evidence suggests a role of dopamine (DA) in BAT-thermogenesis but the cellular mechanisms involved have not been addressed. We employed our extensively characterised murine brown adipocyte cells...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923808/ucp1-inhibition-in-cidea-overexpressing-mice-is-physiologically-counteracted-by-brown-adipose-tissue-hyperrecruitment
#19
Alexander W Fischer, Irina G Shabalina, Charlotte L Mattsson, Gustavo Abreu-Vieira, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergard, Natasa Petrovic
Cidea is a gene highly expressed in thermogenesis-competent (UCP1-containing) adipose cells, both brown and brite/beige. Here we initially demonstrate a remarkable adipose-depot specific regulation of Cidea expression. In classical brown fat, Cidea mRNA is expressed continuously and invariably, irrespective of tissue recruitment. However, Cidea protein levels are regulated posttranscriptionally, being conspicuously induced in the thermogenically recruited state. In contrast, in brite fat, Cidea protein levels are regulated at the transcriptional level, and Cidea mRNA and protein levels are proportional to tissue "briteness"...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923804/associations-of-epicardial-abdominal-and-overall-adiposity-with-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Christopher X Wong, Michelle T Sun, Ayodele Odutayo, Connor A Emdin, Rajiv Mahajan, Dennis H Lau, Rajeev K Pathak, Dennis T Wong, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Prashanthan Sanders, Robert Clarke
BACKGROUND: Although adiposity is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), the importance of epicardial fat compared with other adipose tissue depots remains uncertain. We sought to characterize and compare the associations of AF with epicardial fat and measures of abdominal and overall adiposity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a meta-analysis of 63 observational studies including 352 275 individuals, comparing AF risk for 1-SD increases in epicardial fat, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, and body mass index...
December 2016: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
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