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Jamal Abdul Nasir, Muhammad Imran, Syed Arif Ahmed Zaidi
Vitamin D deficiency is an emerging health concern around the world, highly prevalent in south Asian population, despite abundant sunlight. In Pakistan, all age groups are vulnerable to Vitamin D deficiency including pregnant women. This systematic review aimed to determine the pattern of Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women as well as exploring the causes and possible interventions that have had a substantial effect on improving the vitamin D level. Three databases (PubMed, Pub Get and Google Scholar), for the present review up to 2016, were used for the identification of published peer reviewed original relevant studies regarding Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women with the keywords Vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D in combination with pregnant women...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Misbah Malik, Nasira Tasnim, Ghazala Mahmud
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of metformin alone versus metformin plus simvastatin for treatment of polycystic ovariansyndrome (PCOS). STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Maternal and Child Health Centre, Unit II, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), from November 2014 to April 2015. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and eight patients (108) were randomly divided into metformin group (n=54) and metformin plus simvastatin group (n=54), detailed clinical history, including menstrual details, was taken with thorough examination performed...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Farooq, Ahmad Nawaz, Abdullah M Al-Sadi, Khalid Al-Hashmi, Faisal Nadeem, Aman Ullah
BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms and its deficiency represents the major issue of malnutrition in humans. This study was carried out to characterize the 28 wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential, genetic diversity and relatedness. RESULTS: There was low genetic differentiation among the tested genotypes. However, these wheat genotypes differed greatly for yield related traits and grain mineral concentration (Zn, Ca and protein) and Zn bioavailability...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ali Bin Nadeem, Ysa Chandna
The majority of the Pakistani public has known little of the unmanned aerial vehicles, also known for their onomatopoeically inspired name "drones," except the fact that it regularly rains Hellfire missiles in Pakistan, claiming the lives of many innocent Pakistanis settled in the western provinces. In actuality, in addition to their destructive capacities, these remotely piloted vehicles have been used since the turn of the century in a variety of live-saving and risk-reducing roles. This research article primarily addresses the third stage of Emergency management-response, with Pakistan being the primary region of research...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Muhammad Rizwan Nazeer, Farhan Raza Khan, Robia Ghafoor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the root canal morphology of maxillary premolars. METHODS: his retrospective study was conducted from November 2016 to January 2017 at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and reviewed Cone Beam Computed Tomography images of maxillary first and second premolars done from November 2014 to October 2016. Frequency distribution of Vertucci's classification was determined. Chi square test was applied to determine any association between Vertucci's type and gender...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Attia Bari, Rehan Ahmed Khan, Ahsan Waheed Rathore
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of postgraduate residents about the clinical educational environment and to investigate the association of their perception with different specialities and years of residency. METHODS: The study was conducted in August 2016 at The Children's Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised postgraduate residents who were asked to complete postgraduate hospital educational environment measure questionnaire. The residents' individual perception scores were calculated and the means of both individual domain and global score of the questionnaire were compared by different specialities and different levels of residency training year...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Mohammad Idrees Adhi, Sumbul Kashif, Kashif Muhammed, Nisar Siyal
OBJECTIVE: To document clinical pattern of retinoblastoma in Pakistani population. METHODS: This retrospective study, which was conducted at Department of Ophthalmology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, reviewed clinical records of patients with retinoblastoma from 1997 to 2012. Staging of disease was done by referring to retinal diagrams, RetCam images, and first magnetic resonance imaging. Ophthalmic notes, imaging reports and histopathology reports of enucleated eyes established optic nerve involvement...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Hein Heuvelman, James Nazroo, Dheeraj Rai
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests risk for psychosis varies with ethnicity in Western countries. However, there is little evidence to date on the cross-cultural validity of screening instruments used for such comparisons. METHODS: Combining two existing UK population-based cohorts, we examined risk for reporting psychotic symptoms across White British (n = 3467), White Irish (n = 851), Caribbean (n = 1899), Indian (n = 2590), Pakistani (n = 1956) and Bangladeshi groups (n = 1248)...
March 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Faidad Khan, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Nadeem Ahmed, Muhammad Islam Khan, Hamid Bashir, Saad Tahir, Ahmad Usman Zafar
INTRODUCTION: Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of pneumococcal diseases in the world, but unfortunately studies in this demanding research area are limited in the region. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is the next generation pneumococcal vaccine candidate as the protein locates on the Streptococcus pneumoniae surface. Its gene, pspA, might be encoded by all pneumococci, and the protein has proven immunogenicity. The molecular characterization of PspA, pneumococcal serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility are important for regional diversity studies...
March 9, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Sainan Lyu, Carol K H Hon, Albert P C Chan, Francis K W Wong, Arshad Ali Javed
In many countries, it is common practice to attract and employ ethnic minority (EM) or migrant workers in the construction industry. This primarily occurs in order to alleviate the labor shortage caused by an aging workforce with a lack of new entrants. Statistics show that EM construction workers are more likely to have occupational fatal and nonfatal injuries than their local counterparts; however, the mechanism underlying accidents and injuries in this vulnerable population has been rarely examined. This study aims to investigate relationships among safety climate, safety behavior, and safety outcomes for EM construction workers...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rana Muhammad Kamran Shabbir, Gökhan Nalbant, Nafees Ahmad, Sajid Malik, Aslıhan Tolun
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 11 (CHST11) is a membrane protein of Golgi that catalyses the transfer of sulfate to position 4 of the N-acetylgalactosamine residues of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate is the predominant proteoglycan in cartilage, and its sulfation is important in the developing growth plate of cartilage. A homozygous deletion encompassing part of the gene and the embedded miRNA MIR3922 had been detected in a woman with hand/foot malformation and malignant lymphoproliferative disease...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Kristine R Hearld, Jami L Anderson, Henna Budhwani
Introduction The Islamic Republic of Pakistan's maternal mortality ratio is particularly high, and the nation ranks 126 out of 149 countries on the Human Development Report-Gender Inequality Index. This is because Pakistani women have low levels of empowerment, make limited economic contributions, and underutilization of maternal health care. The aim of this study is to create a multidimensional index of women's empowerment and assess the association between this index and maternal health care utilization in Pakistan, controlling for individual characteristics and community-level traits...
March 6, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Sana Syed, Najeeha T Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Jennie Z Ma, Tauseef Akhund, Wenjun Xin, Sean R Moore, Enju Liu, Shahida Qureshi, Kerri Gosselin, Andrew Gewirtz, Christopher P Duggan, S Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) in children from low-income countries has been linked to linear growth declines. There is a critical need to identify sensitive and early EED biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether levels of antibodies against bacterial components flagellin (flic) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) predict poor growth. DESIGN/METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort of 380 children in rural Pakistan blood and stool samples were obtained at ages 6 and 9 months...
2018: PloS One
Farhat Moazam, Sualeha Shekhani
CONTEXT: Female medical students outnumber men in countries such as Saudi Arabia, India and Pakistan, yet many fail to practise medicine following graduation. In Pakistan, 70% of medical students are women, yet it is estimated that half of them will not pursue medicine following graduation. This is considered a major reason for physician shortages in the country. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study drawing upon the 'role strain' theory to explore the views of final-year medical students from four medical colleges in Karachi, Pakistan, on female graduates not entering the medical field...
March 6, 2018: Medical Education
Shakeel Ahmad Jadoon, Ashfaq Ahmed, Muhammad Adeel Alam
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is becoming a public health problem and involves every segment of the population irrespective of age and gender. This study was conducted to assess its status in patients presenting with generalized body aches and pains.. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad from March 2015 to October 2016. A sample of 202 patients presenting with generalized body aches and pains were enrolled for the study using convenient sampling technique...
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Sumana Chatterjee, Lucy Shapiro, Stephen J Rose, Talat Mushtaq, Peter E Clayton, Svetlana Ten, Amrit Bhangoo, Uma Kumbattae, Renuka Dias, Martin O Savage, Louise A Metherell, Helen L Storr
BACKGROUND: Patients with homozygous intronic pseudoexon GH receptor(GHR) mutations(6Ψ) have growth hormone Insensitivity(GHI) (growth failure, IGF1 deficiency and normal/elevated serum GH). We report 9 patients in addition to previously described 11 GHR 6Ψ patients and their responses to rhIGF1 therapy. METHODS: 20 patients (12 males, 11 families, mean age 4.0±2.2yrs) were diagnosed genetically in our centre. Phenotypic data and responses to rhIGF1 treatment were provided by referring clinicians...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Raj S Bhopal, Laurence Gruer, Genevieve Cezard, Anne Douglas, Markus F C Steiner, Andrew Millard, Duncan Buchanan, S Vittal Katikireddi, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Migrant and ethnic minority groups are often assumed to have poor health relative to the majority population. Few countries have the capacity to study a key indicator, mortality, by ethnicity and country of birth. We hypothesized at least 10% differences in mortality by ethnic group in Scotland that would not be wholly attenuated by adjustment for socio-economic factors or country of birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We linked the Scottish 2001 Census to mortality data (2001-2013) in 4...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Syed Faaiz Enam, Shumaila Hashmi
Evolutionary Medicine (EM) is a fundamental science exploring why our bodies are plagued with disease and hindered by limitations. EM views the body as an assortment of benefits, mistakes, and compromises molded over millennia. It highlights the role of evolution in numerous diseases encountered in community and family medicine clinics of developing countries. It enables us to ask informed questions and develop novel responses to global health problems. An understanding of the field is thus crucial for budding doctors, but its study is currently limited to a handful of medical schools in high-income countries...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Syeda Nuzhat Nawab, Sitwat Zehra, Asher Fawwad, Abid Azhar
Background & Objective: Catalase (CAT) is an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme that detoxifies H2 O2 into water and oxygen, consequently limiting the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. It has suggested that CAT-21A/T (rs7943316) OMIM: 115500 gene promoter polymorphism is predominantly associated with different human disorders such as hypertension, cancers, diabetes, nephropathy, and other diseases accompanied by oxidative stress. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of mutant T allele frequency in healthy individuals...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Mujtaba Mubashir, Shaheena Anwar, Asal Khan Tareen, Naseema Mehboobali, Khalida Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz Iqbal
Objective: To investigate the relationship of vitamin D deficiency and risk of AMI in a Pakistani population, and to find out any association between vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) genotypes and risk of AMI in this population. Methods: In a comparative cross-sectional study, 246 patients (age: 20-70 years; 171 males and 75 females) with first AMI were enrolled with informed consent. Similarly, 345 healthy adults (230 males and 115 females) were enrolled as controls...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
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