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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341967/new-modalities-for-the-administration-of-inhaled-nitric-oxide-in-intensive-care-units-after-cardiac-surgery-or-for-neonatal-indications-a-prospective-observational-study
#1
Philippe Gaudard, Claudio Barbanti, Bertrand Rozec, Philippe Mauriat, Mimoun M'rini, Gilles Cambonie, Jean Michel Liet, Claude Girard, Pierre Louis Leger, Ziad Assaf, Pierre Damas, Gauthier Loron, Laurent Lecourt, Julien Amour, Philippe Pouard
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) has a well-known efficacy in pulmonary hypertension (PH), with wide use for 20 years in many countries. The objective of this study was to describe the current use of NO in real life and the gap with the guidelines. METHODS: This is a multicenter, prospective, observational study on inhaled NO administered through an integrated delivery and monitoring device and indicated for PH according to the market authorizations. The characteristics of NO therapy and ventilation modes were observed...
January 16, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338783/children-with-premature-pubarche-is-an-alterated-neonatal-17-ohp-screening-test-a-predictive-factor
#2
Paolo Cavarzere, Margherita Mauro, Monica Vincenzi, Silvana Lauriola, Francesca Teofoli, Rossella Gaudino, Diego Alberto Ramaroli, Rocco Micciolo, Marta Camilot, Franco Antoniazzi
BACKGROUND: Neonatal screening for 21 hydroxylase deficiency is designed to detect classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). It is still unclear whether newborns who result false positives at neonatal screening might later develop signs of androgen excess. The aim of this study is to verify whether a slightly elevated 17-OHP at newborn screening is a predictive factor for premature pubarche. METHODS: We evaluated all infants born between 2001 and 2014 with premature pubarche...
January 16, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337995/evaluation-of-a-community-based-intervention-to-improve-maternal-and-neonatal-health-service-coverage-in-the-most-rural-and-remote-districts-of-zambia
#3
Choolwe Jacobs, Charles Michelo, Mumbi Chola, Nicholas Oliphant, Hikabasa Halwiindi, Sitali Maswenyeho, Kumar Sridutt Baboo, Mosa Moshabela
BACKGROUND: A community-based intervention comprising both men and women, known as Safe Motherhood Action Groups (SMAGs), was implemented in four of Zambia's poorest and most remote districts to improve coverage of selected maternal and neonatal health interventions. This paper reports on outcomes in the coverage of maternal and neonatal care interventions, including antenatal care (ANC), skilled birth attendance (SBA) and postnatal care (PNC) in the study areas. METHODOLOGY: Three serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted between 2012 and 2015 among 1,652 mothers of children 0-5 months of age using a 'before-and-after' evaluation design with multi-stage sampling, combining probability proportional to size and simple random sampling...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330886/surgery-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-increase-the-risk-of-hypothermia-in-infants
#4
Joel M Don Paul, Elizabeth J Perkins, Prue M Pereira-Fantini, Asha Suka, Olivia Farrell, Julia K Gunn, Anushi E Rajapaksa, David G Tingay
AIM: Maintaining normothermia is a tenet of neonatal care. However, neonatal thermal care guidelines applicable to intra-hospital transport beyond the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and during surgery or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion of infants normothermic (36.5-37.5°C) on return to NICU after management during surgery and MRI, and during standard clinical care in both environments. METHODS: Sixty-two newborns requiring either surgery in the operating theatre (OT) (n = 41) or an MRI scan (n = 21) at the Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne) NICU were prospectively studied...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326869/prenatal-methadone-exposure-is-associated-with-altered-neonatal-brain-development
#5
Victoria J Monnelly, Devasuda Anblagan, Alan Quigley, Manuel Blesa Cabez, E Sarah Cooper, Helen Mactier, Scott I Semple, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Methadone is used for medication-assisted treatment of heroin addiction during pregnancy. The neurodevelopmental outcome of children with prenatal methadone exposure can be sub-optimal. We tested the hypothesis that brain development is altered among newborn infants whose mothers were prescribed methadone. 20 methadone-exposed neonates born after 37 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) and 20 non-exposed controls underwent diffusion MRI at mean PMA of 39+ 2 and 41+ 1 weeks, respectively. An age-optimized Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) pipeline was used to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data between exposed and non-exposed neonates...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324456/targeted-knockdown-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-within-neural-progenitors-protects-the-brain-and-improves-motor-function-following-postnatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#6
Robert W Dettman, Derin Birch, Augusta Fernando, John A Kessler, Maria L V Dizon
Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) to the neonatal human brain results in myelin loss that, in some children, can manifest as cerebral palsy. Previously, we had found that neuronal overexpression of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) inhibitor noggin during development increased oligodendroglia and improved motor function in an experimental model of HI utilizing unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia. As BMPs are known to negatively regulate oligodendroglial fate specification of neural stem cells and alter differentiation of committed oligodendroglia, BMP signaling is likely an important mechanism leading to myelin loss...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322860/antenatal-and-neonatal-antecedents-of-executive-dysfunctions-in-extremely-preterm-children
#7
Alan Leviton, Robert M Joseph, Elizabeth N Allred, T Michael O'Shea, H Gerry Taylor, Karl K C Kuban
To find out why children born extremely preterm are at heightened risk of executive dysfunctions, the authors assessed 716 children who were 10 years old born extremely preterm whose IQ was ≥ 70. A working memory dysfunction (n = 169), an inhibition dysfunction (n = 360), a switching dysfunction (355), and all 3 (executive dysfunction; n = 107) were defined on the basis of Z-scores ≤ -1 on the Differential Ability Scales-II Working Memory composite, and/or on the NEPSY-II Inhibition-Inhibition and Inhibition-Switching subtests...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286930/hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-planned-delivery-before-intrapartum-events
#8
David Odd, Axel Heep, Karen Luyt, Tim Draycott
BACKGROUND: Mothers are increasingly given greater control over many of the choices around birth, although there is little robust evidence to inform these choices. After an infant is born with HIE the question of whether it was predictable, or preventable, is often raised. Intrapartum 'sentinel' events and antenatal predictors of HIE have been well described, however there is little evidence how antenatal and intrapartum factors interact. This is particularly important when elective delivery by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) has been shown to be beneficial in high risk groups...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274129/newborn-screening-for-galactosaemia
#9
REVIEW
Rohollah Lak, Bahareh Yazdizadeh, Majid Davari, Mojtaba Nouhi, Roya Kelishadi
BACKGROUND: Classical galactosaemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase. This is a rare and potentially lethal condition that classically presents in the first week of life once milk feeds have commenced. Affected babies may present with any or all of the following: cataracts; fulminant liver failure; prolonged jaundice; or Escherichia coli sepsis. Once the diagnosis is suspected, feeds containing galactose must be stopped immediately and replaced with a soya-based formula...
December 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273309/the-satisfactory-growth-and-development-at-2-years-of-age-of-the%C3%A2-intergrowth-21st-fetal-growth-standards-cohort-support-its%C3%A2-appropriateness-for-constructing-international-standards
#10
José Villar, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Eleonora Staines Urias, Francesca Giuliani, Eric O Ohuma, Cesar G Victora, Aris T Papageorghiou, Douglas G Altman, Cutberto Garza, Fernando C Barros, Fabien Puglia, Roseline Ochieng, Yasmin A Jaffer, Julia A Noble, Enrico Bertino, Manorama Purwar, Ruyan Pang, Ann Lambert, Cameron Chumlea, Alan Stein, Michelle Fernandes, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Stephen H Kennedy
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends that human growth should be monitored with the use of international standards. However, in obstetric practice, we continue to monitor fetal growth using numerous local charts or equations that are based on different populations for each body structure. Consistent with World Health Organization recommendations, the INTERGROWTH-21st Project has produced the first set of international standards to date pregnancies; to monitor fetal growth, estimated fetal weight, Doppler measures, and brain structures; to measure uterine growth, maternal nutrition, newborn infant size, and body composition; and to assess the postnatal growth of preterm babies...
December 19, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217168/the-stories-of-women-who-are-transferred-due-to-threat-of-preterm-birth
#11
Lyn Woodhart, Jessica Goldstone, Donna Hartz
BACKGROUND: Women at risk of preterm birth before 32 weeks gestation are routinely transferred to facilitate birth at a hospital that has Neonatal Intensive Care. The clinical outcomes of being 'in-born" improves newborn and neonatal outcomes is well documented. However little is known about the women's experiences when such a complication occurs. METHOD: Using the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation Patient and Carer stories method, 10 women were purposively invited and consented to tell their stories...
December 4, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206833/effects-of-women-s-groups-practising-participatory-learning-and-action-on-preventive-and-care-seeking-behaviours-to-reduce-neonatal-mortality-a-meta-analysis-of-cluster-randomised-trials
#12
Nadine Seward, Melissa Neuman, Tim Colbourn, David Osrin, Sonia Lewycka, Kishwar Azad, Anthony Costello, Sushmita Das, Edward Fottrell, Abdul Kuddus, Dharma Manandhar, Nirmala Nair, Bejoy Nambiar, Neena Shah More, Tambosi Phiri, Prasanta Tripathy, Audrey Prost
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends participatory learning and action (PLA) in women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health, particularly in rural settings with low access to health services. There have been calls to understand the pathways through which this community intervention may affect neonatal mortality. We examined the effect of women's groups on key antenatal, delivery, and postnatal behaviours in order to understand pathways to mortality reduction...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198536/infants-with-atypical-presentations-of-alveolar-capillary-dysplasia-with-misalignment-of-the-pulmonary-veins-who-underwent-bilateral-lung-transplantation
#13
Christopher T Towe, Frances V White, R Mark Grady, Stuart C Sweet, Pirooz Eghtesady, Daniel J Wegner, Partha Sen, Przemyslaw Szafranski, Pawel Stankiewicz, Aaron Hamvas, F Sessions Cole, Jennifer A Wambach
OBJECTIVE: To describe disease course, histopathology, and outcomes for infants with atypical presentations of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) who underwent bilateral lung transplantation. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed clinical history, diagnostic studies, explant histology, genetic sequence results, and post-transplant course for 6 infants with atypical ACDMPV who underwent bilateral lung transplantation at St. Louis Children's Hospital...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184815/transient-hypothyroidism-in-the-newborn-to-treat-or-not-to-treat
#14
REVIEW
Neelakanta Kanike, Ajuah Davis, Prem S Shekhawat
Transient congenital hypothyroidism (CH) refers to a temporary deficiency of thyroid hormone identified after birth, with low thyroxine (T4) and elevated thyrotropin (TSH), which later recovers to improved thyroxine production, typically in first few months of infancy. Approximately 17% to 40% of children diagnosed with CH by newborn screening (NBS) programs were later determined to have transient hypothyroidism. Causes of transient CH are prematurity, iodine deficiency, maternal thyrotropin receptor blocking antibodies, maternal intake of anti-thyroid drugs, maternal or neonatal iodine exposure, loss of function mutations and hepatic hemangiomas...
October 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183229/prevalence-of-sickle-cell-disease-among-grenadian-newborns
#15
Magdalene Antoine, Ketty Lee, Tyhiesia Donald, Yonni Belfon, Ali Drigo, Sharon Polson, Francis Martin, George Mitchell, Maryse Etienne-Julan, Marie-Dominique Hardy-Dessources
Objective To establish the birth prevalence of sickle cell disease in Grenada, with a view to assess the requirement for a population-based neonatal screening programme. Methods A two-year pilot neonatal screening programme, involving the Ministry of Health of Grenada, the Sickle Cell Association of Grenada, and the diagnostic laboratory of hemoglobinopathies of the University Hospital of Guadeloupe, was implemented in 2014-2015 under the auspices of the Caribbean Network of Researchers on Sickle Cell Disease and Thalassemia...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182219/hepatitis-b-in-poland-in-2015
#16
Małgorzata Stępień, Katarzyna Piwowarow, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis B in Poland in 2015 in relation to previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Evaluation of the epidemiological situation carried out based on analysis of data from individual reports on acute hepatitis B cases registered by the sanitary-epidemiological stations, aggregate data published in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland” and data from annual bulletin “Vaccinations in Poland”...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178513/relationship-between-neonatal-vitamin-d-at-birth-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-the-nbsib-study
#17
Dong-Mei Wu, Xin Wen, Xin-Rui Han, Shan Wang, Yong-Jian Wang, Min Shen, Shao-Hua Fan, Juan Zhuang, Meng-Qiu Li, Bin Hu, Chun-Hui Sun, Ya-Xing Bao, Jing Yan, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
Previous studies suggested that lower vitamin D might be a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ASDs in 3-year-old Chinese children and to examine the association between neonatal vitamin D status and risk of ASDs. We conducted a study of live births who had taken part in expanded newborn screening (NBS), with outpatient follow-up when the children 3-year old. The children were confirmed for ASDs in outpatient by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 criteria...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173793/antiviral-drugs-in-newborn-and-children
#18
REVIEW
Claudette L Poole, David W Kimberlin
This article focuses on the clinically relevant approved antiviral medications available for the treatment of infants and children. A brief overview of drug categories, mechanism of action, resistance, pharmacokinetics, and side effects is provided for the more commonly prescribed antivirals. The patient categories addressed are treatment and prophylaxis of influenza, neonatal herpes simplex virus and congenital cytomegalovirus, treatment and prophylaxis of viral disease in the immunocompromised host, and a brief introduction to the antivirals available to treat hepatitis B and hepatitis C in children...
December 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173786/drug-treatment-of-seizures-and-epilepsy-in-newborns-and-children
#19
REVIEW
Louis T Dang, Faye S Silverstein
The mainstay of treatment of childhood epilepsy is to administer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This article provides an overview of the clinical approach to drug treatment of childhood epilepsy, focusing on general principles of therapy and properties of recently introduced medications. Initiation and cessation of therapy, adverse medication effects, drug interactions, indications for the various AEDs, and off-label use of AEDs are reviewed. The distinct challenges in treatment of epileptic spasms and neonatal seizures are addressed...
December 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173785/probiotics-in-newborns-and-children
#20
REVIEW
Mary W Lenfestey, Josef Neu
Microbes and humans have been closely associated throughout evolution; this symbiotic and/or commensal relationship is crucial for normal development and health. The use of probiotics has been the topic of intense investigation in the past couple of decades because they have the capability to promote health. Based on these studies, it can be debated whether they are being used to promote overall health or to treat and prevent diseases. This review provides an overview and analysis of evidence about what is currently known about the health benefits of these agents that are marketed for use in children and neonates...
December 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
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