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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889499/the-osamt1-1-gene-functions-in-ammonium-uptake-and-ammonium-potassium-homeostasis-over-low-and-high-ammonium-concentration-ranges
#1
Chang Li, Zhong Tang, Jia Wei, Hongye Qu, Yanjie Xie, Guohua Xu
Rice (Oryza sativa) grown in paddy fields is an ammonium (NH4(+))-preferring crop; however, its AMT-type NH4(+) transporters that mediate root N acquisition have not been well characterized yet. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern and physiological function of the OsAMT1.1 gene of the AMT1 subfamily in rice. OsAMT1.1 is located in the plasma membrane and is mainly expressed in the root epidermis, stele and mesophyll cells. Disruption of the OsAMT1.1 gene decreased the uptake of NH4(+), and the growth of roots and shoots under both low NH4(+) and high NH4(+) conditions...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885162/contralesional-corticomotor-neurophysiology-in-hemiparetic-children-with-perinatal-stroke-developmental-plasticity-and-clinical-function
#2
Ephrem Zewdie, Omar Damji, Patrick Ciechanski, Trevor Seeger, Adam Kirton
Background Perinatal stroke causes most hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Ipsilateral connections from nonlesioned hemisphere to affected hand are common. The nonlesioned primary motor cortex (M1) determines function and is a potential therapeutic target but its neurophysiology is poorly understood. Objective We aimed to characterize the neurophysiological properties of the nonlesioned M1 in children with perinatal stroke and their relationship to clinical function. Methods Fifty-two participants with hemiparetic cerebral palsy and magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed perinatal stroke and 40 controls aged 8 to 18 years completed the same transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol...
November 23, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880886/hippocampal-and-diencephalic-pathology-in-developmental-amnesia
#3
Anna M Dzieciol, Jocelyne Bachevalier, Kadharbatcha S Saleem, David G Gadian, Richard Saunders, W K Kling Chong, Tina Banks, Mortimer Mishkin, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem
Developmental amnesia (DA) is a selective episodic memory disorder associated with hypoxia-induced bilateral hippocampal atrophy of early onset. Despite the systemic impact of hypoxia-ischaemia, the resulting brain damage was previously reported to be largely limited to the hippocampus. However, the thalamus and the mammillary bodies are parts of the hippocampal-diencephalic network and are therefore also at risk of injury following hypoxic-ischaemic events. Here, we report a neuroimaging investigation of diencephalic damage in a group of 18 patients with DA (age range 11-35 years), and an equal number of controls...
September 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878810/improvement-of-phytoplankton-culture-isolation-using-single-cell-sorting-by-flow-cytometry
#4
Dominique Marie, Florence Le Gall, Roseline Edern, Priscillia Gourvil, Daniel Vaulot
Flow cytometry provides a tool to physically sort single algal cells in order to obtain clonal cultures. During sorting, cells are submitted to physical stress factors such as high fluidic pressure, exposure to the laser beam, electrostatic charges, deflection through high voltage fields and collisions with container surfaces. All of these can damage the cells of interest and success rates for initiation of cultures from flow-sorted cells are generally very low. We found that the addition of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in the culture medium into which cells are sorted drastically improved the success of initiation of pico- and nano-eukaryotic phytoplankton strains...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863163/surgical-therapy-vs-continued-medical-therapy-for-medically-refractory-chronic-rhinosinusitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Zara M Patel, Andrew Thamboo, Luke Rudmik, Jayakar V Nayak, Timothy L Smith, Peter H Hwang
BACKGROUND: The currently accepted treatment paradigm of treating chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) first with appropriate medical therapy (AMT) and then with surgery if patients are refractory to AMT, has been criticized for lack of evidence. The objective of this study was to reassess the literature and establish the highest level of evidence possible regarding further management of CRS patients refractory to AMT. METHODS: This study was a systematic review (SR) with meta-analysis (MA)...
November 11, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852754/ammonia-excretion-in-the-marine-polychaete-eurythoe-complanata-annelida
#6
Daniel Thiel, Maja Hugenschütt, Heiko Meyer, Achim Paululat, Alex R Quijada-Rodriguez, Günter Purschke, Dirk Weihrauch
Ammonia is a toxic waste product from protein metabolism and needs to be either converted into less toxic molecules or, in the case of fish and aquatic invertebrates, excreted directly as is. In contrast to fish, very little is known regarding the ammonia excretion mechanism and the participating excretory organs in marine invertebrates. In the current study ammonia excretion in the marine burrowing polychaete Eurythoe complanata was investigated. As a potential site for excretion the 100-200 micrometer long, 30-50 micrometer wide and up to 25 micrometer thick dentrically branched, well ventilated and vascularized branchiae (gills) were identified...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847987/the-side-of-chronic-low-back-pain-matters-evidence-from-the-primary-motor-cortex-excitability-and-the-postural-adjustments-of-multifidi-muscles
#7
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Louis-David Beaulieu, Richard Preuss, Cyril Schneider
Hemispheric lateralization of pain processing was reported with overactivation of the right frontal lobe. Specifically in chronic low back pain (CLBP), functional changes in the left primary motor cortex (M1) with impaired anticipatory postural activation (APA) of trunk muscles have been observed. Given the connections between frontal and M1 areas for motor planning, it is hypothesized that the pain side could differently influence M1 function and APA of paravertebral multifidus (MF) muscles. This study aimed at testing whether people with right- versus left-sided CLBP showed different M1 excitability and APA...
November 15, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830086/active-pedicle-epithelial-flap-transposition-combined-with-amniotic-membrane-transplantation-for-treatment-of-nonhealing-corneal-ulcers
#8
Ting Zhang, Yuexin Wang, Yanni Jia, Dongle Liu, Suxia Li, Weiyun Shi, Hua Gao
Introduction. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of active pedicle epithelial flap transposition combined with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in treating nonhealing corneal ulcers. Material and Methods. Eleven patients (11 eyes) with nonhealing corneal ulcer who underwent the combined surgery were included. Postoperatively, ulcer healing time was detected by corneal fluorescein staining. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, surgical complications, and recurrence were recorded. Corneal status was inspected by the laser scanning confocal microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826302/whole-genome-sequencing-reveals-potential-new-targets-for-improving-nitrogen-uptake-and-utilization-in-sorghum-bicolor
#9
Karen Massel, Bradley C Campbell, Emma S Mace, Shuaishuai Tai, Yongfu Tao, Belinda G Worland, David R Jordan, Jose R Botella, Ian D Godwin
Nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a major agricultural input where more than 100 million tons are supplied annually. Cereals are particularly inefficient at soil N uptake, where the unrecovered nitrogen causes serious environmental damage. Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) is an important cereal crop, particularly in resource-poor semi-arid regions, and is known to have a high NUE in comparison to other major cereals under limited N conditions. This study provides the first assessment of genetic diversity and signatures of selection across 230 fully sequenced genes putatively involved in the uptake and utilization of N from a diverse panel of sorghum lines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816792/effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-masseter-motor-neuron-pool-excitability
#10
Huang Huang, Wei Cai Liu, Yu Han Song
OBJECTIVE: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been widely used to modulate the excitability of the cortical control of limbs muscles, but rarely in the cortical control of human masseter muscles. This study aims to investigate the effects of rTMS on masseter motor-neuron pool excitability in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 healthy participants were selected and received a total of three rTMS sessions involving stimulation of the right masseter-motor complex: one session of 10-Hz rTMS, one session of 1-Hz rTMS and one session of sham rTMS at an intensity of 80% of the active motor threshold (AMT)...
January 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810653/cortical-excitability-in-tramadol-dependent-patients-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#11
Eman M Khedr, Romany H Gabra, Mostafa Noaman, Noha Abo Elfetoh, Hanan S M Farghaly
BACKGROUND: Addiction to tramadol, a widely used analgesic, is becoming increasingly common. Tramadol can also induce seizures even after a single clinical dose. We tested whether the epileptogenicity of tramadol was associated with any changes in cortical excitability and inhibitory transmission using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: The study included 16 tramadol dependent patients and 15 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. Clinical evaluation was conducted using an addiction severity index...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795950/is-there-a-weekend-effect-in-hip-fracture-patients-presenting-to-a-united-kingdom-teaching-hospital
#12
John Abraham Mathews, Madhavi Vindlacheruvu, Vikas Khanduja
AIM: To compare mortality and time-to-surgery of patients admitted with hip fracture to our teaching hospital on weekdays vs weekends. METHODS: Data was prospectively collected and retrospectively analysed for 816 hip fracture patients. Multivariate logistic regression was carried out on 3 binary outcomes (time-to-surgery < 36 h; 30-d mortality; 120-d mortality), using the explanatory variables time-of-admission; age; gender; American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) grade; abbreviated mental test score (AMTS); fracture type; accommodation admitted from; walking ability outdoors; accompaniment outdoors and season...
October 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769856/the-impact-of-helipad-designation-on-meeting-the-best-practice-tariff-for-fractured-neck-of-femur-cases-in-a-major-trauma-centre
#13
John Dabis, Aliyah Hussein, Mark Rickman
Hip fractures represent a significant burden to the NHS: the cost for all UK hip fractures is approximately £2 billion and in 2013, 64 838 people were admitted to hospital with a fractured neck of femur (FNOF). In April 2010 St George's NHS Hospital was designated one of four Major Trauma Centres (MTC) in London. Following MTC designation, in April 2014 St George's Hospital opened a helipad. This study aimed to assess the impact of the helipad designation on the Trust's ability to meet the Best Practice Tariff (BPT) criteria for FNOF patients...
October 18, 2016: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765857/assessment-of-tryptophan-uptake-and-kinetics-using-1-2-18f-fluoroethyl-l-tryptophan-and-%C3%AE-11c-methyl-l-tryptophan-pet-imaging-in-mice-implanted-with-patient-derived-brain-tumor-xenografts
#14
Sharon K Michelhaugh, Otto Muzik, Anthony R Guastella, Neil V Klinger, Lisa A Polin, Hancheng Cai, Yanchun Xin, Thomas J Mangner, Shaohui Zhang, Csaba Juhasz, Sandeep Mittal
: Abnormal tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) is involved in the pathophysiology of a variety of human diseases including cancers. α-[(11)C]-methyl-L-tryptophan ((11)C-AMT) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging demonstrated increased tryptophan uptake and trapping in epileptic foci and brain tumors, but the short half-life of (11)C limits its widespread clinical application. Recent in vitro studies suggested that the novel radiotracer 1-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-L-tryptophan ((18)F-FETrp) may be useful to assess tryptophan metabolism via the KP...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757371/sunk-costs-psychological-symptomology-and-help-seeking
#15
David P Jarmolowicz, Warren K Bickel, Michael J Sofis, Laura E Hatz, E Terry Mueller
Individuals often allow prior investments of time, money or effort to influence their current behavior. A tendency to allow previous investments to impact further investment, referred to as the sunk-cost fallacy, may be related to adverse psychological health. Unfortunately, little is known about the relation between the sunk-cost fallacy and psychological symptoms or help seeking. The current study used a relatively novel approach (i.e., Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing [AMT] service) to examine various aspects of psychological health in internet users (n = 1053) that did and did not commit the sunk-cost fallacy...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746343/revealing-the-role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-modulators-sr141716a-urb597-and-vdm-11-in-sleep-homeostasis
#16
Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Sergio Machado, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, Henning Budde, Ti-Fei Yuan, Oscar Arias-Carrión
The endocannabinoid system comprises receptors (CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors), enzymes (Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase [FAAH], which synthesizes the endocannabinoid anandamide), as well as the anandamide membrane transporter (AMT). Importantly, previous experiments have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system modulates multiple neurobiological functions, including sleep. For instance, SR141716A (the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist) as well as URB597 (the FAAH inhibitor) increase waking in rats whereas VDM-11 (the blocker of the AMT) enhances sleep in rodents...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697911/testing-alcohol-myopia-theory-examining-the-effects-of-alcohol-intoxication-on-simultaneous-central-and-peripheral-attention
#17
Sarah J Bayless, Alistair J Harvey
The effect of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention was examined as a test of Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT). Previous research has supported AMT in the context of visual attention, but few studies have examined the effects of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention. The study followed a 2 (alcohol treatment) × 2 (array size) × 2 (task type) mixed design. Forty-one participants (placebo or intoxicated) viewed an array of four or six colored circles, while simultaneously counting the flashes of a centrally presented fixation cross...
October 3, 2016: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685187/expectations-for-the-methodology-and-translation-of-animal-research-a-survey-of-the-general-public-medical-students-and-animal-researchers-in-north-america
#18
Ari R Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis
To determine what are considered acceptable standards for animal research (AR) methodology and translation rate to humans, a validated survey was sent to: a) a sample of the general public, via Sampling Survey International (SSI; Canada), Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT; USA), a Canadian city festival (CF) and a Canadian children's hospital (CH); b) a sample of medical students (two first-year classes); and c) a sample of scientists (corresponding authors and academic paediatricians). There were 1379 responses from the general public sample (SSI, n = 557; AMT, n = 590; CF, n = 195; CH, n = 102), 205/330 (62%) medical student responses, and 23/323 (7%, too few to report) scientist responses...
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637266/localized-translation-regulates-cell-adhesion-and-transendothelial-migration
#19
Jonathan Bergeman, Alexia Caillier, François Houle, Laurence M Gagné, Marc-Étienne Huot
By progressing through the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer cells gain the ability to leave the primary tumor site and invade surrounding tissues. These metastatic cancers cells can further increase their plasticity by adopting an amoeboid-like morphology, by undergoing mesenchymal to amoeboid transition (MAT). We found that adhering cells producing spreading initiation centers (SIC), a transient structure localized above nascent adhesion complexes, share common biological and morphological characteristics associated with amoeboid cells...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620832/genetic-association-of-the-glycine-cleavage-system-genes-and-myelomeningocele
#20
Rita H Shah, Hope Northrup, James E Hixson, Alanna C Morrison, Kit Sing Au
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common congenital birth defects, with myelomeningocele (MM) being the most severe form compatible with life. Recent studies show a link between mitochondrial folate one carbon metabolism and NTDs by means of the glycine cleavage system (GCS). We hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms and novel variants in the coding regions of the GCS genes increase the risk for MM. METHODS: DNA was obtained from 96 subjects with MM born before the United States mandated folic acid fortification of grains in 1998...
October 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
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