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John Dabis, Aliyah Hussein, Mark Rickman
Hip fractures represent a significant burden to the NHS: the cost for all UK hip fractures is approximately £2 billion and in 2013, 64 838 people were admitted to hospital with a fractured neck of femur (FNOF). In April 2010 St George's NHS Hospital was designated one of four Major Trauma Centres (MTC) in London. Following MTC designation, in April 2014 St George's Hospital opened a helipad. This study aimed to assess the impact of the helipad designation on the Trust's ability to meet the Best Practice Tariff (BPT) criteria for FNOF patients...
October 18, 2016: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
Sharon K Michelhaugh, Otto Muzik, Anthony R Guastella, Neil V Klinger, Lisa A Polin, Hancheng Cai, Yanchun Xin, Thomas J Mangner, Shaohui Zhang, Csaba Juhasz, Sandeep Mittal
: Abnormal tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) is involved in the pathophysiology of a variety of human diseases including cancers. α-[(11)C]-methyl-L-tryptophan ((11)C-AMT) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging demonstrated increased tryptophan uptake and trapping in epileptic foci and brain tumors, but the short half-life of (11)C limits its widespread clinical application. Recent in vitro studies suggested that the novel radiotracer 1-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-L-tryptophan ((18)F-FETrp) may be useful to assess tryptophan metabolism via the KP...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
David P Jarmolowicz, Warren K Bickel, Michael J Sofis, Laura E Hatz, E Terry Mueller
Individuals often allow prior investments of time, money or effort to influence their current behavior. A tendency to allow previous investments to impact further investment, referred to as the sunk-cost fallacy, may be related to adverse psychological health. Unfortunately, little is known about the relation between the sunk-cost fallacy and psychological symptoms or help seeking. The current study used a relatively novel approach (i.e.,'s Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing [AMT] service) to examine various aspects of psychological health in internet users (n = 1053) that did and did not commit the sunk-cost fallacy...
2016: SpringerPlus
Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Sergio Machado, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, Henning Budde, Ti-Fei Yuan, Oscar Arias-Carrión
The endocannabinoid system comprises receptors (CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors), enzymes (Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase [FAAH], which synthesizes the endocannabinoid anandamide), as well as the anandamide membrane transporter (AMT). Importantly, previous experiments have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system modulates multiple neurobiological functions, including sleep. For instance, SR141716A (the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist) as well as URB597 (the FAAH inhibitor) increase waking in rats whereas VDM-11 (the blocker of the AMT) enhances sleep in rodents...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Sarah J Bayless, Alistair J Harvey
The effect of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention was examined as a test of Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT). Previous research has supported AMT in the context of visual attention, but few studies have examined the effects of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention. The study followed a 2 (alcohol treatment) × 2 (array size) × 2 (task type) mixed design. Forty-one participants (placebo or intoxicated) viewed an array of four or six colored circles, while simultaneously counting the flashes of a centrally presented fixation cross...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Ari R Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis
To determine what are considered acceptable standards for animal research (AR) methodology and translation rate to humans, a validated survey was sent to: a) a sample of the general public, via Sampling Survey International (SSI; Canada), Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT; USA), a Canadian city festival (CF) and a Canadian children's hospital (CH); b) a sample of medical students (two first-year classes); and c) a sample of scientists (corresponding authors and academic paediatricians). There were 1379 responses from the general public sample (SSI, n = 557; AMT, n = 590; CF, n = 195; CH, n = 102), 205/330 (62%) medical student responses, and 23/323 (7%, too few to report) scientist responses...
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Jonathan Bergeman, Alexia Caillier, François Houle, Laurence M Gagné, Marc-Étienne Huot
By progressing through the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer cells gain the ability to leave the primary tumor site and invade surrounding tissues. These metastatic cancers cells can further increase their plasticity by adopting an amoeboid-like morphology, by undergoing mesenchymal to amoeboid transition (MAT). We found that adhering cells producing spreading initiation centers (SIC), a transient structure localized above nascent adhesion complexes, share common biological and morphological characteristics associated with amoeboid cells...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Rita H Shah, Hope Northrup, James E Hixson, Alanna C Morrison, Kit Sing Au
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common congenital birth defects, with myelomeningocele (MM) being the most severe form compatible with life. Recent studies show a link between mitochondrial folate one carbon metabolism and NTDs by means of the glycine cleavage system (GCS). We hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms and novel variants in the coding regions of the GCS genes increase the risk for MM. METHODS: DNA was obtained from 96 subjects with MM born before the United States mandated folic acid fortification of grains in 1998...
October 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Timothy J Ganly, Karen Salmon, John McDowall
Individuals higher on avoidant coping may remember fewer specific autobiographical memories and more nonspecific memories on the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) in order to protect themselves from the painful emotions accompanying some specific memories. Habitually remembering this way (overgeneral memory) may be a risk factor for depression. In Studies 1 and 2 (nondepressed samples), avoidant coping was associated with more specific memories and fewer overgeneral memories, at odds with the functional avoidance view...
September 7, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Dongliang Wu, Natasha Navet, Yingchao Liu, Janice Uchida, Miaoying Tian
BACKGROUND: As an agriculturally important oomycete genus, Phytophthora contains a large number of destructive plant pathogens that severely threaten agricultural production and natural ecosystems. Among them is the broad host range pathogen P. palmivora, which infects many economically important plant species. An essential way to dissect their pathogenesis mechanisms is genetic modification of candidate genes, which requires effective transformation systems. Four methods were developed for transformation of Phytophthora spp...
2016: BMC Microbiology
John E Lawrence, Daniel M Fountain, Duncan J Cundall-Curry, Andrew D Carrothers
BACKGROUND: Patients sustaining a fractured neck of the femur are typically of advanced age with multiple comorbidities. As a consequence, the proportion of these patients receiving warfarin therapy is approximately 10%. There are currently few studies investigating outcomes in this subset of patients. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between warfarin therapy and time to surgery, length of hospital stay, and survival in patients sustaining a fractured neck of the femur...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Chengcheng Li, Fengming Lin, Yizhen Li, Wei Wei, Hongyin Wang, Lei Qin, Zhihua Zhou, Bingzhi Li, Fugen Wu, Zhan Chen
BACKGROUND: The conversion of cellulose by cellulase to fermentable sugars for biomass-based products such as cellulosic biofuels, biobased fine chemicals and medicines is an environment-friendly and sustainable process, making wastes profitable and bringing economic benefits. Trichoderma reesei is the well-known major workhorse for cellulase production in industry, but the low β-glucosidase activity in T. reesei cellulase leads to inefficiency in biomass degradation and limits its industrial application...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Mark Oldham, Paul Yoon, Zak Fathi, Wayne F Beyer, Justus Adamson, Leihua Liu, David Alcorta, Wenle Xia, Takuya Osada, Congxiao Liu, Xiao Y Yang, Rebecca D Dodd, James E Herndon, Boyu Meng, David G Kirsch, H Kim Lyerly, Mark W Dewhirst, Peter Fecci, Harold Walder, Neil L Spector
This work investigates X-PACT (X-ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy): a new approach for the treatment of solid cancer. X-PACT utilizes psoralen, a potent anti-cancer therapeutic with current application to proliferative disease and extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) of cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma. An immunogenic role for light-activated psoralen has been reported, contributing to long-term clinical responses. Psoralen therapies have to-date been limited to superficial or extracorporeal scenarios due to the requirement for psoralen activation by UVA light, which has limited penetration in tissue...
2016: PloS One
Makoto Kakinuma, Chika Nakamoto, Kazuki Kishi, Daniel A Coury, Hideomi Amano
Ammonium and nitrate are the primary nitrogen sources in natural environments, and are essential for growth and development in photosynthetic eukaryotes. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of an ammonium transporter gene (PyAMT1) which performs a key function in nitrogen (N) metabolism of Pyropia yezoensis thalli. The predicted length of PyAMT1 was 483 amino acids (AAs). The AA sequence included 11 putative transmembrane domains and showed approximately 33-44% identity to algal and plant AMT1 AA sequences...
August 24, 2016: Marine Environmental Research
Jarosław Pinkas, Mariusz Gujski, Ewa Humeniuk, Dorota Raczkiewicz, Przemysław Bejga, Alfred Owoc, Iwona Bojar
BACKGROUND Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at advanced age (90 and more years) in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 and over. The research instruments were: the author's questionnaire, and standardized tests: Katz index of independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) - BREF...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Heidi H Hon, Thomas R Wojda, Noran Barry, Ulunna MacBean, John P Anagnostakos, David C Evans, Peter G Thomas, Stanislaw P Stawicki
BACKGROUND: Aeromedical transport (AMT) is a reliable and well-established life-saving option for rapid patient transfers to health care delivery hubs. However, owing to the very nature of AMT, fatal and nonfatal events may occur. This study reviews aeromedical incidents reported since the publication of the last definitive review in 2003, aiming to provide additional insight into a wide range of factors potentially associated with fatal and nonfatal AMT incidents (AMTIs). We hypothesized that weather and/or visual conditions, postcrash fire, aircraft make and/or type, and time of day all correlate with the risk of AMTI with injury or fatality...
August 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Berit Jordan, Theresa Mehl, Tabea L K Schweden, Uwe Menge, Stephan Zierz
INTRODUCTION: Fatigue includes both performance fatigability and fatigue perception. METHODS: In 32 stable patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) and 17 controls time-dependent physical performance was assessed by the arm movement test (AMT) and 6 minute walk test (6MWT). MG patients presented with low quantitative MG scores (mean 0.5, SD 0.5) and without pathologic decrement. Fatigability was based on calculation of linear trend (LT) reflecting dynamic performance within subsequent constant time intervals...
August 20, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Hanaa Zbakh, Elena Talero, Javier Avila, Antonio Alcaide, Carolina de Los Reyes, Eva Zubía, Virginia Motilva
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex class of immune disorders. Unfortunately, a treatment for total remission has not yet been found, while the use of natural product-based therapies has emerged as a promising intervention. The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the algal meroterpene 11-hydroxy-1'-O-methylamentadione (AMT-E) in a murine model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. AMT-E was orally administered daily (1, 10, and 20 mg/kg animal) to DSS treated mice (3% w/v) for 7 days...
2016: Marine Drugs
Yeşim Altay, Sema Tamer, Ayşe Burcu, Özgür Balta
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the results of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in patients with bacterial and herpetic stromal keratitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review study including 42 patients with herpetic keratitis (group 1) and 42 patients with bacterial keratitis (group 2). AMT was performed in addition to antimicrobial therapy. Topical steroids were administered after surgery. The outcome parameters evaluated were epithelialization time, decrease of stromal inflammation, and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA)...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Kirsty Hendry, Terence J Quinn, Jonathan Evans, Valeria Scortichini, Hazel Miller, Jennifer Burns, AnneLouise Cunnington, David J Stott
INTRODUCTION: screening all unscheduled older adults for delirium is recommended in national guidelines, but there is no consensus on how to perform initial assessment. AIM: to evaluate the test accuracy of five brief cognitive assessment tools for delirium diagnosis in routine clinical practice. METHODS: a consecutive cohort of non-elective, elderly care (older than 65 years) hospital inpatients admitted to a geriatric medical assessment unit of an urban teaching hospital...
August 8, 2016: Age and Ageing
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