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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093306/establishing-between-session-reliability-of-tms-conditioned-soleus-h-reflexes
#1
W A Gray, M J Sabatier, T M Kesar, M R Borich
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) can be used to evaluate descending corticomotor influences on spinal reflex excitability through modulation of the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex). The purpose of this study was to characterize between-session reliability of cortical, spinal, and cortical-conditioned spinal excitability measures collected from the soleus muscle. Thirteen able-bodied young adult participants were tested over four sessions. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to quantify between-session reliability of active motor threshold (AMT), unconditioned H-reflexes (expressed as a percentage of Mmax), and conditioned H-reflexes using short-latency facilitation (SLF) and long-latency facilitation (LLF)...
January 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079581/assessing-the-impact-of-the-anesthesia-medication-template-on-medication-errors-during-anesthesia-a-prospective-study
#2
Eliot B Grigg, Lizabeth D Martin, Faith J Ross, Axel Roesler, Sally E Rampersad, Charles Haberkern, Daniel K W Low, Kristen Carlin, Lynn D Martin
BACKGROUND: Medication errors continue to be a significant source of patient harm in the operating room with few concrete countermeasures. The organization and identification of medication syringes may have an impact on the commission of medication errors in anesthesia, so a team of physicians and designers at the University of Washington created the Anesthesia Medication Template (AMT) to define a formal way of organizing the anesthesia workspace. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the AMT to reduce perioperative medication errors by anesthesia providers...
January 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049420/horizontal-gene-transfer-drives-the-evolution-of-rh50-permeases-in-prokaryotes
#3
Giorgio Matassi
BACKGROUND: Rh50 proteins belong to the family of ammonia permeases together with their Amt/MEP homologs. Ammonia permeases increase the permeability of NH3/NH4(+) across cell membranes and are believed to be involved in excretion of toxic ammonia and in the maintenance of pH homeostasis. RH50 genes are widespread in eukaryotes but absent in land plants and fungi, and remarkably rare in prokaryotes. The evolutionary history of RH50 genes in prokaryotes is just beginning to be unveiled...
January 3, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041945/knockdown-transgenic-lrrk-drosophila-resists-paraquat-induced-locomotor-impairment-and-neurodegeneration-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Diana Quintero-Espinosa, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, Carlos Velez-Pardo
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been linked to familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease. However, it is still unresolved whether LRRK2 in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons may or may not aggravate the phenotype. We demonstrate that knocking down (KD) the Lrrk gene by RNAi in DAergic neurons untreated or treated with paraquat (PQ) neither affected the number of DAergic clusters, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels, lifespan nor locomotor activity when compared to control (i.e. TH/+) flies. KD transgenic Lrrk flies dramatically increased locomotor activity in presence of TH enzyme inhibitor alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (aMT), whereas no effect on lifespan was observed in both fly lines...
December 29, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013087/psychometric-properties-of-the-written-version-of-the-autobiographical-memory-test-in-a-japanese-community-sample
#5
Keisuke Takano, Masaki Mori, Yuki Nishiguchi, Jun Moriya, Filip Raes
The autobiographical memory test (AMT) is a widely used measure to assess the specificity of autobiographical memories. Reduced Autobiographical Memory Specificity (AMS) or increased overgeneralization of memories is considered as a cognitive hallmark of depression. Therefore, reduced AMS is the subject of much psychopathological research, and is a promising target for psychological interventions. Although considerable evidence has been gathered on the clinical relevance of reduced AMS over the past decades, studies on AMS have been mainly conducted in Western populations, and few have been conducted in Asian populations...
December 16, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987557/brain-tumors-an-update-on-clinical-pet-research-in-gliomas
#6
REVIEW
Karl Herholz
A previous review published in 2012 demonstrated the role of clinical PET for diagnosis and management of brain tumors using mainly FDG, amino acid tracers, and (18)F-fluorothymidine. This review provides an update on clinical PET studies, most of which are motivated by prediction of prognosis and planning and monitoring of therapy in gliomas. For FDG, there has been additional evidence supporting late scanning, and combination with (13)N ammonia has yielded some promising results. Large neutral amino acid tracers have found widespread applications mostly based on (18)F-labeled compounds fluoroethyltyrosine and fluorodopa for targeting biopsies, therapy planning and monitoring, and as outcome markers in clinical trials...
January 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974304/improving-hip-fracture-outcomes-with-integrated-orthogeriatric-care-a-comparison-between-two-accepted-orthogeriatric-models
#7
Mark Middleton, Bettina Wan, Ruy da Assunçāo
BACKGROUND: our orthopaedic trauma unit serves a large elderly population, admitting 400-500 hip fractures annually. A higher than expected mortality was detected amongst these patients, prompting a change in the hip fracture pathway. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a change in orthogeriatric provision on hip fracture outcomes and care quality indicators. PATIENTS AND METHODS: the hip fracture pathway was changed from a geriatric consultation service to a completely integrated service on a dedicated orthogeriatric ward...
December 14, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965885/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-music-therapy-in-improving-the-quality-of-life-of-palliative-care-patients-a-randomised-controlled-pilot-and-feasibility-study
#8
Tracey McConnell, Lisa Graham-Wisener, Joan Regan, Miriam McKeown, Jenny Kirkwood, Naomi Hughes, Mike Clarke, Janet Leitch, Kerry McGrillen, Sam Porter
BACKGROUND: Music therapy is frequently used as a palliative therapy. In consonance with the goals of palliative care, the primary aim of music therapy is to improve people's quality of life by addressing their psychological needs and facilitating communication. To date, primarily because of a paucity of robust research, the evidence for music therapy's effectiveness on patient reported outcomes is positive but weak. This pilot and feasibility study will test procedures, outcomes and validated tools; estimate recruitment and attrition rates; and calculate the sample size required for a phase III randomised trial to evaluate the effectiveness of music therapy in improving the quality of life of palliative care patients...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958481/improved-identification-of-the-solution-space-of-aerosol-microphysical-properties-derived-from-the-inversion-of-profiles-of-lidar-optical-data-part-2-simulations-with-synthetic-optical-data
#9
Alexei Kolgotin, Detlef Müller, Eduard Chemyakin, Anton Romanov
We developed a mathematical scheme that allows us to improve retrieval products obtained from the inversion of multiwavelength Raman/HSRL lidar data, commonly dubbed "3 backscatter+2 extinction" (3β+2α) lidar. This scheme works independently of the automated inversion method that is currently being developed in the framework of the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission and which is successfully applied since 2012 [Atmos. Meas. Tech.7, 3487 (2014)10.5194/amt-7-3487-2014; "Comparison of aerosol optical and microphysical retrievals from HSRL-2 and in-situ measurements during DISCOVER-AQ 2013 (California and Texas)," in International Laser Radar Conference, July 2015, paper PS-C1-14] to data collected with the first airborne multiwavelength 3β+2α high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) developed at NASA Langley Research Center...
December 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941648/anaphase-b
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan M Scholey, Gul Civelekoglu-Scholey, Ingrid Brust-Mascher
Anaphase B spindle elongation is characterized by the sliding apart of overlapping antiparallel interpolar (ip) microtubules (MTs) as the two opposite spindle poles separate, pulling along disjoined sister chromatids, thereby contributing to chromosome segregation and the propagation of all cellular life. The major biochemical "modules" that cooperate to mediate pole-pole separation include: (i) midzone pushing or (ii) braking by MT crosslinkers, such as kinesin-5 motors, which facilitate or restrict the outward sliding of antiparallel interpolar MTs (ipMTs); (iii) cortical pulling by disassembling astral MTs (aMTs) and/or dynein motors that pull aMTs outwards; (iv) ipMT plus end dynamics, notably net polymerization; and (v) ipMT minus end depolymerization manifest as poleward flux...
December 8, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936154/retinal-morphology-and-sensitivity-are-primarily-impaired-in-eyes-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd
#11
Ryutaro Akiba, Hirotaka Yokouchi, Masahiro Mori, Toshiyuki Oshitari, Takayuki Baba, Setsu Sawai, Satoshi Kuwabara, Shuichi Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed that the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in eyes without a history of optic neuritis (ON) was thinner than that of healthy controls. It remains unclear whether the ONL thinning is caused by a direct attack on the retina by an autoantibody or a retrograde degeneration. OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanisms involved in the retinal damage in eyes with NMOSD without ON...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933932/mechanism-of-the-pseudoirreversible-binding-of-amantadine-to-the-m2-proton-channel
#12
Salomé Llabrés, Jordi Juárez-Jiménez, Matteo Masetti, Rosana Leiva, Santiago Vázquez, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Anna Moroni, Andrea Cavalli, F Javier Luque
The M2 proton channel of influenza A virus is an integral membrane protein involved in the acidification of the viral interior, a step necessary for the release of the viral genetic material and replication of new virions. The aim of this study is to explore the mechanism of drug (un)binding to the M2 channel in order to gain insight into the structural and energetic features relevant for the development of novel inhibitors. To this end, we have investigated the binding of amantadine (Amt) to the wild type (wt) M2 channel and its V27A variant using multiple independent molecular dynamics simulations, exploratory conventional metadynamics, and multiple-walkers well-tempered metadynamics calculations...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889499/the-osamt1-1-gene-functions-in-ammonium-uptake-and-ammonium-potassium-homeostasis-over-low-and-high-ammonium-concentration-ranges
#13
Chang Li, Zhong Tang, Jia Wei, Hongye Qu, Yanjie Xie, Guohua Xu
Rice (Oryza sativa) grown in paddy fields is an ammonium (NH4(+))-preferring crop; however, its AMT-type NH4(+) transporters that mediate root N acquisition have not been well characterized yet. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern and physiological function of the OsAMT1.1 gene of the AMT1 subfamily in rice. OsAMT1.1 is located in the plasma membrane and is mainly expressed in the root epidermis, stele and mesophyll cells. Disruption of the OsAMT1.1 gene decreased the uptake of NH4(+), and the growth of roots and shoots under both low NH4(+) and high NH4(+) conditions...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885162/contralesional-corticomotor-neurophysiology-in-hemiparetic-children-with-perinatal-stroke-developmental-plasticity-and-clinical-function
#14
Ephrem Zewdie, Omar Damji, Patrick Ciechanski, Trevor Seeger, Adam Kirton
Background Perinatal stroke causes most hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Ipsilateral connections from nonlesioned hemisphere to affected hand are common. The nonlesioned primary motor cortex (M1) determines function and is a potential therapeutic target but its neurophysiology is poorly understood. Objective We aimed to characterize the neurophysiological properties of the nonlesioned M1 in children with perinatal stroke and their relationship to clinical function. Methods Fifty-two participants with hemiparetic cerebral palsy and magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed perinatal stroke and 40 controls aged 8 to 18 years completed the same transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol...
November 23, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880886/hippocampal-and-diencephalic-pathology-in-developmental-amnesia
#15
Anna M Dzieciol, Jocelyne Bachevalier, Kadharbatcha S Saleem, David G Gadian, Richard Saunders, W K Kling Chong, Tina Banks, Mortimer Mishkin, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem
Developmental amnesia (DA) is a selective episodic memory disorder associated with hypoxia-induced bilateral hippocampal atrophy of early onset. Despite the systemic impact of hypoxia-ischaemia, the resulting brain damage was previously reported to be largely limited to the hippocampus. However, the thalamus and the mammillary bodies are parts of the hippocampal-diencephalic network and are therefore also at risk of injury following hypoxic-ischaemic events. Here, we report a neuroimaging investigation of diencephalic damage in a group of 18 patients with DA (age range 11-35 years), and an equal number of controls...
September 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878810/improvement-of-phytoplankton-culture-isolation-using-single-cell-sorting-by-flow-cytometry
#16
Dominique Marie, Florence Le Gall, Roseline Edern, Priscillia Gourvil, Daniel Vaulot
Flow cytometry provides a tool to physically sort single algal cells in order to obtain clonal cultures. During sorting, cells are submitted to physical stress factors such as high fluidic pressure, exposure to the laser beam, electrostatic charges, deflection through high voltage fields and collisions with container surfaces. All of these can damage the cells of interest and success rates for initiation of cultures from flow-sorted cells are generally very low. We found that the addition of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in the culture medium into which cells are sorted drastically improved the success of initiation of pico- and nano-eukaryotic phytoplankton strains...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863163/surgical-therapy-vs-continued-medical-therapy-for-medically-refractory-chronic-rhinosinusitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Zara M Patel, Andrew Thamboo, Luke Rudmik, Jayakar V Nayak, Timothy L Smith, Peter H Hwang
BACKGROUND: The currently accepted treatment paradigm of treating chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) first with appropriate medical therapy (AMT) and then with surgery if patients are refractory to AMT, has been criticized for lack of evidence. The objective of this study was to reassess the literature and establish the highest level of evidence possible regarding further management of CRS patients refractory to AMT. METHODS: This study was a systematic review (SR) with meta-analysis (MA)...
November 11, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852754/ammonia-excretion-in-the-marine-polychaete-eurythoe-complanata-annelida
#18
Daniel Thiel, Maja Hugenschütt, Heiko Meyer, Achim Paululat, Alex R Quijada-Rodriguez, Günter Purschke, Dirk Weihrauch
Ammonia is a toxic waste product from protein metabolism and needs to be either converted into less toxic molecules or, in the case of fish and aquatic invertebrates, excreted directly as is. In contrast to fish, very little is known regarding the ammonia excretion mechanism and the participating excretory organs in marine invertebrates. In the current study ammonia excretion in the marine burrowing polychaete Eurythoe complanata was investigated. As a potential site for excretion the 100-200 micrometer long, 30-50 micrometer wide and up to 25 micrometer thick dentrically branched, well ventilated and vascularized branchiae (gills) were identified...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847987/the-side-of-chronic-low-back-pain-matters-evidence-from-the-primary-motor-cortex-excitability-and-the-postural-adjustments-of-multifidi-muscles
#19
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Louis-David Beaulieu, Richard Preuss, Cyril Schneider
Hemispheric lateralization of pain processing was reported with overactivation of the right frontal lobe. Specifically in chronic low back pain (CLBP), functional changes in the left primary motor cortex (M1) with impaired anticipatory postural activation (APA) of trunk muscles have been observed. Given the connections between frontal and M1 areas for motor planning, it is hypothesized that the pain side could differently influence M1 function and APA of paravertebral multifidus (MF) muscles. This study aimed at testing whether people with right- versus left-sided CLBP showed different M1 excitability and APA...
November 15, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830086/active-pedicle-epithelial-flap-transposition-combined-with-amniotic-membrane-transplantation-for-treatment-of-nonhealing-corneal-ulcers
#20
Ting Zhang, Yuexin Wang, Yanni Jia, Dongle Liu, Suxia Li, Weiyun Shi, Hua Gao
Introduction. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of active pedicle epithelial flap transposition combined with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in treating nonhealing corneal ulcers. Material and Methods. Eleven patients (11 eyes) with nonhealing corneal ulcer who underwent the combined surgery were included. Postoperatively, ulcer healing time was detected by corneal fluorescein staining. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, surgical complications, and recurrence were recorded. Corneal status was inspected by the laser scanning confocal microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
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