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Skeletal muscle hypertrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906050/the-sh3-and-cysteine-rich-domain-3-stac3-gene-is-important-to-growth-fiber-composition-and-calcium-release-from-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-in-postnatal-skeletal-muscle
#1
Xiaofei Cong, Jonathan Doering, Davi A G Mazala, Eva R Chin, Robert W Grange, Honglin Jiang
BACKGROUND: The SH3 and cysteine-rich domain 3 (Stac3) gene is specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle. Stac3 knockout mice die perinatally. In this study, we determined the potential role of Stac3 in postnatal skeletal muscle growth, fiber composition, and contraction by generating conditional Stac3 knockout mice. METHODS: We disrupted the Stac3 gene in 4-week-old male mice using the Flp-FRT and tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP systems. RESULTS: RT-qPCR and western blotting analyses of the limb muscles of target mice indicated that nearly all Stac3 mRNA and more than 70 % of STAC3 protein were deleted 4 weeks after tamoxifen injection...
April 11, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899900/fiber-type-specific-satellite-cell-content-in-cyclists-following-heavy-training-with-carbohydrate-and-carbohydrate-protein-supplementation
#2
Alec I McKenzie, Andrew C D'Lugos, Michael J Saunders, Keith D Gworek, Nicholas D Luden
The central purpose of this study was to evaluate the fiber type-specific satellite cell and myonuclear responses of endurance-trained cyclists to a block of intensified training, when supplementing with carbohydrate (CHO) vs. carbohydrate-protein (PRO). In a crossover design, endurance-trained cyclists (n = 8) performed two consecutive training periods, once supplementing with CHO (de facto "control" condition) and the other with PRO. Each training period consisted of 10 days of intensified cycle training (ICT-120% increase in average training duration) followed by 10 days of recovery (RVT-reduced volume training; 33% volume reduction vs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890878/prevalence-of-electrocardiographic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis
#3
Jun Tsugawa, Masahiro Ogawa, Shinji Ouma, Jiro Fukae, Yoshio Tsuboi
OBJECTIVE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an immunological disorder of the neuromuscular junction, characterized by easy fatigability and weakness of the skeletal muscles. However, it has sometimes been reported that heart diseases including cardiomyopathies leading to sudden death have been observed in patients with MG. We studied the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities and heart disease in patients newly diagnosed with MG who had not received immunotherapy. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with MG were enrolled in our study...
November 25, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880908/conditional-loss-of-pten-in-myogenic-progenitors-leads-to-postnatal-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-but-age-dependent-exhaustion-of-satellite-cells
#4
Feng Yue, Pengpeng Bi, Chao Wang, Jie Li, Xiaoqi Liu, Shihuan Kuang
Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells [SCs]) are normally maintained in a quiescent (G0) state. Muscle injury not only activates SCs locally, but also alerts SCs in distant uninjured muscles via circulating factors. The resulting GAlert SCs are adapted to regenerative cues and regenerate injured muscles more efficiently, but whether they provide any long-term benefits to SCs is unknown. Here, we report that embryonic myogenic progenitors lacking the phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) exhibit enhanced proliferation and differentiation, resulting in muscle hypertrophy but fewer SCs in adult muscles...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874066/cl316-243-a-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-induces-muscle-hypertrophy-and-increased-strength
#5
Daniela Puzzo, Roberto Raiteri, Clotilde Castaldo, Raffaele Capasso, Ester Pagano, Mariateresa Tedesco, Walter Gulisano, Lisaveta Drozd, Pellegrino Lippiello, Agostino Palmeri, Pietro Scotto, Maria Concetta Miniaci
Studies in vitro have demonstrated that β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs) regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle by promoting protein synthesis and inhibiting protein degradation. In this study, we evaluated whether activation of β3-ARs by the selective agonist CL316,243 modifies the functional and structural properties of skeletal muscles of healthy mice. Daily injections of CL316,243 for 15 days resulted in a significant improvement in muscle force production, assessed by grip strength and weight tests, and an increased myofiber cross-sectional area, indicative of muscle hypertrophy...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865617/panaxatriol-derived-from-ginseng-augments-resistance-exercised-induced-protein-synthesis-via-mtorc1-signaling-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#6
Yusuke Takamura, Yuhei Makanae, Satoru Ato, Naomi Yoshii, Kohei Kido, Mitsuru Nomura, Akira Uchiyama, Naruhiro Shiozawa, Satoshi Fujita
Resistance exercise activates muscle protein synthesis via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway and subsequent muscle hypertrophy. Upstream components of the mTORC1 pathway are widely known to be involved in Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Previous studies have shown that ginseng stimulated Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that panaxatriol (PT) derived from ginseng triggers mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis by activating both the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, and that PT additively stimulates muscle protein synthesis when combined with resistance exercise...
September 13, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832493/control-of-skeletal-muscle-cell-growth-and-size-through-adhesion-gpcrs
#7
James P White
Skeletal muscle homeostasis is regulated by a constant influx of chemicals and exposure to mechanical stimuli. A number of key signaling pathways that translate these stimuli into changes in muscle physiology have been established. The GPCR family known as adhesion GPCRs (aGPCRs) has largely elusive roles in skeletal muscle biology; however, their unique capacity to activate adhesion and G protein signaling pathways makes them an attractive point of investigation. The skeletal muscle myofiber contains a highly organized cytoarchitecture to ensure contractile function...
2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832095/increased-muscular-5%C3%AE-dihydrotestosterone-in-response-to-resistance-training-relates-to-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-glucose-metabolism-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#8
Naoki Horii, Koji Sato, Noboru Mesaki, Motoyuki Iemitsu
Regular resistance exercise induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a sex steroid hormone precursor, increases 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) synthesis and is associated with improvements in fasting blood glucose level and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether increase in muscle DHT levels, induced by chronic resistance exercise, can contribute to skeletal muscle hypertrophy and concomitant improvement of muscular glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824934/controlled-heat-stress-promotes-myofibrillogenesis-during-myogenesis
#9
Qiongyu Guo, Devin Miller, Hongying An, Howard Wang, Joseph Lopez, Denver Lough, Ling He, Anand Kumar
Hyperthermia therapy has recently emerged as a clinical modality used to finely tune heat stress inside the human body for various biomedical applications. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the optimal timing or temperature of heat stress that is needed to achieve favorable results following hyperthermia therapy for muscle regeneration purposes. The regeneration of skeletal muscle after injury is a highly complex and coordinated process that involves a multitude of cellular mechanisms. The main objective of this study was to characterize the effects of hyperthermal therapy on the overall behavior of myoblasts during myogenic differentiation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813490/insights-into-the-role-and-regulation-of-tctp-in-skeletal-muscle
#10
Craig A Goodman, Allison M Coenen, John W Frey, Jae-Sung You, Robert G Barker, Barnaby P Frankish, Robyn M Murphy, Troy A Hornberger
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is upregulated in a range of cancer cell types, in part, by the activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Recently, TCTP has also been proposed to act as an indirect activator of mTOR. While it is known that mTOR plays a major role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass, very little is known about the role and regulation of TCTP in this post-mitotic tissue. This study shows that muscle TCTP and mTOR signaling are upregulated in a range of mouse models (mdx mouse, mechanical load-induced hypertrophy, and denervation- and immobilization-induced atrophy)...
November 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787698/the-transgenic-expression-of-human-follistatin-344-increases-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-pigs
#11
Fei Chang, Rui Fang, Meng Wang, Xin Zhao, Wen Chang, Zaihu Zhang, Ning Li, Qingyong Meng
Follistatin (FST), which was first found in the follicles of cattle and pigs, has been shown to be an essential regulator for muscle development. Mice that were genetically engineered to overexpress Fst specifically in muscle had at least twice the amount of skeletal muscle mass as controls; these findings are similar to earlier results obtained in myostatin-knockout mice. However, the role of follistatin in skeletal muscle development has yet to be clarified in livestock. Here, we describe transgenic Duroc pigs that exogenously express Fst specifically in muscle tissue...
October 27, 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780819/light-load-resistance-exercise-increases-muscle-protein-synthesis-and-hypertrophy-signaling-in-elderly-men
#12
Jakob Agergaard, Jacob Bulow, Jacob K Jensen, Søren Reitelseder, Micah J Drummond, Peter Schjerling, Thomas Scheike, Anja Serena, Lars Holm
INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated whether well-tolerated light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects skeletal muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and anabolic intracellular signaling as a way to counteract age-related loss of muscle mass. METHODS: Untrained healthy men (age: +65 yrs) were subjected to 13 hours supine rest. After 21/2 hours of rest, unilateral LL-RE was conducted consisting of leg extensions (10 sets, 36 repetitions) at 16% 1RM. Subsequently, the subjects were randomized to oral intake of PULSE (4g whey protein/hour; N=10), BOLUS (28g whey protein at 0 hours and 12g whey protein at 7 hours post-exercise; N=10) or placebo (4g maltodextrin/hour; N=10)...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749731/effects-of-traditional-and-pyramidal-resistance-training-systems-on-muscular-strength-muscle-mass-and-hormonal-responses-in-older-women-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#13
Alex S Ribeiro, Brad J Schoenfeld, Steven J Fleck, Fábio L C Pina, Matheus A Nascimento, Edilson S Cyrino
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) performed in a pyramid (PR) versus a traditional (TD) system on muscular strength, muscle mass, and hormonal responses in older women. Twenty-five older women (67.6 ± 5.1 years, 65.9 ± 11.1 kg, 154.7 ± 5.8 cm, and 27.5 ± 4.5 kg m) performed both a TD and PR system RT program in a balanced crossover design. The TD program consisted of 3 sets of 8-12 RM with a constant load for the 3 sets, whereas the PR system consisted of 3 sets of 12/10/8 RM with incrementally higher loads for each set...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748060/developmental-regulation-of-rna-processing-by-rbfox-proteins
#14
John G Conboy
The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing...
October 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742803/skeletal-muscle-and-resistance-exercise-training-the-role-of-protein-synthesis-in-recovery-and-remodelling
#15
Chris McGlory, Michaela C Devries, Stuart M Phillips
Exercise results in the rapid remodelling of skeletal muscle imparting a positive impact on human health. This process is underpinned by acute and chronic changes in both gene and protein synthesis. In this short review we provide a brief summary of our current understanding regarding how exercise influences these processes as well as the subsequent impact on muscle protein turnover and resultant shift in muscle phenotype. We explore concepts of ribosomal biogenesis and the potential role of increased translational capacity versus translational efficiency in contributing to muscular hypertrophy...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736981/impact-of-tieg1-deletion-on-the-passive-mechanical-properties-of-fast-and-slow-twitch-skeletal-muscles-in-female-mice
#16
Malek Kammoun, Philippe Pouletaut, Francis Canon, Malayannan Subramaniam, John R Hawse, Muriel Vayssade, Sabine F Bensamoun
As transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inducible early gene-1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, the effect of TIEG1 gene deletion on the passive mechanical properties of slow and fast twitch muscle fibers was analyzed. Twenty five muscle fibers were harvested from soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from TIEG1-/- (N = 5) and control (N = 5) mice. Mechanical tests were performed on fibers and the dynamic and static stresses were measured. A viscoelastic Hill model of 3rd order was used to fit the experimental relaxation test data...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707707/insulin-resistance-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Belinda Spoto, Anna Pisano, Carmine Zoccali
Insulin resistance (IR) is an early metabolic alteration in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, being apparent when the glomerular filtration rate is still within the normal range and becoming almost universal in those who reach the end stage of kidney failure. The skeletal muscle represents the primary site of IR in CKD, and alterations at sites beyond the insulin receptor are recognized as the main defect underlying IR in this condition. Estimates of IR based on fasting insulin concentration are easier and faster but may not be adequate in patients with CKD because renal insufficiency reduces insulin catabolism...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705797/s6k1-is-required-for-increasing-skeletal-muscle-force-during-hypertrophy
#18
Manuela Marabita, Martina Baraldo, Francesca Solagna, Judith Johanna Maria Ceelen, Roberta Sartori, Hendrik Nolte, Ivan Nemazanyy, Stéphane Pyronnet, Marcus Kruger, Mario Pende, Bert Blaauw
Loss of skeletal muscle mass and force aggravates age-related sarcopenia and numerous pathologies, such as cancer and diabetes. The AKT-mTORC1 pathway plays a major role in stimulating adult muscle growth; however, the functional role of its downstream mediators in vivo is unknown. Here, we show that simultaneous inhibition of mTOR signaling to both S6K1 and 4E-BP1 is sufficient to reduce AKT-induced muscle growth and render it insensitive to the mTORC1-inhibitor rapamycin. Surprisingly, lack of mTOR signaling to 4E-BP1 only, or deletion of S6K1 alone, is not sufficient to reduce muscle hypertrophy or alter its sensitivity to rapamycin...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702700/sarcopenic-obesity-or-obese-sarcopenia-a-cross-talk-between-age-associated-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-as-a-main-mechanism-of-the-pathogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Alexander Kalinkovich, Gregory Livshits
Sarcopenia, an age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass coupled with functional deterioration, may be exacerbated by obesity leading to higher disability, frailty, morbidity and mortality rates. In the combination of sarcopenia and obesity, the state called sarcopenic obesity (SOB), some key age- and obesity-mediated factors and pathways may aggravate sarcopenia. This review will analyze the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of SOB. In obese adipose tissue (AT), adipocytes undergo hypertrophy, hyperplasia and activation resulted in accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages and other immune cells as well as dysregulated production of various adipokines that together with senescent cells and the immune cell-released cytokines and chemokines create a local pro-inflammatory status...
October 1, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694473/simvastatin-prevents-and-reverses-chronic-pulmonary-hypertension-in-newborn-rats-via-pleiotropic-inhibition-of-rhoa-signaling
#20
Mathew J Wong, Crystal Kantores, Julijana Ivanovska, Amish Jain, Robert P Jankov
Chronic neonatal pulmonary hypertension (PHT) frequently results in early death. Systemically administered Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors prevent and reverse chronic PHT in neonatal rats, but at the cost of severe adverse effects, including systemic hypotension and growth restriction. Simvastatin has pleiotropic inhibitory effects on isoprenoid intermediates that may limit activity of RhoA, which signals upstream of ROCK. We therefore hypothesized that statin treatment would safely limit pulmonary vascular RhoA activity and prevent and reverse experimental chronic neonatal PHT via downstream inhibitory effects on pathological ROCK activity...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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