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Skeletal muscle hypertrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209382/err%C3%AE-a-junior-orphan-with-a-senior-role-in-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Jagannath Misra, Don-Kyu Kim, Hueng-Sik Choi
Estrogen-related receptor (ERR)γ is an orphan nuclear hormone receptor that belongs to the ERR subfamily of transcription factors. No endogenous ligand has been identified to date. ERRγ possesses ligand-independent transcriptional activity that is regulated by co-regulator interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs). Recent data from animal models have established ERRγ as a crucial mediator of multiple endocrine and metabolic signals. ERRγ plays important roles in pathological conditions such as insulin resistance, alcoholic liver injury, and cardiac hypertrophy, and controls energy metabolism in the heart, skeletal muscle, and pancreatic β cells...
February 13, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209124/rna-seq-and-metabolomic-analyses-of-akt1-mediated-muscle-growth-reveals-regulation-of-regenerative-pathways-and-changes-in-the-muscle-secretome
#2
Chia-Ling Wu, Yoshinori Satomi, Kenneth Walsh
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a major regulator of systemic metabolism as it serves as the major site for glucose disposal and the main reservoir for amino acids. With aging, cachexia, starvation, and myositis, there is a preferential loss of fast glycolytic muscle fibers. We previously reported a mouse model in which a constitutively-active Akt transgene is induced to express in a subset of muscle groups leading to the hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers with an accompanying increase in strength...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186492/requirement-of-myomaker-mediated-stem-cell-fusion-for-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#3
Qingnian Goh, Douglas P Millay
Fusion of skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cells is required for proper development and regeneration, however the significance of this process during adult muscle hypertrophy has not been explored. In response to muscle overload after synergist ablation in mice, we show that myomaker, a muscle specific membrane protein essential for myoblast fusion, is activated mainly in muscle progenitors and not myofibers. We rendered muscle progenitors fusion-incompetent through genetic deletion of myomaker in muscle stem cells and observed a complete reduction of overload-induced hypertrophy...
February 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184235/phosphatidic-acid-biosynthesis-pharmacokinetics-mechanisms-of-action-and-effect-on-strength-and-body-composition-in-resistance-trained-individuals
#4
REVIEW
Peter Bond
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has received much attention in the field of exercise physiology as a master regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The multiprotein complex is regulated by various signals such as growth factors, energy status, amino acids and mechanical stimuli. Importantly, the glycerophospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA) appears to play an important role in mTORC1 activation by mechanical stimulation. PA has been shown to modulate mTOR activity by direct binding to its FKBP12-rapamycin binding domain...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177712/investigating-human-skeletal-muscle-physiology-with-unilateral-exercise-models-when-one-limb-is-more-powerful-than-two
#5
Martin J MacInnis, Chris McGlory, Martin J Gibala, Stuart M Phillips
Direct sampling of human skeletal muscle using the needle biopsy technique can facilitate insight into the biochemical and histological responses resulting from changes in exercise or feeding. However, the muscle biopsy procedure is invasive, and analyses are often expensive, which places pragmatic restraints on sample sizes. The unilateral exercise model can serve to increase statistical power and reduce the time and cost of a study. With this approach, two limbs of a participant are randomized to one of two treatments that can be applied almost concurrently or sequentially depending on the nature of the intervention...
January 24, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177708/the-effect-of-caffeine-on-skeletal-muscle-anabolic-signaling-and-hypertrophy
#6
Timothy M Moore, Xavier M Mortensen, Conrad K Ashby, Alexander M Harris, Karson J Kump, David W Laird, Aaron J Adams, Jeremy K Bray, Ting Chen, David M Thomson
Caffeine is a widely-consumed stimulant with the potential to enhance physical performance through multiple mechanisms. However, recent in vitro findings have suggested that caffeine may block skeletal muscle anabolic signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. This could negatively affect protein synthesis and the capacity for muscle growth. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on in vivo AMPK and mTOR pathway signaling, protein synthesis and muscle growth...
January 26, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176368/pharmacological-inhibition-of-myostatin-protects-against-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-and-weakness-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-tear
#7
Caroline N W Wurtzel, Jonathan P Gumucio, Jeremy A Grekin, Roger K Khouri, Carol S Davis, Alan J Russell, Asheesh Bedi, Christopher L Mendias
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are among the most frequent knee injuries in sports medicine, with tear rates in the US up to 250,000 per year. Many patients who suffer from ACL tears have persistent atrophy and weakness even after considerable rehabilitation. Myostatin is a cytokine that directly induces muscle atrophy, and previous studies rodent models and patients have demonstrated an upregulation of myostatin after ACL tear. Using a preclinical rat model, our objective was to determine if the use of a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin could prevent muscle atrophy and weakness after ACL tear...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170191/metabolomic-profiling-of-pompe-disease-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-reveals-that-oxidative-stress-is-associated-with-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-pathology
#8
Yohei Sato, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Takashi Higuchi, Yohta Shimada, Hiroyuki Ida, Toya Ohashi
Pompe disease (PD) is a lysosomal storage disease that is caused by a deficiency of the acid α-glucosidase, which results in glycogen accumulation in the lysosome. The major clinical symptoms of PD include skeletal muscle weakness, respiratory failure, and cardiac hypertrophy. Based on its severity and symptom onset, PD is classified into infantile and late-onset forms. Lysosomal accumulation of glycogen can promote many types of cellular dysfunction, such as autophagic dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and abnormal calcium signaling within skeletal muscle...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155605/met-activating-genetically-improved-chimeric-factor-1-promotes-angiogenesis-and-hypertrophy-in-adult-myogenesis
#9
Flavio Ronzoni, Gabriele Ceccarelli, Ilaria Perini, Laura Benedetti, Daniela Galli, Francesca Mulas, Martina Balli, Giovanni Magenes, Riccardo Bellazzi, Gabriella Cusella De Angelis, Maurilio Sampaolesi
BACKGROUND: Myogenic progenitor cells (activated satellite cells) are able to express both HGF and its receptor cMet. After muscle injury, HGF-Met stimulation promotes activation and primary division of satellite cells. MAGIC-F1 (Met-Activating Genetically Improved Chimeric Factor-1) is an engineered protein that contains two human Met-binding domains that promotes muscle hypertrophy. MAGIC-F1 protects myogenic precursors against apoptosis and increases their fusion ability enhancing muscle differentiation...
February 1, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147449/exercise-effects-on-perivascular-adipose-tissue-endocrine-and-paracrine-determinants-of-vascular-function
#10
REVIEW
B C S Boa, J S Yudkin, V W M van Hinsbergh, E Bouskela, E C Eringa
Obesity is a global epidemic, accompanied by increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue hypertrophy is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, which alters secretion of adipose tissue-derived bioactive products, known as adipokines. Adipokines determine vessel wall properties such as smooth muscle tone and vessel wall inflammation. Exercise is a mainstay of prevention of chronic, non-communicable diseases, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in particular. Aside from reducing adipose tissue mass, exercise has been shown to reduce inflammatory activity in this tissue...
February 1, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135006/contribution-of-maladaptive-adipose-tissue-expansion-to-development-of-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Guanghong Jia, Yan Jia, James R Sowers
The overweight and obesity epidemic has led to an increase in the metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). These abnormalities include insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, vascular stiffness, hypertension, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Visceral white adipocyte tissue (WAT) expansion and associated fibrosis/stiffness of WAT promote insulin resistance and CVD through increases in proinflammatory adipokines, oxidative stress, activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, dysregulation of adipocyte apoptosis and autophagy, dysfunctional immune modulation, and adverse changes in the gut microbiome...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129234/inflammation-relates-to-resistance-training-induced-hypertrophy-in-elderly-patients
#12
Kristoffer Larsen Norheim, Christopher Kjaer Cullum, Jesper Loevind Andersen, Michael Kjaer, Anders Karlsen
PURPOSE: Aging is associated with a gradual loss of muscle mass, which some have suggested to be accelerated by short periods of muscle disuse due to medical illness. We investigated the effect of hospitalization on skeletal muscle mass in acutely ill geriatric patients with focus on the relationship between systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and changes in muscle mass, as well as the influence of resistance training upon muscle mass. METHOD: Unilateral leg press resistance exercise was conducted daily during the hospital period...
January 26, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118310/ratings-of-perceived-exertion-during-acute-resistance-exercise-performed-at-imposed-and-self-selected-loads-in-recreationally-trained-women
#13
Joshua A Cotter, Matthew J Garver, Taylor K Dinyer, Ciaran M Fairman, Brian C Focht
Resistance exercise (RE) is commonly employed to elicit skeletal muscle adaptation. Relative intensity of a training load links closely with the outcomes of regular RE. This study examined the RPE responses to acute bouts of RE using imposed (40% and 70% of 1RM) and self-selected loads (SS) in recreationally trained women. Twenty physically active women (23.15 ±2.92 yrs.) who reported regular RE training of at least three weekly sessions for the past year, volunteered to participate. During the initial visit, participants completed one repetition maximum (1RM) testing on four exercises in the following order: leg extension, chest press, leg curl, and lat pull-down...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117338/beta-agonist-stimulation-ameliorates-the-phenotype-of-spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy-mice-and-patient-derived-myotubes
#14
Carmelo Milioto, Adriana Malena, Eleonora Maino, Maria J Polanco, Caterina Marchioretti, Doriana Borgia, Marcelo Gomes Pereira, Bert Blaauw, Andrew P Lieberman, Roberta Venturini, Mario Plebani, Fabio Sambataro, Lodovica Vergani, Elena Pegoraro, Gianni Sorarù, Maria Pennuto
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by the loss of lower motor neurons. SBMA is caused by expansions of a polyglutamine tract in the gene coding for androgen receptor (AR). Expression of polyglutamine-expanded AR causes damage to motor neurons and skeletal muscle cells. Here we investigated the effect of β-agonist stimulation in SBMA myotube cells derived from mice and patients, and in knock-in mice. We show that treatment of myotubes expressing polyglutamine-expanded AR with the β-agonist clenbuterol increases their size...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109285/korean-mistletoe-viscum-album-coloratum-extract-regulates-gene-expression-related-to-muscle-atrophy-and-muscle-hypertrophy
#15
Juseong Jeong, Choon-Ho Park, Inbo Kim, Young-Ho Kim, Jae-Min Yoon, Kwang-Soo Kim, Jong-Bae Kim
BACKGROUND: Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) is a semi-parasitic plant that grows on various trees and has a diverse range of effects on biological functions, being implicated in having anti-tumor, immunostimulatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity properties. Recently, we also reported that Korean mistletoe extract (KME) improves endurance exercise in mice, suggesting its beneficial roles in enhancing the capacity of skeletal muscle. METHODS: We examined the expression pattern of several genes concerned with muscle physiology in C2C12 myotubes cells to identify whether KME inhibits muscle atrophy or promotes muscle hypertrophy...
January 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101875/sustanon-induces-dose-independent-hypertrophy-and-satellite-cell-proliferation-in-slow-oxidative-fibers-of-avian-skeletal-muscle
#16
Mohammed Z Allouh, Ahmad A Jarrar, Hasan A Asfour, Raed S Said, Emad I Shaqoura
Sustanon is a well-known anabolic drug that is used to treat hypogonadism and restore muscle mass and bone density. As research to date has been limited to its effects in glycolytic fibers, this study aimed to investigate the dose-related effects of Sustanon on the oxidative fibers of avian skeletal muscle. Adult female chickens were randomly divided into 4 groups: control (C), received a dose of 100 μl normal saline per injection; and Sustanon-1, -2, and -3 (S1, S2, and S3), that received a dose of 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg Sustanon per injection, respectively...
January 19, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054981/the-root-extract-of-pueraria-lobata-and-its-main-compound-puerarin-prevent-obesity-by-increasing-the-energy-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle
#17
Hyo Won Jung, An Na Kang, Seok Yong Kang, Yong-Ki Park, Mi Young Song
Radix Pueraria lobata (RP) has been reported to prevent obesity and improve glucose metabolism; however, the mechanism responsible for these effects has not been elucidated. The mechanism underlying anti-obesity effect of RP was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12). Five-week-old C5BL/6 mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing RP (100 or 300 mg/kg) or metformin (250 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. RP reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in liver, and adipocyte and blood lipid levels...
January 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052593/panoramic-ultrasound-a-novel-and-valid-tool-for-monitoring-change-in-muscle-mass
#18
Jessica M Scott, David S Martin, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Timothy Matz, Timothy Caine, Meghan Downs, Kyle Hackney, Roxanne Buxton, Jeffrey W Ryder, Lori Ploutz-Snyder
BACKGROUND: The strong link between reduced muscle mass and morbidity and mortality highlights the urgent need for simple techniques that can monitor change in skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Our objective was to examine the validity of panoramic ultrasound to detect change in quadriceps and gastrocnemius size in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in subjects randomized to 70 days of bed rest (BR) with or without exercise. METHODS: Panoramic ultrasound and MRI images of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were acquired on the right leg of 27 subjects (26 male, 1 female; age: 34...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042532/satellite-cells-contribution-to-exercise-mediated-muscle-hypertrophy-and-repair
#19
REVIEW
Behzad Bazgir, Rouhollah Fathi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Paul Mozdziak, Alireza Asgari
Satellite cells (SCs) are the most abundant skeletal muscle stem cells. They are widely recognized for their contributions to maintenance of muscle mass, regeneration and hypertrophy during the human life span. These cells are good candidates for cell therapy due to their self-renewal capabilities and presence in an undifferentiated form. Presently, a significant gap exists between our knowledge of SCs behavior and their application as a means for human skeletal muscle tissue repair and regeneration. Both physiological and pathological stimuli potentially affect SCs activation, proliferation, and terminal differentiation the former category being the focus of this article...
2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017949/-impacts-of-physical-exercise-on-remodeling-and-hypertrophy-of-skeletal-muscle
#20
Yoshihiro Sakashita, Takayuki Uchida, Takeshi Nikawa
The skeletal muscle has high sensitivity for the mechanical stress. Because it is enlarged by training, whereas it is easily withered by lack of exercise. When we exercise, skeletal muscle cells per se sense mechanical loading, and muscular remodeling and the muscular hypertrophy occur. It has been revealed that the intracellular signaling through PGC-1α participates in the remodeling of the skeletal muscle, while PGC-1α4, an isoform of PGC-1α, and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex play important roles in muscular hypertrophy...
2017: Clinical Calcium
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