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Skeletal muscle hypertrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054981/the-root-extract-of-pueraria-lobata-and-its-main-compound-puerarin-prevent-obesity-by-increasing-the-energy-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle
#1
Hyo Won Jung, An Na Kang, Seok Yong Kang, Yong-Ki Park, Mi Young Song
Radix Pueraria lobata (RP) has been reported to prevent obesity and improve glucose metabolism; however, the mechanism responsible for these effects has not been elucidated. The mechanism underlying anti-obesity effect of RP was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12). Five-week-old C5BL/6 mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing RP (100 or 300 mg/kg) or metformin (250 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. RP reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in liver, and adipocyte and blood lipid levels...
January 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052593/panoramic-ultrasound-a-novel-and-valid-tool-for-monitoring-change-in-muscle-mass
#2
Jessica M Scott, David S Martin, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Timothy Matz, Timothy Caine, Meghan Downs, Kyle Hackney, Roxanne Buxton, Jeffrey W Ryder, Lori Ploutz-Snyder
BACKGROUND: The strong link between reduced muscle mass and morbidity and mortality highlights the urgent need for simple techniques that can monitor change in skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Our objective was to examine the validity of panoramic ultrasound to detect change in quadriceps and gastrocnemius size in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in subjects randomized to 70 days of bed rest (BR) with or without exercise. METHODS: Panoramic ultrasound and MRI images of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were acquired on the right leg of 27 subjects (26 male, 1 female; age: 34...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042532/satellite-cells-contribution-to-exercise-mediated-muscle-hypertrophy-and-repair
#3
REVIEW
Behzad Bazgir, Rouhollah Fathi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Paul Mozdziak, Alireza Asgari
Satellite cells (SCs) are the most abundant skeletal muscle stem cells. They are widely recognized for their contributions to maintenance of muscle mass, regeneration and hypertrophy during the human life span. These cells are good candidates for cell therapy due to their self-renewal capabilities and presence in an undifferentiated form. Presently, a significant gap exists between our knowledge of SCs behavior and their application as a means for human skeletal muscle tissue repair and regeneration. Both physiological and pathological stimuli potentially affect SCs activation, proliferation, and terminal differentiation the former category being the focus of this article...
2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017949/-impacts-of-physical-exercise-on-remodeling-and-hypertrophy-of-skeletal-muscle
#4
Yoshihiro Sakashita, Takayuki Uchida, Takeshi Nikawa
The skeletal muscle has high sensitivity for the mechanical stress. Because it is enlarged by training, whereas it is easily withered by lack of exercise. When we exercise, skeletal muscle cells per se sense mechanical loading, and muscular remodeling and the muscular hypertrophy occur. It has been revealed that the intracellular signaling through PGC-1α participates in the remodeling of the skeletal muscle, while PGC-1α4, an isoform of PGC-1α, and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex play important roles in muscular hypertrophy...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983718/adeno-associated-virus-mediated-expression-of-myostatin-propeptide-improves-the-growth-of-skeletal-muscle-and-attenuates-hyperglycemia-in-db-db-mice
#5
J Jiang, G Shen, J Li, C Qiao, B Xiao, H Yan, D W Wang, Xiao Xiao
Inhibition of myostatin, a negative growth modulator for muscle, can functionally enhance muscle mass and improve glucose and fat metabolism in myostatin propeptide (MPRO) transgenic mice. This study was to investigate whether myostatin inhibition by adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated gene delivery of MPRO could improve muscle mass and achieve therapeutic effects on glucose regulation and lipid metabolism in the db/db mice and the mechanisms involved in that process. Eight-week-old male db/db mice were administered saline, AAV-GFP, AAV-MPRO/Fc vectors and monitored random blood glucose levels and body weight for 36 weeks...
December 16, 2016: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983587/role-of-redox-signaling-and-inflammation-in-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-to-training
#6
REVIEW
Maria Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, Jose Viña, Li Li Ji
The inflammatory response to exercise-induced muscle damage has been extensively described. Exercise has important modulatory effects on immune function. These effects are mediated by diverse factors including pro-inflammatory cytokines, classical stress hormones, and hemodynamic effects leading to cell redistribution. As has been reported regarding oxidative stress, inflammation can have both detrimental and beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. In this review we will address the role of inflammation on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle...
December 13, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982685/responses-of-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-in-wistar-rats-to-different-resistance-exercise-models
#7
T F Luciano, S de Oliveira Marques, B L da Silva Pieri, D Roxo de Souza, L V Araújo, R T Nesi, D da Luz Scheffer, V H Comin, R A Pinho, A P Muller, C T de Souza
This study aimed to compare the effects of three different resistance exercise models on the quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area, as well as on mTOR phosphorylation and other pivotal molecules involved in the upstream regulation of mTOR. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into untrained (control), endurance resistance training, strength resistance training, and hypertrophy resistance training (HRT) groups (n = 6). After 12 weeks of training, the red portion of the quadriceps was removed for histological and western blot analyses...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979985/changes-in-muscle-fiber-contractility-and-extracellular-matrix-production-during-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#8
Christopher L Mendias, Andrew J Schwartz, Jeremy A Grekin, Jonathan P Gumucio, Kristoffer B Sugg
Skeletal muscle can adapt to increased mechanical loads by undergoing hypertrophy. Transient reductions in whole muscle force production have been reported during the onset of hypertrophy, but contractile changes in individual muscle fibers have not previously been studied. Additionally, the extracellular matrix (ECM) stores and transmits forces from muscle fibers to tendons and bones, and determining how the ECM changes during hypertrophy is important in understanding the adaptation of muscle tissue as a whole to mechanical loading...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976396/an-intricate-balance-of-muscle-damage-and-protein-synthesis-the-key-players-in-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-following-resistance-training
#9
Giselle Keefe, Craig Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964759/voluntary-resistance-wheel-exercise-from-mid-life-prevents-sarcopenia-and-increases-markers-of-mitochondrial-function-and-autophagy-in-muscles-of-old-male-and-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#10
Zoe White, Jessica Terrill, Robert B White, Christopher McMahon, Phillip Sheard, Miranda D Grounds, Tea Shavlakadze
BACKGROUND: There is much interest in the capacity of resistance exercise to prevent the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia. This study investigates the molecular basis underlying the benefits of resistance exercise in aging C57BL/6J mice of both sexes. RESULTS: This study is the first to demonstrate that long-term (34 weeks) voluntary resistance wheel exercise (RWE) initiated at middle age, from 15 months, prevents sarcopenia in selected hindlimb muscles and causes hypertrophy in soleus, by 23 months of age in both male and female C57BL/6J mice...
December 13, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964750/laminin-521-maintains-differentiation-potential-of-mouse-and-human-satellite-cell-derived-myoblasts-during-long-term-culture-expansion
#11
Christopher M Penton, Vasudeo Badarinarayana, Joy Prisco, Elaine Powers, Mark Pincus, Ronald E Allen, Paul R August
BACKGROUND: Large-scale expansion of myogenic progenitors is necessary to support the development of high-throughput cellular assays in vitro and to advance genetic engineering approaches necessary to develop cellular therapies for rare muscle diseases. However, optimization has not been performed in order to maintain the differentiation capacity of myogenic cells undergoing long-term cell culture. Multiple extracellular matrices have been utilized for myogenic cell studies, but it remains unclear how different matrices influence long-term myogenic activity in culture...
December 13, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956698/blockade-of-metallothioneins-1-and-2-increases-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-strength
#12
Serge Summermatter, Anais Bouzan, Eliane Pierrel, Stefan Melly, Daniela Stauffer, Sabine Gutzwiller, Erin Nolin, Christina Dornelas, Christy Fryer, Juliet Leighton-Davies, David J Glass, Brigitte Fournier
Metallothioneins are proteins that are involved in intracellular zinc storage and transport. Their expression levels have been reported to be elevated in several settings of skeletal muscle atrophy. We therefore investigated the effect of metallothionein blockade on skeletal muscle anabolism in vitro and in vivo, and found that concomitant abrogation of Metallothionein 1 and 2 results in: activation of the Akt pathway, an increase in myotube size, in type IIb fiber hypertrophy, and ultimately in muscle strength...
December 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941692/liver-growth-factor-lgf-upregulates-frataxin-protein-expression-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-friedreich-s-ataxia-transgenic-mice
#13
Lucía Calatrava-Ferreras, Rafael Gonzalo-Gobernado, Diana Reimers, Antonio S Herranz, María J Casarejos, Adriano Jiménez-Escrig, Javier Regadera, Juan Velasco-Martín, Manuela Vallejo-Muñoz, Juan José Díaz-Gil, Eulalia Bazán
Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is a severe disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance that is caused by the abnormal expansion of GAA repeat in intron 1 of FRDA gen. This alteration leads to a partial silencing of frataxin transcription, causing a multisystem disorder disease that includes neurological and non-neurological damage. Recent studies have proven the effectiveness of neurotrophic factors in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we intend to determine if liver growth factor (LGF), which has a demonstrated antioxidant and neuroprotective capability, could be a useful therapy for FA...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927611/prenatal-myonuclei-play-a-crucial-role-for-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-in-rodents
#14
Fuminori Kawano, Yusuke Ono, Ryo Fujita, Atsuya Watanabe, Ryo Masuzawa, Kazuhiro Shibata, Shunsuke Hasegawa, Ken Nakata, Naoya Nakai
Multi-nucleated muscle fibers are formed by the fusion of myogenic progenitor cells during embryonic and fetal myogenesis. However, the role of prenatally incorporated myonuclei in the skeletal muscle fibers of adult animals is poorly understood. We demonstrated, using the muscle-specific reporter mice, that the prenatal myonuclei remained in the adult soleus muscle, although cardiotoxin injection caused the loss of prenatal myonuclei. Overloading by the tendon transection of synergists failed to induce compensatory hypertrophy in regenerated soleus muscle fibers of adult rats, whereas unloading by tail suspension normally induced the fiber atrophy...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922941/exercise-training-ameliorates-glucosamine-induced-insulin-resistance-in-ovariectomized-rats
#15
Chung-Hwan Chen, Tsang-Hai Huang, Tsung-Lin Cheng, Chi-Fen Chang, Chau-Zen Wang, Meng-Hsing Wu, Lin Kang
OBJECTIVE: Glucosamine (GlcN), which has been reported to induce insulin resistance (IR), is a popular nutritional supplement used to treat osteoarthritis in menopausal women. We previously demonstrated that GlcN treatment caused IR in ovariectomized rats by reducing the expression of glucose transport protein subtype 4 (GLUT-4) in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we hypothesized that endurance exercise training can reverse GlcN-induced IR. METHODS: Fifty female rats were randomly divided into five groups with 10 rats in each group: (1) sham-operated group; (2) sham-operated group with GlcN treatment for 14 days; (3) ovariectomy (OVX) group; (4) OVX with GlcN treatment; and (5) OVX with GlcN treatment followed by exercise training (running program) for 8 weeks...
December 5, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906050/the-sh3-and-cysteine-rich-domain-3-stac3-gene-is-important-to-growth-fiber-composition-and-calcium-release-from-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-in-postnatal-skeletal-muscle
#16
Xiaofei Cong, Jonathan Doering, Davi A G Mazala, Eva R Chin, Robert W Grange, Honglin Jiang
BACKGROUND: The SH3 and cysteine-rich domain 3 (Stac3) gene is specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle. Stac3 knockout mice die perinatally. In this study, we determined the potential role of Stac3 in postnatal skeletal muscle growth, fiber composition, and contraction by generating conditional Stac3 knockout mice. METHODS: We disrupted the Stac3 gene in 4-week-old male mice using the Flp-FRT and tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP systems. RESULTS: RT-qPCR and western blotting analyses of the limb muscles of target mice indicated that nearly all Stac3 mRNA and more than 70 % of STAC3 protein were deleted 4 weeks after tamoxifen injection...
April 11, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899900/fiber-type-specific-satellite-cell-content-in-cyclists-following-heavy-training-with-carbohydrate-and-carbohydrate-protein-supplementation
#17
Alec I McKenzie, Andrew C D'Lugos, Michael J Saunders, Keith D Gworek, Nicholas D Luden
The central purpose of this study was to evaluate the fiber type-specific satellite cell and myonuclear responses of endurance-trained cyclists to a block of intensified training, when supplementing with carbohydrate (CHO) vs. carbohydrate-protein (PRO). In a crossover design, endurance-trained cyclists (n = 8) performed two consecutive training periods, once supplementing with CHO (de facto "control" condition) and the other with PRO. Each training period consisted of 10 days of intensified cycle training (ICT-120% increase in average training duration) followed by 10 days of recovery (RVT-reduced volume training; 33% volume reduction vs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890878/prevalence-of-electrocardiographic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis
#18
Jun Tsugawa, Masahiro Ogawa, Shinji Ouma, Jiro Fukae, Yoshio Tsuboi
OBJECTIVE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an immunological disorder of the neuromuscular junction, characterized by easy fatigability and weakness of the skeletal muscles. However, it has sometimes been reported that heart diseases including cardiomyopathies leading to sudden death have been observed in patients with MG. We studied the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities and heart disease in patients newly diagnosed with MG who had not received immunotherapy. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with MG were enrolled in our study...
November 25, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880908/conditional-loss-of-pten-in-myogenic-progenitors-leads-to-postnatal-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-but-age-dependent-exhaustion-of-satellite-cells
#19
Feng Yue, Pengpeng Bi, Chao Wang, Jie Li, Xiaoqi Liu, Shihuan Kuang
Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells [SCs]) are normally maintained in a quiescent (G0) state. Muscle injury not only activates SCs locally, but also alerts SCs in distant uninjured muscles via circulating factors. The resulting GAlert SCs are adapted to regenerative cues and regenerate injured muscles more efficiently, but whether they provide any long-term benefits to SCs is unknown. Here, we report that embryonic myogenic progenitors lacking the phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) exhibit enhanced proliferation and differentiation, resulting in muscle hypertrophy but fewer SCs in adult muscles...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874066/cl316-243-a-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-induces-muscle-hypertrophy-and-increased-strength
#20
Daniela Puzzo, Roberto Raiteri, Clotilde Castaldo, Raffaele Capasso, Ester Pagano, Mariateresa Tedesco, Walter Gulisano, Lisaveta Drozd, Pellegrino Lippiello, Agostino Palmeri, Pietro Scotto, Maria Concetta Miniaci
Studies in vitro have demonstrated that β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs) regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle by promoting protein synthesis and inhibiting protein degradation. In this study, we evaluated whether activation of β3-ARs by the selective agonist CL316,243 modifies the functional and structural properties of skeletal muscles of healthy mice. Daily injections of CL316,243 for 15 days resulted in a significant improvement in muscle force production, assessed by grip strength and weight tests, and an increased myofiber cross-sectional area, indicative of muscle hypertrophy...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
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