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Skeletal muscle hypertrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432282/loss-of-function-myostatin-mutation-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-browning-of-white-fat-in-meishan-pigs
#1
Chunbo Cai, Lili Qian, Shengwang Jiang, Youde Sun, Qingqing Wang, Dezun Ma, Gaojun Xiao, Biao Li, Shanshan Xie, Ting Gao, Yaoxing Chen, Jie Liu, Xiaorong An, Wentao Cui, Kui Li
Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426081/total-substitution-of-dietary-fish-oil-by-vegetable-oils-stimulates-muscle-hypertrophic-growth-in-senegalese-sole-and-the-upregulation-of-fgf6
#2
Graciliana Lopes, Luís Filipe Costa Castro, Luísa Maria Pinheiro Valente
The long term effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by increasing the levels of vegetable oils (VO), 0% (CTR), 50% (VO50) and 100% (VO100), in diets for Senegalese sole were evaluated in terms of skeletal muscle cellularity and expression of related genes. After 140 days of feeding, all fish had similar body weight and length. The inclusion of 50% VO did not result in differences in muscle cellularity, but dorsal muscle cross-sectional area and fast-twitch fibre diameter increased in fish fed total FO substitution, whilst fibre density was reduced (P < 0...
April 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422320/mir-34b-modulates-skeletal-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#3
Zhixiong Tang, Huiling Qiu, Lan Luo, Nian Liu, Jiasheng Zhong, Kang Kang, Deming Gou
Myogenesis involves myoblast proliferation and differentiation to myocytes, followed by fusion and hypertrophy to form myotubes during muscle development. Increasing evidence showed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of myogenesis. We have previously revealed that miR-34b is steadily increased during this process. This miRNA regulates differentiation in various cell types, though its function in myogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we show that miR-34b represses muscle cell proliferation and promotes myotube formation...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417963/loop-diuretics-affect-skeletal-myoblast-differentiation-and-exercise-induced-muscle-hypertrophy
#4
Shintaro Mandai, Susumu Furukawa, Manami Kodaka, Yutaka Hata, Takayasu Mori, Naohiro Nomura, Fumiaki Ando, Yutaro Mori, Daiei Takahashi, Yuki Yoshizaki, Yuri Kasagi, Yohei Arai, Emi Sasaki, Sayaka Yoshida, Yasuro Furuichi, Nobuharu L Fujii, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
Muscle wasting or sarcopenia contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer, renal failure, or heart failure, and in elderly individuals. Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) is highly expressed in mammalian skeletal muscle, where it contributes to the generation of membrane ion currents and potential. However, the physiologic function of NKCC1 in myogenesis is unclear. We investigated this issue using the NKCC1 inhibitors bumetanide and furosemide, which are commonly used loop diuretics...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409828/leucine-elicits-myotube-hypertrophy-and-enhances-maximal-contractile-force-in-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-in-vitro
#5
N R W Martin, M C Turner, R Farrington, D J Player, M P Lewis
The amino acid leucine is thought to be important for skeletal muscle growth by virtue of its ability to acutely activate mTORC1 and enhance muscle protein synthesis, yet little data exist regarding its impact on skeletal muscle size and its ability to produce force. We utilised a tissue engineering approach in order to test whether supplementing culture medium with leucine could enhance mTORC1 signalling, myotube growth and muscle function. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target proteins 4EBP-1 and rpS6 and myotube hypertrophy appeared to occur in a dose dependent manner, with 5 and 20mM of leucine inducing similar effects, which were greater than those seen with 1mM...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402022/steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-star-overexpression-reduces-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-mice
#6
Yanyan Qiu, Xianxian Sui, Shengxuan Cao, Xiaobo Li, Yanxia Ning, Songmei Wang, Lianhua Yin, Xiuling Zhi
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), a mitochondrial cholesterol delivery protein, plays a beneficial role in hyperlipidemia, NAFLD and endothelial inflammation. Elevated circulating fatty acids and low grade inflammation are known as key risk factors of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the present study, C57BL/6J mice were fed with a HFD and infected with recombinant adenovirus expressing StAR by tail-vein injection. Intraperitoneal glucose/insulin tolerance test was performed to assess the insulin sensitivity...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400411/fatty-acid-uptake-and-blood-flow-in-adipose-tissue-compartments-of-morbidly-obese-subjects-with-or-without-type-2-diabetes-effects-of-bariatric-surgery
#7
Prince Dadson, Ele Ferrannini, Linda Landini, Jarna C Hannukainen, Kari K Kalliokoski, Maija Vaittinen, Henri Honka, Henry K Karlsson, Jetro J Tuulari, Minna Soinio, Paulina Salminen, Riitta Parkkola, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Patricia Iozzo, Pirjo Nuutila
Body fat accumulation, distribution and metabolic activity are factors in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated adipose blood flow, fatty acid uptake (FAU), and subcutaneous and visceral fat cellularity in obese patients with or without T2D. A total 23 morbidly obese (BMI 42 kg/m(2)) patients were studied before and 6 months after bariatric surgery; 15 nonobese subjects served as controls. Positron emission tomography was used to measure tissue FAU (with (18)F-FTHA) and blood flow (with H2(15)O); MRI was used for fat distribution, fat biopsy for adipocyte size...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389517/skeletal-muscle-as-an-endocrine-organ-the-role-of-myokines-in-exercise-adaptations
#8
Christoph Hoffmann, Cora Weigert
Exercise stimulates the release of proteins with autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine functions produced in skeletal muscle, termed myokines. Based on the current state of knowledge, the major physiological function of myokines is to protect the functionality and to enhance the exercise capacity of skeletal muscle. Myokines control adaptive processes in skeletal muscle by acting as paracrine regulators of fuel oxidation, hypertrophy, angiogenesis, inflammatory processes, and regulation of the extracellular matrix...
April 7, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385560/skeletal-muscle-functional-and-structural-adaptations-after-eccentric-overload-flywheel-resistance-training-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Sergio Maroto-Izquierdo, David García-López, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Osvaldo C Moreira, Javier González-Gallego, José A de Paz
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of flywheel (FW) resistance training with Eccentric Overload (FW-EOT) on muscle size and functional capacities (i.e. strength and power) in athletes and healthy subjects, and to compare FW-induced adaptations with those triggered by traditional resistance exercise interventions. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. METHODS: A search of electronic databases [PubMed, MEDLINE (SportDiscus), Web of Science, Scopus and PEDro] was conducted to identify all publications employing FW-EOT up to April 30, 2016...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370225/microrna-sirt-1-interactions-key-regulators-of-adult-skeletal-muscle-homeostasis
#10
Rachel McCormick, Brian McDonagh, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369518/misregulation-of-calcium-handling-proteins-promotes-hyperactivation-of-calcineurin-nfat-signaling-in-skeletal-muscle-of-dm1-mice
#11
Aymeric Ravel-Chapuis, Guy Bélanger, Jocelyn Côté, Robin N Michel, Bernard J Jasmin
Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by an expansion of CUG repeats in DMPK mRNAs. This mutation affects alternative splicing through misregulation of RNA-binding proteins. Amongst pre-mRNAs that are misspliced, several code for proteins involved in calcium homeostasis suggesting that calcium-handling and signaling are perturbed in DM1. Here, we analyzed expression of such proteins in DM1 mouse muscle. We found that the levels of several sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins (SERCA1, sarcolipin and calsequestrin) are altered, likely contributing to an imbalance in calcium homeostasis...
March 27, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355378/systematic-review-of-the-synergist-muscle-ablation-model-for-compensatory-hypertrophy
#12
Stella Maris Lins Terena, Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes, Sandra Kalill Bussadori, Alessandro Melo Deana, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita-Ferrari
Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the experimental synergists muscle ablation model to promote muscle hypertrophy, determine the period of greatest hypertrophy and its influence on muscle fiber types and determine differences in bilateral and unilateral removal to reduce the number of animals used in this model. Method: Following the application of the eligibility criteria for the mechanical overload of the plantar muscle in rats, nineteen papers were included in the review...
February 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344752/involvement-of-cbl-b-mediated-macrophage-inactivation-in-insulin-resistance
#13
REVIEW
Tomoki Abe, Katsuya Hirasaka, Takeshi Nikawa
Aging and overnutrition cause obesity in rodents and humans. It is well-known that obesity causes various diseases by producing insulin resistance (IR). Macrophages infiltrate the adipose tissue (AT) of obese individuals and cause chronic low-level inflammation associated with IR. Macrophage infiltration is regulated by the chemokines that are released from hypertrophied adipocytes and the immune cells in AT. Saturated fatty acids are recognized by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and induce inflammatory responses in AT macrophages (ATMs)...
March 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341051/whey-protein-derived-exosomes-increase-protein-synthesis-and-hypertrophy-in-c2-c12-myotubes
#14
C Brooks Mobley, Petey W Mumford, John J McCarthy, Michael E Miller, Kaelin C Young, Jeffrey S Martin, Darren T Beck, Christopher M Lockwood, Michael D Roberts
We sought to examine potential amino acid independent mechanisms whereby hydrolyzed whey protein (WP) affects muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and anabolism in vitro. Specifically, we tested (1) whether 3-h and 6-h treatments of WP, essential amino acids, or l-leucine (Leu) affected MPS, and whether 6-h treatments with low-, medium-, or high doses of WP versus Leu affected MPS; (2) whether knockdown of the primary Leu transporter affected WP- and Leu-mediated changes in MPS, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling responses, or both, following 6-h treatments; (3) whether exosomes isolated from WP (WP-EXO) affected MPS, mTOR signaling responses, or both, compared with untreated (control) myotubes, following 6-h, 12-h, and 24-h treatments, and whether they affected myotube diameter following 24-h and 48-h treatments...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325641/spectrum-of-nondystrophic-skeletal-muscle-channelopathies-in-children
#15
Fouad Al-Ghamdi, Basil T Darras, Partha S Ghosh
BACKGROUND: The nondystrophic skeletal muscle channelopathies are a group of disorders caused by mutations of various voltage-gated ion channel genes, including nondystrophic myotonia and periodic paralysis. METHODS: We identified patients with a diagnosis of muscle channelopathy from our neuromuscular database in a tertiary care pediatric center from 2005 to 2015. We then performed a retrospective review of their medical records for demographic characteristics, clinical features, investigations, treatment, and follow-up...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321637/the-time-course-of-short-term-hypertrophy-in-the-absence-of-eccentric-muscle-damage
#16
Matt S Stock, Jacob A Mota, Ryan N DeFranco, Katherine A Grue, A Unique Jacobo, Eunhee Chung, Jordan R Moon, Jason M DeFreitas, Travis W Beck
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the increase in skeletal muscle mass observed during the initial weeks of initiating a resistance training program is concomitant with eccentric muscle damage and edema. PURPOSE: We examined the time course of muscle hypertrophy during 4 weeks of concentric-only resistance training. METHODS: Thirteen untrained men performed unilateral concentric-only dumbbell curls and shoulder presses twice per week for 4 weeks...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316854/a-marked-response-to-immunosuppressive-intervention-for-abruptly-occurring-cardiac-complications-in-a-case-of-juvenile-systemic-sclerosis-overlapped-with-dermatomyositis
#17
Tsunehisa Nagamori, Yoichiro Yoshida, Hironori Takahashi, Hideharu Oka, Aya Kajihama, Koichi Nakau, Masaya Sugimoto, Masako Minami-Hori, Hiroshi Azuma
Juvenile-onset systemic sclerosis (jSSc) is a rare condition, having unique characteristic features compared to adult-onset SSc. Although cardiac involvement (CI) is known as a leading cause of mortality overall in SSc, the importance of CI in jSSc has not been emphasized. Here we present a 13-year-old female with jSSc overlapped with dermatomyositis (DM) complicated CI. She developed skin thickness and induration, Raynaud's phenomenon, digital pitting scars in fingertips, and skeletal myositis. Oral prednisolone and pulse methotrexate treatment led to the improvement of skin findings; however two weeks after the initiation she suddenly presented with muscle pain and dyspnea within a few days...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316572/eccentric-ergometer-training-promotes-locomotor-muscle-strength-but-not-mitochondrial-adaptation-in-patients-with-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
Norah J MacMillan, Sophia Kapchinsky, Yana Konokhova, Gilles Gouspillou, Riany de Sousa Sena, R Thomas Jagoe, Jacinthe Baril, Tamara E Carver, Ross E Andersen, Ruddy Richard, Hélène Perrault, Jean Bourbeau, Russell T Hepple, Tanja Taivassalo
Eccentric ergometer training (EET) is increasingly being proposed as a therapeutic strategy to improve skeletal muscle strength in various cardiorespiratory diseases, due to the principle that lengthening muscle actions lead to high force-generating capacity at low cardiopulmonary load. One clinical population that may particularly benefit from this strategy is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as ventilatory constraints and locomotor muscle dysfunction often limit efficacy of conventional exercise rehabilitation in patients with severe disease...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294417/progressive-resistance-loaded-voluntary-wheel-running-increases-hypertrophy-and-differentially-affects-muscle-protein-synthesis-ribosome-biogenesis-and-proteolytic-markers-in-rat-muscle
#19
C B Mobley, A M Holland, W C Kephart, P W Mumford, R P Lowery, A N Kavazis, J M Wilson, M D Roberts
We examined if 6 weeks of progressive resistance-loaded voluntary wheel running in rats induced plantaris, soleus, and/or gastrocnemius hypertrophy and/or affected markers of translational efficiency, ribosome biogenesis, and markers of proteolysis. For 6 weeks, 8 male Sprague-Dawley rats (~9-10 weeks of age, ~300-325 g) rats were assigned to the progressive resistance-loaded voluntary wheel running model (EX), and ten rats were not trained (SED). For EX rats, the wheel-loading paradigm was as follows - days 1-7: free-wheel resistance, days 8-15: wheel resistance set to 20%-25% body mass, days 16-24: 40% body mass, days 25-32: 60% body mass, days 33-42: 40% body mass...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287512/preparation-and-culture-of-myogenic-precursor-cells-primary-myoblasts-from-skeletal-muscle-of-adult-and-aged-humans
#20
Ana Soriano-Arroquia, Peter D Clegg, Andrew P Molloy, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
Skeletal muscle homeostasis depends on muscle growth (hypertrophy), atrophy and regeneration. During ageing and in several diseases, muscle wasting occurs. Loss of muscle mass and function is associated with muscle fiber type atrophy, fiber type switching, defective muscle regeneration associated with dysfunction of satellite cells, muscle stem cells, and other pathophysiological processes. These changes are associated with changes in intracellular as well as local and systemic niches. In addition to most commonly used rodent models of muscle ageing, there is a need to study muscle homeostasis and wasting using human models, which due to ethical implications, consist predominantly of in vitro cultures...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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