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Skeletal muscle hypertrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650457/fibroblast-growth-factor-19-regulates-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-ameliorates-muscle-wasting-in-mice
#1
Bérengère Benoit, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Martina Castelli, Stéphanie Chanon, Aurélie Vieille-Marchiset, Christine Durand, Nadia Bendridi, Sandra Pesenti, Pierre-Axel Monternier, Anne-Cécile Durieux, Damien Freyssenet, Jennifer Rieusset, Etienne Lefai, Hubert Vidal, Jérôme Ruzzin
The endocrine-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 has recently emerged as a potential target for treating metabolic disease. Given that skeletal muscle is a key metabolic organ, we explored the role of FGF19 in that tissue. Here we report a novel function of FGF19 in regulating skeletal muscle mass through enlargement of muscle fiber size, and in protecting muscle from atrophy. Treatment with FGF19 causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy in mice, while physiological and pharmacological doses of FGF19 substantially increase the size of human myotubes in vitro...
June 26, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624653/giant-ring-mitochondria-in-a-patient-with-heart-failure-and-cerebral-white-matter-disease-due-to-mt-tl1-mitochondrial-gene-mutation
#2
Brian A Houston, Daniel P Judge, Emily Brown, Marc Halushka, Lili A Barouch
BACKGROUND: The presence of giant ring mitochondria on endomyocardial biopsy is rarely reported and does not have a well-defined differential diagnosis. METHODS: We report the case of a 54-year-old man with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and left ventricular hypertrophy, initially thought to have an infiltrative cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: The patient was found to have extensive vacuolization caused by the presence of giant ring mitochondria on endomyocardial biopsy...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607086/specific-targeting-of-tgf-%C3%AE-family-ligands-demonstrates-distinct-roles-in-the-regulation-of-muscle-mass-in-health-and-disease
#3
Justin L Chen, Kelly L Walton, Adam Hagg, Timothy D Colgan, Katharine Johnson, Hongwei Qian, Paul Gregorevic, Craig A Harrison
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) network of ligands and intracellular signaling proteins is a subject of intense interest within the field of skeletal muscle biology. To define the relative contribution of endogenous TGF-β proteins to the negative regulation of muscle mass via their activation of the Smad2/3 signaling axis, we used local injection of adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) encoding ligand-specific antagonists into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of C57BL/6 mice. Eight weeks after AAV injection, inhibition of activin A and activin B signaling produced moderate (∼20%), but significant, increases in TA mass, indicating that endogenous activins repress muscle growth...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600325/hira-deficiency-in-muscle-fibers-causes-hypertrophy-and-susceptibility-to-oxidative-stress
#4
Nicolas Valenzuela, Benjamin Soibam, Lerong Li, Jing Wang, Lauren A Byers, Yu Liu, Robert J Schwartz, M David Stewart
Nucleosome assembly proceeds through DNA replication-coupled or replication-independent mechanisms. For skeletal myocytes, whose nuclei have permanently exited the cell cycle, replication-independent assembly is the only mode available for chromatin remodeling. For this reason, any nucleosome composition alterations accompanying transcriptional responses to physiological signals must occur through a DNA replication-independent pathway. HIRA is the histone chaperone primarily responsible for replication-independent incorporation of histone variant H3...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595527/creatine-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-for-building-muscle-mass-review-of-the-potential-mechanisms-of-action
#5
Farnaz Farshidfar, Mark A Pinder, Semone B Myrie
Creatine, a very popular supplement among athletic populations, is of growing interest for clinical applications. Since over 90% of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle metabolism is a widely studied area. While numerous studies over the past few decades have shown that creatine supplementation has many favorable effects on skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, including enhancing muscle mass (growth/hypertrophy); the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood...
June 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594869/compound-heterozygous-mutations-in-glycyl-trna-synthetase-gars-cause-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-dysfunction
#6
Michael Nafisinia, Lisa G Riley, Wendy A Gold, Kaustuv Bhattacharya, Carolyn R Broderick, David R Thorburn, Cas Simons, John Christodoulou
Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS; OMIM 600287) is one of thirty-seven tRNA-synthetase genes that catalyses the synthesis of glycyl-tRNA, which is required to insert glycine into proteins within the cytosol and mitochondria. To date, eighteen mutations in GARS have been reported in patients with autosomal-dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D (CMT2D; OMIM 601472), and/or distal spinal muscular atrophy type V (dSMA-V; OMIM 600794). In this study, we report a patient with clinical and biochemical features suggestive of a mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) disorder including mild left ventricular posterior wall hypertrophy, exercise intolerance, and lactic acidosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592414/effects-of-sarcolipin-deletion-on-skeletal-muscle-adaptive-responses-to-functional-overload-and-unload
#7
Val A Fajardo, Bradley A Rietze, Paige J Chambers, Catherine Bellissimo, Eric Bombardier, Joe Quadrilatero, A Russell Tupling
Overexpression of sarcolipin (SLN), a regulator of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs), stimulates calcineurin signaling to enhance skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Some studies have shown that calcineurin may also control skeletal muscle mass and remodeling in response to functional overload and unload stimuli by increasing myofiber size and the proportion of slow fibers. To examine whether SLN might mediate these adaptive responses we performed soleus and gastrocnemius tenotomy in wild-type (WT) and Sln¬-null (Sln(-/-)) mice and examined the overloaded plantaris and unloaded/tenotomized soleus muscles...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592307/global-gene-expression-in-muscle-from-fasted-refed-trout-reveals-up-regulation-of-genes-promoting-myofibre-hypertrophy-but-not-myofibre-production
#8
Pierre-Yves Rescan, Aurelie Le Cam, Cécile Rallière, Jérôme Montfort
BACKGROUND: Compensatory growth is a phase of rapid growth, greater than the growth rate of control animals, that occurs after a period of growth-stunting conditions. Fish show a capacity for compensatory growth after alleviation of dietary restriction, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are unknown. To learn more about the contribution of genes regulating hypertrophy (an increase in muscle fibre size) and hyperplasia (the generation of new muscle fibres) in the compensatory muscle growth response in fish, we used high-density microarray analysis to investigate the global gene expression in muscle of trout during a fasting-refeeding schedule and in muscle of control-fed trout displaying normal growth...
June 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576279/-atypical-reaction-to-anesthesia-in-duchenne-becker-muscular-dystrophy
#9
Helga Cristina Almeida da Silva, Marcia Hiray, Mariz Vainzof, Beny Schmidt, Acary Souza Bulle Oliveira, José Luiz Gomes do Amaral
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy affects skeletal muscles and leads to progressive muscle weakness and risk of atypical anesthetic reactions following exposure to succinylcholine or halogenated agents. The aim of this report is to describe the investigation and diagnosis of a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy and review the care required in anesthesia. CASE REPORT: Male patient, 14 years old, referred for hyperCKemia (chronic increase of serum creatine kinase levels - CK), with CK values of 7,779-29,040IU...
May 30, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571587/supplementation-of-grazing-beef-cows-during-gestation-as-a-strategy-to-improve-skeletal-muscle-development-of-the-offspring
#10
D C Marquez, M F Paulino, L N Rennó, F C Villadiego, R M Ortega, D S Moreno, L S Martins, D M de Almeida, M P Gionbelli, M R Manso, L P Melo, F H Moura, M S Duarte
The appropriate supply of nutrients in pregnant cows has been associated with the optimal development of foetal tissues, performance of their progeny and their meat quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate supplementation effects of grazing cows in different stages of gestation on skeletal muscle development and performance of the progeny. Thereby, 27 Nellore cows were divided into three groups (n=9 for each group) and their progeny as follows: UNS, unsupplemented during gestation; MID, supplemented from 30 to 180 days of gestation; LATE, supplemented from 181 to 281 days of gestation...
June 2, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566814/endocrine-responses-and-acute-mtor-pathway-phosphorylation-to-resistance-exercise-with-leucine-and-whey
#11
M T Lane, T J Herda, A C Fry, M A Cooper, M J Andre, P M Gallagher
Leucine ingestion reportedly activates the mTOR pathway in skeletal muscle, contributing to a hypertrophy response. The purpose of the study was to compare the post-resistance exercise effects of leucine and whey protein supplementation on endocrine responses and muscle mTOR pathway phosphorylation. On visit 1, subjects (X±SD; n=20; age=27.8±2.8yrs) provided baseline blood samples for analysis of cortisol, glucose and insulin; a muscle biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle to assess mTOR signaling pathway phosphorylation; and were tested for maximum strength on the leg press and leg extension exercises...
June 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566753/an-integrated-analysis-revealed-different-microrna-mrna-profiles-during-skeletal-muscle-development-between-landrace-and-lantang-pigs
#12
Shuihua Xie, Luxi Chen, Xumeng Zhang, Xiaohong Liu, Yaosheng Chen, Delin Mo
Pigs supply vital dietary proteins for human consumption, and their economic value depends largely on muscle production. MicroRNAs are known to play important roles in skeletal muscle development. However, their relationship to distinct muscle production between pig breeds remains unknown. Here, we performed an integrated analysis of microRNA-mRNA expression profiles for Landrace (LR, lean) pigs and the Chinese indigenous Lantang pig (LT, lard-type) during 8 stages of skeletal muscle developmental, including at 35, 49, 63, 77 dpc (days post coitum) and 2, 28, 90, 180 dpn (days postnatal)...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547886/the-suction-mechanism-of-the-pipid-frog-pipa-pipa-linnaeus-1758
#13
David Cundall, Edward Fernandez, Frances Irish
Most suction-feeding, aquatic vertebrates create suction by rapidly enlarging the oral cavity and pharynx. Forceful enlargement of the pharynx is powered by longitudinal muscles that retract skeletal elements of the hyoid, more caudal branchial arches, and, in many fish, the pectoral girdle. This arrangement was thought to characterize all suction-feeding vertebrates. However, it does not exist in the permanently aquatic, tongueless Pipa pipa, an Amazonian frog that can catch fish. Correlating high-speed (250 and 500 fps) video records with anatomical analysis and functional tests shows that fundamental features of tetrapod body design are altered to allow P...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539819/dexamethasone-treatment-at-the-myoblast-stage-enhanced-c2c12-myocyte-differentiation
#14
Der-Sheng Han, Wei-Shiung Yang, Tung-Wei Kao
Background: Glucocorticoids induce skeletal muscle atrophy in many clinical situations; however, their hypertrophic and pro-differentiation effects on myotubes have rarely been reported. We hypothesized that dexamethasone (DEX) has a dual effect on muscle differentiation, and aimed to develop a new differentiation protocol for C2C12 cell line. Methods: Dose- and time-dependent effect of DEX on C2C12 myoblast cell line was analyzed at myoblast and myotube stage, respectively. The level of differentiation was determined by myh1, pax7, atrogin-1, and myostatin mRNA expression and fusion index...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533420/igf1-stimulates-greater-muscle-hypertrophy-in-the-absence-of-myostatin-in-male-mice
#15
Alexander Hennebry, Jenny M Oldham, Tea Shavlakadze, Miranda Grounds, Philip Sheard, Marta Fiorotto, Shelley J Falconer, Heather K Smith, Carole Berry, Ferenc Jeanplong, Jeremy Bracegirdle, Kenneth G Matthews, Gina Nicholas, Monica Senna-Salerno, Trevor Watson, Christopher D McMahon
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myostatin have opposing roles in regulating the growth and size of skeletal muscle, with IGF1 stimulating, and myostatin inhibiting, growth. However, it remains unclear whether these proteins have mutually dependent, or independent, roles. To clarify this issue, we crossed myostatin null (Mstn-/-) mice with mice over-expressing Igf1 in skeletal muscle (Igf1+) to generate six genotypes of male mice; wild-type (Mstn+/+), Mstn+/-, Mstn-/-, Mstn+/+:Igf1+, Mstn+/-:Igf1+ and Mstn-/-:Igf1+...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523323/discovery-of-a-new-mutation-in-the-desmin-gene-in-a-young-patient-with-cardiomyopathy-and-muscular-weakness
#16
Ruxandra Oana JurcuŢ, Alexandra Eugenia Bastian, Sebastian Militaru, Aura Popa, Emilia Manole, Bogdan Alexandru Popescu, Jonna Tallila, Bogdan Ovidiu Popescu, Carmen Doina Ginghină
A 25-year-old woman with a five years history of syncope, mild left ventricular hypertrophy and moderately enlarged atria, was diagnosed with third degree atrioventricular heart block alternating with atrioventricular heart block 2:1, and received a dual chamber pacemaker. After three years of evolution, she developed atrial fibrillation, marked biatrial enlargement, severely depressed longitudinal myocardial velocities, associated with mild girdle weakness and slight increase in creatine kinase level. The diagnosis of restrictive cardiomyopathy with mild skeletal myopathy imposed the screening for a common etiology...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513326/the-effects-of-blood-flow-restricted-electrostimulation-on-strength-hypertrophy
#17
Joshua Slysz, Jamie F Burr
CONTEXT: The combined effect of neuromuscular electrical muscle stimulation (NMES) and blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle mass and strength has not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of combined and independent BFR and a low-intensity NMES on skeletal muscle adaptation. DESIGN: Exploratory Study. SETTING: Laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty recreationally active subjects...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495843/treating-fructose-induced-metabolic-changes-in-mice-with-high-intensity-interval-training-insights-in-the-liver-white-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#18
Victor Faria Motta, Thereza Lonzetti Bargut, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Fructose-rich caloric sweeteners induce adverse changes in the population metabolism. The study evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on a fructose feeding model, focusing on the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle, and their interplay. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed for 18 weeks one of the following diets: control (C; 5 % of total energy from fructose), or fructose (F; 55 % of total energy from fructose). In the 10th week, for an additional eight-week period the groups were divided into non-trained (NT) or HIIT groups, totaling four groups: C-NT, C-HIIT, F-NT, and F-HIIT...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493406/beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-in-healthy-and-muscle-wasting-conditions
#19
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine that has been reported to have anabolic effects on protein metabolism. The aims of this article were to summarize the results of studies of the effects of HMB on skeletal muscle and to examine the evidence for the rationale to use HMB as a nutritional supplement to exert beneficial effects on muscle mass and function in various conditions of health and disease. The data presented here indicate that the beneficial effects of HMB have been well characterized in strength-power and endurance exercise...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490543/molecular-regulation-of-exercise-induced-muscle-fiber-hypertrophy
#20
Marcas M Bamman, Brandon M Roberts, Gregory R Adams
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is a widely sought exercise adaptation to counteract the muscle atrophy of aging and disease, or to improve athletic performance. While this desired muscle enlargement is a well-known adaptation to resistance exercise training (RT), the mechanistic underpinnings are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is thus to provide the reader with a summary of recent advances in molecular mechanisms-based on the most current literature-that are thought to promote RT-induced muscle hypertrophy...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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