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Antibiotic prophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934773/leptospirosis-in-three-workers-on-a-dairy-farm-with-unvaccinated-cattle
#1
Jackie Benschop, Julie Collins-Emerson, Allie Maskill, Patrick O'Connor, Margaret Tunbridge, Yuni Yupiana, Jenny Weston
AIM: We report a one-health investigation of three cases of leptospirosis on a dairy farm with unvaccinated cattle in New Zealand. The cases are discussed in the context of diagnostics, risk factors, persistence of symptoms and outbreak mitigation measures. METHOD: Clinical and laboratory records from the human cases were reviewed and serological and molecular investigations were conducted into the Leptospira status of cattle and pigs on the farm. RESULTS: Cases presented early in their illness and all three were confirmed within seven days of onset of symptoms by urine PCR and within 18 days by convalescent MAT (two Hardjo-bovis, one Pomona)...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931099/-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-febrile-neutropenia-in-solid-tumors
#2
Gabriella Gálffy
One of the most dangerous complications of bone marrow suppression due to chemotherapy is febrile neutropenia. The treatment of the affected patients is a multidisciplinary task. In addition to chemotherapy, adequate G-CSF therapy as a primary and secondary prophylaxis can be used to prevent a large part of febrile neutropenic events. Before each chemotherapy cycle, the risk of febrile neutropenia should be evaluated, taking into account the chemotherapeutic combination and patient-specific parameters. Appropriate antibiotic and G-CSF therapy initiated in the course of febrile neutropenia is essential for the success of the therapy...
September 20, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930045/antibiotic-use-among-older-adults-on-an-acute-care-general-surgery-service
#3
André S Pollmann, Jon G Bailey, Philip J B Davis, Paul M Johnson
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics play an important role in the treatment of many surgical diseases that affect older adults, and the potential for inappropriate use of these drugs is high. Our objective was to describe antibiotic use among older adults admitted to an acute care surgical service at a tertiary care teaching hospital. METHODS: Detailed data regarding diagnosis, comorbidities, surgery and antibiotic use were retrospectively collected for patients 70 years and older admitted to an acute care surgical service...
October 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929546/impact-of-selective-media-for-detecting-fluoroquinolone-insusceptible-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-before-transrectal-prostate-biopsy
#4
Takuya Sadahira, Koichiro Wada, Motoo Araki, Ayano Ishii, Toyohiko Watanabe, Yoshitsugu Nasu, Masaya Tsugawa, Tadasu Takenaka, Yasutomo Nasu, Hiromi Kumon
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-insusceptible and/or extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli colonizing in the male rectum before transrectal prostate biopsy. METHODS: We carried out a prospective cohort study of men undergoing transrectal prostate biopsy. CHROMagar Orientation originally supplemented with levofloxacin and CHROMagar Orientation/extended-spectrum beta-lactamase were used for detecting fluoroquinolone-insusceptible and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925508/the-cost-effectiveness-of-oral-health-interventions-a-systematic-review-of-cost-utility-analyses
#5
Ruvini M Hettiarachchi, Sanjeewa Kularatna, Martin J Downes, Joshua Byrnes, Jeroen Kroon, Ratilal Lalloo, Newell W Johnson, Paul A Scuffham
OBJECTIVES: To assess the usage of cost-utility analysis (CUA) in oral health interventions and to evaluate the methods used and the reporting quality of CUA in publications on oral health interventions. METHODS: A systematic review was performed on literature published between 2000 and 2016 where cost-utility analyses of oral health interventions were included. The reporting quality of these oral health CUAs was assessed against the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist...
September 19, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920845/modified-use-of-real-time-pcr-detection-of-group-b-streptococcus-in-pregnancy
#6
Ali A Rabaan, Justin V Saunar, Ali M Bazzi, Joan L Soriano
The CDC recommends antenatal screening of vaginal/rectal samples for Streptococcus agalactiae at 35-37 weeks' gestation, with intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis for positive cases. We tested a modified use of the Cepheid Xpert GBS real-time PCR kit on enrichment cultures from 554 vaginal/rectal swabs compared to the current subculturing gold standard method. Swabs were inoculated on polymyxin nalidixic acid agar plates, and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth cultures were examined daily for growth. Todd-Hewitt broth culture was also used for Xpert GBS...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919603/current-trends-of-using-antimicrobials-at-obstetrics-and-gynaecology-department-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#7
M M Islam, S K Saha, S Saha, U A Wahid, R R Gomes, K S Ahmed, A N Naushad, S E Suchi, C Saha, D Mondal
This cross-sectional descriptive study was done to analyse the current trends of using antimicrobials in various surgical procedures at Obstetrics and Gynaecology department in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh from July 2014 to June 2015. Among 300 postoperative obstetrics and gynaecological surgery cases, samples were selected as non-random purposive selection method where pattern of using antimicrobials were analysed by SPSS method 20.1 versions. The incidence of antimicrobial resistance is on continued rise with a threat to return to the pre-antibiotic era...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918954/contemporary-management-of-vesicoureteral-reflux
#8
REVIEW
Perviz Hajiyev, Berk Burgu
CONTEXT: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) remains the most interesting topic of pediatric urology due to the dynamic nature of recent controversial publications. Starting from the need for a diagnosis to the necessity and effectiveness of treatment in preventing scars, VUR remains in the mist. Although recent strong evidence helped as fog lights in this blurriness, more data are required for achieving crystal clearance. This article aims to summarize and discuss the current state of the evidence regarding VUR management...
September 11, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918776/-prophylactic-antibiotic-therapy-for-hernia-repair
#9
Siv Fonnes, Barbara Juliane Holzknecht, Magnus Arpi, Jacob Rosenberg
This article aims at outlining and recommending use of prophylactic antibiotic therapy for hernia repair according to literature and newly released guidelines. We do not recommend prophylaxis for elective repair of inguinal and ventral hernias in a low infection risk environment as Denmark except in patients with incisional hernia > 10 cm or presumed increased risk for wound infection, e.g. diabetes or immunosuppression. Antibiotic prophylaxis should always be used in emergent hernia repair. We recommend a prophylactic regimen of second-generation cephalosporin given as a single dose perioperatively...
September 11, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905120/animal-and-human-bite-injuries-a-5-year-retrospective-study-in-a-large-urban-public-hospital-in-venezuela
#10
Muñoz Gelvez, Ruben Enrique, Golaszewski Gajos, Jose Bladimir, Diaz Carvajal, Alvaro Luis
INTRODUCTION: Animal bite injuries to the head and neck regions are an important public health problem. Most of these bites are from dogs. A 10-year retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of animal and human bites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was done from January 2011 to December 2016 and included 387 patients with a mean age of 21.51 years. Data collection included age, sex, days of hospitalization, lesion type, and clinical management...
September 13, 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899877/multiresistant-e-coli-urine-infections-in-children-a-case-control-study
#11
Gayathri Raman, Brendan McMullan, Peter Taylor, Kylie-Ann Mallitt, Sean E Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by resistant organisms are increasing which poses challenges when selecting empirical antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study is to determine risk factors for multiresistant Escherichia coliUTIs in children. DESIGN: We included all reported urinary isolates from a children's hospital collected between January 2010 and June 2013. Patients who had multiresistant E. coliUTIs were identified and a retrospective review of medical records performed...
September 12, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898917/technical-aspects-of-endoscopic-ultrasound-eus-guided-sampling-in-gastroenterology-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-technical-guideline-march-2017
#12
Marcin Polkowski, Christian Jenssen, Philip Kaye, Silvia Carrara, Pierre Deprez, Angels Gines, Gloria Fernández-Esparrach, Pierre Eisendrath, Guruprasad P Aithal, Paolo Arcidiacono, Marc Barthet, Pedro Bastos, Adele Fornelli, Bertrand Napoleon, Julio Iglesias-Garcia, Andrada Seicean, Alberto Larghi, Cesare Hassan, Jeanin E van Hooft, Jean-Marc Dumonceau
For routine EUS-guided sampling of solid masses and lymph nodes (LNs) ESGE recommends 25G or 22G needles (high quality evidence, strong recommendation); fine needle aspiration (FNA) and fine needle biopsy (FNB) needles are equally recommended (high quality evidence, strong recommendation).When the primary aim of sampling is to obtain a core tissue specimen, ESGE suggests using 19G FNA or FNB needles or 22G FNB needles (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).ESGE recommends using 10-mL syringe suction for EUS-guided sampling of solid masses and LNs with 25G or 22G FNA needles (high quality evidence, strong recommendation) and other types of needles (low quality evidence, weak recommendation)...
September 12, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898770/immunoglobulin-replacement-therapy-in-primary-and-secondary-antibody-deficiency-the-correct-clinical-approach
#13
REVIEW
Antonio Pecoraro, Ludovica Crescenzi, Francescopaolo Granata, Arturo Genovese, Giuseppe Spadaro
Immunoglobulin therapy is the administration of human polyvalent IgG and represents the most effective treatment to prevent recurrent infections in antibody deficiency patients. Primary antibody deficiency represents the main indication of immunoglobulin replacement therapy and includes a wide range of disorders characterized by impaired antibody production in response to pathogens and recurrent infections. However, not all primary antibody deficiency patients require immunoglobulin replacement. Indeed, immunoglobulin preparations are expensive and, once prescribed, usually result in lifelong therapy...
September 9, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898319/-tetanus-a-current-disease-in-pediatric-population-case-report
#14
María Del Pilar Cejudo-García de Alba, Jaime Guadalupe Valle-Leal, Jesús Gabriel Sánchez Beltrán, Amado de Jesús Francisco Vázquez-Amparano
INTRODUCTION: Tetanus is an acute disease caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium tetanii. The disease can affect people of any age, and the fatality rate is high. Thanks to immunization the number of cases of the disease has decreased, although they are still present in isolation in countries with social and economic backwardness. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of a pediatric patient with generalized tetanus to reinforce the relevance of prophylaxis and early detection...
2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895659/implementation-strategies-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#15
REVIEW
Tomas Pantoja, Newton Opiyo, Simon Lewin, Elizabeth Paulsen, Agustín Ciapponi, Charles S Wiysonge, Cristian A Herrera, Gabriel Rada, Blanca Peñaloza, Lilian Dudley, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: A key function of health systems is implementing interventions to improve health, but coverage of essential health interventions remains low in low-income countries. Implementing interventions can be challenging, particularly if it entails complex changes in clinical routines; in collaborative patterns among different healthcare providers and disciplines; in the behaviour of providers, patients or other stakeholders; or in the organisation of care. Decision-makers may use a range of strategies to implement health interventions, and these choices should be based on evidence of the strategies' effectiveness...
September 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890343/antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-breast-reduction-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
James Zapata-Copete, Santiago Aguilera-Mosquera, Herney Andrés García-Perdomo
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and harm of using antibiotic prophylaxis versus placebo or no intervention in patients undergoing breast reduction surgery to prevent surgical site infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search strategy was conducted in the MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. Searches were also conducted in other databases and unpublished literature. Clinical trials were included without language restrictions. The risk of bias was evaluated with the Cochrane Collaboration's tool...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886792/antibiotic-prophylaxis-probably-reduces-the-risk-of-developing-bacteremia-in-patients-at-risk-of-developing-infective-endocarditis-who-are-undergoing-dental-extractions
#17
Romina Brignardello-Petersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885922/management-of-acute-diarrheal-illness-during-deployment-a-deployment-health-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#18
Mark S Riddle, Gregory J Martin, Clinton K Murray, Timothy H Burgess, Patrick Connor, James D Mancuso, Elizabeth R Schnaubelt, Timothy P Ballard, Jamie Fraser, David R Tribble
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrheal illness during deployment causes significant morbidity and loss of duty days. Effective and timely treatment is needed to reduce individual, unit, and health system performance impacts. METHODS: This critical appraisal of the literature, as part of the development of expert consensus guidelines, asked several key questions related to self-care and healthcare-seeking behavior, antibiotics for self-treatment of travelers' diarrhea, what antibiotics/regimens should be considered for treatment of acute watery diarrhea and febrile diarrhea and/or dysentery, and when and what laboratory diagnostics should be used to support management of deployment-related travelers' diarrhea...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885898/antibiotic-prescribing-practices-for-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections-in-australia-increased-uptake-of-national-guidelines-after-surveillance-and-reporting-and-impact-on-infection-rates
#19
Ann L Bull, Leon J Worth, Tim Spelman, Michael J Richards
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial prophylaxis is the single most effective intervention to reduce risk of surgical site infections (SSIs); however, prescribing practices should be aligned with accepted and recommended surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) regimens to be effective. As part of a comprehensive surveillance network, SAP data are collated and analyzed for compliance with recommendations. Results are reported to hospitals for quality improvement purposes. In this study, statewide results were analyzed to ascertain changes over time and whether improved compliance was associated with a reduction in risk for SSI...
September 8, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885421/evidence-based-bundles-and-cesarean-delivery-surgical-site-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Ebony B Carter, Lorene A Temming, Susan Fowler, Catherine Eppes, Gilad Gross, Sindhu K Srinivas, George A Macones, Graham A Colditz, Methodius G Tuuli
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association of implementation of evidence-based bundles with surgical site infection rates after cesarean delivery. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE through PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing evidence-based infection prevention bundles for cesarean delivery, defined as implementation of three or more processes proven to prevent surgical site infection such as chlorhexidine skin preparation, antibiotic prophylaxis, and hair clipping, with usual care...
September 5, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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