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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533237/antimicrobial-resistance-risks-of-cholera-prophylaxis-for-united-nations-peacekeepers
#1
Amber Kunkel, Joseph A Lewnard, Virginia E Pitzer, Ted Cohen
More than five years after a United Nations peacekeeping battalion introduced cholera to Haiti, over 150,000 peacekeepers continue to be deployed annually from cholera endemic countries. The United Nations has thus far declined to provide antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis to peacekeepers, a policy based largely on concerns that the risks of drug resistance generation and spread would outweigh the potential benefits of preventing future cholera importations. In this study, we sought to better understand the relative benefits and risks of cholera chemoprophylaxis for peacekeepers in terms of antibiotic resistance...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531930/in-reply-to-optimal-strategy-to-control-surgical-site-infection-following-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-adequate-management-of-risk-factors-topical-application-of-vancomycin-powder-in-the-surgical-wound-and-preoperative-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531929/optimal-strategy-to-control-surgical-site-infection-following-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-adequate-management-of-risk-factors-topical-application-of-vancomycin-powder-in-the-surgical-wound-and-preoperative-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#3
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530258/enhanced-recovery-program-erp-in-major-laryngeal-surgery-building-a-protocol-and-testing-its-feasibility
#4
M Gemma, S Toma, F Lira Luce, L Beretta, M Braga, M Bussi
Enhanced recovery programs (ERP) represent a multimodal approach to perioperative patient care. The benefits of ERP are well demonstrated in colorectal surgery and Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) programs, that epitomise the ERP concept, have being introduced in different specialties, including vascular, gastric, pancreatic, urogynecologic and orthopaedic surgery. However, no ERP has been proposed for head and neck surgery. We developed an expert-opinion-based ERP for laryngeal surgery based on the key principles of colorectal surgery ERAS®...
May 22, 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529866/which-orthopaedic-patients-are-infected-with-gram-negative-non-fermenting-rods
#5
Omid Jamei, Shpresa Gjoni, Besa Zenelaj, Benjamin Kressmann, Wilson Belaieff, Didier Hannouche, Ilker Uçkay
Background : 1(st) and 2(nd) generation cephalosporins used for perioperative prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery do not cover non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR). Methods: Epidemiological cohort study of adult patients operated for orthopedic infections between 2004 and 2014 with perioperative cefuroxim or vancomycin prophylaxis. Exclusion of polyneuropathic ischemic foot infections and septic bursitis cases. Results: Of the total 1840 surgical procedures in the study, 430 grew Gram-negative pathogens (23%), of which 194 (11%) were due to NFR and 143 (8%) to Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529861/local-intra-wound-administration-of-powdered-antibiotics-in-orthopaedic-surgery
#6
REVIEW
Andrew N Fleischman, Matthew S Austin
Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common complications after orthopaedic surgery, leading to significant morbidity and its associated costs. Surgical guidelines strongly recommend the use of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce the risk for developing SSI. Locally administered powdered antibiotics have the potential to provide remarkably high intra-wound concentrations without risk for systemic toxicity. However, a paucity of high quality evidence in the orthopaedic literature has prevented widespread adoption of this technique...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529027/management-of-postneurosurgical-meningitis-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
Khetam Hussein, Roni Bitterman, Ben Shofty, Mical Paul, Ami Neuberger
BACKGROUND: Infections complicating neurosurgery pose unacceptable mortality and morbidity. AIMS: To summarize what is known about the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of post-neurosurgical meningitis (PNM). SOURCES: PubMed, references of identified studies and reviews, and personal experience when evidence was lacking. CONTENT: The incidence and pathogen distribution of PNM is highly variable. A shift towards Gram-negative bacteria has been observed with use of antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic-coated devices directed mainly against Gram-positive bacteria...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528712/timing-of-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-and-infectious-complications-in-pediatric-patients-undergoing-appendectomy
#8
Cristen N Litz, Jessica B Asuncion, Paul D Danielson, Nicole M Chandler
PURPOSE: Antibiotic administration within one hour prior to incision is a common quality metric; however, antibiotics are typically started at the time of diagnosis in pediatric patients with acute appendicitis. The purpose was to determine if antibiotic administration within one hour prior to incision reduces the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) in pediatric patients with acute appendicitis started on parenteral antibiotics upon diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 478 patients aged 0-18years who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis from 7/2013 to 4/2015...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527564/prospective-comparison-of-perioperative-antibiotic-management-protocols-in-oncological-head-and-neck-surgery
#9
Alexander K Bartella, Mohammad Kamal, Jan Teichmann, Anita Kloss-Brandstätter, Timm Steiner, Frank Hölzle, Bernd Lethaus
OBJECTIVES: The adequate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in head and neck cancer surgery is an important and easy applicable tool to decrease nosocomial morbidity and mortality by reducing the rate of infections. In the study a strictly perioperative antibiosis is compared with an extended postoperative prophylactic antibiosis. We aim to clarify the value of postoperative prophylactic antibiosis for the recovery and clinical course of patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study 75 consecutive patients, who underwent major oncological head and neck surgery were included and divided in three groups, each containing 25 patients...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525497/enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-for-suspected-ovarian-malignancy-a-survey-of-perioperative-practice-among-gynecologic-oncologists-in-australia-and-new-zealand-to-inform-a-clinical-trial
#10
Kristina Lindemann, Peey-Sei Kok, Martin Stockler, Peter Sykes, Alison Brand
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this survey was to review the current standard of perioperative care of patients with suspected advanced ovarian cancer in Australia and New Zealand in order to determine the level of equipoise for specific interventions. METHODS: In May 2016, a web-based questionnaire (SurveyMonkey Inc, Palo Alto, CA) was sent to all gynecologic oncologists in Australia and New Zealand (n = 56). Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: Response rate was 75%...
June 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522817/lactobacillus-johnsonii-ameliorates-intestinal-extra-intestinal-and-systemic-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-following-murine-campylobacter-jejuni-infection
#11
Stefan Bereswill, Ira Ekmekciu, Ulrike Escher, Ulrike Fiebiger, Kerstin Stingl, Markus M Heimesaat
Campylobacter jejuni infections are progressively increasing worldwide. Probiotic treatment might open novel therapeutic or even prophylactic approaches to combat campylobacteriosis. In the present study secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and perorally reassociated with a commensal murine Lactobacillus johnsonii strain either 14 days before (i.e. prophylactic regimen) or 7 days after (i.e. therapeutic regimen) peroral C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection. Following peroral reassociation both C...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521004/guidelines-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-travelers-diarrhea-a-graded-expert-panel-report
#12
Mark S Riddle, Bradley A Connor, Nicholas J Beeching, Herbert L DuPont, Davidson H Hamer, Phyllis Kozarsky, Michael Libman, Robert Steffen, David Taylor, David R Tribble, Jordi Vila, Philipp Zanger, Charles D Ericsson
Background: : Travelers' diarrhea causes significant morbidity including some sequelae, lost travel time and opportunity cost to both travelers and countries receiving travelers. Effective prevention and treatment are needed to reduce these negative impacts. Methods: : This critical appraisal of the literature and expert consensus guideline development effort asked several key questions related to antibiotic and non-antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment, utility of available diagnostics, impact of multi-drug resistant (MDR) colonization associated with travel and travelers' diarrhea, and how our understanding of the gastrointestinal microbiome should influence current practice and future research...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520998/medications-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-travellers-diarrhea
#13
David N Taylor, Davidson H Hamer, David R Shlim
Background: . Travellers' diarrhea (TD) remains one of the most common illnesses encountered by travellers to less developed areas of the world. Because bacterial pathogens such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli , Campylobacter spp. and Shigella spp. are the most frequent causes, antibiotics have been useful in both prevention and treatment of TD. Methods.: Results of trials that assessed the use of medications for the prevention and treatment of TD were identified through PubMed and MEDLINE searches using search terms 'travellers' diarrhea', 'prevention' and 'treatment'...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520596/fungal-keratitis-associated-with-airborne-organic-debris-and-soft-contacts-lenses-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Michael J Hodkin, Ryan C Gustus
OBJECTIVES: To report two cases of fungal keratitis in soft contact lens wearers who were exposed to environmental mold. METHODS: Case reports, with review of the relevant literature. RESULTS: Two otherwise healthy middle-aged women who were soft contact lens wearers developed fungal keratitis about 1 week after heavy exposure to environmental mold. Culture results showed Aspergillus from one patient and the unusual combination of Trichoderma and Penicillium from the other...
May 16, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516809/real-time-mri-guided-percutaneous-sclerotherapy-treatment-of-venous-low-flow-malformations-in-the-head-and-neck
#15
Sasan Partovi, Ziang Lu, Lorenna Vidal, Dean A Nakamoto, Ji Buethe, Michael Coffey, Indravadan J Patel
Purpose This manuscript describes the technique of real-time MRI-guided sclerotherapy for low-flow venous malformations in the head and neck based on our institutional experience. Materials and methods Ethanolamine oleate is used as the sclerosant and is mixed with gadolinium for visualization during the procedure. The five procedural steps include: (I) an initial tri-plane T2-weighted sequence to visualize the lesion; (II) a T1 FSE or trueFISP sequence to assess needle placement and advancement within the lesion; (III) a tri-plane T1 FLASH sequence to monitor sclerosant injection; (IV) a T1 FSE or VIBE sequence to assess sclerosant coverage of the malformation before needle removal; (V) a post-procedural tri-plane T1 fat-saturated sequence to confirm sclerosant coverage of the lesion...
January 1, 2017: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514703/bacterial-infections-and-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-liver-cirrhosis-prophylaxis-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Damian Piotrowski, Anna Boroń-Kaczmarska
Infections are common among patients with liver cirrhosis. They occur more often in cirrhotic patient groups than in the general population and result in higher mortality. One reason for this phenomenon is bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen that occurs as a consequence of intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased permeability and decreased motility. The most common infections in cirrhotic patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary tract infections, followed by pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections...
May 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504863/diagnostic-accuracy-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-intrapartum-detection-of-group-b-streptococcus-colonization
#17
Rikke Bek Helmig, Jan Berg Gertsen
Many pregnant women are treated with antibiotics during labor to prevent transmission of group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) to their baby during the passage of the birth canal, and thus reducing the risk of serious infection of the newborn. Methods for intrapartum testing for GBS has been introduced to select women for whom intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be offered. For such an intrapartum test to be useful in clinical practice, it has to be specific as well as sensitive. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay compared to an optimized culture method for GBS MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 12...
May 15, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501000/combination-of-a-biodegradable-three-dimensional-3d-printed-cage-for-mechanical-support-and-nanofibrous-membranes-for-sustainable-release-of-antimicrobial-agents-for-treating-the-femoral-metaphyseal-comminuted-fracture
#18
Ying-Chao Chou, Demei Lee, Tzu-Min Chang, Yung-Heng Hsu, Yi-Hsun Yu, Err-Cheng Chan, Shih-Jung Liu
The aim of this study was to develop a biodegradable three-dimensional-printed polylactide (PLA) cage for promoting bony fixation and an antibiotics-embedded poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanofibrous membrane for infectious prophylaxis during treating the comminuted metaphyseal fracture in a rabbit femoral model. The in vitro studies included measuring the mechanical properties of the 3D printed cage and determining release activities of vancomycin and ceftazidime from the nanofibers. The in vivo study included comparisons of rabbits of the femoral metaphyseal comminuted fracture treated with or without the combined biodegradable polymers...
May 2, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492106/higher-risk-of-revision-for-infection-using-systemic-clindamycin-prophylaxis-than-with-cloxacillin
#19
Otto Robertsson, Olof Thompson, Annette W-Dahl, Martin Sundberg, Lars Lidgren, Anna Stefánsdóttir
Background and purpose - Clindamycin has not been compared with other antibiotics for prophylaxis in arthroplasty. Since 2009, the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR) has been collecting information on the prophylactic antibiotic regime used at every individual operation. In Sweden, when there is allergy to penicillin, clindamycin has been the recommended alternative. We examined whether there were differences in the rate of revision due to infection depending on which antibiotic was used as systemic prophylaxis...
May 11, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488041/malunion-of-long-bone-fractures-in-a-conflict-zone-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#20
Grace Bauhahn, Harald Veen, Rigo Hoencamp, Nelson Olim, Edward C T H Tan
INTRODUCTION: Malunion is a well-recognized complication of long-bone fractures which accounts for more than 25% of injuries in conflict zones. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of malunion sustained by casualties with penetrating gunshot wounds in an International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) surgical substitution project in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and compare these results with current literature. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed...
May 9, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
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