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Toby Handfield, Pei-Hua Huang, Robert Mark Simpson
The human faculty of moral judgement is not well suited to address problems, like climate change, that are global in scope and remote in time. Advocates of 'moral bioenhancement' have proposed that we should investigate the use of medical technologies to make human beings more trusting and altruistic and hence more willing to cooperate in efforts to mitigate the impacts of climate change. We survey recent accounts of the proximate and ultimate causes of human cooperation in order to assess the prospects for bioenhancement...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Vikash Kumar, Rajeev Kharb, Hema Chaudhary
Our research objective was to optimize and design nano-biosystem of Isradipine (IDP) via novel bioenhancer (Rutin) loaded solid-lipid nanobioparticles (ANbp) using Taguchi design (TgD) methodology. Firstly, preliminary screening of solid lipid nano-particles (SLNs) formulation core factors (A, B & C; Lipoid's, poly-acid, sonication time respectively at fixed dose of model drug were assessed on entrapment efficiency & particle size; R1 & R2) by performed experimentally of three factor three levels orthogonal L27 array...
July 5, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yuko Iwase, Noriyasu Kamei, El-Sayed Khafagy, Mitsuko Miyamoto, Mariko Takeda-Morishita
The conjugation of therapeutic proteins to polyethylene glycol (PEG) is known as PEGylation. It improves their retention in the body and reduces the frequency of injections. Development of noninvasive delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals can improve the patients' quality of life. The present study aimed to evaluate the cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which act as bioenhancers, for the nasal delivery of protein drug interferon beta (IFN-β) and its PEGylated form (PEG-IFN-β). The ability of CPPs to enhance the nasal mucosal absorption of unmodified IFN-β was assessed in rats...
August 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Prashant P Mande, Sagar S Bachhav, Padma V Devarajan
PURPOSE: The aim of our study was development of advanced third generation Curcumin self microemulsifying composition solid dispersion (Cur SMEC-SD) with high drug loading, improved stability, rapid in-vitro dissolution and enhanced bioavailability for improved therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. METHOD: The Cur SMEC-SD comprising polymers (KollidonVA64[KVA], Eudragits, HPMC and Soluplus) and self microemulsifying composition of surfactant:co-surfactant:oil were coated onto rapidly disintegrating inert tablet core...
August 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Babar Ali, Qazi Mohd Sajid Jamal, Showkat R Mir, Saiba Shams, Naser A Al-Wabel, Mohammad A Kamal
BACKGROUND: Black cumin oil is obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. which belongs to family Ranunculaceae. The seed oil has been reported to possess antitumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, central nervous system depressant, antioxidant, and immunostimulatory activities. These bioactivities have been attributed to the fixed oil, volatile oil, or their components. Seed oil consisted of 15 saturated fatty acids (17%) and 17 unsaturated fatty acids (82...
October 2015: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Shubham Atal, Sarjana Atal, Savita Vyas, Pradeep Phadnis
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is the most rampant metabolic pandemic of the 21(st) century. Piperine, the chief alkaloid of Piper nigrum (black pepper) is widely used in alternative and complementary therapies has been extensively studied for its bio-enhancing property. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bio-enhancing effect of piperine with metformin in lowering blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Piperine was isolated from an extract of fruits of P...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Permender Rathee, Anjoo Kamboj, Shabir Sidhu
Our key objective was an attempt to apply a novel statistical method intended for designing, optimizing and developing Nisoldipine nano-bioenhancers using Taguchi (3 × 3=L27) design. This quality improvement orthogonal design array (L27) was used as a mathematical tool to find and study the response prediction of independent as well as significant variables (A=poly-concentration; B=bio-enhancer and C=ratio of organic medium). The array orthogonal (3 × 3=L27) at each level/spaces has been studied with respect to responses changeable (dependent factors); entrapment enhancement (X; evaluated using particle size; Y)...
May 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Fabio Battini, Caterina Cristani, Manuela Giovannetti, Monica Agnolucci
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) live in symbiosis with most crop plants and represent essential elements of soil fertility and plant nutrition and productivity, facilitating soil mineral nutrient uptake and protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stresses. These beneficial services may be mediated by the dense and active spore-associated bacterial communities, which sustain diverse functions, such as the promotion of mycorrhizal activity, biological control of soilborne diseases, nitrogen fixation, and the supply of nutrients and growth factors...
February 2016: Microbiological Research
Parker Crutchfield
Moral bioenhancement is the potential practice of manipulating individuals' moral behaviors by biological means in order to help resolve pressing moral issues such as climate change and terrorism. This practice has obvious ethical implications, and these implications have been and continue to be discussed in the bioethics literature. What have not been discussed are the epistemological implications of moral bioenhancement. This article details some of these implications of engaging in moral bioenhancement. The argument begins by making the distinction between moral bioenhancement that manipulates the contents of mental states (e...
July 2016: Bioethics
Bushra Parveen, K K Pillai, E T Tamboli, Sayeed Ahmad
UNLABELLED: Piperine (PIP) is used as anticonvulsant in traditional Chinese medicine. Co-administration of low-dose sodium valproate with PIP has been regarded to have potential anticonvulsant activity. AIM: This study was intended to investigate the effect of PIP on the pharmacokinetics of sodium valproate (SVP) in the plasma samples of rats using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The plasma samples obtained after oral administration of SVP, 150 mg/kg and SVP, 150 mg/kg + PIP, and 5 mg/kg to male Wistar rats were used to quantify the concentrations in plasma using GC-MS method...
October 2015: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Kristine R Polley, Nathan Jenkins, Patrick O'Connor, Kevin McCully
Physical inactivity reduces, and exercise training increases, mitochondrial capacity. In rodents, exercise training effects can be augmented by large doses of resveratrol supplementation but whether this can occur in humans with a smaller dose is unclear. This study sought to determine the effects of resveratrol supplementation in combination with exercise training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity. Sixteen healthy young adults were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to consume either placebo or 500 mg of resveratrol plus 10 mg of piperine, a bioenhancer to increase bioavailibilty and bioefficacy of resveratrol...
January 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Jin-Ah Lee, Sang Keun Ha, EunJung Cho, Inwook Choi
The aim of this study was to improve the anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin through co-treatment with resveratrol as a bioenhancer of apigenin. RAW 264.7 cells pretreated with hepatic metabolites formed by the co-metabolism of apigenin and resveratrol (ARMs) in HepG2 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ARMs prominently inhibited (p < 0.05) the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Otherwise no such activity was observed by hepatic metabolites of apigenin alone (AMs)...
November 2015: Nutrients
Anisha A D'Souza, Padma V Devarajan
The paper discusses polysaccharide-adsorbed curcumin-Gantrez nanoparticles for bioenhancement of oral curcumin. Nanoparticles revealed no change in size over time in pH 1.2 and 7.4, and a rapid drug release in pH 1.2 and 7.4 medium containing surfactant. Without adsorbed polysaccharides, nanoparticles exhibited high Cmax (61.3 ± 22.3 ng/mL), sustained plasma concentration up to 24h and 117% absolute bioavailability, attributed to bioadhesion. In contrast galactose polysaccharides arabinogalactan and kappa-carrageenan adsorbed nanoparticles exhibited rapid absorption with higher Cmax of 109...
January 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Karan Mittal, Riddhish Patadia, Chintan Vora, Rajashree Mashru
A vast range of prescribed drugs suffers from low and variable bioavailability mainly because of metabolism and permeation complications. This issue of bioavailability is a key problem that has been ongoing for many years. Various tactics have been introduced that have been quite beneficial for improving the bioavailability of poorly bioavailable drugs. Some of these tactics are targeted on cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes and the permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump. Strategies include small-molecule inhibitors, novel drug-delivery systems, pharmaceutical synthetic excipients, and natural bioenhancers...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Nicholas Drake
In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons...
January 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Neeraj K Sethiya, Pankaj Shah, Aruna Rajpara, P A Nagar, S H Mishra
Phyllanthin, a sparingly water-soluble hepatoprotective lignin obtained from Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et Thonn. (Euphorbiaceae) possesses low bioavailability. Phyllanthin along with piperine (a nutraceutical bioenhancer) was formulated as a mixed micellar lipid formulation (MMLF) in the present study and investigated to resolve the low bioavailability and enhance hepatoprotective effects on oral administration. Hepatoprotective, antioxidant and bioavailability studies of MMLF, a complex phosphatidylcholine formulation of phyllanthin (CP-PC), phyllanthin + piperine (CP-P-PC) and its corresponding non-formulated phyllanthin have been carried out...
November 2015: Food & Function
Peela J Rao, Shoba D Kolla, Farag Elshaari, Fatoom Elshaari, Hayam El Awamy, Mona Elfrady, Rajinder Singh, Asma Belkhier, Shakila Srikumar, Abdul R Said, Sainath J Dhopoide, Ranjani Ramanujam, Idris Elbarassi, Laxmi T Peela, Anuradha Argi
BACKGROUND: Piperine is isolated from Piper nigrum popularly known as black pepper. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of piperine in various health conditions. Additionally, it is a powerful bioenhancer for many drugs. Piperine extract is believed to potentiate the effect of drugs by several folds. The present study is focused on its individual effect on liver function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 CF-1 albino mice obtained from the animal house of faculty of Medicine, Benghazi University, Benghazi, Libya were included in the study...
2015: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Marwa Ahmed Sallam, María Teresa Marín Boscá
In this study, an optimized nanodispersible oral dosage form (containing a lactate ester) was developed for cilostazol (CZL). CZL is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor used for intermittent claudication. We aimed to improve the dissolution rate and absorption of CZL giving it a better chance of oral bioavailability, and to evaluate its stability on storage. Suitable compositions of nanoemulsion preconcentrate formulations were screened via solubility and compatibility tests. Response surface methodology and a desirability approach were applied to optimize preconcentrates containing minimum amount of surfactant mixture, maximum amount of lipid, and possessing the smallest globule size, with the highest emulsification and dissolution rates and minimum risk of drug precipitation...
2015: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Xin Di, Xin Wang, Xin Di, Youping Liu
Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) has been widely used as a traditional medicine and was shown to possess a multitude of health-promoting properties in pre-clinical studies, but its bioavailability was low due to the extensive glucuronidation in liver and intestine, hindering the development of emodin as a feasible chemopreventive agent. In this study, piperine, as a bioenhancer, was used to enhance the bioavailability of emodin by inhibiting its glucuronidation. The pharmacokinetic profiles of emodin after oral administration of emodin (20mg/kg) alone and in combination with piperine (20mg/kg) to rats were investigated via a validated LC/MS/MS method...
November 10, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Doaa Ahmed El-Setouhy, Emad B Basalious, Nevine Shawky Abdelmalak
Formulation of sublingual tablets of drugs with limited permeability poses a great challenge due to their poor absorption. In this study, bioenhanced sublingual tablets (BESTs) of zolmitriptan were prepared using novel surfactant binder (Pluronic® p123/Syloid® mixture) to enhance tablet disintegration and dissolution. Microencapsulated polysorbate 80 (Sepitrap™ 80) were included in the composition of BESTs to enhance the drug transport through the sublingual mucosa. Tablets were evaluated for in vitro/in vivo disintegration, in vitro dissolution and ex vivo permeation...
August 2015: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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