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Bioenhancement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917247/moral-blindness-the-gift-of-the-god-machine
#1
John Harris
The continuing debate between Persson and Savulescu and myself over moral enhancement concerns two dimensions of a very large question. The large question is: what exactly makes something a moral enhancement? This large question needs a book length study and this I provide in my How to be Good, Oxford 2016. (JH 2016). In their latest paper Moral Bioenhancement, Freedom and Reason take my book as their point of departure and the first dimension of the big question they address is one that emphasizes a distinction, not highlighted in their original 2008 paper, between a moral enhancement that will ensure an improvement in morality and one that will simply make people more motivated to be moral...
2016: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917246/moral-bioenhancement-freedom-and-reason
#2
Ingmar Persson, Julian Savulescu
In this paper we reply to the most important objections to our advocacy of moral enhancement by biomedical means - moral bioenhancement - that John Harris advances in his new book How to be Good. These objections are to effect that such moral enhancement undercuts both moral reasoning and freedom. The latter objection is directed more specifically at what we have called the God Machine, a super-duper computer which predicts our decisions and prevents decisions to perpertrate morally atrocious acts. In reply, we argue first that effective moral bioenhancement presupposes moral reasoning rather than undermines it...
2016: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853890/neuroprotective-potential-of-curcumin-in-combination-with-piperine-against-6-hydroxy-dopamine-induced-motor-deficit-and-neurochemical-alterations-in-rats
#3
Shamsher Singh, Puneet Kumar
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) is a neurotoxin which on intranigral administration produces severe nigrostriatal damage with motor and cognitive deficit in animals. Curcumin (CMN) in combination with bioenhancer piperine (PP) in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonian rats was used to investigate the antioxidant, neuromodulatory and neuroprotective mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hemi-Parkinson's rat model was developed with intranigral infusion of 6-OHDA (8 μg/2 μl, once, unilaterally), treatment with CMN (25 and 50 mg/kg) and combination of PP (2...
November 16, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805329/role-of-risorine-in-the-treatment-of-drug-susceptible-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-pilot-study
#4
Agam Vora, Sanjay Patel, Kamlesh Patel
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy and tolerability of Risorine Capsule (A fixed dose combination of Rifampicin 200 mg + INH 300 mg + Piperine 10 mg) therapy in the treatment of drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis patients who developed GI intolerance with standard WHO anti TB regimen. METHODS: 33 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were treated with one Risorine kit, daily consisting of one capsule of Risorine, one tablet of ethambutol (800 mg) and two tablets of Pyrazinamide 750 mg each, for first two months of therapy...
November 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783266/bringing-curcumin-to-the-clinic-in-cancer-prevention-a-review-of-strategies-to-enhance-bioavailability-and-efficacy
#5
Rama I Mahran, Magda M Hagras, Duxin Sun, Dean E Brenner
Cancer is still a major cause of death all over the world. Its incidence and prevalence are increasing drastically. Cancer treatment imposes high socioeconomic burden with little impact especially on aggressive types of cancer. Reversing or delaying carcinogenesis "cancer chemoprevention" by purified or extracted natural products is a cost-effective alternative. Curcumin is widely available, inexpensive spice that has been used in ancient folk medicine for millennia, especially in India. Curcumin has the pharmacological properties that slow or reverse cellular proliferation and enhance apoptosis and differentiation associated with a diverse array of molecular effects...
October 25, 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558776/climate-change-cooperation-and-moral-bioenhancement
#6
Toby Handfield, Pei-Hua Huang, Robert Mark Simpson
The human faculty of moral judgement is not well suited to address problems, like climate change, that are global in scope and remote in time. Advocates of 'moral bioenhancement' have proposed that we should investigate the use of medical technologies to make human beings more trusting and altruistic and hence more willing to cooperate in efforts to mitigate the impacts of climate change. We survey recent accounts of the proximate and ultimate causes of human cooperation in order to assess the prospects for bioenhancement...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392772/optimization-design-of-isradipine-loaded-solid-lipid-nanobioparticles-using-rutin-by-taguchi-methodology
#7
Vikash Kumar, Rajeev Kharb, Hema Chaudhary
Our research objective was to optimize and design nano-biosystem of Isradipine (IDP) via novel bioenhancer (Rutin) loaded solid-lipid nanobioparticles (ANbp) using Taguchi design (TgD) methodology. Firstly, preliminary screening of solid lipid nano-particles (SLNs) formulation core factors (A, B & C; Lipoid's, poly-acid, sonication time respectively at fixed dose of model drug were assessed on entrapment efficiency & particle size; R1 & R2) by performed experimentally of three factor three levels orthogonal L27 array...
July 5, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343364/use-of-a-non-covalent-cell-penetrating-peptide-strategy-to-enhance-the-nasal-delivery-of-interferon-beta-and-its-pegylated-form
#8
Yuko Iwase, Noriyasu Kamei, El-Sayed Khafagy, Mitsuko Miyamoto, Mariko Takeda-Morishita
The conjugation of therapeutic proteins to polyethylene glycol (PEG) is known as PEGylation. It improves their retention in the body and reduces the frequency of injections. Development of noninvasive delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals can improve the patients' quality of life. The present study aimed to evaluate the cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which act as bioenhancers, for the nasal delivery of protein drug interferon beta (IFN-β) and its PEGylated form (PEG-IFN-β). The ability of CPPs to enhance the nasal mucosal absorption of unmodified IFN-β was assessed in rats...
August 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245466/solid-dispersion-of-curcumin-as-polymeric-films-for-bioenhancement-and-improved-therapy-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Prashant P Mande, Sagar S Bachhav, Padma V Devarajan
PURPOSE: The aim of our study was development of advanced third generation Curcumin self microemulsifying composition solid dispersion (Cur SMEC-SD) with high drug loading, improved stability, rapid in-vitro dissolution and enhanced bioavailability for improved therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. METHOD: The Cur SMEC-SD comprising polymers (KollidonVA64[KVA], Eudragits, HPMC and Soluplus) and self microemulsifying composition of surfactant:co-surfactant:oil were coated onto rapidly disintegrating inert tablet core...
August 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013802/in-silico-analysis-for-predicting-fatty-acids-of-black-cumin-oil-as-inhibitors-of-p-glycoprotein
#10
Babar Ali, Qazi Mohd Sajid Jamal, Showkat R Mir, Saiba Shams, Naser A Al-Wabel, Mohammad A Kamal
BACKGROUND: Black cumin oil is obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. which belongs to family Ranunculaceae. The seed oil has been reported to possess antitumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, central nervous system depressant, antioxidant, and immunostimulatory activities. These bioactivities have been attributed to the fixed oil, volatile oil, or their components. Seed oil consisted of 15 saturated fatty acids (17%) and 17 unsaturated fatty acids (82...
October 2015: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941537/bio-enhancing-effect-of-piperine-with-metformin-on-lowering-blood-glucose-level-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice
#11
Shubham Atal, Sarjana Atal, Savita Vyas, Pradeep Phadnis
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is the most rampant metabolic pandemic of the 21(st) century. Piperine, the chief alkaloid of Piper nigrum (black pepper) is widely used in alternative and complementary therapies has been extensively studied for its bio-enhancing property. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bio-enhancing effect of piperine with metformin in lowering blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Piperine was isolated from an extract of fruits of P...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26845477/optimization-and-development-of-nisoldipine-nano-bioenhancers-by-novel-orthogonal-array-l27-array
#12
Permender Rathee, Anjoo Kamboj, Shabir Sidhu
Our key objective was an attempt to apply a novel statistical method intended for designing, optimizing and developing Nisoldipine nano-bioenhancers using Taguchi (3 × 3=L27) design. This quality improvement orthogonal design array (L27) was used as a mathematical tool to find and study the response prediction of independent as well as significant variables (A=poly-concentration; B=bio-enhancer and C=ratio of organic medium). The array orthogonal (3 × 3=L27) at each level/spaces has been studied with respect to responses changeable (dependent factors); entrapment enhancement (X; evaluated using particle size; Y)...
May 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26805620/multifunctionality-and-diversity-of-culturable-bacterial-communities-strictly-associated-with-spores-of-the-plant-beneficial-symbiont-rhizophagus-intraradices
#13
Fabio Battini, Caterina Cristani, Manuela Giovannetti, Monica Agnolucci
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) live in symbiosis with most crop plants and represent essential elements of soil fertility and plant nutrition and productivity, facilitating soil mineral nutrient uptake and protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stresses. These beneficial services may be mediated by the dense and active spore-associated bacterial communities, which sustain diverse functions, such as the promotion of mycorrhizal activity, biological control of soilborne diseases, nitrogen fixation, and the supply of nutrients and growth factors...
February 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26686733/the-epistemology-of-moral-bioenhancement
#14
Parker Crutchfield
Moral bioenhancement is the potential practice of manipulating individuals' moral behaviors by biological means in order to help resolve pressing moral issues such as climate change and terrorism. This practice has obvious ethical implications, and these implications have been and continue to be discussed in the bioethics literature. What have not been discussed are the epistemological implications of moral bioenhancement. This article details some of these implications of engaging in moral bioenhancement. The argument begins by making the distinction between moral bioenhancement that manipulates the contents of mental states (e...
July 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26681892/effect-of-piperine-on-pharmacokinetics-of-sodium-valproate-in-plasma-samples-of-rats-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-method
#15
Bushra Parveen, K K Pillai, E T Tamboli, Sayeed Ahmad
UNLABELLED: Piperine (PIP) is used as anticonvulsant in traditional Chinese medicine. Co-administration of low-dose sodium valproate with PIP has been regarded to have potential anticonvulsant activity. AIM: This study was intended to investigate the effect of PIP on the pharmacokinetics of sodium valproate (SVP) in the plasma samples of rats using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The plasma samples obtained after oral administration of SVP, 150 mg/kg and SVP, 150 mg/kg + PIP, and 5 mg/kg to male Wistar rats were used to quantify the concentrations in plasma using GC-MS method...
October 2015: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26638911/influence-of-exercise-training-with-resveratrol-supplementation-on-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-capacity
#16
Kristine R Polley, Nathan Jenkins, Patrick O'Connor, Kevin McCully
Physical inactivity reduces, and exercise training increases, mitochondrial capacity. In rodents, exercise training effects can be augmented by large doses of resveratrol supplementation but whether this can occur in humans with a smaller dose is unclear. This study sought to determine the effects of resveratrol supplementation in combination with exercise training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity. Sixteen healthy young adults were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to consume either placebo or 500 mg of resveratrol plus 10 mg of piperine, a bioenhancer to increase bioavailibilty and bioefficacy of resveratrol...
January 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26610561/resveratrol-as-a-bioenhancer-to-improve-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-apigenin
#17
Jin-Ah Lee, Sang Keun Ha, EunJung Cho, Inwook Choi
The aim of this study was to improve the anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin through co-treatment with resveratrol as a bioenhancer of apigenin. RAW 264.7 cells pretreated with hepatic metabolites formed by the co-metabolism of apigenin and resveratrol (ARMs) in HepG2 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ARMs prominently inhibited (p < 0.05) the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Otherwise no such activity was observed by hepatic metabolites of apigenin alone (AMs)...
November 2015: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26572468/bioenhanced-oral-curcumin-nanoparticles-role-of-carbohydrates
#18
Anisha A D'Souza, Padma V Devarajan
The paper discusses polysaccharide-adsorbed curcumin-Gantrez nanoparticles for bioenhancement of oral curcumin. Nanoparticles revealed no change in size over time in pH 1.2 and 7.4, and a rapid drug release in pH 1.2 and 7.4 medium containing surfactant. Without adsorbed polysaccharides, nanoparticles exhibited high Cmax (61.3 ± 22.3 ng/mL), sustained plasma concentration up to 24h and 117% absolute bioavailability, attributed to bioadhesion. In contrast galactose polysaccharides arabinogalactan and kappa-carrageenan adsorbed nanoparticles exhibited rapid absorption with higher Cmax of 109...
January 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559434/myriad-molecules-to-overcome-efflux-drug-transporters-and-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-a-journey-from-synthetic-to-natural
#19
REVIEW
Karan Mittal, Riddhish Patadia, Chintan Vora, Rajashree Mashru
A vast range of prescribed drugs suffers from low and variable bioavailability mainly because of metabolism and permeation complications. This issue of bioavailability is a key problem that has been ongoing for many years. Various tactics have been introduced that have been quite beneficial for improving the bioavailability of poorly bioavailable drugs. Some of these tactics are targeted on cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes and the permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump. Strategies include small-molecule inhibitors, novel drug-delivery systems, pharmaceutical synthetic excipients, and natural bioenhancers...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26552998/is-moral-bioenhancement-dangerous
#20
Nicholas Drake
In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons...
January 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
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