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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205423/different-games-of-moral-bioenhancement
#1
Vojin Rakić, Harris Wiseman
Rakić has serious misgivings about Wiseman's inability to frame ethical issues in the context of transcending existing realities (the 'is') with the aim of achieving what we believe is morally right (the 'ought'). This inability to think beyond the present is misguided in ethics. He also criticizes Wiseman for making the unimaginative and unsubstantiated assumption that moral bioenhancement (MBE) technologies have reached their zenith already. Rakić argues that MBE will become more effective in the time to come, that it ought to be optional for every free individual, and that it should be directed at enhancing our motivation to act in line with how we believe we ought to act...
December 4, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056550/piperine-in-combination-with-quercetin-halt-6-ohda-induced-neurodegeneration-in-experimental-rats-biochemical-and-neurochemical-evidences
#2
Shamsher Singh, Puneet Kumar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurological disorder caused by selective dopaminergic neuronal loss. Quercetin (QC) in combination with piperine (bioenhancer) acts as potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective against 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Rats were injected 6-OHDA (8μg/2μl, saline) unilaterally, intranigrally once into right SNpc. Pre-treatment with QC (25 and 50mg/kg, p.o.) alone and combination of QC (25mg/kg, p.o.) with piperine (2.5mg/kg, p.o.) were given for 14days starting from 8th day of 6-OHDA infusion...
October 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983861/the-issues-of-freedom-and-happiness-in-moral-bioenhancement-continuing-the-debate-with-a-reply-to-harris-wiseman
#3
Vojin Rakić
During the previous years, Harris Wiseman has devoted substantial attention to my stance on voluntary moral bioenhancement. He argued that he has been influenced by that position, but nonetheless criticized it. I haven't replied to his criticisms yet and wish to do so now. One of the reasons is to avoid my position being misrepresented. By replying to Wiseman's criticisms, I also wish to clarify those issues in my standpoint that might have given rise to some of the misinterpretations. With the same purpose in mind, I will demarcate my concept of voluntary moral bioenhancement from related standpoints, in particular from Persson and Savulescu's notion of compulsory moral bioenhancement that, as I argued, diminishes our freedom (of the will)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921608/moral-bioenhancement-and-agential-risks-good-and-bad-outcomes
#4
Phil Torres
In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu argue that our collective existetial predicment is unprecedentedly dangerous due to climate change and terrorism. Given these global risks to human prosperity and survival, Persson and Savulescu argue that we should explore the radical possibility of moral bioenhancement in addition to cognitive enhancement. In this article, I argue that moral bioenhancements could nontrivially exacerbate the threat posed by certain kinds of malicious agents, while reducing the threat of other kinds...
November 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890740/public-attitudes-towards-moral-enhancement-evidence-that-means-matter-morally
#5
Jona Specker, Maartje H N Schermer, Peter B Reiner
To gain insight into the reasons that the public may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological moral enhancement for themselves or for others, we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards these issues. Participants (N = 293) from the United States were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk and were randomly assigned to read one of several contrastive vignettes in which a 13-year-old child is described as bullying another student in school and then is offered an empathy-enhancing program...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873235/a-kantian-ethics-approach-to-moral-bioenhancement
#6
Sarah Carter
It seems, at first glance, that a Kantian ethics approach to moral enhancement would tend towards the position that there could be no place for emotional modulation in any understanding of the endeavour, owing to the typically understood view that Kantian ethics does not allow any role for emotion in morality as a whole. It seems then that any account of moral bioenhancement which places emotion at its centre would therefore be rejected. This article argues, however, that this assumption is incorrect. Given later writings by Kant on the role of sympathy, and taking into account other concerns in Kantian ethics (such as bodily integrity), it may in fact be the case that Kantian ethics would allow for an account of moral bioenhancement through emotional modulation, and that in some (rare) cases such an intervention might even be considered to be a duty...
November 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711639/skin-permeability-enhancement-by-bacillus-subtilis-alkaline-protease-application-to-transdermal-drug-delivery
#7
Mohamed I Nounou, Taha I Zaghloul, Nehal A Ahmed, Amira A Eid, Labiba K El-Khordagui
Enzymes may offer great potentials in topical pharmaceutical applications provided that treatment conditions are controlled for efficacy and safety. In this study, the effect of alkaline protease produced by recombinant Bacillus subtilis cells on the ex-vivo permeability of rabbit ear skin was investigated under different conditions of enzyme activity (5-60 units) and exposure time (15-60min). Data for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and permeation of a hydrophilic dye, rhodamine B (Rb), indicated biphasic activity-dependent and exposure time-dependent skin permeability...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710657/bioenhancement-of-morality
#8
EDITORIAL
Bert Gordijn, Henk Ten Have
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694767/development-of-a-new-rutin-nanoemulsion-and-its-application-on-prostate-carcinoma-pc3-cell-line
#9
Mohammad Ahmad, - Sahabjada, Juber Akhtar, Arshad Hussain, - Badaruddeen, Md Arshad, Anuradha Mishra
Biological effects of rutin bioactive are limited due to its poor oral bioavailability and its degradation in aqueous environments. For the purpose of bioenhancement, different nanoemulsion systems of rutin were developed by aqueous titration method using water as dispersion media. The nanoemulsion systems were characterized for surface morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, in vitro release profile and the formulations were optimized. The anticancer potential of optimized nanoemulsion was evaluated by cells viability (MTT) assay, nuclear condensation, and ROS activity using human prostate cancer (PC3) cell line...
2017: EXCLI Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680077/facilitation-of-phosphorus-uptake-in-maize-plants-by-mycorrhizosphere-bacteria
#10
Fabio Battini, Mette Grønlund, Monica Agnolucci, Manuela Giovannetti, Iver Jakobsen
A major challenge for agriculture is to provide sufficient plant nutrients such as phosphorus (P) to meet the global food demand. The sufficiency of P is a concern because of it's essential role in plant growth, the finite availability of P-rock for fertilizer production and the poor plant availability of soil P. This study investigated whether biofertilizers and bioenhancers, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their associated bacteria could enhance growth and P uptake in maize. Plants were grown with or without mycorrhizas in compartmented pots with radioactive P tracers and were inoculated with each of 10 selected bacteria isolated from AMF spores...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591594/oleanolic-bioenhancer-coloaded-chitosan-modified-nanocarriers-attenuate-breast-cancer-cells-by-multimode-mechanism-and-preserve-female-fertility
#11
Monika Sharma, Shweta Sharma, Vikas Sharma, Komal Sharma, Santosh Kumar Yadav, Pankaj Dwivedi, Satish Agrawal, Sarvesh Kumar Paliwal, Anil Kumar Dwivedi, Jagdamba Prasad Maikhuri, Gopal Gupta, Prabhat Ranjan Mishra, Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat
Addressing multidrug resistant stage of breast cancer is an impediment for chemotherapy. Moreover, breast cancer chemotherapy has potential enduring confrontations i.e. related toxicity including effect on fertility of young female patients. The co-delivery of polyphenolic bio-enhancers with oleanolic acid in chitosan coated PLGA nanoparticles was designed for oral delivery with enhanced antitumor effect consecutively preserving the female fertility. The optimized oleanolic- bio-enhancer nano formulation CH-OA-B-PLGA with particle size was 342...
November 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541169/imagining-moral-bioenhancement-practices-drawing-inspiration-from-moral-education-public-health-ethics-and-forensic-psychiatry
#12
Jona Specker, Maartje H N Schermer
In this article, we consider contexts or domains in which (future) moral bioenhancement interventions possibly or most likely will be implemented. By looking closely at similar or related existing practices and their relevant ethical frameworks, we hope to identify ethical considerations that are relevant for evaluating potential moral bioenhancement interventions. We examine, first, debates on the proper scope of moral education; second, proposals for identifying early risk factors for antisocial behaviour; and third, the difficult balancing of individual freedom and third party concerns in (forensic) psychiatry...
July 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541168/commentary-moral-bioenhancement-worthy-of-the-name
#13
Robert Sparrow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541167/would-we-even-know-moral-bioenhancement-if-we-saw-it
#14
Harris Wiseman
The term "moral bioenhancement" conceals a diverse plurality encompassing much potential, some elements of which are desirable, some of which are disturbing, and some of which are simply bland. This article invites readers to take a better differentiated approach to discriminating between elements of the debate rather than talking of moral bioenhancement "per se," or coming to any global value judgments about the idea as an abstract whole (no such whole exists). Readers are then invited to consider the benefits and distortions that come from the usual dichotomies framing the various debates, concluding with an additional distinction for further clarifying this discourse qua explicit/implicit moral bioenhancement...
July 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541166/moral-bioenhancement-and-free-will-continuing-the-debate
#15
Vojin Rakić
This article continues and expands differences I have with Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu concerning issues of moral bioenhancement and free will. They have criticized my conception of voluntary moral bioenhancement, claiming that it ignores the extent to which freedom is a matter of degree. Here, I argue that freedom as a political concept (or as one that is analogous to a political concept) is indeed scalar in nature, but that freedom of the will is to be understood as a threshold concept and therefore not as subject to degree...
July 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541165/is-it-desirable-to-be-able-to-do-the-undesirable-moral-bioenhancement-and-the-little-alex-problem
#16
Michael Hauskeller
It has been argued that moral bioenhancement is desirable even if it would make it impossible for us to do what is morally required. Others find this apparent loss of freedom deplorable. However, it is difficult to see how a world in which there is no moral evil can plausibly be regarded as worse than a world in which people are not only free to do evil, but also where they actually do it, which would commit us to the seemingly paradoxical view that, under certain circumstances, the bad can be better than the good...
July 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541163/commentary-freedom-means-self-awareness-and-self-control-bioenhancement-can-help
#17
James Hughes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447878/development-of-novel-amisulpride-loaded-liquid-self-nanoemulsifying-drug-delivery-systems-via-dual-tackling-of-its-solubility-and-intestinal-permeability
#18
Wael Gamal, Rania H Fahmy, Magdy I Mohamed
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current investigation was at enhancing the oral biopharmaceutical behavior; solubility and intestinal permeability of amisulpride (AMS) via development of liquid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (L-SNEDDS) containing bioenhancing excipients. METHODS: The components of L-SNEDDS were identified via solubility studies and emulsification efficiency tests, and ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the efficient self-emulsification regions...
September 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356492/the-moral-bioenhancement-of-psychopaths
#19
Elvio Baccarini, Luca Malatesti
We argue that the mandatory moral bioenhancement of psychopaths is justified as a prescription of social morality. Moral bioenhancement is legitimate when it is justified on the basis of the reasons of the recipients. Psychopaths expect and prefer that the agents with whom they interact do not have certain psychopathic traits. Particularly, they have reasons to require the moral bioenhancement of psychopaths with whom they must cooperate. By adopting a public reason and a Kantian argument, we conclude that we can justify to a psychopath being the recipient of mandatory moral bioenhancement because he has a reason to require the application of this prescription to other psychopaths...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300281/moral-hard-wiring-and-moral-enhancement
#20
Ingmar Persson, Julian Savulescu
We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat...
May 2017: Bioethics
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