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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315607/the-solar-ultraviolet-environment-at-the-ocean
#1
Curtis D Mobley, Brian L Diffey
Atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer models were used to compute spectral radiances between 285 and 400 nm onto horizontal and vertical plane surfaces over water. The calculations kept track of the contributions by the sun's direct beam, by diffuse sky radiance, by radiance reflected from the sea surface, and by water-leaving radiance. Clear, hazy, and cloudy sky conditions were simulated for a range of sun zenith angles, wind speeds, and atmospheric ozone concentrations. The radiances were used to estimate erythemal exposures due to the sun and sky, as well as from radiation reflected by the sea surface and backscattered from the water column...
January 8, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313455/preliminary-outcomes-of-the-lifestream-balloon-expandable-covered-stent-in-fenestrated-and-branched-thoracoabdominal-endovascular-repairs
#2
Luca Bertoglio, Diletta Loschi, Tommaso Cambiaghi, Daniele Mascia, Andrea Kahlberg, Germano Melissano, Roberto Chiesa
PURPOSE: To evaluate the 1-year outcomes of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair using fenestrated and branched stent-grafts and a novel balloon-expandable covered stent. METHODS: Between March 2015 and January 2017, 18 patients (median age 74.7 years; 14 men) received 43 LifeStream balloon-expandable covered stents in conjunction with Zenith fenestrated/branched stent-grafts to bridge 11 celiac trunks, 8 superior mesenteric arteries, and 24 renal arteries (total 32 fenestrations and 11 branches)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309578/the-role-of-community-health-workers-in-improving-hiv-treatment-outcomes-in-children-lessons-learned-from-the-zenith-trial-in-zimbabwe
#3
Joanna Busza, Ethel Dauya, Tsitsi Bandason, Victoria Simms, Chido Dziva Chikwari, Memory Makamba, Grace Mchugh, Shungu Munyati, Prosper Chonzi, Rashida A Ferrand
Reliance on community health workers (CHWs) for HIV care continues to increase, particularly in resource-limited settings. CHWs can improve HIV service use and adherence to treatment, but effectiveness of these programmes relies on providing an enabling work environment for CHWs, including reasonable workload, supportive supervision and adequate training and supplies. Although criteria for effective CHW programmes have been identified, these have rarely been prospectively applied to design and evaluation of new interventions...
January 3, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280983/a-new-zenith-tropospheric-delay-grid-product-for-real-time-ppp-applications-over-china
#4
Yidong Lou, Jinfang Huang, Weixing Zhang, Hong Liang, Fu Zheng, Jingnan Liu
Tropospheric delay is one of the major factors affecting the accuracy of electromagnetic distance measurements. To provide wide-area real-time high precision zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD), the temporal and spatial variations of ZTD with altitude were analyzed on the bases of the latest meteorological reanalysis product (ERA-Interim) provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). An inverse scale height model at given locations taking latitude, longitude and day of year as inputs was then developed and used to convert real-time ZTD at GPS stations in Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) from station height to mean sea level (MSL)...
December 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248938/morphological-characteristics-of-the-facial-bone-wall-related-to-the-tooth-position-in-the-alveolar-crest-in-the-maxillary-anterior
#5
Hernán Bonta, Nelson Carranza, Ariel F Gualtieri, Mariana A Rojas
The purpose of this study was to analyze whether the position of the tooth in the alveolar ridge influences the thickness of the facial bone wall and the distance between the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and osseous zenith (OZ). Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans from fifty four dentate patients were included in the study (22 male and 32 female, mean age 41. 5 years). The measurements taken included: (1). The Facial bone thickness at 7 different equidistant levels -measuring levels (ML 1-7) - between OZ and the root apex (A)...
August 2017: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235384/technique-for-fenestrated-stent-graft-implantation-as-a-proximal-extension-to-a-previous-fenestrated-endovascular-repair-for-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#6
Konstantinos Spanos, Nikolaos Tsilimparis, Franziska Heidemann, Fiona Rohlffs, Christian-Alexander Behrendt, Eike Sebastian Debus, Tilo Kölbel
PURPOSE: To describe planning and a technique for fenestrated endovascular repair of a large Crawford type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm after previous 2-fenestration endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR). TECHNIQUE: The first FEVAR procedure performed at another center implanted a standard Zenith device with 2 fenestrations and 1 scallop for a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. The diameter of the Crawford type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm had progressed from 68 to 75 mm within a year after the FEVAR...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223353/late-open-surgical-conversion-after-endovascular-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#7
Vinay Kansal, Sudhir Nagpal, Prasad Jetty
INTRODUCTION: Late open surgical conversion following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) may occur more frequently after performing EVAR in anatomy outside the instructions for use (IFU). This study reviews predictors and outcomes of late open surgical conversion for failed EVAR. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study reviewed all EVARs performed at the Ottawa Hospital between January 1999 and May 2015. Open surgical conversions >1 month post EVAR were identified...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205423/different-games-of-moral-bioenhancement
#8
Vojin Rakić, Harris Wiseman
Rakić has serious misgivings about Wiseman's inability to frame ethical issues in the context of transcending existing realities (the 'is') with the aim of achieving what we believe is morally right (the 'ought'). This inability to think beyond the present is misguided in ethics. He also criticizes Wiseman for making the unimaginative and unsubstantiated assumption that moral bioenhancement (MBE) technologies have reached their zenith already. Rakić argues that MBE will become more effective in the time to come, that it ought to be optional for every free individual, and that it should be directed at enhancing our motivation to act in line with how we believe we ought to act...
December 4, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187014/fenestrated-tevar-using-a-guidewire-fixator-for-anchoring-in-aortic-arch-target-vessels
#9
Tilo Kölbel, Linus Bosaeus, Nikolaos Tsilimparis, Franziska Heidemann, Fiona Rohlffs, Krister Liungman
PURPOSE: To report a new facilitated method for securing target vessel access during single fenestrated and branched thoracic endovascular repair using a guidewire fixator. TECHNIQUE: The Liungman Guidewire Fixator (LGF) includes a 0.035-inch guidewire that is fitted with a stopper close to the distal end and a self-expanding anchoring element that is freely movable over the guidewire to the point of the stopper. The technique of using a LGF for anchoring in a target vessel is described in a 75-year-old woman with a 53-mm saccular arch aneurysm...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180600/integration-of-celestial-compass-cues-in-the-central-complex-of-the-locust-brain
#10
Uta Pegel, Keram Pfeiffer, Uwe Homberg
Many insects rely on celestial compass cues such as the polarization pattern of the sky for spatial orientation. In the desert locust, the central complex (CX) houses multiple sets of neurons, sensitive to the oscillation plane of polarized light and, thus, likely acts as an internal polarization compass. We investigated whether other sky compass cues like direct sunlight or the chromatic gradient of the sky might contribute to this compass. We recorded from polarization-sensitive CX neurons while an unpolarized green or UV light spot was moved around the head of the animal...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168503/measurement-of-the-multi-tev-neutrino-interaction-cross-section-with-icecube-using-earth-absorption
#11
(no author information available yet)
Neutrinos interact only very weakly, so they are extremely penetrating. The theoretical neutrino-nucleon interaction cross-section, however, increases with increasing neutrino energy, and neutrinos with energies above 40 teraelectronvolts (TeV) are expected to be absorbed as they pass through the Earth. Experimentally, the cross-section has been determined only at the relatively low energies (below 0.4 TeV) that are available at neutrino beams from accelerators. Here we report a measurement of neutrino absorption by the Earth using a sample of 10,784 energetic upward-going neutrino-induced muons...
November 30, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165669/clinvar-improving-access-to-variant-interpretations-and-supporting-evidence
#12
Melissa J Landrum, Jennifer M Lee, Mark Benson, Garth R Brown, Chen Chao, Shanmuga Chitipiralla, Baoshan Gu, Jennifer Hart, Douglas Hoffman, Wonhee Jang, Karen Karapetyan, Kenneth Katz, Chunlei Liu, Zenith Maddipatla, Adriana Malheiro, Kurt McDaniel, Michael Ovetsky, George Riley, George Zhou, J Bradley Holmes, Brandi L Kattman, Donna R Maglott
ClinVar (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) is a freely available, public archive of human genetic variants and interpretations of their significance to disease, maintained at the National Institutes of Health. Interpretations of the clinical significance of variants are submitted by clinical testing laboratories, research laboratories, expert panels and other groups. ClinVar aggregates data by variant-disease pairs, and by variant (or set of variants). Data aggregated by variant are accessible on the website, in an improved set of variant call format files and as a new comprehensive XML report...
November 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107562/dolutegravir-as-maintenance-monotherapy-for-hiv-domono-a-phase-2-randomised-non-inferiority-trial
#13
Ingeborg Wijting, Casper Rokx, Charles Boucher, Jeroen van Kampen, Suzan Pas, Theodora de Vries-Sluijs, Carolina Schurink, Hannelore Bax, Maarten Derksen, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Marchina van der Ende, Eric van Gorp, Jan Nouwen, Annelies Verbon, Wouter Bierman, Bart Rijnders
BACKGROUND: The high genetic barrier to resistance of dolutegravir might allow for its use as maintenance monotherapy in patients with HIV. We investigated whether dolutegravir monotherapy was non-inferior to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for maintaining virological suppression in patients with HIV-1 infection successfully treated with combination ART. METHODS: We did this open-label, phase 2, randomised non-inferiority trial at two medical centres in the Netherlands...
October 26, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104904/the-effect-of-community-based-support-for-caregivers-on-the-risk-of-virological-failure-in-children-and-adolescents-with-hiv-in-harare-zimbabwe-zenith-an-open-label-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Rashida A Ferrand, Victoria Simms, Ethel Dauya, Tsitsi Bandason, Grace Mchugh, Hilda Mujuru, Prosper Chonzi, Joanna Busza, Katharina Kranzer, Shungu Munyati, Helen A Weiss, Richard J Hayes
Background: Children and adolescents have poorer HIV treatment outcomes than adults. We aimed to assess the effect of community-based support for caregivers of HIV-infected children and adolescents, who are key mediators to children engaging with care, on treatment outcomes. Methods: In this open-label, randomised contolled trial, we recruited children aged 6-15 years with newly-diagnosed HIV attending primary health-care clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe. Children were randomly assigned to receive decentralised primary health-care clinic-based HIV care (control group), according to national guidelines for 18 months, or decentralised care plus structured support visits by trained community health workers (intervention group) according to national guidelines for 18 months...
November 2017: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048028/re-examining-the-effect-of-particle-phase-functions-on-the-remote-sensing-reflectance
#15
Yuanheng Xiong, Xiaodong Zhang, Shuangyan He, Deric J Gray
Even though it is well known that both the magnitude and detailed angular shape of scattering (phase function, PF), particularly in the backward angles, affect the color of the ocean, the current remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) models typically account for the effect of its magnitude only through the backscattering coefficient (bb). Using 116 volume scattering function (VSF) measurements previously collected in three coastal waters around the U.S. and in the water of the North Atlantic Ocean, we re-examined the effect of particle PF on Rrs in four scenarios...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047478/colored-thunderstorms
#16
Stanley David Gedzelman
Three scenarios that produce colored thunderstorms are simulated. In Scenario #1, the thunderstorm's sunlit face exhibits a color gradient from white or yellow at top to red at base when the sun is near the horizon. It is simulated with a second-order scattering model as a combination of sunlight and skylight reflected from the cloud face that is attenuated and reddened by Rayleigh and Mie scattering over the long optical path near sunset that increases from cloud top to base. In Scenario #2, the base of the precipitation shaft appears luminous green-blue when surrounded by a much darker arcus cloud...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041037/fast-yet-accurate-computation-of-radiances-in-shortwave-infrared-satellite-remote-sensing-channels
#17
Nan Chen, Wei Li, Tonomori Tanikawa, Masahiro Hori, Rigen Shimada, Teruo Aoki, Knut Stamnes
Accurate radiative transfer simulations of signals received by sensors deployed on satellite platforms for remote sensing purposes can be computationally demanding depending on channel width and the spectral variation of atmospheric and surface optical properties. Therefore, methods that can speed up such simulations are desirable. While it is common practice to use atmospheric "window" channels to minimize the influence of gaseous absorption, the impact of the underlying surface as well as clouds and aerosols has received less attention...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982135/changes-in-aortic-pulse-wave-velocity-of-four-thoracic-aortic-stent-grafts-in-an-ex-vivo-porcine-model
#18
Hector W L de Beaufort, Margherita Coda, Michele Conti, Theodorus M J van Bakel, Foeke J H Nauta, Ettore Lanzarone, Frans L Moll, Joost A van Herwaarden, Ferdinando Auricchio, Santi Trimarchi
OBJECTIVES: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been shown to lead to increased aortic stiffness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stent graft type and stent graft length on aortic stiffness in a controlled, experimental setting. METHODS: Twenty porcine thoracic aortas were connected to a pulsatile mock loop system. Intraluminal pressure was recorded at two sites in order to measure pulse wave velocity (PWV) for each aorta: before stent graft deployment (t1); after deployment of a 100-mm long stent graft (t2); and after distal extension through deployment of a second 100-mm long stent graft (t3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969689/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-smoking-prevalence-in-israel-and-the-united-states-progress-to-date-and-prospects-for-the-future
#19
REVIEW
Daniel S Blumenthal
An article in this journal in 2016 demonstrated that smoking prevalence among Arab men in Israel is greater than among their Jewish counterparts born in Israel, while the reverse is true among Arab and Jewish Israeli women. This is reflected in lung cancer mortality rates. In the U.S., smoking prevalence in the mid-1960s was 20% higher in African American men than in white men, but has since decreased in both groups, and smoking prevalence in the two groups is now nearly identical. The black-white disparity in lung cancer mortality rates has been reduced by more than half as compared to its zenith in the early 1990s...
October 2, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963080/cartilage-derived-retinoic-acid-sensitive-protein-cd-rap-a-stage-specific-biomarker-of-heterotopic-endochondral-ossification-heo-in-fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva-fop
#20
Carter M Lindborg, Tracy A Brennan, Haitao Wang, Frederick S Kaplan, Robert J Pignolo
BACKGROUND: Genesis of a cartilaginous scaffold is an obligate precursor to bone formation in heterotopic endochondral ossification (HEO). We tested the hypothesis that cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein (CD-RAP) can serve as a plasma biomarker for the pre-osseous cartilaginous stage of HEO. Palovarotene, a retinoic acid receptor-gamma (RARγ) agonist, has been proposed as a possible treatment for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and is a potent inhibitor of HEO in mouse models...
September 28, 2017: Bone
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