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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911309/longitudinal-characterization-of-18f-fdg-and-18f-av45-uptake-in-the-double-transgenic-tastpm-mouse-model
#1
Ann-Marie Waldron, Leonie Wyffels, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Jill C Richardson, Mark Schmidt, Sigrid Stroobants, Xavier Langlois, Steven Staelens
We aimed to monitor the timing of amyloid-β deposition in relation to changes in brain function using in vivo imaging with [18F]-AV45 and [18F]-FDG in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. TASTPM transgenic mice and wild-type controls were scanned longitudinally with [18F]-AV45 and [18F]-FDG before (3 months of age) and at multiple time points after the onset of amyloid deposition (6, 9, 12, and 15 months of age). As expected with increasing amyloidosis, TASTPM mice demonstrated progressive age-dependent increases in [18F]-AV45 uptake that were significantly higher than for WT from 9 months onwards and correlated to ex vivo measures of amyloid burden...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911234/ventriculostomy-associated-hemorrhage-a-risk-assessment-by-radiographic-simulation
#2
Faith C Robertson, Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr, Srinivasan Mukundan, William B Gormley
OBJECTIVE Ventriculostomy entry sites are commonly selected by freehand estimation of Kocher's point or approximations from skull landmarks and a trajectory toward the ipsilateral frontal horn of the lateral ventricles. A recognized ventriculostomy complication is intracranial hemorrhage from cortical vessel damage; reported rates range from 1% to 41%. In this report, the authors assess hemorrhagic risk by simulating traditional ventriculostomy trajectories and using CT angiography (CTA) with venography (CTV) data to identify potential complications, specifically from cortical draining veins...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910970/exploration-of-hydrogen-bond-networks-and-potential-energy-surfaces-of-methanol-clusters-using-a-two-stage-clustering-algorithm
#3
Po-Jen Hsu, Kun-Lin Ho, Sheng-Hsien Lin, Jer-Lai Kuo
The potential energy surface (PES), structures and thermal properties of methanol clusters (MeOH)n with n = 8-15 were explored by replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations with an empirical model and refined using density functional theory (DFT) methods. For a given size, local minima structures were sampled from REMD trajectories and archived by a newly developed molecular database via a two-stage clustering algorithm (TSCA). Our TSCA utilizes both the topology of O-HO hydrogen bonding networks and the similarity of the shapes to filter out duplicates...
December 2, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910580/analysis-of-magnetically-immersed-electron-guns-with-non-adiabatic-fields
#4
Alexander Pikin, James G Alessi, Edward N Beebe, Deepak Raparia, John Ritter
Electron diode guns, which have strongly varying magnetic or electric fields in a cathode-anode gap, were investigated in order to generate laminar electron beams with high current density using magnetically immersed guns. By creating a strongly varying radial electric field in a cathode-anode gap of the electron gun, it was demonstrated that the optical properties of the gun can be significantly altered, which allows the generation of a laminar, high-current electron beam with relatively low magnetic field on the cathode...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910529/development-of-a-beam-ion-velocity-detector-for-the-heavy-ion-beam-probe
#5
P J Fimognari, T P Crowley, D R Demers
In an axisymmetric plasma, the conservation of canonical angular momentum constrains heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) trajectories such that measurement of the toroidal velocity component of secondary ions provides a localized determination of the poloidal flux at the volume where they originated. We have developed a prototype detector which is designed to determine the beam angle in one dimension through the detection of ion current landing on two parallel planes of detecting elements. A set of apertures creates a pattern of ion current on wires in the first plane and solid metal plates behind them; the relative amounts detected by the wires and plates determine the angle which beam ions enter the detector, which is used to infer the toroidal velocity component...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910473/2d-spatial-profile-measurements-of-potential-fluctuation-with-heavy-ion-beam-probe-on-the-large-helical-device
#6
A Shimizu, T Ido, M Nishiura, S Kato, K Ogawa, H Takahashi, H Igami, Y Yoshimura, S Kubo, T Shimozuma
Two-dimensional spatial profiles of potential fluctuation were measured with the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) in the Large Helical Device (LHD). For 2D spatial profile measurements, the probe beam energy has to be changed, which requires the adjustment of many deflectors in the beam transport line to optimize the beam trajectory, since the transport line of LHD-HIBP system is long. The automatic beam adjustment system was developed, which allows us to adjust the beam trajectory easily. By analyzing coherence between potential fluctuation and magnetic probe signal, the noise level of the mode power spectrum of the potential fluctuation can be reduced...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910463/design-and-experiments-of-a-linear-piezoelectric-motor-driven-by-a-single-mode
#7
Zhen Liu, Zhiyuan Yao, Xiang Li, Qianwei Fu
In this contribution, we propose a novel linear piezoelectric motor with a compact stator that is driven by a single mode. The linear piezoelectric motor can realize bidirectional motion by changing the vibration modes of the stator. Finite element analysis is performed to determine the required vibration mode of the stator and obtain the optimal stator structure and dimensions. Furthermore, the trajectories of the driving foot are analyzed with and without consideration of the mechanical contact with the slider...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910421/development-of-a-new-tracer-encapsulated-solid-pellet-injection-system-for-more-precise-control-of-tracer-impurity-deposit-location-in-lhd
#8
N Tamura, M Shoji, C Suzuki, H Funaba, H Hayashi, H Maeno, M Yokota, H Ogawa, S Sudo
A new tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) injection system has been developed additionally for the LHD heliotron. This system has three-dimensionally bended guide tubes, which allows us to inject the TESPEL obliquely on a poloidal cross-section of the LHD plasma. Consequently, this system enables us to control a tracer-impurity-deposited location more precisely. Moreover, this system can make it possible for the tracer impurity to be deposited even only inside the ergodic region (outside a last closed flux surface of the LHD plasma)...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910368/airfoil-based-electromagnetic-energy-harvester-containing-parallel-array-motion-between-moving-coil-and-multi-pole-magnets-towards-enhanced-power-density
#9
Chung Ming Leung, Ya Wang, Wusi Chen
In this letter, the airfoil-based electromagnetic energy harvester containing parallel array motion between moving coil and trajectory matching multi-pole magnets was investigated. The magnets were aligned in an alternatively magnetized formation of 6 magnets to explore enhanced power density. In particular, the magnet array was positioned in parallel to the trajectory of the tip coil within its tip deflection span. The finite element simulations of the magnetic flux density and induced voltages at an open circuit condition were studied to find the maximum number of alternatively magnetized magnets that was required for the proposed energy harvester...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910335/detailed-characterization-of-the-llnl-imaging-proton-spectrometer
#10
A M Rasmus, A U Hazi, M J-E Manuel, C C Kuranz, S R Klein, P X Belancourt, J R Fein, M J MacDonald, R P Drake, B B Pollock, J Park, G J Williams, H Chen
Ultra-intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets (e.g., thin Au foils) produce well collimated, broad-spectrum proton beams. These proton beams can be used to characterize magnetic fields, electric fields, and density gradients in high energy-density systems. The LLNL-Imaging Proton Spectrometer (L-IPS) was designed and built [H. Chen et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D314 (2010)] for use with such laser produced proton beams. The L-IPS has an energy range of 50 keV-40 MeV with a resolving power (E/dE) of about 275 at 1 MeV and 21 at 20 MeV, as well as a single spatial imaging axis...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910109/electronic-absorption-spectra-of-pyridine-and-nicotine-in-aqueous-solution-with-a-combined-molecular-dynamics-and-polarizable-qm-mm-approach
#11
Marco Pagliai, Giordano Mancini, Ivan Carnimeo, Nicola De Mitri, Vincenzo Barone
The electronic absorption spectra of pyridine and nicotine in aqueous solution have been computed using a multistep approach. The computational protocol consists in studying the solute solvation with accurate molecular dynamics simulations, characterizing the hydrogen bond interactions, and calculating electronic transitions for a series of configurations extracted from the molecular dynamics trajectories with a polarizable QM/MM scheme based on the fluctuating charge model. Molecular dynamics simulations and electronic transition calculations have been performed on both pyridine and nicotine...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909854/does-everyone-s-motivational-beliefs-about-physical-science-decline-in-secondary-school-heterogeneity-of-adolescents-achievement-motivation-trajectories-in-physics-and-chemistry
#12
Ming-Te Wang, Angela Chow, Jessica Lauren Degol, Jacquelynne Sue Eccles
Students' motivational beliefs about learning physical science are critical for achieving positive educational outcomes. In this study, we incorporated expectancy-value theory to capture the heterogeneity of adolescents' motivational trajectories in physics and chemistry from seventh to twelfth grade and linked these trajectories to science-related outcomes. We used a cross-sequential design based on three different cohorts of adolescents (N = 699; 51.5 % female; 95 % European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave = 13...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909659/reliability-of-the-planned-pedicle-screw-trajectory-versus-the-actual-pedicle-screw-trajectory-using-intra-operative-3d-ct-and-image-guidance
#13
Catherine A Miller, Charles G Ledonio, Matthew A Hunt, Farhan Siddiq, David W Polly
BACKGROUND: Technological advances, including navigation, have been made to improve safety and accuracy of pedicle screw fixation. We evaluated the accuracy of the virtual screw placement (Stealth projection) compared to actual screw placement (intra-operative O-Arm) and examined for differences based on the distance from the reference frame. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data was conducted from January 2013 to September 2013. We evaluated thoracic and lumbosacral pedicle screws placed using intraoperative O-arm and Stealth navigation by obtaining virtual screw projections and intraoperative O-arm images after screw placement...
2016: International Journal of Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909422/the-role-of-medial-frontal-cortex-in-action-anticipation-in-professional-badminton-players
#14
Huan Xu, Pin Wang, Zhuo'er Ye, Xin Di, Guiping Xu, Lei Mo, Huiyan Lin, Hengyi Rao, Hua Jin
Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909008/trajectory-of-parvalbumin-cell-impairment-and-loss-of-cortical-inhibition-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, Henry Hing Cheong Lee, Mustafa Qadir Hameed, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Takao K Hensch, Alexander Rotenberg
Many neuropsychiatric symptoms that follow traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mood disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) are attributable to compromised cortical inhibition. However, the temporal trajectory of cortical inhibition loss and its underlying mechanisms are not known. Using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) and immunohistochemistry, we tracked functional and cellular changes of cortical inhibitory network elements after fluid-percussion injury (FPI) in rats...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908892/resting-heart-rate-trajectory-pattern-predicts-arterial-stiffness-in-a-community-based-chinese-cohort
#16
Shuhua Chen, Weijuan Li, Cheng Jin, Anand Vaidya, Jingli Gao, Hui Yang, Shouling Wu, Xiang Gao
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the long-term resting heart rate (RHR) pattern can predict the risk of having arterial stiffness in a large ongoing cohort study. APPROACH AND RESULTS: This community-based cohort included 12 554 participants in the Kailun study, who were free of myocardial infarction, stroke, arrhythmia, and cancer. We used latent mixture modeling to identify RHR trajectories in 2006, 2008, and 2010. We used multivariate linear regression model to examine the association between RHR trajectory patterns and the risk of having arterial stiffness, which was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in 2010 to 2016...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908562/ontogeny-of-sensorimotor-gating-and-short-term-memory-processing-throughout-the-adolescent-period-in-rats
#17
Anja A Goepfrich, Chris M Friemel, Sabina Pauen, Miriam Schneider
Adolescence and puberty are highly susceptible developmental periods during which the neuronal organization and maturation of the brain is completed. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, which is well known to modulate cognitive processing, undergoes profound and transient developmental changes during adolescence. With the present study we were aiming to examine the ontogeny of cognitive skills throughout adolescence in male rats and clarify the potential modulatory role of CB1 receptor signalling. Cognitive skills were assessed repeatedly every 10th day in rats throughout adolescence...
November 19, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908552/weight-following-birth-and-childhood-dietary-intake-a%C3%A2-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Maria João Fonseca, Catarina Durão, Carla Lopes, Ana Cristina Santos
OBJECTIVES: Unhealthy childhood dietary habits track through life and are independent and modifiable risk factors for disease. Therefore, it is essential to understand the factors involved. We aimed to evaluate the associations of birthweight (BW) and newborn weight change (NWC) during the first 96 h of life and childhood longitudinal weight trajectories with dietary intake at age 4. METHODS: As part of the Generation XXI birth cohort (G21), children were recruited in 2005 and 2006 at all public units providing obstetrical and neonatal care in Porto, Portugal...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908107/can-dispersion-corrections-annihilate-the-dispersion-driven-nano-aggregation-of-non-polar-groups-an-ab-initio-molecular-dynamics-study-of-ionic-liquid-systems
#19
Dzmitry S Firaha, Martin Thomas, Oldamur Hollóczki, Martin Korth, Barbara Kirchner
In this study, we aim at understanding the influence of dispersion correction on the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of ionic liquid (IL) systems. We investigated a large bulk system of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate IL and a small cluster system of ethylamine in ethylammonium nitrate both under periodic boundary conditions. The large system displays several changes upon neglect of dispersion correction, the most striking one is the surprising decrease of the well-known microheterogeneity which is accompanied by an increase of side chain hydrogen atom-anion interplay...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908003/resonance-phenomena-in-a-two-layer-two-vortex-shear-flow
#20
Eugene A Ryzhov, Konstantin V Koshel
The paper deals with a dynamical system governing the motion of two point vortices embedded in the bottom layer of a two-layer rotating flow experiencing linear deformation and their influence on fluid particle advection. The linear deformation consists of shear and rotational components. If the deformation is stationary, the vortices can move periodically in a bounded region. The vortex periodic motion induces stirring patterns of passive fluid particles in the both layers. We focus our attention on the upper layer where the bottom-layer singular point vortices induce a regular velocity field with no singularities...
November 2016: Chaos
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