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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351566/patterns-in-reef-fish-assemblages-insights-from-the-chagos-archipelago
#1
Melita Samoilys, Ronan Roche, Heather Koldewey, John Turner
Understanding the drivers of variability in the composition of fish assemblages across the Indo-Pacific region is crucial to support coral reef ecosystem resilience. Whilst numerous relationships and feedback mechanisms between the functional roles of coral reef fishes and reef benthic composition have been investigated, certain key groups, such as the herbivores, are widely suggested to maintain reefs in a coral-dominated state. Examining links between fishes and reef benthos is complicated by the interactions between natural processes, disturbance events and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351350/visualized-analysis-of-developing-trends-and-hot-topics-in-natural-disaster-research
#2
Shi Shen, Changxiu Cheng, Jing Yang, Shanli Yang
This study visualized and analyzed the developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research. 19694 natural disaster-related articles (January 1900 to June 2015) are indexed in the Web of Science database. The first step in this study is using complex networks to visualize and analyze these articles. CiteSpace and Gephi were employed to generate a countries collaboration network and a disciplines collaboration network, and then attached hot topics to countries and disciplines, respectively. The results show that USA, China, and Italy are the three major contributors to natural disaster research...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351331/the-association-between-previous-and-future-severe-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-updating-the-literature-using-robust-statistical-methodology
#3
Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Hui Xie, Mahyar Etminan, Kate Johnson, J Mark FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: There is minimal evidence on the extent to which the occurrence of a severe acute exacerbation of COPD that results in hospitalization affects the subsequent disease course. Previous studies on this topic did not generate causally-interpretable estimates. Our aim was to use corrected methodology to update previously reported estimates of the associations between previous and future exacerbations in these patients. METHODS: Using administrative health data in British Columbia, Canada (1997-2012), we constructed a cohort of patients with at least one severe exacerbation, defined as an episode of inpatient care with the main diagnosis of COPD based on international classification of diseases (ICD) codes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350952/fast-data-sorting-with-modified-principal-component-analysis-to-distinguish-unique-single-molecular-break-junction-trajectories
#4
J M Hamill, X T Zhao, G Mészáros, M R Bryce, M Arenz
A simple and fast analysis method to sort large data sets into groups with shared distinguishing characteristics is described and applied to single molecular break junction conductance versus electrode displacement data. The method, based on principal component analysis, successfully sorts data sets based on the projection of the data onto the first or second principal component of the correlation matrix without the need to assert any specific hypothesis about the expected features within the data. This is an improvement on the current correlation matrix analysis approach because it sorts data automatically, making it more objective and less time consuming, and our method is applicable to a wide range of multivariate data sets...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350740/full-dimensional-analytical-potential-energy-surface-describing-the-gas-phase-cl-c2h6-reaction-and-kinetics-study-of-rate-constants-and-kinetic-isotope-effects
#5
Cipriano Rangel, Joaquin Espinosa-Garcia
Within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation a full-dimensional analytical potential energy surface, PES-2017, was developed for the gas-phase hydrogen abstraction reaction between the chlorine atom and ethane, which is a nine body system. This surface presents a valence-bond/molecular mechanics functional form dependent on 60 parameters and is fitted to high-level ab initio calculations. This reaction presents little exothermicity, -2.30 kcal mol-1, with a low height barrier, 2.44 kcal mol-1, and intermediate complexes in the entrance and exit channels...
January 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350708/sleep-wake-disturbance-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-based-interventions-for-management-in-patients-with-cancer
#6
Ellyn Matthews, Patricia Carter, Margaretta Page, Grace Dean, Ann Berger
BACKGROUND: New or worsening sleep-wake disturbance (SWD) can occur throughout the cancer trajectory.
. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to critically review available empirical evidence supporting the efficacy of interventions for SWD, highlighting new evidence since the 2006 and 2009 Putting Evidence Into Practice (PEP) SWD publications.
. METHODS: A systematic review of studies published from 2009-2017 was conducted to identify effective interventions for cancer-related SWD...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350703/cancer-prevention-and-detection-application-across-the-cancer-trajectory%C3%A2
#7
Suzanne M Mahon
Oncology nurses have many opportunities to implement cancer prevention and early detection recommendations across the cancer trajectory. Understanding the principles that guide the recommendations is important to providing comprehensive oncology care; many readily available resources can assist oncology nurses with this education. Guidelines for the prevention and early detection of malignancy are based on a comprehensive cancer risk assessment that includes past medical history, lifestyle factors, family history, and, in some cases, genetic testing...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350616/a-disassembly-driven-mechanism-explains-f-actin-mediated-chromosome-transport-in-starfish-oocytes
#8
Philippe Bun, Serge Dmitrieff, Julio M Belmonte, François J Nédélec, Péter Lénárt
While contraction of sarcomeric actomyosin assemblies is well understood, this is not the case for disordered networks of actin filaments (F-actin) driving diverse essential processes in animal cells. For example, at the onset of meiosis in starfish oocytes a contractile F-actin network forms in the nuclear region transporting embedded chromosomes to the assembling microtubule spindle. Here, we addressed the mechanism driving contraction of this 3D disordered F-actin network by comparing quantitative observations to computational models...
January 19, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350191/a-prospective-gating-method-to-acquire-a-diverse-set-of-free-breathing-ct-images-for-model-based-4dct
#9
Dylan O'Connell, Dan Ruan, David H Thomas, Tai H Dou, John H Lewis, Anand P Santhanam, Percy P Lee, Daniel A Low
Breathing motion modeling requires observation of tissues at sufficiently distinct respiratory states for proper 4D characterization. This work proposes a method to improve sampling of the breathing cycle with limited imaging dose. We designed and tested a prospective free-breathing acquisition protocol with a simulation using datasets from 5 patients imaged with a model-based 4DCT technique. Each dataset contained 25 free-breathing fast helical CT scans with simultaneous breathing surrogate measurements...
January 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350050/marital-status-and-trajectories-of-depressive-symptoms-among-older-adults-of-mexican-descent
#10
Maria A Monserud
Little is known about the implications of marital status for the age patterning of depressive symptoms in later life. Drawing on seven waves of data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly, this research uses growth curve models to examine age trajectories of depressive symptoms among continuously married and recently and continuously widowed older adults of Mexican descent (aged 65 years and older; N = 1,452). The findings demonstrate that despite having a higher mean level of depressive symptoms, the recently widowed experienced a similar rate of increase in distress with age to that of their married counterparts...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349990/-experimentation-of-the-relationship-between-medial-or-lateral-patellar-stabilizer-and-patellofemoral-stabilization
#11
Xing-Sen Liang, Zheng-Hong Yu, Yi-Kai Li, Ying-Ping Jiang, Xian-Wu Chen, Min Huang
OBJECTIVE: To study the contribution of medial or lateral stabilizer to the stability of the patella, to explore the function and effect of releasing the LPR clinically and to provide a biomechanical basis for the clinical treatment of patellar instability(PI). METHODS: The quadriceps femoris of 6 fresh human cadaver knees were loaded to simulate a normal condition of muscle strength. First the loading force was measured and recorded, which subluxated the patella with the different degrees of knee flexion...
April 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349791/predicting-patterns-of-change-and-stability-in-student-performance-across-a-medical-degree
#12
Barbara Griffin, Piers Bayl-Smith, Wendy Hu
CONTEXT: Evidence of predictive validity is essential for making robust selection decisions in high-stakes contexts such as medical student selection. Currently available evidence is limited to the prediction of academic performance at single points in time with little understanding of the factors that might undermine the predictive validity of tests of academic and non-academic qualities considered important for success. This study addressed these issues by predicting students' changing performance across a medical degree and assessing whether factors outside an institution's control (such as the uptake of commercial coaching) impact validity...
January 19, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349691/subtle-trajectories
#13
EDITORIAL
Fabrizio Elia, Andrea Verhovez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349289/mixed-neurodevelopmental-and-neurodegenerative-pathology-in-nhe6-null-mouse-model-of-christianson-syndrome
#14
Meiyu Xu, Qing Ouyang, Jingyi Gong, Matthew F Pescosolido, Brandon S Pruett, Sasmita Mishra, Michael Schmidt, Richard N Jones, Ece D Gamsiz Uzun, Sofia B Lizarraga, Eric M Morrow
Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked disorder resulting from loss-of-function mutations in SLC9A6, which encodes the endosomal Na+/H+ exchanger 6 (NHE6). Symptoms include early developmental delay, seizures, intellectual disability, nonverbal status, autistic features, postnatal microcephaly, and progressive ataxia. Neuronal development is impaired in CS, involving defects in neuronal arborization and synaptogenesis, likely underlying diminished brain growth postnatally. In addition to neurodevelopmental defects, some reports have supported neurodegenerative pathology in CS with age...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349277/patterns-of-poverty-exposure-and-children-s-trajectories-of-externalizing-and-internalizing-behaviors
#15
Jinette Comeau, Michael H Boyle
Using data from the Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we compare trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors among children exposed to five patterns of poverty from birth to age 14: always or never poor - stable patterns; a single transition into or out of poverty, or repeated fluctuations in and out of poverty - changing patterns. We also examine how low maternal education and single parenthood interact with these poverty exposures to compound their adverse effects...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349272/why-is-parental-lifespan-linked-to-children-s-chances-of-reaching-a-high-age-a-transgenerational-hypothesis
#16
Denny Vågerö, Vanda Aronsson, Bitte Modin
Purpose: Transgenerational determinants of longevity are poorly understood. We used data from four linked generations (G0, G1, G2 and G3) of the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigeneration Study to address this issue. Methods: Mortality in G1 (N = 9565) was followed from 1961-2015 and analysed in relation to tertiles of their parents' (G0) age-at-death using Cox regression. Parental social class and marital status were adjusted for in the analyses, as was G1's birth order and adult social class...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349271/becoming-a-pharmaceutical-person-medication-use-trajectories-from-age-26-to-38-in-a-representative-birth-cohort-from-dunedin-new-zealand
#17
Peri J Ballantyne, Pauline Norris, Venkata Praveen Parachuru, W Murray Thomson
Despite the abundance of medications available for human consumption, and frequent concerns about increasing medicalization or pharmaceuticalization of everyday life, there is little research investigating medicines-use in young and middle-aged populations and discussing the implications of young people using increasing numbers of medicines and becoming pharmaceutical users over time. We use data from a New Zealand longitudinal study to examine changes in self-reported medication use by a complete birth cohort of young adults...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349207/gender-career-divide-and-women-s-disadvantage-in-depressive-symptoms-and-physical-limitations-in-france
#18
Emmanuelle Cambois, Clémentine Garrouste, Ariane Pailhé
This study investigated the relationship between women's disadvantage in mental health and physical functioning and gender differences in career backgrounds. Sexual division of labor persists and key career characteristics are overrepresented in women: low-skilled first job, downward occupational trajectory, interruptions. These interrelated characteristics are usually linked to poor health. Their overrepresentation in women may be related to the female-male health gap; however, it may not if overrepresentation transposed into substantially weaker associations with poor health outcomes...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348602/the-ten-year-evolutionary-trajectory-of-a-highly-recurrent-paediatric-high-grade-neuroepithelial-tumour-with-mn1-bend2-fusion
#19
Anna Burford, Alan Mackay, Sergey Popov, Maria Vinci, Diana Carvalho, Matthew Clarke, Elisa Izquierdo, Aimee Avery, Thomas S Jacques, Wendy J Ingram, Andrew S Moore, Kieran Frawley, Timothy E Hassall, Thomas Robertson, Chris Jones
Astroblastomas are rare brain tumours which predominate in children and young adults, and have a controversial claim as a distinct entity, with no established WHO grade. Reports suggest a better outcome than high grade gliomas, though they frequently recur. Recently, they have been described to overlap with a newly-discovered group of tumours described as'high grade neuroepithelial tumour with MN1 alteration' (CNS HGNET-MN1), defined by global methylation patterns and strongly associated with gene fusions targeting MN1...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348583/rapid-updating-of-spatial-working-memory-across-saccades
#20
Paul J Boon, Silvia Zeni, Jan Theeuwes, Artem V Belopolsky
Each time we make an eye movement, positions of objects on the retina change. In order to keep track of relevant objects their positions have to be updated. The situation becomes even more complex if the object is no longer present in the world and has to be held in memory. In the present study, we used saccadic curvature to investigate the time-course of updating a memorized location across saccades. Previous studies have shown that a memorized location competes with a saccade target for selection on the oculomotor map, which leads to saccades curving away from it...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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