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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651371/sleep-and-physiological-dysregulation-a-closer-look-at-sleep-intraindividual-variability
#1
Bei Bei, Teresa E Seeman, Judith E Carroll, Joshua F Wiley
Study Objectives: Variable daily sleep (i.e., higher intraindividual variability; IIV) is associated with negative health consequences, but potential physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. This study examined the associations between sleep timing, duration, and quality IIV and physiological dysregulation, with diurnal cortisol trajectories as a proximal outcome, and allostatic load (AL) as a multi-system distal outcome. Methods: Participants are 436 adults (Mage±SD=54...
June 23, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651045/photoinduced-charge-transfer-versus-fragmentation-pathways-in-lanthanum-cyclopentadienyl-complexes
#2
Yulun Han, Qingguo Meng, Bakhtiyor Rasulev, P Stanley May, Mary T Berry, Dmitri S Kilin
This study compares two competing pathways of photoexcitations in gas-phase metal-organic complexes: first, a sequence of phonon-assisted electronic transitions leading to dissipation of the energy of photoexcitations and second, a sequence of light-driven electronic transitions leading to photolysis. Phonon-assisted charge carrier dynamics is investigated by combination of the density matrix formalism and on-the-fly nonadiabatic couplings. Light-driven fragmentation is modeled by a time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (TDESMD) algorithm based on Rabi theory and principles similar to the trajectory surface hopping approximation...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651020/the-nervous-system-of-the-adult-ascidian-ciona-intestinalis-type-a-ciona-robusta-insights-from-transgenic-animal-models
#3
Tomohiro Osugi, Yasunori Sasakura, Honoo Satake
The nervous system of ascidians is an excellent model system to provide insights into the evolutionary process of the chordate nervous system due to their phylogenetic positions as the sister group of vertebrates. However, the entire nervous system of adult ascidians has yet to be functionally and anatomically investigated. In this study, we have revealed the whole dorsal and siphon nervous system of the transgenic adult ascidian of Ciona intestinalis Type A (Ciona robusta) in which a Kaede reporter gene is expressed in a pan-neuronal fashion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650972/contribution-of-cognitive-performance-and-cognitive-decline-to-associations-between-socioeconomic-factors-and-dementia-a-cohort-study
#4
Jennifer Rusmaully, Aline Dugravot, Jean-Paul Moatti, Michael G Marmot, Alexis Elbaz, Mika Kivimaki, Séverine Sabia, Archana Singh-Manoux
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic disadvantage is a risk factor for dementia, but longitudinal studies suggest that it does not affect the rate of cognitive decline. Our objective is to understand the manner in which socioeconomic disadvantage shapes dementia risk by examining its associations with midlife cognitive performance and cognitive decline from midlife to old age, including cognitive decline trajectories in those with dementia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data are drawn from the Whitehall II study (N = 10,308 at study recruitment in 1985), with cognitive function assessed at 4 waves (1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012)...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650881/intraoperative-radiographic-technique-for-visualization-of-bicortical-or-tricortical-anteromedial-sacral-screw-placement
#5
Nikhil Jain, Elizabeth Yu
The bicortical anteromedial sacral screw trajectory is the most widely used for S1 screw fixation. The assessment of anterior cortex purchase is difficult on a lateral view due to the overlapping bony anatomy of the sacrum and pelvis. We describe the intraoperative radiographic technique for a personalized pelvic inlet view that is perpendicular to the superior sacral surface to visualize sacral screw placement. This technique allows for assessment of anterior cortex purchase with anteromedial angulation in the same view...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650816/collision-avoidance-behavior-between-walkers-global-and-local-motion-cues
#6
Laurentius Lynch, Richard Kulpa, Antonius Laurentius Meerhoff, Julien Pettre, Armel Cretual, Anne-Helene Olivier
Daily activities require agents to interact with each other, such as during collision avoidance. The nature of visual information that is used for a collision free interaction requires further understanding. We aim to manipulate the nature of visual information in two forms, global and local information appearances. Sixteen healthy participants navigated towards a target in an immersive computer-assisted virtual environment (CAVE) using a joystick. A moving passive obstacle crossed the participant?s trajectory perpendicularly at various pre-defined risks of collision distances...
June 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650398/predictors-of-functional-change-in-a-skilled-nursing-facility-population
#7
Allison M Gustavson, Jason R Falvey, Jeri E Forster, Jennifer E Stevens-Lapsley
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inability to obtain sufficient gains in function during a skilled nursing facility (SNF) stay impacts patients' functional trajectories and susceptibility to adverse events. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of functional change in patients temporarily residing in an SNF following hospitalization. METHODS: One hundred forty patients admitted to a single SNF from the hospital who had both evaluation and discharge measures of physical function documented were included...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650380/high-levels-of-post-migration-hiv-acquisition-within-nine-european-countries
#8
Debora Alvarez-Del Arco, Fakoya Ibidun, Christos Thomadakis, Nikos Pantazis, Giota Touloumi, Anne-Francoise Gennotte, Freke Zuure, Henrique Barros, Cornelia Staehelin, Siri Göpel, Christoph Boesecke, Tullio Prestileo, Alain Volny-Anne, Fiona Burns, Julia Del Amo
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the proportion of post-migration HIV acquisition among HIV-positive migrants in Europe. DESIGN: To reach HIV positive migrants we designed a cross sectional study performed in HIV clinics. METHODS: The study was conducted from July 2013-July 2015 in 57 clinics (9 European countries, targeting individuals over 18 years diagnosed in the preceding 5 years and born abroad. Electronic questionnaires supplemented with clinical data were completed in any of 15 languages...
June 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650178/the-role-of-morbidity-for-proxy-reported-well-being-in-the-last-year-of-life
#9
Katharina Gerlach, Nilam Ram, Frank J Infurna, Nina Vogel, Gert G Wagner, Denis Gerstorf
Late-life well-being often shows steep deteriorations, but the contributing factors are not well understood, in part because data about people's final year of life are scarce. Here, we draw from and test theoretical perspectives that health-related vulnerabilities undermine the experience and skills older adults typically use to maintain well-being (Charles, 2010). To do so, we examined how various morbidity factors shape final-year well-being trajectories. We applied change score models to retrospective proxy-reports from the Socio-Economic Panel (N = 1,776; age at death = 19-101 years; 47% women) and covary for characteristics of the deceased and the bereaved proxy...
June 26, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650172/the-quantum-molecular-trajectory-and-its-statistical-properties
#10
Francesco Avanzini, Giorgio J J Moro
Despite the quantum nature of molecules, Classical Mechanics is often employed to describe molecular motions that play a fundamental role in a wide range of phenomena including chemical reactions. This is due to the need of assigning well defined positions to the atomic nuclei during the time evolution of the system in order to describe unambiguously the molecular motions, whereas Quantum Mechanics provides information of probabilistic nature only. One would like to employ a quantum molecular trajectory that defines rigorously the instantaneous nuclear positions and, simultaneously, guarantees the conservation of all Quantum Mechanics predictions unlike the classical trajectory...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650041/competition-between-the-h-and-d-atom-transfer-channels-in-the-h2o-hd-reaction-reduced-dimensional-quantum-and-quasi-classical-studies
#11
Hongwei Song, Anyang Li, Minghui Yang, Hua Guo
The ion-molecule reaction between a water cation and a hydrogen molecule has recently attracted considerable interest due to its importance in astrochemistry. In this work, the intramolecular isotope effect of the H2O(+) + HD reaction is investigated using a seven-dimensional initial state-selected time-dependent wave packet approach as well as a full-dimensional quasi-classical trajectory method on a full-dimensional ab initio global potential energy surface. The calculated branching ratios for the formation of H3O(+) and H2DO(+)via H- and D-transfer agree reasonably well with the experimental values...
June 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649997/characterizing-sleep-spindles-in-11-630-individuals-from-the-national-sleep-research-resource
#12
S M Purcell, D S Manoach, C Demanuele, B E Cade, S Mariani, R Cox, G Panagiotaropoulou, R Saxena, J Q Pan, J W Smoller, S Redline, R Stickgold
Sleep spindles are characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG) signatures of stage 2 non-rapid eye movement sleep. Implicated in sleep regulation and cognitive functioning, spindles may represent heritable biomarkers of neuropsychiatric disease. Here we characterize spindles in 11,630 individuals aged 4 to 97 years, as a prelude to future genetic studies. Spindle properties are highly reliable but exhibit distinct developmental trajectories. Across the night, we observe complex patterns of age- and frequency-dependent dynamics, including signatures of circadian modulation...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649970/cyberarc-a-non-coplanar-arc-optimization-algorithm-for-cyberknife
#13
Vasant Kearney, Joey P Cheung, Christopher McGuinness, Timothy D Solberg
The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel non-coplanar-arc optimization algorithm (CyberArc). This method aims to reduce the delivery time of conventional CyberKnife treatments by allowing for continuous beam delivery. CyberArc uses a 4 step optimization strategy, in which nodes, beams, and collimator sizes are determined, source trajectories are calculated, intermediate radiation models are generated, and final monitor units are calculated, for the continuous radiation source model...
June 26, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649768/measuring-canopy-loss-and-climatic-thresholds-from-an-extreme-drought-along-a-fivefold-precipitation-gradient-across-texas
#14
Amanda M Schwantes, Jennifer J Swenson, Mariano González-Roglich, Daniel M Johnson, Jean-Christophe Domec, Robert B Jackson
Globally, trees are increasingly dying from extreme drought, a trend that is expected to increase with climate change. Loss of trees has significant ecological, biophysical, and biogeochemical consequences. In 2011, a record drought caused widespread tree mortality in Texas. Using remotely sensed imagery, we quantified canopy loss during and after the drought across the state at 30-m spatial resolution, from the eastern pine/hardwood forests to the western shrublands, a region that includes the boundaries of many species ranges...
June 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649741/the-emerging-science-of-linked-plant-fungal-invasions
#15
REVIEW
Ian A Dickie, Jennifer L Bufford, Richard C Cobb, Marie-Laure Desprez-Loustau, Gwen Grelet, Philip E Hulme, John Klironomos, Andreas Makiola, Martin A Nuñez, Anne Pringle, Peter H Thrall, Samuel G Tourtellot, Lauren Waller, Nari M Williams
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Invasions of alien plants are typically studied as invasions of individual species, yet interactions between plants and symbiotic fungi (mutualists and potential pathogens) affect plant survival, physiological traits, and reproduction and hence invasion success. Studies show that plant-fungal associations are frequently key drivers of plant invasion success and impact, but clear conceptual frameworks and integration across studies are needed to move beyond a series of case studies towards a more predictive understanding...
June 26, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649633/latent-virus-reactivation-in-astronauts-on-the-international-space-station
#16
Satish K Mehta, Mark L Laudenslager, Raymond P Stowe, Brian E Crucian, Alan H Feiveson, Clarence F Sams, Duane L Pierson
Reactivation of latent herpes viruses was measured in 23 astronauts (18 male and 5 female) before, during, and after long-duration (up to 180 days) spaceflight onboard the international space station . Twenty age-matched and sex-matched healthy ground-based subjects were included as a control group. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected before, during, and after spaceflight. Saliva was analyzed for Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1. Urine was analyzed for cytomegalovirus...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649321/little-association-of-biological-trait-values-with-environmental-variables-in-invasive-alien-round-goby-neogobius-melanostomus
#17
Alexander F Cerwenka, Alfredo Pagnotta, Carolin Böker, Joerg Brandner, Juergen Geist, Ulrich K Schliewen
The relative importance of species-specific biological trait characteristics and environmental factors in invasions of nonindigenous species remains controversial because both have mostly been studied independently. Thus, the main objective of this study was to examine the correlation of biological traits with environmental variation in the globally invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus from the upper Danube River. Based on a sample of 653 specimens along a continuous 200 km river pathway, links between nine environmental factors (substrate-type, six water measurements, and the communities of fishes and macroinvertebrates) and seven biological traits (nutritional and energetic status, trade-offs of parasite resistance and resource allocation, and three growth proxies) were analyzed...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648915/long-term-course-of-negative-symptom-subdomains-and-relationship-with-outcome-in-patients-with-a-psychotic-disorder
#18
Annemarie P M Stiekema, Md Atiqul Islam, Edith J Liemburg, Stynke Castelein, Edwin R van den Heuvel, Jaap van Weeghel, André Aleman, Richard Bruggeman, Lisette van der Meer
BACKGROUND: The longitudinal course of the negative symptoms subdomains social amotivation (SA) and expressive deficits (ED) remains largely unknown. We investigated i) the longitudinal course of SA and ED subdomain scores, ii) whether subgroups based on the course of SA and ED subdomain scores could be identified, iii) whether baseline SA and ED subdomain scores were related to functioning and quality of life six years later and iv) the longitudinal relationship between subgroups and outcomes...
June 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648754/what-can-human-guided-simulations-bring-to-rna-folding
#19
Liuba Mazzanti, Sébastien Doutreligne, Cedric Gageat, Philippe Derreumaux, Antoine Taly, Marc Baaden, Samuela Pasquali
Inspired by the recent success of scientific-discovery games for predicting protein tertiary and RNA secondary structures, we have developed an open software for coarse-grained RNA folding simulations, guided by human intuition. To determine the extent to which interactive simulations can accurately predict 3D RNA structures of increasing complexity and lengths (four RNAs with 22-47 nucleotides), an interactive experiment was conducted with 141 participants who had very little knowledge of nucleic acids systems and computer simulations, and had received only a brief description of the important forces stabilizing RNA structures...
June 22, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648681/traumatic-brain-injury-severity-comorbidity-social-support-family-functioning-and-community-reintegration-among-veterans-of-the-afghanistan-and-iraq-wars
#20
Mary Jo Pugh, Alicia A Swan, Kathleen F Carlson, Carlos A Jaramillo, Blessen C Eapen, Christina Dillahunt-Aspillaga, Megan E Amuan, Roxana Delgado, Kimberly McConnell, Erin P Finley, Jordan Grafman
OBJECTIVE: Examine the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity and social, family, community reintegration outcomes as well as return to work status among Post-9/11 veterans in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) care. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Mail/online survey fielded to a national sample of veterans. PARTICIPANTS: Among a sample of Post-9/11 veterans with at least 3 years of VA care stratified according to TBI severity and comorbidities, 2023 completed and returned surveys...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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