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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024244/local-chemical-stimulation-of-neurons-with-the-fluidfm
#1
Matthias J Aebersold, Harald Dermutz, László Demkó, José F Saenz Cogollo, Shiang-Chi Lin, Conrad Burchert, Moritz Schneider, Doris Ling, Csaba Forró, Hana Han, Tomaso Zambelli, Janos Vörös
Physiological communication between neurons is dependent on the exchange of neurotransmitters at the synapses. Although such chemical signal transmission targets specific receptors and allows for subtle adaptation of the action potential, in vitro neuroscience typically relies on electrical currents and potentials to stimulate neurons. The electric stimulus is unspecific and the confinement of the stimuli within the media is technically difficult to control and introduces large artifacts in electric recordings of the activity...
October 10, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021744/posterior-thalamic-nucleus-modulation-of-tactile-stimuli-processing-in-rat-motor-and-primary-somatosensory-cortices
#2
Diana Casas-Torremocha, Francisco Clascá, Ángel Núñez
Rodents move rhythmically their facial whiskers and compute differences between signals predicted and those resulting from the movement to infer information about objects near their head. These computations are carried out by a large network of forebrain structures that includes the thalamus and the primary somatosensory (S1BF) and motor (M1wk) cortices. Spatially and temporally precise mechanorreceptive whisker information reaches the S1BF cortex via the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM). Other whisker-related information may reach both M1wk and S1BF via the axons from the posterior thalamic nucleus (Po)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959725/on-chip-photonic-synapse
#3
Zengguang Cheng, Carlos Ríos, Wolfram H P Pernice, C David Wright, Harish Bhaskaran
The search for new "neuromorphic computing" architectures that mimic the brain's approach to simultaneous processing and storage of information is intense. Because, in real brains, neuronal synapses outnumber neurons by many orders of magnitude, the realization of hardware devices mimicking the functionality of a synapse is a first and essential step in such a search. We report the development of such a hardware synapse, implemented entirely in the optical domain via a photonic integrated-circuit approach. Using purely optical means brings the benefits of ultrafast operation speed, virtually unlimited bandwidth, and no electrical interconnect power losses...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936725/ampa-receptors-at-ribbon-synapses-in-the-mammalian-retina-kinetic-models-and-molecular-identity
#4
Espen Hartveit, Bas-Jan Zandt, Eirik Madsen, Áurea Castilho, Svein Harald Mørkve, Margaret Lin Veruki
In chemical synapses, neurotransmitter molecules released from presynaptic vesicles activate populations of postsynaptic receptors that vary in functional properties depending on their subunit composition. Differential expression and localization of specific receptor subunits are thought to play fundamental roles in signal processing, but our understanding of how that expression is adapted to the signal processing in individual synapses and microcircuits is limited. At ribbon synapses, glutamate release is independent of action potentials and characterized by a high and rapidly changing rate of release...
September 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931721/neuropeptidergic-integration-of-behavior-in-trichoplax-adhaerens-an-animal-without-synapses
#5
Adriano Senatore, Thomas S Reese, Carolyn L Smith
Trichoplax adhaerens is a flat, millimeter-sized marine animal that adheres to surfaces and grazes on algae. Trichoplax displays a repertoire of different feeding behaviors despite the apparent absence of a true nervous system with electrical or chemical synapses. It glides along surfaces to find food, propelled by beating cilia on cells at its ventral surface, and pauses during feeding by arresting ciliary beating. We found that when endomorphin-like peptides are applied to an animal, ciliary beating is arrested, mimicking natural feeding pauses...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926076/electronic-imitation-of-behavioral-and-psychological-synaptic-activities-using-tiox-al2o3-based-memristor-devices
#6
Writam Banerjee, Qi Liu, Hangbing Lv, Shibing Long, Ming Liu
Seeking an effective electronic synapse to emulate biological synaptic behavior is fundamental for building brain-inspired computers. An emerging two-terminal memristor, in which the conductance can be gradually modulated by external electrical stimuli, is widely considered as the strongest competitor of the electronic synapse. Here, we show the capability of TiOx/Al2O3-based memristor devices to imitate synaptic behaviors. Along with analog resistive switching performances, the devices replicate the bio-synapse behaviors of potentiation/depression, short-term-plasticity, and long-term-potentiation, which show that TiOx/Al2O3-based memristors may be useful as electronic synapses...
October 5, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915323/hair-cell-transduction-tuning-and-synaptic-transmission-in-the-mammalian-cochlea
#7
Robert Fettiplace
Sound pressure fluctuations striking the ear are conveyed to the cochlea, where they vibrate the basilar membrane on which sit hair cells, the mechanoreceptors of the inner ear. Recordings of hair cell electrical responses have shown that they transduce sound via submicrometer deflections of their hair bundles, which are arrays of interconnected stereocilia containing the mechanoelectrical transducer (MET) channels. MET channels are activated by tension in extracellular tip links bridging adjacent stereocilia, and they can respond within microseconds to nanometer displacements of the bundle, facilitated by multiple processes of Ca2+-dependent adaptation...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911821/on-the-occurrence-and-enigmatic-functions-of-mixed-chemical-plus-electrical-synapses-in-the-mammalian-cns
#8
REVIEW
James I Nagy, Alberto E Pereda, John E Rash
Electrical synapses with diverse configurations and functions occur at a variety of interneuronal appositions, thereby significantly expanding the physiological complexity of neuronal circuitry over that provided solely by chemical synapses. Gap junctions between apposed dendritic and somatic plasma membranes form "purely electrical" synapses that allow for electrical communication between coupled neurons. In addition, gap junctions at axon terminals synapsing on dendrites and somata allow for "mixed" (dual chemical+electrical) synaptic transmission...
September 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905384/heteromeric-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-glycine-receptors-regulate-excitability-in-parvalbumin-expressing-dorsal-horn-neurons-through-phasic-and-tonic-glycinergic-inhibition
#9
M A Gradwell, K A Boyle, R J Callister, D I Hughes, B A Graham
The dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord is an important site for modality specific processing of sensory information and is essential for contextually relevant sensory experience. Parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons (PV + INs) have functional properties and connectivity that enables them to segregate tactile and nociceptive information. Here we examine inhibitory drive to PV + INs using targeted patch-clamp recording in spinal cord slices from adult transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein in PV + INs...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900187/electrostatics-of-non-neutral-biological-microdomains
#10
J Cartailler, Z Schuss, D Holcman
Voltage and charge distributions in cellular microdomains regulate communications, excitability, and signal transduction. We report here new electrical laws in a biological cell, which follow from a nonlinear electro-diffusion model. These newly discovered laws derive from the geometrical cell-membrane properties, such as membrane curvature, volume, and surface area. The electro-diffusion laws can now be used to predict and interpret voltage distribution in cellular microdomains such as synapses, dendritic spine, cilia and more...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894610/maturation-refinement-and-serotonergic-modulation-of-cerebellar-cortical-circuits-in-normal-development-and-in-murine-models-of-autism
#11
REVIEW
Eriola Hoxha, Pellegrino Lippiello, Bibiana Scelfo, Filippo Tempia, Mirella Ghirardi, Maria Concetta Miniaci
The formation of the complex cerebellar cortical circuits follows different phases, with initial synaptogenesis and subsequent processes of refinement guided by a variety of mechanisms. The regularity of the cellular and synaptic organization of the cerebellar cortex allowed detailed studies of the structural plasticity mechanisms underlying the formation of new synapses and retraction of redundant ones. For the attainment of the monoinnervation of the Purkinje cell by a single climbing fiber, several signals are involved, including electrical activity, contact signals, homosynaptic and heterosynaptic interaction, calcium transients, postsynaptic receptors, and transduction pathways...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893590/design-principles-of-electrical-synaptic-plasticity
#12
REVIEW
John O'Brien
Essentially all animals with nervous systems utilize electrical synapses as a core element of communication. Electrical synapses, formed by gap junctions between neurons, provide rapid, bidirectional communication that accomplishes tasks distinct from and complementary to chemical synapses. These include coordination of neuron activity, suppression of voltage noise, establishment of electrical pathways that define circuits, and modulation of high order network behavior. In keeping with the omnipresent demand to alter neural network function in order to respond to environmental cues and perform tasks, electrical synapses exhibit extensive plasticity...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875026/segregation-of-lipids-near-acetylcholine-receptor-channels-imaged-by-cryo-em
#13
Nigel Unwin
Rapid communication at the chemical synapse depends on the action of ion channels residing in the postsynaptic membrane. The channels open transiently upon the binding of a neurotransmitter released from the presynaptic nerve terminal, eliciting an electrical response. Membrane lipids also play a vital but poorly understood role in this process of synaptic transmission. The present study examines the lipid distribution around nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors in tubular vesicles made from postsynaptic membranes of the Torpedo ray, taking advantage of the recent advances in cryo-EM...
July 1, 2017: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871036/sodium-channel-%C3%AE-2-subunits-prevent-action-potential-propagation-failures-at-axonal-branch-points
#14
In Ha Cho, Lauren C Panzera, Morven Chin, Michael B Hoppa
Neurotransmitter release depends on voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Navs) to propagate an action potential (AP) successfully from the axon hillock to a synaptic terminal. Unmyelinated sections of axon are very diverse structures encompassing branch points and numerous presynaptic terminals with undefined molecular partners of Na(+) channels. Using optical recordings of Ca(2+) and membrane voltage, we demonstrate here that Na(+) channel β2 subunits (Navβ2s) are required to prevent AP propagation failures across the axonal arborization of cultured rat hippocampal neurons (mixed male and female)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856684/selective-synaptic-connections-in-the-retinal-pathway-for-night-vision
#15
Deborah L Beaudoin, Mania Kupershtok, Jonathan B Demb
The mammalian retina encodes visual information in dim light using rod photoreceptors and a specialized circuit: rods→rod bipolar cells→AII amacrine cell. The AII amacrine cell uses sign-conserving electrical synapses to modulate ON cone bipolar cell terminals and sign-inverting chemical (glycinergic) synapses to modulate OFF cone cell bipolar terminals; these ON and OFF cone bipolar terminals then drive the output neurons, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), following light increments and decrements, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833444/energy-efficient-neural-information-processing-in-individual-neurons-and-neuronal-networks
#16
REVIEW
Lianchun Yu, Yuguo Yu
Brains are composed of networks of an enormous number of neurons interconnected with synapses. Neural information is carried by the electrical signals within neurons and the chemical signals among neurons. Generating these electrical and chemical signals is metabolically expensive. The fundamental issue raised here is whether brains have evolved efficient ways of developing an energy-efficient neural code from the molecular level to the circuit level. Here, we summarize the factors and biophysical mechanisms that could contribute to the energy-efficient neural code for processing input signals...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828416/scalability-of-voltage-controlled-filamentary-and-nanometallic-resistance-memory-devices
#17
Yang Lu, Jong Ho Lee, I-Wei Chen
Much effort has been devoted to device and materials engineering to realize nanoscale resistance random access memory (RRAM) for practical applications, but a rational physical basis to be relied on to design scalable devices spanning many length scales is still lacking. In particular, there is no clear criterion for switching control in those RRAM devices in which resistance changes are limited to localized nanoscale filaments that experience concentrated heat, electric current and field. Here, we demonstrate voltage-controlled resistance switching, always at a constant characteristic critical voltage, for macro and nanodevices in both filamentary RRAM and nanometallic RRAM, and the latter switches uniformly and does not require a forming process...
August 31, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820903/prominent-facilitation-at-beta-and-gamma-frequency-range-revealed-with-physiological-calcium-concentration-in-adult-mouse-piriform-cortex-in-vitro
#18
Marie Gleizes, Simon P Perrier, Caroline Fonta, Lionel G Nowak
Neuronal activity is characterized by a diversity of oscillatory phenomena that are associated with multiple behavioral and cognitive processes, yet the functional consequences of these oscillations are not fully understood. Our aim was to determine whether and how these different oscillatory activities affect short-term synaptic plasticity (STP), using the olfactory system as a model. In response to odorant stimuli, the olfactory bulb displays a slow breathing rhythm as well as beta and gamma oscillations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820141/silicon-synaptic-transistor-for-hardware-based-spiking-neural-network-and-neuromorphic-system
#19
Hyungjin Kim, Sungmin Hwang, Jungjin Park, Byung-Gook Park
Brain-inspired neuromorphic systems have attracted much attention as new computing paradigms for power-efficient computation. Here, we report a silicon synaptic transistor with two electrically independent gates to realize a hardware-based neural network system without any switching components. The spike-timing dependent plasticity characteristics of the synaptic devices are measured and analyzed. With the help of the device model based on the measured data, the pattern recognition capability of the hardware-based spiking neural network systems is demonstrated using the modified national institute of standards and technology handwritten dataset...
August 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819053/novel-neurobiological-properties-of-elements-in-the-escape-circuitry-of-the-shrimp
#20
De Forest Mellon
Escape behaviors in peneid shrimp are mediated by large myelinated medial giant fibers which course from the brain to the last abdominal ganglion in the ventral nerve cord. In each abdominal segment the medial giant axons make synaptic connections with paired myelinated giant motor axons that excite the abdominal deep flexor muscles and drive the tailflips that constitute the escape behavior. I examined 1) anatomical features of the abdominal motor giant fibers and 2) electrical properties of both the medial giants and motor giants in the pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duoarum...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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