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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678326/the-effects-of-the-activation-of-the-inner-hair-cell-basolateral-k-channels-on-auditory-nerve-responses
#1
Alessandro Altoè, Ville Pulkki, Sarah Verhulst
The basolateral membrane of the mammalian inner hair cell (IHC) expresses large voltage and Ca2+ gated outward K+ currents. To quantify how the voltage-dependent activation of the K+ channels affects the functionality of the auditory nerve innervating the IHC, this study adopts a model of mechanical-to-neural transduction in which the basolateral K+ conductances of the IHC can be made voltage-dependent or not. The model shows that the voltage-dependent activation of the K+ channels (i) enhances the phase-locking properties of the auditory fiber (AF) responses; (ii) enables the auditory nerve to encode a large dynamic range of sound levels; (iii) enables the AF responses to synchronize precisely with the envelope of amplitude modulated stimuli; and (iv), is responsible for the steep offset responses of the AFs...
April 6, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672507/unconventional-function-of-an-achaete-scute-homolog-as-a-terminal-selector-of-nociceptive-neuron-identity
#2
Neda Masoudi, Saeed Tavazoie, Lori Glenwinkel, Leesun Ryu, Kyuhyung Kim, Oliver Hobert
Proneural genes are among the most early-acting genes in nervous system development, instructing blast cells to commit to a neuronal fate. Drosophila Atonal and Achaete-Scute complex (AS-C) genes, as well as their vertebrate orthologs, are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors with such proneural activity. We show here that a C. elegans AS-C homolog, hlh-4, functions in a fundamentally different manner. In the embryonic, larval, and adult nervous systems, hlh-4 is expressed exclusively in a single nociceptive neuron class, ADL, and its expression in ADL is maintained via transcriptional autoregulation throughout the life of the animal...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662453/response-of-cultured-neuronal-network-activity-after-high-intensity-power-frequency-magnetic-field-exposure
#3
Atsushi Saito, Masayuki Takahashi, Kei Makino, Yukihisa Suzuki, Yasuhiko Jimbo, Satoshi Nakasono
High-intensity and low frequency (1-100 kHz) time-varying electromagnetic fields stimulate the human body through excitation of the nervous system. In power frequency range (50/60 Hz), a frequency-dependent threshold of the external electric field-induced neuronal modulation in cultured neuronal networks was used as one of the biological indicator in international guidelines; however, the threshold of the magnetic field-induced neuronal modulation has not been elucidated. In this study, we exposed rat brain-derived neuronal networks to a high-intensity power frequency magnetic field (hPF-MF), and evaluated the modulation of synchronized bursting activity using a multi-electrode array (MEA)-based extracellular recording technique...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659025/synaptic-depression-induced-by-postsynaptic-camp-production-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-calyx
#4
Shoma Sato, Kohei Ueno, Minoru Saitoe, Takaomi Sakai
Synaptic plasticity has been studied to reveal the molecular and cellular mechanisms of associative and nonassociative learning. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify the molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity because vast genetic information or tools are available. Here, by ex vivo Ca2+ imaging of an isolated cultured Drosophila brain, we examined the novel activity-dependent synaptic depression between the projection neurons of the antennal lobe (AL) and mushroom body (MB). Ex vivo Ca2+ imaging analysis revealed that electrical stimulation of AL elicits Ca2+ responses in the dendritic (calyx) and axonal (α lobe) regions of MB neurons, and the responses are reduced after repetitive AL stimulation...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595242/compliance-free-multileveled-resistive-switching-in-transparent-2d-perovskite-for-neuromorphic-computing
#5
Mohit Kumar, Hong-Sik Kim, Dae Young Park, Mun Seok Jeong, Joondong Kim
We demonstrate the pulsed voltage tunable multileveled resistive switching across a promising transparent energy material of (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4. The x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirm the growth of (001) plane orientated nanostructures with an average size of ~360 nm. The device depicts optical transmittance higher than 70% in visible region and efficient absorbance in the ultra-violet region. The current-voltage measurement shows the bipolar resistive switching (RS). In addition, depending on the magnitude of applied electric pulse, the current across the device can be flipped in four different levels, which remain stable for long time, indicating multimode RS...
March 29, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566349/an-interneuron-circuit-reproducing-essential-spectral-features-of-field-potentials
#6
Reinoud Maex
Recent advances in engineering and signal processing have renewed the interest in invasive and surface brain recordings, yet many features of cortical field potentials remain incompletely understood. In the computational study that follows, we show that a model circuit of interneurons, coupled via both [Formula: see text] receptor synapses and electrical synapses, reproduces many essential features of the power spectrum of local field potential (LFP) recordings, such as 1/[Formula: see text] power scaling at low frequency (below 10 Hz), power accumulation in the [Formula: see text]-frequency band (30-100 Hz), and a robust [Formula: see text] rhythm in the absence of stimulation...
March 22, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553525/examining-monosynaptic-connections-in-drosophila-using-tetrodotoxin-resistant-sodium-channels
#7
Xiaonan Zhang, Quentin Gaudry
Here, a new technique termed Tetrotoxin (TTX) Engineered Resistance for Probing Synapses (TERPS) is applied to test for monosynaptic connections between target neurons. The method relies on co-expression of a transgenic activator with the tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel, NaChBac, in a specific presynaptic neuron. Connections with putative post-synaptic partners are determined by whole-cell recordings in the presence of TTX, which blocks electrical activity in neurons that do not express NaChBac. This approach can be modified to work with any activator or calcium imaging as a reporter of connections...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551963/cannabinoid-receptors-modulate-excitation-of-an-olfactory-bulb-local-circuit-by-cortical-feedback
#8
Frederic Pouille, Nathan E Schoppa
Recent studies have provided evidence that corticofugal feedback (CFF) from the olfactory cortex to the olfactory bulb (OB) can significantly impact the state of excitation of output mitral cells (MCs) and tufted cells (TCs) and also modulate neural synchrony. Interpreting these effects however has been complicated by the large number of cell targets of CFF axons in the bulb. Within the granule cell layer (GCL) alone, CFF axons target both GABAergic granule cells (GCs) as well as GABAergic deep short-axon cells (dSACs) that inhibit GCs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546896/oxygen-vacancy-migration-diffusion-induced-synaptic-plasticity-in-a-single-titanate-nanobelt
#9
Ming Xiao, Daozhi Shen, Kevin P Musselman, Walter W Duley, Y Norman Zhou
Neuromorphic computational systems that emulate biological synapses in the human brain are fundamental in the development of artificial intelligence protocols beyond the standard von Neumann architecture. Such systems require new types of building blocks, such as memristors that access a quasi-continuous and wide range of conductive states, which is still an obstacle for the realization of high-efficiency and large-capacity learning in neuromorphoric simulation. Here, we introduce hydrogen and sodium titanate nanobelts, the intermediate products of hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanobelts, to emulate the synaptic behavior...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524471/electroacupuncture-restores-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-via-modulation-of-5-ht-receptors-in-a-rat-model-of-depression
#10
Xuke Han, Huangan Wu, Ping Yin, Zeqin Chen, Xiaohua Cao, Yanhong Duan, Jian Xu, Lixing Lao, Shifen Xu
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on Wistar Kyoto (WKY) depressive model rats and explore the possible mechanism of EA on hippocampal CA1 region neuronal synaptic plasticity. METHODS: The male WKY rats were randomized to three experimental groups (EA, Sham EA, and Model group, n = 8/group), and Wistar rats as the normal control group (n = 8). EA treatment was administered once daily for 3 weeks at acupuncture points Baihui (GV20) and Yintang (EX-HN3)...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504245/photonic-potentiation-and-electric-habituation-in-ultrathin-memristive-synapses-based-on-monolayer-mos-2
#11
Hui-Kai He, Rui Yang, Wen Zhou, He-Ming Huang, Jue Xiong, Lin Gan, Tian-You Zhai, Xin Guo
Monolayer of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, with a thickness of less than 1 nm, paves a feasible path to the development of ultrathin memristive synapses, to fulfill the requirements for constructing large-scale high density 3D stacking neuromorphic chips. Herein, memristive devices based on monolayer n-MoS2 on p-Si substrate with a large self-rectification ratio, exhibiting photonic potentiation and electric habituation, are successfully fabricated. Versatile synaptic neuromorphic functions, such as potentiation/habituation, short-term/long-term plasticity, and paired-pulse facilitation, are successfully mimicked based on the inherent persistent photoconductivity performance and the volatile resistive switching behavior...
March 5, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501892/in-vivo-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-ng2-glia-activity-caused-by-neural-electrode-implantation
#12
Steven M Wellman, Takashi D Y Kozai
Neural interface technology provides direct sampling and analysis of electrical and chemical events in the brain in order to better understand neuronal function and treat neurodegenerative disease. However, intracortical electrodes experience inflammatory reactions that reduce long-term stability and functionality and are understood to be facilitated by activated microglia and astrocytes. Emerging studies have identified another cell type that participates in the formation of a high-impedance glial scar following brain injury; the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC)...
February 20, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497465/piezoelectric-smart-biomaterials-for-bone-and-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#13
REVIEW
Jaicy Jacob, Namdev More, Kiran Kalia, Govinda Kapusetti
Tissues like bone and cartilage are remodeled dynamically for their functional requirements by signaling pathways. The signals are controlled by the cells and extracellular matrix and transmitted through an electrical and chemical synapse. Scaffold-based tissue engineering therapies largely disturb the natural signaling pathways, due to their rigidity towards signal conduction, despite their therapeutic advantages. Thus, there is a high need of smart biomaterials, which can conveniently generate and transfer the bioelectric signals analogous to native tissues for appropriate physiological functions...
2018: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480954/synaptic-function-and-plasticity-in-identified-inhibitory-inputs-onto-vta-dopamine-neurons
#14
Abigail M Polter, Kelsey Barcomb, Ayumi C Tsuda, Julie A Kauer
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic neurons are key components of the reward pathway, and their activity is powerfully controlled by a diverse array of inhibitory GABAergic inputs. Two major sources of GABAergic nerve terminals within the VTA are local VTA interneurons and neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). Here, using optogenetics, we compared synaptic properties of GABAergic synapses on VTA dopamine neurons using selective activation of afferents that originate from these two cell populations...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466733/a%C3%A3-facilitates-ltd-at-schaffer-collateral-synapses-preferentially-in-the-left-hippocampus
#15
Kenneth J O'Riordan, Neng-Wei Hu, Michael J Rowan
Promotion of long-term depression (LTD) mechanisms by synaptotoxic soluble oligomers of amyloid-β (Aß) has been proposed to underlie synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, LTD was induced by relatively non-specific electrical stimulation. Exploiting optogenetics, we studied LTD using a more physiologically diffuse spatial pattern of selective pathway activation in the rat hippocampus in vivo. This relatively sparse synaptic LTD requires both the ion channel function and GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor but, in contrast to electrically induced LTD, is not facilitated by boosting endogenous muscarinic acetylcholine or metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor activation...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464198/unraveling-synaptic-gcamp-signals-differential-excitability-and-clearance-mechanisms-underlying-distinct-ca-2-dynamics-in-tonic-and-phasic-excitatory-and-aminergic-modulatory-motor-terminals-in-drosophila
#16
Xiaomin Xing, Chun-Fang Wu
GCaMP is an optogenetic Ca2+ sensor widely used for monitoring neuronal activities but the precise physiological implications of GCaMP signals remain to be further delineated among functionally distinct synapses. The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a powerful genetic system for studying synaptic function and plasticity, consists of tonic and phasic glutamatergic and modulatory aminergic motor terminals of distinct properties. We report a first simultaneous imaging and electric recording study to directly contrast the frequency characteristics of GCaMP signals of the three synapses for physiological implications...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449585/electrical-coupling-between-a17-cells-enhances-reciprocal-inhibitory-feedback-to-rod-bipolar-cells
#17
Claudio Elgueta, Felix Leroy, Alex H Vielma, Oliver Schmachtenberg, Adrian G Palacios
A17 amacrine cells are an important part of the scotopic pathway. Their synaptic varicosities receive glutamatergic inputs from rod bipolar cells (RBC) and release GABA onto the same RBC terminal, forming a reciprocal feedback that shapes RBC depolarization. Here, using patch-clamp recordings, we characterized electrical coupling between A17 cells of the rat retina and report the presence of strongly interconnected and non-coupled A17 cells. In coupled A17 cells, evoked currents preferentially flow out of the cell through GJs and cross-synchronization of presynaptic signals in a pair of A17 cells is correlated to their coupling degree...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447392/activity-dependent-functions-of-non-electrical-glial-cells
#18
Daisuke Kato, Kei Eto, Junichi Nabekura, Hiroaki Wake
Electrical activity is essential for brain function. However, neurons, the electrically active cells, are less numerous than the non-electrical glial cells in the central nervous system. The non-electrical components modify the function of neural circuits, depending on the electrical neuronal activity, by wrapping synapses, myelinating axons, and phagocytozing the neuronal components. Moreover, recent evidence has suggested that they contribute to neurological and psychiatric disease by regulating neuronal circuits, ultimately affecting their behavior...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431275/burst-spinal-cord-stimulation-review-of-preclinical-studies-and-comments-on-clinical-outcomes
#19
REVIEW
Krishnan Chakravarthy, Alexander R Kent, Adil Raza, Fang Xing, Thomas M Kinfe
BACKGROUND: Burst spinal cord stimulation (SCS) technology uses a novel waveform that consists of closely packed high-frequency electrical impulses followed by a quiescent period. Within the growing field of neuromodulation, burst stimulation is unique in that it mimics the natural burst firing of the nervous system, in particular the thalamo-cingulate rhythmicity, resulting in modulation of the affective and attentional components of pain processing (e.g., medial thalamic pathways). STUDY DESIGN: A review of preclinical and clinical studies regarding burst SCS for various chronic pain states...
February 12, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387787/ultralow-power-artificial-synapses-using-nanotextured-magnetic-josephson-junctions
#20
Michael L Schneider, Christine A Donnelly, Stephen E Russek, Burm Baek, Matthew R Pufall, Peter F Hopkins, Paul D Dresselhaus, Samuel P Benz, William H Rippard
Neuromorphic computing promises to markedly improve the efficiency of certain computational tasks, such as perception and decision-making. Although software and specialized hardware implementations of neural networks have made tremendous accomplishments, both implementations are still many orders of magnitude less energy efficient than the human brain. We demonstrate a new form of artificial synapse based on dynamically reconfigurable superconducting Josephson junctions with magnetic nanoclusters in the barrier...
January 2018: Science Advances
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