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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652625/dendritic-mitoflash-as-a-putative-signal-for-stabilizing-long-term-synaptic-plasticity
#1
Zhong-Xiao Fu, Xiao Tan, Huaqiang Fang, Pak-Ming Lau, Xianhua Wang, Heping Cheng, Guo-Qiang Bi
Mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are recently discovered excitable mitochondrial events in many cell types. Here we investigate their occurrence in the context of structural long-term potentiation (sLTP) at hippocampal synapses. At dendritic spines stimulated by electric pulses, glycine, or targeted glutamate uncaging, induction of sLTP is associated with a phasic occurrence of local, quantized mitochondrial activity in the form of one or a few mitoflashes, over a 30-min window. Low-dose nigericin or photoactivation that elicits mitoflashes stabilizes otherwise short-term spine enlargement into sLTP...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643696/artificial-synaptic-characteristics-with-strong-analog-memristive-switching-in-a-pt-ceo2-pt-structure
#2
Hyung Jun Kim, Hong Zheng, Jong-Sung Park, Dong Hun Kim, Chi Jung Kang, Jun Tae Jang, Dae Hwan Kim, Tae-Sik Yoon
Artificial synaptic potentiation and depression characteristics were demonstrated with Pt/CeO2/Pt devices exhibiting polarity-dependent analog memristive switching. The strong and sequential resistance change with its maximum to minimum ratio >10(5), imperatively essential for stable operation, as repeating voltage application, emulated the potentiation and depression motion of a synapse with variable synaptic weight. The synaptic weight change could be controlled by the amplitude, width, and number of repeated voltage pulses...
July 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612182/invaginating-presynaptic-terminals-in-neuromuscular-junctions-photoreceptor-terminals-and-other-synapses-of-animals
#3
REVIEW
Ronald S Petralia, Ya-Xian Wang, Mark P Mattson, Pamela J Yao
Typically, presynaptic terminals form a synapse directly on the surface of postsynaptic processes such as dendrite shafts and spines. However, some presynaptic terminals invaginate-entirely or partially-into postsynaptic processes. We survey these invaginating presynaptic terminals in all animals and describe several examples from the central nervous system, including giant fiber systems in invertebrates, and cup-shaped spines, electroreceptor synapses, and some specialized auditory and vestibular nerve terminals in vertebrates...
June 13, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605376/anatomically-inspired-three-dimensional-micro-tissue-engineered-neural-networks-for-nervous-system-reconstruction-modulation-and-modeling
#4
Laura A Struzyna, Dayo O Adewole, Wisberty J Gordián-Vélez, Michael R Grovola, Justin C Burrell, Kritika S Katiyar, Dmitriy Petrov, James P Harris, D Kacy Cullen
Functional recovery rarely occurs following injury or disease-induced degeneration within the central nervous system (CNS) due to the inhibitory environment and the limited capacity for neurogenesis. We are developing a strategy to simultaneously address neuronal and axonal pathway loss within the damaged CNS. This manuscript presents the fabrication protocol for micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), implantable constructs consisting of neurons and aligned axonal tracts spanning the extracellular matrix (ECM) lumen of a preformed hydrogel cylinder hundreds of microns in diameter that may extend centimeters in length...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594440/calcium-signalling-in-medial-intercalated-cell-dendrites-and-spines
#5
Cornelia Strobel, Robert K P Sullivan, Peter Stratton, Pankaj Sah
The amygdala plays a central role in fear conditioning and extinction. The medial intercalated (mITC) neurons are GABAergic cell clusters interspaced between the basolateral (BLA) and central amygdala (CeA). These neurons are thought to play a key role in fear and extinction, controlling the output of the CeA by feed-forward inhibition. BLA to mITC cell inputs are though to undergo synaptic plasticity, a mechanism underlying learning, which is mediated by NMDA-receptor dependent mechanisms that require changes in cytosolic calcium...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580666/connexins-and-pannexins-at-the-junction-of-neuro-glial-homeostasis-disease
#6
REVIEW
Andrew S Lapato, Seema K Tiwari-Woodruff
In the central nervous system (CNS), connexin (Cx)s and pannexin (Panx)s are an integral component of homeostatic neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity. Neuronal Cx gap junctions form electrical synapses across biochemically similar GABAergic networks, allowing rapid and extensive inhibition in response to principle neuron excitation. Glial Cx gap junctions link astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the pan-glial network that is responsible for removing excitotoxic ions and metabolites. In addition, glial gap junctions help constrain excessive excitatory activity in neurons and facilitate astrocyte Ca(2+) slow wave propagation...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577972/electrical-synapses-in-mammalian-cns-past-eras-present-focus-and-future-directions
#7
REVIEW
James I Nagy, Alberto E Pereda, John E Rash
Gap junctions provide the basis for electrical synapses between neurons. Early studies in well-defined circuits in lower vertebrates laid the foundation for understanding various properties conferred by electrical synaptic transmission. Knowledge surrounding electrical synapses in mammalian systems unfolded first with evidence indicating the presence of gap junctions between neurons in various brain regions, but with little appreciation of their functional roles. Beginning at about the turn of this century, new approaches were applied to scrutinize electrical synapses, revealing the prevalence of neuronal gap junctions, the connexin protein composition of many of those junctions, and the myriad diverse neural systems in which they occur in the mammalian CNS...
June 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561933/cx36-cx43-and-cx45-in-mouse-and-rat-cerebellar-cortex-species-specific-expression-compensation-in-cx36-null-mice-and-co-localization-in-neurons-vs-glia
#8
J I Nagy, J E Rash
Electrical synapses formed by connexin36 (Cx36)-containing gap junctions between interneurons in the cerebellar cortex have been well characterized, including those formed between basket cells and between Golgi cells, and there is gene reporter-based evidence for the expression of connexin45 (Cx45) in the cerebellar molecular layer. Here, we used immunofluorescence approaches to further investigate expression patterns of Cx36 and Cx45 in this layer, and to examine localization relationships of these connexins with each other and with glial connexin43 (Cx43)...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554310/ion-channel-and-neurotransmitter-modulators-as-electroceutical-approaches-to-the-control-of-cancer
#9
Jack Tuszynski, Tatiana M Tilli, Michael Levin
The activities of individual cells must be tightly coordinated in order to build and maintain complex 3-dimensional body structures during embryogenesis and regeneration. Thus, one way to view cancer is within systems biology as a network disorder affecting the ability of cells to properly interact with a morphodynamic field of instructive signals that keeps proliferation and migration orchestrated toward the anatomical needs of the host organism. One layer of this set of instructive microenvironmental cues is bioelectrical...
May 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536821/impaired-motor-coordination-and-learning-in-mice-lacking-anoctamin-2-calcium-gated-chloride-channels
#10
Franziska Neureither, Katharina Ziegler, Claudia Pitzer, Stephan Frings, Frank Möhrlen
Neurons communicate through excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Both lines of communication are adjustable and allow the fine tuning of signal exchange required for learning processes in neural networks. Several distinct modes of plasticity modulate glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex to promote motor control and learning. In the present paper, we present evidence for a role of short-term ionic plasticity in the cerebellar circuit activity. This type of plasticity results from altered chloride driving forces at the synapses that molecular layer interneurons form on Purkinje cell dendrites...
May 23, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530549/a-genetic-basis-for-molecular-asymmetry-at-vertebrate-electrical-synapses
#11
Adam C Miller, Alex C Whitebirch, Arish N Shah, Kurt C Marsden, Michael Granato, John O'Brien, Cecilia B Moens
Neural network function is based upon the patterns and types of connections made between neurons. Neuronal synapses are adhesions specialized for communication and they come in two types, chemical and electrical. Communication at chemical synapses occurs via neurotransmitter release whereas electrical synapses utilize gap junctions for direct ionic and metabolic coupling. Electrical synapses are often viewed as symmetrical structures, with the same components making both sides of the gap junction. By contrast, we show that a broad set of electrical synapses in zebrafish, Danio rerio, require two gap-junction-forming Connexins for formation and function...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528963/neuronal-activity-patterns-in-the-developing-barrel-cortex
#12
Heiko J Luhmann, Rustem Khazipov
The developing barrel cortex reveals a rich repertoire of neuronal activity patterns, which have been also found in other sensory neocortical areas and in other species including the somatosensory cortex of preterm human infants. The earliest stage is characterized by asynchronous, sparse single-cell firing at low frequencies. During the second stage neurons show correlated firing, which is initially mediated by electrical synapses and subsequently transforms into network bursts depending on chemical synapses...
May 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523281/imaging-membrane-potential-changes-from-dendritic-spines-using-computer-generated-holography
#13
Dimitrii Tanese, Ju-Yun Weng, Valeria Zampini, Vincent De Sars, Marco Canepari, Balazs Rozsa, Valentina Emiliani, Dejan Zecevic
Electrical properties of neuronal processes are extraordinarily complex, dynamic, and, in the general case, impossible to predict in the absence of detailed measurements. To obtain such a measurement one would, ideally, like to be able to monitor electrical subthreshold events as they travel from synapses on distal dendrites and summate at particular locations to initiate action potentials. It is now possible to carry out these measurements at the scale of individual dendritic spines using voltage imaging. In these measurements, the voltage-sensitive probes can be thought of as transmembrane voltmeters with a linear scale, which directly monitor electrical signals...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518110/external-excitation-of-neurons-using-electric-and-magnetic-fields-in-one-and-two-dimensional-cultures
#14
Shani Stern, Assaf Rotem, Yuri Burnishev, Eyal Weinreb, Elisha Moses
A neuron will fire an action potential when its membrane potential exceeds a certain threshold. In typical activity of the brain, this occurs as a result of chemical inputs to its synapses. However, neurons can also be excited by an imposed electric field. In particular, recent clinical applications activate neurons by creating an electric field externally. It is therefore of interest to investigate how the neuron responds to the external field and what causes the action potential. Fortunately, precise and controlled application of an external electric field is possible for embryonic neuronal cells that are excised, dissociated and grown in cultures...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484377/activity-dependent-synaptic-refinement-new-insights-from-drosophila
#15
REVIEW
Fernando Vonhoff, Haig Keshishian
During development, neurons establish inappropriate connections as they seek out their synaptic partners, resulting in supernumerary synapses that must be pruned away. The removal of miswired synapses usually involves electrical activity, often through a Hebbian spike-timing mechanism. A novel form of activity-dependent refinement is used by Drosophila that may be non-Hebbian, and is critical for generating the precise connectivity observed in that system. In Drosophila, motoneurons use both glutamate and the biogenic amine octopamine for neurotransmission, and the muscle fibers receive multiple synaptic inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474539/induced-neural-activity-promotes-an-oligodendroglia-regenerative-response-in-the-injured-spinal-cord-and-improves-motor-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Qun Li, Thierry Houdayer, Su Liu, Visar Belegu
Myelination in central nervous system (CNS) is a dynamic process that includes birth of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), their differentiation into oligodendrocytes, and ensheathment of axons. Regulation of myelination by neuronal activity has emerged as a new mechanism of CNS plasticity. Indeed, activity-dependent myelination has been shown to regulate sensory, motor and cognitive functions. In this work, we aimed to employ this mechanism of CNS plasticity by utilizing induced neuronal activity to promote remyelination and functional recovery in a subchronic model of SCI...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469003/regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-following-spinal-cord-injury-in-the-lamrpey
#17
Jessica A Benes, Kylie N House, Frank N Burks, Kris P Conaway, Donald P Julien, Jeffrey P Donley, Michael A Iyamu, Andrew D McClellan
Following rostral spinal cord injury (SCI) in larval lampreys, injured descending brain neurons, particularly reticulospinal (RS) neurons, regenerate their axons, and locomotor behavior recovers in a few weeks. However, axonal regeneration of descending brain neurons is mostly limited to relatively short distances, but the mechanisms for incomplete axonal regeneration are unclear. First, lampreys with rostral SCI exhibited greater axonal regeneration of descending brain neurons, including RS neurons, as well as more rapid recovery of locomotor muscle activity right below the lesion site compared to animals with caudal SCI...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468994/spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-in-lower-limb-motoneurons-after-human-spinal-cord-injury
#18
M A Urbin, Recep Ali Ozdemir, Toshiki Tazoe, Monica A Perez
Recovery of lower-limb function after spinal cord injury (SCI) likely depends on transmission in the corticospinal pathway. Here, we examined whether paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation (PCMS) changes transmission at spinal synapses of lower-limb motoneurons in humans with chronic incomplete SCI and aged-matched controls. We used 200 pairs of stimuli where corticospinal volleys evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the leg representation of the motor cortex were timed to arrive at corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle 2 ms before antidromic potentials evoked in motoneurons by electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve (PCMS+) or when antidromic potentials arrived 15 or 28 ms before corticospinal volleys (PCMS-) on separate days...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450536/variable-action-potential-backpropagation-during-tonic-firing-and-low-threshold-spike-bursts-in-thalamocortical-but-not-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-neurons
#19
William M Connelly, Vincenzo Crunelli, Adam C Errington
Backpropagating action potentials (bAPs) are indispensable in dendritic signaling. Conflicting Ca(2+)-imaging data and an absence of dendritic recording data means that the extent of backpropagation in thalamocortical (TC) and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons remains unknown. Because TRN neurons signal electrically through dendrodendritic gap junctions and possibly via chemical dendritic GABAergic synapses, as well as classical axonal GABA release, this lack of knowledge is problematic. To address this issue, we made two-photon targeted patch-clamp recordings from rat TC and TRN neuron dendrites to measure bAPs directly...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446587/temporal-integration-and-1-f-power-scaling-in-a-circuit-model-of-cerebellar-interneurons
#20
Reinoud Maex, Boris Samuel Gutkin
Inhibitory interneurons interconnected via electrical and chemical (GABAA receptor) synapses form extensive circuits in several brain regions. They are thought to be involved in timing and synchronization through fast feed-forward control of principal neurons. Theoretical studies have shown, however, that whereas self-inhibition does indeed reduce response duration, lateral inhibition, in contrast, may generate slow response components through a process of gradual disinhibition. Here we simulated a circuit of interneurons (stellate and basket cells) of the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex, and observed circuit time-constants that could rise, depending on the parameter values, to more than one second...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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