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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530549/a-genetic-basis-for-molecular-asymmetry-at-vertebrate-electrical-synapses
#1
Adam C Miller, Alex C Whitebirch, Arish N Shah, Kurt C Marsden, Michael Granato, John O'Brien, Cecilia B Moens
Neural network function is based upon the patterns and types of connections made between neurons. Neuronal synapses are adhesions specialized for communication and they come in two types, chemical and electrical. Communication at chemical synapses occurs via neurotransmitter release whereas electrical synapses utilize gap junctions for direct ionic and metabolic coupling. Electrical synapses are often viewed as symmetrical structures, with the same components making both sides of the gap junction. By contrast, we show that a broad set of electrical synapses in zebrafish, Danio rerio, require two gap-junction-forming Connexins for formation and function...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528963/neuronal-activity-patterns-in-the-developing-barrel-cortex
#2
Heiko J Luhmann, Rustem Khazipov
The developing barrel cortex reveals a rich repertoire of neuronal activity patterns, which have been also found in other sensory neocortical areas and in other species including the somatosensory cortex of preterm human infants. The earliest stage is characterized by asynchronous, sparse single cell firing at low frequencies. During the second stage neurons show correlated firing, which is initially mediated by electrical synapses and subsequently transforms into network bursts depending on chemical synapses...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523281/imaging-membrane-potential-changes-from-dendritic-spines-using-computer-generated-holography
#3
Dimitrii Tanese, Ju-Yun Weng, Valeria Zampini, Vincent De Sars, Marco Canepari, Balazs Rozsa, Valentina Emiliani, Dejan Zecevic
Electrical properties of neuronal processes are extraordinarily complex, dynamic, and, in the general case, impossible to predict in the absence of detailed measurements. To obtain such a measurement one would, ideally, like to be able to monitor electrical subthreshold events as they travel from synapses on distal dendrites and summate at particular locations to initiate action potentials. It is now possible to carry out these measurements at the scale of individual dendritic spines using voltage imaging. In these measurements, the voltage-sensitive probes can be thought of as transmembrane voltmeters with a linear scale, which directly monitor electrical signals...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518110/external-excitation-of-neurons-using-electric-and-magnetic-fields-in-one-and-two-dimensional-cultures
#4
Shani Stern, Assaf Rotem, Yuri Burnishev, Eyal Weinreb, Elisha Moses
A neuron will fire an action potential when its membrane potential exceeds a certain threshold. In typical activity of the brain, this occurs as a result of chemical inputs to its synapses. However, neurons can also be excited by an imposed electric field. In particular, recent clinical applications activate neurons by creating an electric field externally. It is therefore of interest to investigate how the neuron responds to the external field and what causes the action potential. Fortunately, precise and controlled application of an external electric field is possible for embryonic neuronal cells that are excised, dissociated and grown in cultures...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484377/activity-dependent-synaptic-refinement-new-insights-from-drosophila
#5
REVIEW
Fernando Vonhoff, Haig Keshishian
During development, neurons establish inappropriate connections as they seek out their synaptic partners, resulting in supernumerary synapses that must be pruned away. The removal of miswired synapses usually involves electrical activity, often through a Hebbian spike-timing mechanism. A novel form of activity-dependent refinement is used by Drosophila that may be non-Hebbian, and is critical for generating the precise connectivity observed in that system. In Drosophila, motoneurons use both glutamate and the biogenic amine octopamine for neurotransmission, and the muscle fibers receive multiple synaptic inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474539/induced-neural-activity-promotes-an-oligodendroglia-regenerative-response-in-the-injured-spinal-cord-and-improves-motor-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Qun Li, Thierry Houdayer, Su Liu, Visar Belegu
Myelination in central nervous system (CNS) is a dynamic process that includes birth of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), their differentiation into oligodendrocytes, and ensheathment of axons. Regulation of myelination by neuronal activity has emerged as a new mechanism of CNS plasticity. Indeed, activity-dependent myelination has been shown to regulate sensory, motor and cognitive functions. In this work, we aimed to employ this mechanism of CNS plasticity by utilizing induced neuronal activity to promote remyelination and functional recovery in a subchronic model of SCI...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469003/regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-following-spinal-cord-injury-in-the-lamrpey
#7
Jessica A Benes, Kylie N House, Frank N Burks, Kris P Conaway, Donald P Julien, Jeffrey P Donley, Michael A Iyamu, Andrew D McClellan
Following rostral spinal cord injury (SCI) in larval lampreys, injured descending brain neurons, particularly reticulospinal (RS) neurons, regenerate their axons, and locomotor behavior recovers in a few weeks. However, axonal regeneration of descending brain neurons is mostly limited to relatively short distances, but the mechanisms for incomplete axonal regeneration are unclear. First, lampreys with rostral SCI exhibited greater axonal regeneration of descending brain neurons, including RS neurons, as well as more rapid recovery of locomotor muscle activity right below the lesion site compared to animals with caudal SCI...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468994/spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-in-lower-limb-motoneurons-after-human-spinal-cord-injury
#8
M A Urbin, Recep Ali Ozdemir, Toshiki Tazoe, Monica A Perez
Recovery of lower-limb function after spinal cord injury (SCI) likely depends on transmission in the corticospinal pathway. Here, we examined whether paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation (PCMS) changes transmission at spinal synapses of lower-limb motoneurons in humans with chronic incomplete SCI and aged-matched controls. We used 200 pairs of stimuli where corticospinal volleys evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the leg representation of the motor cortex were timed to arrive at corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle 2 ms before antidromic potentials evoked in motoneurons by electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve (PCMS+) or when antidromic potentials arrived 15 or 28 ms before corticospinal volleys (PCMS-) on separate days...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450536/variable-action-potential-backpropagation-during-tonic-firing-and-low-threshold-spike-bursts-in-thalamocortical-but-not-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-neurons
#9
William M Connelly, Vincenzo Crunelli, Adam C Errington
Backpropagating action potentials (bAPs) are indispensable in dendritic signaling. Conflicting Ca(2+) imaging data and an absence of dendritic recording data means the extent of backpropagation in thalamocortical (TC) and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons remains unknown. Since TRN neurons signal electrically through dendrodendritic gap junctions and possibly via chemical dendritic GABAergic synapses, as well as classical axonal GABA release, this lack of knowledge is problematic. To address this issue, we made 2-photon targeted patch clamp recordings from rat TC and TRN neuron dendrites to directly measure bAPs...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446587/temporal-integration-and-1-f-power-scaling-in-a-circuit-model-of-cerebellar-interneurons
#10
Reinoud Maex, Boris Samuel Gutkin
Inhibitory interneurons interconnected via electrical and chemical (GABAA receptor) synapses form extensive circuits in several brain regions. They are thought to be involved in timing and synchronization through fast feed-forward control of principal neurons. Theoretical studies have shown, however, that whereas self-inhibition does indeed reduce response duration, lateral inhibition, in contrast, may generate slow response components through a process of gradual disinhibition. Here we simulated a circuit of interneurons (stellate and basket cells) of the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex, and observed circuit time-constants that could rise, depending on the parameter values, to more than one second...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428560/combination-of-high-density-microelectrode-array-and-patch-clamp-recordings-to-enable-studies-of-multisynaptic-integration
#11
David Jäckel, Douglas J Bakkum, Thomas L Russell, Jan Müller, Milos Radivojevic, Urs Frey, Felix Franke, Andreas Hierlemann
We present a novel, all-electric approach to record and to precisely control the activity of tens of individual presynaptic neurons. The method allows for parallel mapping of the efficacy of multiple synapses and of the resulting dynamics of postsynaptic neurons in a cortical culture. For the measurements, we combine an extracellular high-density microelectrode array, featuring 11'000 electrodes for extracellular recording and stimulation, with intracellular patch-clamp recording. We are able to identify the contributions of individual presynaptic neurons - including inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs - to postsynaptic potentials, which enables us to study dendritic integration...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397972/aging-dependent-expression-of-synapse-related-proteins-in-the-mouse-brain
#12
Hajime Shiotani, Tomohiko Maruo, Shotaro Sakakibara, Muneaki Miyata, Kenji Mandai, Hideki Mochizuki, Yoshimi Takai
A synapse is a cell adhesion structure that permits a neuron to pass a chemical or electrical signal to another neuron. They connect neurons and form neural networks that are essential for brain functions, such as learning and memory. At a chemical synapse, the presynapse and the postsynapse are connected by cell adhesion molecules. The presynapse contains synaptic vesicles and their release machinery, whereas the postsynapse contains postsynaptic densities and receptors for the neurotransmitters. Many proteins constituting a synapse have been identified, but their life-span expression profiles remain elusive...
May 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397309/ultrasensitive-memristive-synapses-based-on-lightly-oxidized-sulfide-films
#13
Lingxiang Hu, Sheng Fu, Youhu Chen, Hongtao Cao, Lingyan Liang, Hongliang Zhang, Junhua Gao, Jingrui Wang, Fei Zhuge
For biological synapses, high sensitivity is crucial for transmitting information quickly and accurately. Compared to biological synapses, memristive ones show a much lower sensitivity to electrical stimuli since much higher voltages are needed to induce synaptic plasticity. Yet, little attention has been paid to enhancing the sensitivity of synaptic devices. Here, electrochemical metallization memory cells based on lightly oxidized ZnS films are found to show highly controllable memristive switching with an ultralow SET voltage of several millivolts, which likely originates from a two-layer structure of ZnS films, i...
April 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386941/how-do-electrical-synapses-regulate-their-strength
#14
Dominique Debanne, Michaël Russier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384220/functional-asymmetry-and-plasticity-of-electrical-synapses-interconnecting-neurons-through-a-36-state-model-of-gap-junction-channel-gating
#15
Mindaugas Snipas, Lina Rimkute, Tadas Kraujalis, Kestutis Maciunas, Feliksas F Bukauskas
We combined the Hodgkin-Huxley equations and a 36-state model of gap junction channel gating to simulate electrical signal transfer through electrical synapses. Differently from most previous studies, our model can account for dynamic modulation of junctional conductance during the spread of electrical signal between coupled neurons. The model of electrical synapse is based on electrical properties of the gap junction channel encompassing two fast and two slow gates triggered by the transjunctional voltage...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370195/axonal-domain-disorganization-in-caspr1-and-caspr2-mutant-myelinated-axons-affects-neuromuscular-junction-integrity-leading-to-muscle-atrophy
#16
Julia Saifetiarova, Xi Liu, Anna M Taylor, Jie Li, Manzoor A Bhat
Bidirectional interactions between neurons and myelinating glial cells result in formation of axonal domains along myelinated fibers. Loss of axonal domains leads to detrimental consequences on nerve structure and function, resulting in reduced conductive properties and the diminished ability to reliably transmit signals to the targets they innervate. Thus, impairment of peripheral myelinated axons that project to the surface of muscle fibers and form neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses leads to muscle dysfunction...
July 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369952/a-calcium-dependent-pathway-underlies-activity-dependent-plasticity-of-electrical-synapses-in-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus
#17
Jessica Sevetson, Sarah Fittro, Emily Heckman, Julie S Haas
Recent results have demonstrated modification of electrical synapse strength by varied forms of neuronal activity. However, the mechanisms underlying plasticity induction in central mammalian neurons are unclear. Here we show that the two established inductors of plasticity at electrical synapses in the thalamic reticular nucleus - paired burst spiking in coupled neurons, and mGluR-dependent tetanization of synaptic input - are separate pathways that converge at a common downstream endpoint. Using occlusion experiments and pharmacology in patched pairs of coupled neurons in vitro, we show that burst-induced depression depends on calcium entry via voltage-gated channels, is blocked by BAPTA chelation, and recruits intracellular calcium release on its way to activation of phosphatase activity...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368007/learning-through-ferroelectric-domain-dynamics-in-solid-state-synapses
#18
Sören Boyn, Julie Grollier, Gwendal Lecerf, Bin Xu, Nicolas Locatelli, Stéphane Fusil, Stéphanie Girod, Cécile Carrétéro, Karin Garcia, Stéphane Xavier, Jean Tomas, Laurent Bellaiche, Manuel Bibes, Agnès Barthélémy, Sylvain Saïghi, Vincent Garcia
In the brain, learning is achieved through the ability of synapses to reconfigure the strength by which they connect neurons (synaptic plasticity). In promising solid-state synapses called memristors, conductance can be finely tuned by voltage pulses and set to evolve according to a biological learning rule called spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Future neuromorphic architectures will comprise billions of such nanosynapses, which require a clear understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for plasticity...
April 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367405/synaptic-vesicles-isolated-from-the-electric-organ-of-torpedo-californica-and-from-the-central-nervous-system-of-mus-musculus-contain-small-ribonucleic-acids-srnas
#19
Huinan Li, Cheng Wu, Rodolfo Aramayo, Matthew S Sachs, Mark L Harlow
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are presynaptic organelles that load and release small molecule neurotransmitters at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have demonstrated that SVs isolated from the Peripheral Nervous Systems (PNS) of the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, and SVs isolated from the Central Nervous System (CNS) of Mus musculus (mouse) contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs; ≤ 50 nucleotides) (Scientific Reports, 5:1-14(14918) Li et al. (2015) [1])...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337128/connexin36-expression-in-the-mammalian-retina-a-multiple-species-comparison
#20
Tamás Kovács-Öller, Gábor Debertin, Márton Balogh, Alma Ganczer, József Orbán, Miklós Nyitrai, Lajos Balogh, Orsolya Kántor, Béla Völgyi
Much knowledge about interconnection of human retinal neurons is inferred from results on animal models. Likewise, there is a lack of information on human retinal electrical synapses/gap junctions (GJ). Connexin36 (Cx36) forms GJs in both the inner and outer plexiform layers (IPL and OPL) in most species including humans. However, a comparison of Cx36 GJ distribution in retinas of humans and popular animal models has not been presented. To this end a multiple-species comparison was performed in retinas of 12 mammals including humans to survey the Cx36 distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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