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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337128/connexin36-expression-in-the-mammalian-retina-a-multiple-species-comparison
#1
Tamás Kovács-Öller, Gábor Debertin, Márton Balogh, Alma Ganczer, József Orbán, Miklós Nyitrai, Lajos Balogh, Orsolya Kántor, Béla Völgyi
Much knowledge about interconnection of human retinal neurons is inferred from results on animal models. Likewise, there is a lack of information on human retinal electrical synapses/gap junctions (GJ). Connexin36 (Cx36) forms GJs in both the inner and outer plexiform layers (IPL and OPL) in most species including humans. However, a comparison of Cx36 GJ distribution in retinas of humans and popular animal models has not been presented. To this end a multiple-species comparison was performed in retinas of 12 mammals including humans to survey the Cx36 distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334604/the-potential-role-of-gap-junctional-plasticity-in-the-regulation-of-state
#2
REVIEW
Philippe Coulon, Carole E Landisman
Electrical synapses are the functional correlate of gap junctions and allow transmission of small molecules and electrical current between coupled neurons. Instead of static pores, electrical synapses are actually plastic, similar to chemical synapses. In the thalamocortical system, gap junctions couple inhibitory neurons that are similar in their biochemical profile, morphology, and electrophysiological properties. We postulate that electrical synaptic plasticity among inhibitory neurons directly interacts with the switching between different firing patterns in a state-dependent and type-dependent manner...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#3
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317880/antidromic-rectifying-gap-junctions-amplify-chemical-transmission-at-functionally-mixed-electrical-chemical-synapses
#4
Ping Liu, Bojun Chen, Roger Mailler, Zhao-Wen Wang
Neurons communicate through chemical synapses and electrical synapses (gap junctions). Although these two types of synapses often coexist between neurons, little is known about whether they interact, and whether any interactions between them are important to controlling synaptic strength and circuit functions. By studying chemical and electrical synapses between premotor interneurons (AVA) and downstream motor neurons (A-MNs) in the Caenorhabditis elegans escape circuit, we found that disrupting either the chemical or electrical synapses causes defective escape response...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316842/neural-energy-supply-consumption-properties-based-on-hodgkin-huxley-model
#5
Yihong Wang, Rubin Wang, Xuying Xu
Electrical activity is the foundation of the neural system. Coding theories that describe neural electrical activity by the roles of action potential timing or frequency have been thoroughly studied. However, an alternative method to study coding questions is the energy method, which is more global and economical. In this study, we clearly defined and calculated neural energy supply and consumption based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model, during firing action potentials and subthreshold activities using ion-counting and power-integral model...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279812/astrocytic-modulation-of-neuronal-excitability-through-k-spatial-buffering
#6
REVIEW
Alba Bellot-Saez, Orsolya Kékesi, John W Morley, Yossi Buskila
The human brain contains two major cell populations, neurons and glia. While neurons are electrically excitable and capable of discharging short voltage pulses known as action potentials, glial cells are not. However, astrocytes, the prevailing subtype of glia in the cortex, are highly connected and can modulate the excitability of neurons by changing the concentration of potassium ions in the extracellular environment, a process called K(+) clearance. During the past decade, astrocytes have been the focus of much research, mainly due to their close association with synapses and their modulatory impact on neuronal activity...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265099/neonatal-cx26-removal-impairs-neocortical-development-and-leads-to-elevated-anxiety
#7
Xin Su, Jing-Jing Chen, Lin-Yun Liu, Qian Huang, Li-Zhao Zhang, Xiao-Yang Li, Xiang-Nan He, Wenlian Lu, Shan Sun, Huawei Li, Yong-Chun Yu
Electrical coupling between excitatory neurons in the neocortex is developmentally regulated. It is initially prominent but eliminated at later developmental stages when chemical synapses emerge. However, it remains largely unclear whether early electrical coupling networks broadly contribute to neocortical circuit formation and animal behavior. Here, we report that neonatal electrical coupling between neocortical excitatory neurons is critical for proper neuronal development, synapse formation, and animal behavior...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254883/neuronal-hyperactivity-causes-na-h-exchanger-induced-extracellular-acidification-at-active-synapses
#8
Martina Chiacchiaretta, Shahrzad Latifi, Mattia Bramini, Manuela Fadda, Anna Fassio, Fabio Benfenati, Fabrizia Cesca
Extracellular pH impacts on neuronal activity, which is in turn an important determinant of extracellular H(+) concentration. The aim of this study is to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of extracellular pH at synaptic sites during neuronal hyperexcitability. To address this issue we created ex.E(2)GFP, a membrane-targeted extracellular ratiometric pH indicator exquisitely sensitive to acidic shifts. By monitoring ex.E(2)GFP fluorescence in real time in primary cortical neurons we were able to quantify pH fluctuations during network hyperexcitability induced by convulsant drugs or high frequency electrical stimulation...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245529/synchrony-and-so-much-more-diverse-roles-for-electrical-synapses-in-neural-circuits
#9
REVIEW
Barry W Connors
Electrical synapses are gap junctions between neurons that are ubiquitous across brain regions and species. The biophysical properties of most electrical synapses are relatively simple-transcellular channels allow nearly ohmic, bidirectional flow of ionic current. Yet these connections can play remarkably diverse roles when placed into different neural circuit contexts. Here I review recent findings illustrating how electrical synapses may excite or inhibit, synchronize or desynchronize, augment or diminish rhythms, phase-shift, detect coincidences, enhance signals relative to noise, adapt, and interact with nonlinear membrane and transmitter-release mechanisms...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240314/autaptic-regulation-of-electrical-activities-in-neuron-under-electromagnetic-induction
#10
Ying Xu, Heping Ying, Ya Jia, Jun Ma, Tasawar Hayat
Realistic neurons may hold complex anatomical structure, for example, autapse connection to some internuncial neurons, which this specific synapse can connect to its body via a close loop. Continuous exchanges of charged ions across the membrane can induce complex distribution fluctuation of intracellular and extracellular charged ions of cell, and a time-varying electromagnetic field is set to modulate the membrane potential of neuron. In this paper, an autapse-modulated neuron model is presented and the effect of electromagnetic induction is considered by using magnetic flux...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225213/a-dual-organic-transistor-based-tactile-perception-system-with-signal-processing-functionality
#11
Yaping Zang, Hongguang Shen, Dazhen Huang, Chong-An Di, Daoben Zhu
Organic-device-based tactile-perception systems can open up new opportunities for the next generation of intelligent products. To meet the critical requirements of artificial perception systems, the efficient construction of organic smart elements with integrated sensing and signal processing functionalities is highly desired, but remains a challenge. This study presents a dual-organic-transistor-based tactile-perception element (DOT-TPE) with biomimetic functionality by the construction of organic synaptic transistors with integrated sensing transistors...
February 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219984/motor-neurons-tune-premotor-activity-in-a-vertebrate-central-pattern-generator
#12
Kristy J Lawton, Wick M Perry, Ayako Yamaguchi, Erik Zornik
Central patterns generators (CPGs) are neural circuits that drive rhythmic motor output without sensory feedback. Vertebrate CPGs are generally believed to operate in a top-down manner in which premotor interneurons activate motor neurons that in turn drive muscles. In contrast, the frog (Xenopus laevis) vocal CPG contains a functionally unexplored neuronal projection from the motor nucleus to the premotor nucleus, indicating a recurrent pathway that may contribute to rhythm generation. In this study we characterized the function of this bottom-up connection...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211069/mglur1-enhances-efferent-inhibition-of-inner-hair-cells-in-the-developing-rat-cochlea
#13
Zhanlei Ye, Juan D Goutman, Sonja J Pyott, Elisabeth Glowatzki
Just before the onset of hearing, the inner hair cells (IHCs) receive inhibitory efferent input from cholinergic medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons originating in the brainstem. This input may serve a role in the maturation of the ascending (afferent) auditory system by inhibiting spontaneous activity of the IHCs. To investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating these IHC efferent synapses, we combined electrical stimulation of the efferent fibres with patch clamp recordings from the IHCs to measure efferent synaptic strength...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#14
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193693/unresponsive-choline-transporter-as-a-trait-neuromarker-and-a-causal-mediator-of-bottom-up-attentional-biases
#15
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Aaron Kucinski, Kyle Pitchers, Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh, Youngsoo Kim, Paulina Valuskova, Sarika Gurnani, Craig W Lindsley, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
Some rats [sign-trackers (STs)] are prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, which can manifest as a propensity to approach and contact pavlovian cues, and for addiction-like behavior. STs also exhibit poor attentional performance, relative to goal-trackers (GTs), which is associated with attenuated acetylcholine (ACh) levels in prefrontal cortex (Paolone et al., 2013). Here, we demonstrate a cellular mechanism, linked to ACh synthesis, that accounts for attenuated cholinergic capacity in STs. First, we found that electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain increased cortical choline transporter (CHT)-mediated choline transport in GTs, paralleled by a redistribution of CHTs to the synaptic plasma membrane...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170151/the-electrical-synapse-molecular-complexities-at-the-gap-and-beyond
#16
REVIEW
Adam C Miller, Alberto E Pereda
Gap junctions underlie electrical synaptic transmission between neurons. Generally perceived as simple intercellular channels, "electrical synapses" have demonstrated to be more functionally sophisticated and structurally complex than initially anticipated. Electrical synapses represent an assembly of multiple molecules, consisting of channels, adhesion complexes, scaffolds, regulatory machinery, and trafficking proteins, all required for their proper function and plasticity. Additionally, while electrical synapses are often viewed as strictly symmetric structures, emerging evidence has shown that some components forming electrical synapses can be differentially distributed at each side of the junction...
February 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163671/drive-the-car-go-s-new-modalities-to-control-cargo-trafficking-in-live-cells
#17
REVIEW
Payel Mondal, John S Khamo, Vishnu V Krishnamurthy, Qi Cai, Kai Zhang
Synaptic transmission is a fundamental molecular process underlying learning and memory. Successful synaptic transmission involves coupled interaction between electrical signals (action potentials) and chemical signals (neurotransmitters). Defective synaptic transmission has been reported in a variety of neurological disorders such as Autism and Alzheimer's disease. A large variety of macromolecules and organelles are enriched near functional synapses. Although a portion of macromolecules can be produced locally at the synapse, a large number of synaptic components especially the membrane-bound receptors and peptide neurotransmitters require active transport machinery to reach their sites of action...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154149/the-coupling-between-ca-2-channels-and-the-exocytotic-ca-2-sensor-at-hair-cell-ribbon-synapses-varies-tonotopically-along-the-mature-cochlea
#18
Stuart L Johnson, Jennifer Olt, Soyoun Cho, Henrique von Gersdorff, Walter Marcotti
The cochlea processes auditory signals over a wide range of frequencies and intensities. However, the transfer characteristics at hair cell ribbon synapses are still poorly understood at different frequency locations along the cochlea. Using recordings from mature gerbils, we report here a surprisingly strong block of exocytosis by the slow Ca(2+) buffer EGTA (10 mM) in basal hair cells tuned to high frequencies (∼30 kHz). In addition, using recordings from gerbil, mouse, and bullfrog auditory organs, we find that the spatial coupling between Ca(2+) influx and exocytosis changes from nanodomain in low-frequency tuned hair cells (∼<2 kHz) to progressively more microdomain in high-frequency cells (∼>2 kHz)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148726/synchronous-infra-slow-bursting-in-the-mouse-accessory-olfactory-bulb-emerge-from-interplay-between-intrinsic-neuronal-dynamics-and-network-connectivity
#19
Asaph Zylbertal, Yosef Yarom, Shlomo Wagner
Rhythmic neuronal activity of multiple frequency bands has been described in many brain areas and attributed to numerous brain functions. Among these, little is known about the mechanism and role of infra-slow oscillations, which have been recently demonstrated in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Along with prolonged responses to stimuli and distinct network connectivity, they inexplicably affect the AOB processing of social relevant stimuli. Here we show that assemblies of AOB mitral cells are synchronized by lateral interactions through chemical and electrical synapses...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145461/tuning-the-allosteric-regulation-of-artificial-muscarinic-and-dopaminergic-ligand-gated-potassium-channels-by-protein-engineering-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#20
Christophe J Moreau, Jean Revilloud, Lydia N Caro, Julien P Dupuis, Amandine Trouchet, Argel Estrada-Mondragón, Katarzyna Nieścierowicz, Nicolas Sapay, Serge Crouzy, Michel Vivaudou
Ligand-gated ion channels enable intercellular transmission of action potential through synapses by transducing biochemical messengers into electrical signal. We designed artificial ligand-gated ion channels by coupling G protein-coupled receptors to the Kir6.2 potassium channel. These artificial channels called ion channel-coupled receptors offer complementary properties to natural channels by extending the repertoire of ligands to those recognized by the fused receptors, by generating more sustained signals and by conferring potassium selectivity...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
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