keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

electrical synapse

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428560/combination-of-high-density-microelectrode-array-and-patch-clamp-recordings-to-enable-studies-of-multisynaptic-integration
#1
David Jäckel, Douglas J Bakkum, Thomas L Russell, Jan Müller, Milos Radivojevic, Urs Frey, Felix Franke, Andreas Hierlemann
We present a novel, all-electric approach to record and to precisely control the activity of tens of individual presynaptic neurons. The method allows for parallel mapping of the efficacy of multiple synapses and of the resulting dynamics of postsynaptic neurons in a cortical culture. For the measurements, we combine an extracellular high-density microelectrode array, featuring 11'000 electrodes for extracellular recording and stimulation, with intracellular patch-clamp recording. We are able to identify the contributions of individual presynaptic neurons - including inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs - to postsynaptic potentials, which enables us to study dendritic integration...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397972/aging-dependent-expression-of-synapse-related-proteins-in-the-mouse-brain
#2
Hajime Shiotani, Tomohiko Maruo, Shotaro Sakakibara, Muneaki Miyata, Kenji Mandai, Hideki Mochizuki, Yoshimi Takai
A synapse is a cell adhesion structure that permits a neuron to pass a chemical or electrical signal to another neuron. They connect neurons and form neural networks that are essential for brain functions, such as learning and memory. At a chemical synapse, the presynapse and the postsynapse are connected by cell adhesion molecules. The presynapse contains synaptic vesicles and their release machinery, whereas the postsynapse contains postsynaptic densities and receptors for the neurotransmitters. Many proteins constituting a synapse have been identified, but their life-span expression profiles remain elusive...
April 11, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397309/ultrasensitive-memristive-synapses-based-on-lightly-oxidized-sulfide-films
#3
Lingxiang Hu, Sheng Fu, Youhu Chen, Hongtao Cao, Lingyan Liang, Hongliang Zhang, Junhua Gao, Jingrui Wang, Fei Zhuge
For biological synapses, high sensitivity is crucial for transmitting information quickly and accurately. Compared to biological synapses, memristive ones show a much lower sensitivity to electrical stimuli since much higher voltages are needed to induce synaptic plasticity. Yet, little attention has been paid to enhancing the sensitivity of synaptic devices. Here, electrochemical metallization memory cells based on lightly oxidized ZnS films are found to show highly controllable memristive switching with an ultralow SET voltage of several millivolts, which likely originates from a two-layer structure of ZnS films, i...
April 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386941/how-do-electrical-synapses-regulate-their-strength
#4
Dominique Debanne, Michaël Russier
Neuronal communication in the central nervous system is ensured by synapses through which neuronal events can be transmitted from one cell to the next. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384220/functional-asymmetry-and-plasticity-of-electrical-synapses-interconnecting-neurons-through-a-36-state-model-of-gap-junction-channel-gating
#5
Mindaugas Snipas, Lina Rimkute, Tadas Kraujalis, Kestutis Maciunas, Feliksas F Bukauskas
We combined the Hodgkin-Huxley equations and a 36-state model of gap junction channel gating to simulate electrical signal transfer through electrical synapses. Differently from most previous studies, our model can account for dynamic modulation of junctional conductance during the spread of electrical signal between coupled neurons. The model of electrical synapse is based on electrical properties of the gap junction channel encompassing two fast and two slow gates triggered by the transjunctional voltage...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370195/axonal-domain-disorganization-in-caspr1-and-caspr2-mutant-myelinated-axons-affects-neuromuscular-junction-integrity-leading-to-muscle-atrophy
#6
Julia Saifetiarova, Xi Liu, Anna M Taylor, Jie Li, Manzoor A Bhat
Bidirectional interactions between neurons and myelinating glial cells result in formation of axonal domains along myelinated fibers. Loss of axonal domains leads to detrimental consequences on nerve structure and function, resulting in reduced conductive properties and the diminished ability to reliably transmit signals to the targets they innervate. Thus, impairment of peripheral myelinated axons that project to the surface of muscle fibers and form neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses leads to muscle dysfunction...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369952/a-calcium-dependent-pathway-underlies-activity-dependent-plasticity-of-electrical-synapses-in-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus
#7
Jessica Sevetson, Sarah Fittro, Emily Heckman, Julie S Haas
Recent results have demonstrated modification of electrical synapse strength by varied forms of neuronal activity. However, the mechanisms underlying plasticity induction in central mammalian neurons are unclear. Here we show that the two established inductors of plasticity at electrical synapses in the thalamic reticular nucleus - paired burst spiking in coupled neurons, and mGluR-dependent tetanization of synaptic input - are separate pathways that converge at a common downstream endpoint. Using occlusion experiments and pharmacology in patched pairs of coupled neurons in vitro, we show that burst-induced depression depends on calcium entry via voltage-gated channels, is blocked by BAPTA chelation, and recruits intracellular calcium release on its way to activation of phosphatase activity...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368007/learning-through-ferroelectric-domain-dynamics-in-solid-state-synapses
#8
Sören Boyn, Julie Grollier, Gwendal Lecerf, Bin Xu, Nicolas Locatelli, Stéphane Fusil, Stéphanie Girod, Cécile Carrétéro, Karin Garcia, Stéphane Xavier, Jean Tomas, Laurent Bellaiche, Manuel Bibes, Agnès Barthélémy, Sylvain Saïghi, Vincent Garcia
In the brain, learning is achieved through the ability of synapses to reconfigure the strength by which they connect neurons (synaptic plasticity). In promising solid-state synapses called memristors, conductance can be finely tuned by voltage pulses and set to evolve according to a biological learning rule called spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Future neuromorphic architectures will comprise billions of such nanosynapses, which require a clear understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for plasticity...
April 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367405/synaptic-vesicles-isolated-from-the-electric-organ-of-torpedo-californica-and-from-the-central-nervous-system-of-mus-musculus-contain-small-ribonucleic-acids-srnas
#9
Huinan Li, Cheng Wu, Rodolfo Aramayo, Matthew S Sachs, Mark L Harlow
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are presynaptic organelles that load and release small molecule neurotransmitters at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have demonstrated that SVs isolated from the Peripheral Nervous Systems (PNS) of the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, and SVs isolated from the Central Nervous System (CNS) of Mus musculus (mouse) contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs; ≤ 50 nucleotides) (Scientific Reports, 5:1-14(14918) Li et al. (2015) [1])...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337128/connexin36-expression-in-the-mammalian-retina-a-multiple-species-comparison
#10
Tamás Kovács-Öller, Gábor Debertin, Márton Balogh, Alma Ganczer, József Orbán, Miklós Nyitrai, Lajos Balogh, Orsolya Kántor, Béla Völgyi
Much knowledge about interconnection of human retinal neurons is inferred from results on animal models. Likewise, there is a lack of information on human retinal electrical synapses/gap junctions (GJ). Connexin36 (Cx36) forms GJs in both the inner and outer plexiform layers (IPL and OPL) in most species including humans. However, a comparison of Cx36 GJ distribution in retinas of humans and popular animal models has not been presented. To this end a multiple-species comparison was performed in retinas of 12 mammals including humans to survey the Cx36 distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334604/the-potential-role-of-gap-junctional-plasticity-in-the-regulation-of-state
#11
REVIEW
Philippe Coulon, Carole E Landisman
Electrical synapses are the functional correlate of gap junctions and allow transmission of small molecules and electrical current between coupled neurons. Instead of static pores, electrical synapses are actually plastic, similar to chemical synapses. In the thalamocortical system, gap junctions couple inhibitory neurons that are similar in their biochemical profile, morphology, and electrophysiological properties. We postulate that electrical synaptic plasticity among inhibitory neurons directly interacts with the switching between different firing patterns in a state-dependent and type-dependent manner...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#12
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317880/antidromic-rectifying-gap-junctions-amplify-chemical-transmission-at-functionally-mixed-electrical-chemical-synapses
#13
Ping Liu, Bojun Chen, Roger Mailler, Zhao-Wen Wang
Neurons communicate through chemical synapses and electrical synapses (gap junctions). Although these two types of synapses often coexist between neurons, little is known about whether they interact, and whether any interactions between them are important to controlling synaptic strength and circuit functions. By studying chemical and electrical synapses between premotor interneurons (AVA) and downstream motor neurons (A-MNs) in the Caenorhabditis elegans escape circuit, we found that disrupting either the chemical or electrical synapses causes defective escape response...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316842/neural-energy-supply-consumption-properties-based-on-hodgkin-huxley-model
#14
Yihong Wang, Rubin Wang, Xuying Xu
Electrical activity is the foundation of the neural system. Coding theories that describe neural electrical activity by the roles of action potential timing or frequency have been thoroughly studied. However, an alternative method to study coding questions is the energy method, which is more global and economical. In this study, we clearly defined and calculated neural energy supply and consumption based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model, during firing action potentials and subthreshold activities using ion-counting and power-integral model...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279812/astrocytic-modulation-of-neuronal-excitability-through-k-spatial-buffering
#15
REVIEW
Alba Bellot-Saez, Orsolya Kékesi, John W Morley, Yossi Buskila
The human brain contains two major cell populations, neurons and glia. While neurons are electrically excitable and capable of discharging short voltage pulses known as action potentials, glial cells are not. However, astrocytes, the prevailing subtype of glia in the cortex, are highly connected and can modulate the excitability of neurons by changing the concentration of potassium ions in the extracellular environment, a process called K(+) clearance. During the past decade, astrocytes have been the focus of much research, mainly due to their close association with synapses and their modulatory impact on neuronal activity...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265099/neonatal-cx26-removal-impairs-neocortical-development-and-leads-to-elevated-anxiety
#16
Xin Su, Jing-Jing Chen, Lin-Yun Liu, Qian Huang, Li-Zhao Zhang, Xiao-Yang Li, Xiang-Nan He, Wenlian Lu, Shan Sun, Huawei Li, Yong-Chun Yu
Electrical coupling between excitatory neurons in the neocortex is developmentally regulated. It is initially prominent but eliminated at later developmental stages when chemical synapses emerge. However, it remains largely unclear whether early electrical coupling networks broadly contribute to neocortical circuit formation and animal behavior. Here, we report that neonatal electrical coupling between neocortical excitatory neurons is critical for proper neuronal development, synapse formation, and animal behavior...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254883/neuronal-hyperactivity-causes-na-h-exchanger-induced-extracellular-acidification-at-active-synapses
#17
Martina Chiacchiaretta, Shahrzad Latifi, Mattia Bramini, Manuela Fadda, Anna Fassio, Fabio Benfenati, Fabrizia Cesca
Extracellular pH impacts on neuronal activity, which is in turn an important determinant of extracellular H(+) concentration. The aim of this study was to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of extracellular pH at synaptic sites during neuronal hyperexcitability. To address this issue we created ex.E(2)GFP, a membrane-targeted extracellular ratiometric pH indicator that is exquisitely sensitive to acidic shifts. By monitoring ex.E(2)GFP fluorescence in real time in primary cortical neurons, we were able to quantify pH fluctuations during network hyperexcitability induced by convulsant drugs or high-frequency electrical stimulation...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245529/synchrony-and-so-much-more-diverse-roles-for-electrical-synapses-in-neural-circuits
#18
REVIEW
Barry W Connors
Electrical synapses are neuronal gap junctions that are ubiquitous across brain regions and species. The biophysical properties of most electrical synapses are relatively simple-transcellular channels allow nearly ohmic, bidirectional flow of ionic current. Yet these connections can play remarkably diverse roles in different neural circuit contexts. Recent findings illustrate how electrical synapses may excite or inhibit, synchronize or desynchronize, augment or diminish rhythms, phase-shift, detect coincidences, enhance signals relative to noise, adapt, and interact with nonlinear membrane and transmitter-release mechanisms...
May 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240314/autaptic-regulation-of-electrical-activities-in-neuron-under-electromagnetic-induction
#19
Ying Xu, Heping Ying, Ya Jia, Jun Ma, Tasawar Hayat
Realistic neurons may hold complex anatomical structure, for example, autapse connection to some internuncial neurons, which this specific synapse can connect to its body via a close loop. Continuous exchanges of charged ions across the membrane can induce complex distribution fluctuation of intracellular and extracellular charged ions of cell, and a time-varying electromagnetic field is set to modulate the membrane potential of neuron. In this paper, an autapse-modulated neuron model is presented and the effect of electromagnetic induction is considered by using magnetic flux...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225213/a-dual-organic-transistor-based-tactile-perception-system-with-signal-processing-functionality
#20
Yaping Zang, Hongguang Shen, Dazhen Huang, Chong-An Di, Daoben Zhu
Organic-device-based tactile-perception systems can open up new opportunities for the next generation of intelligent products. To meet the critical requirements of artificial perception systems, the efficient construction of organic smart elements with integrated sensing and signal processing functionalities is highly desired, but remains a challenge. This study presents a dual-organic-transistor-based tactile-perception element (DOT-TPE) with biomimetic functionality by the construction of organic synaptic transistors with integrated sensing transistors...
February 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
keyword
keyword
31334
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"