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electrical synapse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924838/excitatory-post-synaptic-potential-mimicked-in-indium-zinc-oxide-synaptic-transistors-gated-by-methyl-cellulose-solid-electrolyte
#1
Liqiang Guo, Juan Wen, Jianning Ding, Changjin Wan, Guanggui Cheng
The excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) of biological synapses is mimicked in indium-zinc-oxide synaptic transistors gated by methyl cellulose solid electrolyte. These synaptic transistors show excellent electrical performance at an operating voltage of 0.8 V, Ion/off ratio of 2.5 × 10(6), and mobility of 38.4 cm(2)/Vs. After this device is connected to a resistance of 4 MΩ in series, it exhibits excellent characteristics as an inverter. A threshold potential of 0.3 V is achieved by changing the gate pulse amplitude, width, or number, which is analogous to biological EPSP...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917108/structural-and-functional-consequences-of-connexin-36-cx36-interaction-with-calmodulin
#2
Ryan C F Siu, Ekaterina Smirnova, Cherie A Brown, Christiane Zoidl, David C Spray, Logan W Donaldson, Georg Zoidl
Functional plasticity of neuronal gap junctions involves the interaction of the neuronal connexin36 with calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). The important relationship between Cx36 and CaMKII must also be considered in the context of another protein partner, Ca(2+) loaded calmodulin, binding an overlapping site in the carboxy-terminus of Cx36. We demonstrate that CaM and CaMKII binding to Cx36 is calcium-dependent, with Cx36 able to engage with CaM outside of the gap junction plaque. Furthermore, Ca(2+) loaded calmodulin activates Cx36 channels, which is different to other connexins...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911759/neurotransmitter-release-can-be-stabilized-by-a-mechanism-that-prevents-voltage-changes-near-the-end-of-action-potentials-from-affecting-calcium-currents
#3
Stephen G Clarke, Matthew S Scarnati, Kenneth G Paradiso
: At chemical synapses, presynaptic action potentials (APs) activate voltage-gated calcium channels, allowing calcium to enter and trigger neurotransmitter release. The duration, peak amplitude, and shape of the AP falling phase alter calcium entry, which can affect neurotransmitter release significantly. In many neurons, APs do not immediately return to the resting potential, but instead exhibit a period of depolarization or hyperpolarization referred to as an afterpotential. We hypothesized that presynaptic afterpotentials should alter neurotransmitter release by affecting the electrical driving force for calcium entry and calcium channel gating...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911756/activation-of-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-promotes-ltp-induction-at-schaffer-collateral-ca1-pyramidal-cell-synapses-by-priming-nmda-receptors
#4
Nadia Rosenberg, Urs Gerber, Jeanne Ster
: It is well established that selective activation of group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors induces LTD of synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. In contrast, application of 1S,3R-ACPD, a mixed agonist at group I and group II mGlu receptors, induces LTP. Using whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells and field recordings in the hippocampal CA1 region, we investigated the specific contribution of group II mGlu receptors to synaptic plasticity at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute slices of adult mice...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905396/atomic-structure-of-the-innexin-6-gap-junction-channel-determined-by-cryo-em
#5
Atsunori Oshima, Kazutoshi Tani, Yoshinori Fujiyoshi
Innexins, a large protein family comprising invertebrate gap junction channels, play an essential role in nervous system development and electrical synapse formation. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structures of Caenorhabditis elegans innexin-6 (INX-6) gap junction channels at atomic resolution. We find that the arrangements of the transmembrane helices and extracellular loops of the INX-6 monomeric structure are highly similar to those of connexin-26 (Cx26), despite the lack of significant sequence similarity...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903733/development-of-activity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#6
Jing Shen, Matthew T Colonnese
: A comprehensive developmental timeline of activity in the mouse cortex in vivo is lacking. Understanding the activity changes that accompany synapse and circuit formation is important to understand the mechanisms by which activity molds circuits and would help to identify critical checkpoints for normal development. To identify key principles of cortical activity maturation, we systematically tracked spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity with extracellular recordings of primary visual cortex (V1) in nonanesthetized mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892769/circrnas-in-the-brain
#7
Mor Hanan, Hermona Soreq, Sebastian Kadener
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are highly abundant and evolutionarily conserved non-coding RNAs produced by circularization of specific exons. Since their re-discovery as potential regulators of gene expression, thousands of circRNAs were detected in different tissues and cell types across most organisms. Accumulating data suggest key roles for them in the central nervous system. Neuronal-expressed RNAs are diverted to yield highly enriched CircRNAs in human, mouse, pig and flies, with many of them enriched in neuronal tissues...
November 28, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864094/sternopygus-macrurus-electric-organ-transcriptome-and-cell-size-exhibit-insensitivity-to-short-term-electrical-inactivity
#8
Robert Güth, Matthew Pinch, Manoj P Samanta, Alexander Chaidez, Graciela A Unguez
Electrical activity is an important regulator of cellular function and gene expression in electrically excitable cell types. In the weakly electric teleost fishSternopygus macrurus, electrocytes, i.e., the current-producing cells of the electric organ, derive from a striated muscle lineage. Mature electrocytes are larger than muscle fibers, do not contain sarcomeres, and are driven continuously at frequencies higher than those exerted on muscle cells. Previous work showed that the removal of electrical activity by spinal cord transection (ST) for two and five weeks led to an upregulation of some sarcomeric proteins and a decrease in electrocyte size...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853788/electrochemical-reaction-induced-synaptic-plasticity-in-moox-based-solid-state-electrochemical-cells
#9
Chuan-Sen Yang, Da-Shan Shang, Yi-Sheng Chai, Li-Qin Yan, Bao-Gen Shen, Young Sun
Solid state electrochemical cells with synaptic functions have important applications in building smart-terminal networks. Here, the essential synaptic functions including potentiation and depression of synaptic weight, transition from short- to long-term plasticity, spike-rate-dependent plasticity, and spike-timing-dependent plasticity behavior were successfully realized in an Ag/MoOx/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) cell with continual resistance switching. The synaptic plasticity underlying these functions was controlled by tuning the excitatory post-synaptic current (EPSC) decay, which is determined by the applied voltage pulse number, width, frequency, and intervals between the pre- and post-spikes...
November 17, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852736/the-role-of-retinoic-acid-in-the-formation-and-modulation-of-invertebrate-central-synapses
#10
Cailin M Rothwell, Eric de Hoog, Gaynor Elizabeth Spencer
Trophic factors can influence many aspects of nervous system function, such as neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and synapse modulation. The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid can exert trophic effects to promote neuronal survival and outgrowth in many species, and is also known to modulate vertebrate hippocampal synapses. However, its role in synaptogenesis has not been well studied, and whether it can modulate existing invertebrate synapses is also not known. In this study, we first examined a potential trophic effect of retinoic acid on the formation of excitatory synapses, independently of its role in neurite outgrowth, using cultured neurons of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830974/modeling-of-synchronization-behavior-of-bursting-neurons-at-nonlinearly-coupled-dynamical-networks
#11
Yüksel Çakir
Synchronization behaviors of bursting neurons coupled through electrical and dynamic chemical synapses are investigated. The Izhikevich model is used with random and small world network of bursting neurons. Various currents which consist of diffusive electrical and time-delayed dynamic chemical synapses are used in the simulations to investigate the influences of synaptic currents and couplings on synchronization behavior of bursting neurons. The effects of parameters, such as time delay, inhibitory synaptic strengths, and decay time on synchronization behavior are investigated...
November 10, 2016: Network: Computation in Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826226/analog-memristive-synapse-in-spiking-networks-implementing-unsupervised-learning
#12
Erika Covi, Stefano Brivio, Alexander Serb, Themis Prodromakis, Marco Fanciulli, Sabina Spiga
Emerging brain-inspired architectures call for devices that can emulate the functionality of biological synapses in order to implement new efficient computational schemes able to solve ill-posed problems. Various devices and solutions are still under investigation and, in this respect, a challenge is opened to the researchers in the field. Indeed, the optimal candidate is a device able to reproduce the complete functionality of a synapse, i.e., the typical synaptic process underlying learning in biological systems (activity-dependent synaptic plasticity)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822179/plasmid-based-generation-of-induced-neural-stem-cells-from-adult-human-fibroblasts
#13
Philipp Capetian, Luis Azmitia, Martje G Pauly, Victor Krajka, Felix Stengel, Eva-Maria Bernhardi, Mariana Klett, Britta Meier, Philip Seibler, Nancy Stanslowsky, Andreas Moser, Andreas Knopp, Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach, Guido Nikkhah, Florian Wegner, Máté Döbrössy, Christine Klein
Direct reprogramming from somatic to neural cell types has become an alternative to induced pluripotent stem cells. Most protocols employ viral expression systems, posing the risk of random genomic integration. Recent developments led to plasmid-based protocols, lowering this risk. However, these protocols either relied on continuous presence of a variety of small molecules or were only able to reprogram murine cells. We therefore established a reprogramming protocol based on vectors containing the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-derived oriP/EBNA1 as well as the defined expression factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, L-myc, Lin28, and a small hairpin directed against p53...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800189/paired-stimulation-to-promote-lasting-augmentation-of-corticospinal-circuits
#14
REVIEW
Noam Y Harel, Jason B Carmel
After injury, electrical stimulation of the nervous system can augment plasticity of spared or latent circuits through focal modulation. Pairing stimulation of two parts of a spared circuit can target modulation more specifically to the intended circuit. We discuss 3 kinds of paired stimulation in the context of the corticospinal system, because of its importance in clinical neurorehabilitation. The first uses principles of Hebbian plasticity: by altering the stimulation timing of presynaptic neurons and their postsynaptic targets, synapse function can be modulated up or down...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783219/long-term-plasticity-in-identified-hippocampal-gabaergic-interneurons-in-the-ca1-area-in-vivo
#15
Petrina Yau-Pok Lau, Linda Katona, Peter Saghy, Kathryn Newton, Peter Somogyi, Karri P Lamsa
Long-term plasticity is well documented in synapses between glutamatergic principal cells in the cortex both in vitro and in vivo. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and -depression (LTD) have also been reported in glutamatergic connections to hippocampal GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV+) or nitric oxide synthase (NOS+) in brain slices, but plasticity in these cells has not been tested in vivo. We investigated synaptically-evoked suprathreshold excitation of identified hippocampal neurons in the CA1 area of urethane-anaesthetized rats...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783155/regulation-of-quantal-currents-determines-synaptic-strength-at-neuromuscular-synapses-in-larval-drosophila
#16
Andrew S Powers, Jeffrey Grizzaffi, Richard Ribchester, Gregory A Lnenicka
Studies of synaptic homeostasis during muscle fiber (MF) growth in Drosophila larvae have focused on the regulation of the quantal content of transmitter release. However, early studies in crayfish and frog suggested that regulation of quantal current size may be an integral mechanism in synaptic homeostasis. To examine this further in Drosophila, we compared the electrical properties, miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (minEPSPs) and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (minEPSCs) in different-sized MFs in third-instar larvae and for a single MF during larval growth...
November 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770577/metabotropic-and-ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-mediate-the-modulation-of-acetylcholine-release-at-the-frog-neuromuscular-junction
#17
Andrei Tsentsevitsky, Leniz Nurullin, Evgeny Nikolsky, Artem Malomouzh
There is some evidence that glutamate (Glu) acts as a signaling molecule at vertebrate neuromuscular junctions where acetylcholine (ACh) serves as a neurotransmitter. In this study, performed on the cutaneous pectoris muscle of the frog Rana ridibunda, Glu receptor mechanisms that modulate ACh release processes were analyzed. Electrophysiological experiments showed that Glu reduces both spontaneous and evoked quantal secretion of ACh and synchronizes its release in response to electrical stimulation. Quisqualate, an agonist of ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptors and metabotropic Group I mGlu receptors, also exerted Glu-like inhibitory effects on the secretion of ACh but had no effect on the kinetics of quantal release...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769923/electric-fish-genomics-progress-prospects-and-new-tools-for-neuroethology
#18
William R Pitchers, Savvas J Constantinou, Mauricio Losilla, Jason R Gallant
Electric fish have served as a model system in biology since the 18th century, providing deep insight into the nature of bioelectrogenesis, the molecular structure of the synapse, and brain circuitry underlying complex behavior. Neuroethologists have collected extensive phenotypic data that span biological levels of analysis from molecules to ecosystems. This phenotypic data, together with genomic resources obtained over the past decades, have motivated new and exciting hypotheses that position the weakly electric fish model to address fundamental 21(st) century biological questions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747882/gene-regulation-and-genetics-in-neurochemistry-past-to-future
#19
Steven W Barger
Ask any neuroscientist to name the most profound discoveries in the field in the past 60 years, and at or near the top of the list will be a phenomenon or technique related to genes and their expression. Indeed, our understanding of genetics and gene regulation has ushered in whole new systems of knowledge and new empirical approaches, many of which could not have even been imagined prior to the molecular biology boon of recent decades. Neurochemistry, in the classic sense, intersects with these concepts in the manifestation of neuropeptides, obviously dependent upon the central dogma (the established rules by which DNA sequence is eventually converted into protein primary structure) not only for their conformation but also for their levels and locales of expression...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746130/peri-synaptic-glia-recycles-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-for-ltp-stabilization-and-memory-retention
#20
Beatrice Vignoli, Giulia Battistini, Riccardo Melani, Robert Blum, Spartaco Santi, Nicoletta Berardi, Marco Canossa
Glial cells respond to neuronal activation and release neuroactive molecules (termed "gliotransmitters") that can affect synaptic activity and modulate plasticity. In this study, we used molecular genetic tools, ultra-structural microscopy, and electrophysiology to assess the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cortical gliotransmission in vivo. We find that glial cells recycle BDNF that was previously secreted by neurons as pro-neurotrophin following long-term potentiation (LTP)-inducing electrical stimulation...
November 23, 2016: Neuron
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