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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211069/mglur1-enhances-efferent-inhibition-of-inner-hair-cells-in-the-developing-rat-cochlea
#1
Zhanlei Ye, Juan D Goutman, Sonja J Pyott, Elisabeth Glowatzki
Just before the onset of hearing, the inner hair cells (IHCs) receive inhibitory efferent input from cholinergic medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons originating in the brainstem. This input may serve a role in the maturation of the ascending (afferent) auditory system by inhibiting spontaneous activity of the IHCs. To investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating these IHC efferent synapses, we combined electrical stimulation of the efferent fibres with patch clamp recordings from the IHCs to measure efferent synaptic strength...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#2
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193693/unresponsive-choline-transporter-as-a-trait-neuromarker-and-a-causal-mediator-of-bottom-up-attentional-biases
#3
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Aaron Kucinski, Kyle Pitchers, Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh, Youngsoo Kim, Paulina Valuskova, Sarika Gurnani, Craig W Lindsley, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
Some rats (sign-trackers; STs) are prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, which can manifest as a propensity to approach and contact Pavlovian cues, and for addiction-like behavior. STs also exhibit poor attentional performance, relative to goal-trackers (GTs), which is associated with attenuated acetylcholine (ACh) levels in prefrontal cortex (Paolone et al., 2013). Here, we demonstrate a cellular mechanism, linked to ACh synthesis, that accounts for attenuated cholinergic capacity in STs. First, we found that electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain increased cortical choline transporter (CHT)-mediated choline transport in GTs, paralleled by a redistribution of CHTs to the synaptic plasma membrane...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170151/the-electrical-synapse-molecular-complexities-at-the-gap-and-beyond
#4
REVIEW
Adam C Miller, Alberto E Pereda
Gap junctions underlie electrical synaptic transmission between neurons. Generally perceived as simple intercellular channels, "electrical synapses" have demonstrated to be more functionally sophisticated and structurally complex than initially anticipated. Electrical synapses represent an assembly of multiple molecules, consisting of channels, adhesion complexes, scaffolds, regulatory machinery, and trafficking proteins, all required for their proper function and plasticity. Additionally, while electrical synapses are often viewed as strictly symmetric structures, emerging evidence has shown that some components forming electrical synapses can be differentially distributed at each side of the junction...
February 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163671/drive-the-car-go-s-new-modalities-to-control-cargo-trafficking-in-live-cells
#5
REVIEW
Payel Mondal, John S Khamo, Vishnu V Krishnamurthy, Qi Cai, Kai Zhang
Synaptic transmission is a fundamental molecular process underlying learning and memory. Successful synaptic transmission involves coupled interaction between electrical signals (action potentials) and chemical signals (neurotransmitters). Defective synaptic transmission has been reported in a variety of neurological disorders such as Autism and Alzheimer's disease. A large variety of macromolecules and organelles are enriched near functional synapses. Although a portion of macromolecules can be produced locally at the synapse, a large number of synaptic components especially the membrane-bound receptors and peptide neurotransmitters require active transport machinery to reach their sites of action...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154149/the-coupling-between-ca2-channels-and-the-exocytotic-ca2-sensor-at-hair-cell-ribbon-synapses-varies-tonotopically-along-the-mature-cochlea
#6
Stuart L Johnson, Jennifer Olt, Soyoun Cho, Henrique von Gersdorff, Walter Marcotti
: The cochlea processes auditory signals over a wide range of frequencies and intensities. However, the transfer characteristics at hair cell ribbon synapses are still poorly understood at different frequency locations along the cochlea. Using recordings from mature gerbils, we report here a surprisingly strong block of exocytosis by the slow Ca(2+) buffer EGTA (10 mM) in basal hair cells tuned to high frequencies (∼30 kHz). In addition, using recordings from gerbil, mouse and bullfrog auditory organs, we find that the spatial coupling between Ca(2+) influx and exocytosis changes from nanodomain in low-frequency tuned hair cells (<∼2 kHz) to progressively more microdomain in high-frequency cells (>∼2 kHz)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148726/synchronous-infra-slow-bursting-in-the-mouse-accessory-olfactory-bulb-emerge-from-interplay-between-intrinsic-neuronal-dynamics-and-network-connectivity
#7
Asaph Zylbertal, Yosef Yarom, Shlomo Wagner
: Rhythmic neuronal activity of multiple frequency bands has been described in many brain areas and attributed to numerous brain functions. Among these, little is known about the mechanism and role of infra-slow oscillations, which have been recently demonstrated in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Along with prolonged responses to stimuli and distinct network connectivity, they inexplicably affect the AOB processing of social relevant stimuli. Here we show that assemblies of AOB mitral cells are synchronized by lateral interactions through chemical and electrical synapses...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145461/tuning-the-allosteric-regulation-of-artificial-muscarinic-and-dopaminergic-ligand-gated-potassium-channels-by-protein-engineering-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#8
Christophe J Moreau, Jean Revilloud, Lydia N Caro, Julien P Dupuis, Amandine Trouchet, Argel Estrada-Mondragón, Katarzyna Nieścierowicz, Nicolas Sapay, Serge Crouzy, Michel Vivaudou
Ligand-gated ion channels enable intercellular transmission of action potential through synapses by transducing biochemical messengers into electrical signal. We designed artificial ligand-gated ion channels by coupling G protein-coupled receptors to the Kir6.2 potassium channel. These artificial channels called ion channel-coupled receptors offer complementary properties to natural channels by extending the repertoire of ligands to those recognized by the fused receptors, by generating more sustained signals and by conferring potassium selectivity...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143932/dissection-of-neuronal-gap-junction-circuits-that-regulate-social-behavior-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Heeun Jang, Sagi Levy, Steven W Flavell, Fanny Mende, Richard Latham, Manuel Zimmer, Cornelia I Bargmann
A hub-and-spoke circuit of neurons connected by gap junctions controls aggregation behavior and related behavioral responses to oxygen, pheromones, and food in Caenorhabditis elegans The molecular composition of the gap junctions connecting RMG hub neurons with sensory spoke neurons is unknown. We show here that the innexin gene unc-9 is required in RMG hub neurons to drive aggregation and related behaviors, indicating that UNC-9-containing gap junctions mediate RMG signaling. To dissect the circuit in detail, we developed methods to inhibit unc-9-based gap junctions with dominant-negative unc-1 transgenes...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139019/from-single-cells-single-columns-to-cortical-networks-dendritic-excitability-coincidence-detection-and-synaptic-transmission-in-brain-slices-and-brains
#10
Bert Sakmann
While patch pipettes were initially designed to record extracellularly elementary current events from muscle and neuron membrane, the whole-cell (eg Sakmann, 1992) and loose cell-attached recording configurations proved to be useful tools for examining signaling within and between nerve cells. In this Paton Lecture I will summarize first work on electrical signaling within single neurons, describing communication between its dendritic compartments, soma and nerve terminals via forward and backward propagating action potentials...
January 31, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124624/accessing-gap-junction-channel-structure-function-relationships-through-molecular-modeling-and-simulations
#11
REVIEW
F Villanelo, Y Escalona, C Pareja-Barrueto, J A Garate, I M Skerrett, T Perez-Acle
BACKGROUND: Gap junction channels (GJCs) are massive protein channels connecting the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. These channels allow intercellular transfer of molecules up to ~1 kDa, including water, ions and other metabolites. Unveiling structure-function relationships coded into the molecular architecture of these channels is necessary to gain insight on their vast biological function including electrical synapse, inflammation, development and tissular homeostasis. From early works, computational methods have been critical to analyze and interpret experimental observations...
January 17, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115483/gap-junction-mediated-signaling-from-motor-neurons-regulates-motor-generation-in-the-central-circuits-of-larval-drosophila
#12
Teruyuki Matsunaga, Hiroshi Kohsaka, Akinao Nose
: In this study, we used the peristaltic crawling of Drosophila larvae as a model to study how motor patterns are regulated by central circuits. We built an experimental system that allows simultaneous application of optogenetics and calcium imaging to the isolated ventral nerve cord (VNC). We then investigated the effects of manipulating local activity of motor neurons (MNs) on fictive locomotion observed as waves of MN activity propagating along neuromeres. Optical inhibition of MNs with halorhodopsin3 (NpHR3) in a middle segment (A4, A5 or A6), but not other segments, dramatically decreased the frequency of the motor waves...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104799/muscles-innervated-by-a-single-motor-neuron-exhibit-divergent-synaptic-properties-on-multiple-time-scales
#13
Dawn M Blitz, Amy E Pritchard, John K Latimer, Andrew T Wakefield
Adaptive changes in the output of neural circuits underlying rhythmic behaviors are relayed to muscles via motor neuron activity. Pre- and postsynaptic properties of neuromuscular junctions can impact the transformation from motor neuron activity to muscle response. Further, synaptic plasticity occurring on the time scale of inter-spike intervals can differ between multiple muscles innervated by the same motor neuron. In rhythmic behaviors, motor neuron bursts can elicit additional synaptic plasticity. However, it is unknown if plasticity regulated by the longer time scale of inter-burst intervals also differs between synapses from the same neuron, and whether any such distinctions occur across a physiological activity range...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103994/-analysis-of-microrna-expression-profile-in-serum-of-patients-with-electrical-burn-or-thermal-burn
#14
Q F Ruan, M J Jiang, Z Q Ye, C L Zhao, W G Xie
Objective: To explore the differential expression of microRNAs in the serum among patients with electrical burn or thermal burn and healthy persons and to explore the significance. Methods: In this study we included three patients with electrical burn and three patients with thermal burn, conforming to the inclusion criteria and hospitalized in our burn ward from June to August 2015, and three healthy adult volunteers. Their serum samples were separated from whole blood and divided into electrical burn group, thermal burn group, and normal control group...
January 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093479/paired-stimulation-for-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-in-primate-sensorimotor-cortex
#15
Stephanie C Seeman, Brian J Mogen, Eberhard E Fetz, Steve I Perlmutter
: Classic studies in vitro have described spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) at a synapse: the connection from neuron A to neuron B is strengthened (or weakened) when A fires before (or after) B within an optimal time window. Accordingly, more recent in vivo works have demonstrated behavioral effects consistent with an STDP mechanism; however many relied on single-unit recordings. The ability to modify cortical connections becomes useful in the context of injury when connectivity, and associated behavior, is compromised...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065942/neuregulin-1-erbb-module-in-c-bouton-synapses-on-somatic-motor-neurons-molecular-compartmentation-and-response-to-peripheral-nerve-injury
#16
Anna Casanovas, Sara Salvany, Víctor Lahoz, Olga Tarabal, Lídia Piedrafita, Raimundo Sabater, Sara Hernández, Jordi Calderó, Josep E Esquerda
The electric activity of lower motor neurons (MNs) appears to play a role in determining cell-vulnerability in MN diseases. MN excitability is modulated by cholinergic inputs through C-type synaptic boutons, which display an endoplasmic reticulum-related subsurface cistern (SSC) adjacent to the postsynaptic membrane. Besides cholinergic molecules, a constellation of proteins involved in different signal-transduction pathways are clustered at C-type synaptic sites (M2 muscarinic receptors, Kv2.1 potassium channels, Ca(2+) activated K(+) [SK] channels, and sigma-1 receptors [S1R]), but their collective functional significance so far remains unknown...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064005/three-dimensional-functional-human-neuronal-networks-in-uncompressed-low-density-electrospun-fiber-scaffolds
#17
Albin Jakobsson, Maximilian Ottosson, Marina Castro Zalis, David O'Carroll, Ulrica Englund Johansson, Fredrik Johansson
We demonstrate an artificial three-dimensional (3D) electrical active human neuronal network system, by the growth of brain neural progenitors in highly porous low density electrospun poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) fiber scaffolds. In neuroscience research cell-based assays are important experimental instruments for studying neuronal function in health and disease. Traditional cell culture at 2D-surfaces induces abnormal cell-cell contacts and network formation. Hence, there is a tremendous need to explore in vivo-resembling 3D neural cell culture approaches...
January 5, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052704/conflicting-effects-by-antibodies-against-connexin36-during-the-action-of-intracellular-cyclic-amp-onto-electrical-synapses-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#18
Soh Hidaka
Alpha-type retinal ganglion cells (alpha cells) of the same class in mammalian retina are connected by gap junctions. Electrical synapses between alpha cells were examined using combined techniques of dual patch-clamp recordings, intracellular labeling and electron microscopy in the albino rat retina. In simultaneous dual whole-cell recordings from pairs of neighboring alpha cells, bidirectional electrical synapses with symmetrical junction conductance were observed in pairs with cells of the same morphological type...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052116/functional-maturation-of-human-stem-cell-derived-neurons-in-long-term-cultures
#19
Rebecca S Lam, Felix M Töpfer, Phillip G Wood, Volker Busskamp, Ernst Bamberg
Differentiated neurons can be rapidly acquired, within days, by inducing stem cells to express neurogenic transcription factors. We developed a protocol to maintain long-term cultures of human neurons, called iNGNs, which are obtained by inducing Neurogenin-1 and Neurogenin-2 expression in induced pluripotent stem cells. We followed the functional development of iNGNs over months and they showed many hallmark properties for neuronal maturation, including robust electrical and synaptic activity. Using iNGNs expressing a variant of channelrhodopsin-2, called CatCh, we could control iNGN activity with blue light stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987712/hyaluronic-acid-doped-poly-3-4-ethylenedioxythiophene-chitosan-gelatin-pedot-ha-cs-gel-porous-conductive-scaffold-for-nerve-regeneration
#20
Shuping Wang, Shui Guan, Zhibo Zhu, Wenfang Li, Tianqing Liu, Xuehu Ma
Conducting polymer, as a "smart" biomaterial, has been increasingly used to construct tissue engineered scaffold for nerve tissue regeneration. In this study, a novel porous conductive scaffold was prepared by incorporating conductive hyaluronic acid (HA) doped-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-HA) nanoparticles into a chitosan/gelatin (Cs/Gel) matrix. The physicochemical characteristics of Cs/Gel scaffold with 0-10wt% PEDOT-HA were analyzed and the results indicated that the incorporation of PEDOT-HA into scaffold increased the electrical and mechanical properties while decreasing the porosity and water absorption...
February 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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