keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

electrical synapse

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820903/prominent-facilitation-at-beta-and-gamma-frequency-range-revealed-with-physiological-calcium-concentration-in-adult-mouse-piriform-cortex-in-vitro
#1
Marie Gleizes, Simon P Perrier, Caroline Fonta, Lionel G Nowak
Neuronal activity is characterized by a diversity of oscillatory phenomena that are associated with multiple behavioral and cognitive processes, yet the functional consequences of these oscillations are not fully understood. Our aim was to determine whether and how these different oscillatory activities affect short-term synaptic plasticity (STP), using the olfactory system as a model. In response to odorant stimuli, the olfactory bulb displays a slow breathing rhythm as well as beta and gamma oscillations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820141/silicon-synaptic-transistor-for-hardware-based-spiking-neural-network-and-neuromorphic-system
#2
Hyungjin Kim, Sungmin Hwang, Jungjin Park, Byung-Gook Park
Brain-inspired neuromorphic systems have attracted much attention as new computing paradigms for power-efficient computation. Here, we report a silicon synaptic transistor with two electrically independent gates to realize a hardware-based neural network system without any switching components. The spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) characteristics of the synaptic devices are measured and analyzed. With the help of the device model based on the measured data, the pattern recognition capability of the hardware-based spiking neural network (SNN) systems is demonstrated using the modified national institute of standards and technology (MNIST) handwritten dataset...
August 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819053/novel-neurobiological-properties-of-elements-in-the-escape-circuitry-of-the-shrimp
#3
De Forest Mellon
Escape behaviors in peneid shrimp are mediated by large myelinated medial giant fibers which course from the brain to the last abdominal ganglion in the ventral nerve cord. In each abdominal segment the medial giant axons make synaptic connections with paired myelinated giant motor axons that excite the abdominal deep flexor muscles and drive the tailflips that constitute the escape behavior. I examined 1) anatomical features of the abdominal motor giant fibers and 2) electrical properties of both the medial giants and motor giants in the pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duoarum...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769764/gap-junctions-link-regular-spiking-and-fast-spiking-interneurons-in-layer-5-somatosensory-cortex
#4
Robert J Hatch, G Dulini C Mendis, Kai Kaila, Christopher A Reid, Steven Petrou
Gap junctions form electrical synapses that modulate neuronal activity by synchronizing action potential (AP) firing of cortical interneurons (INs). Gap junctions are thought to form predominantly within cortical INs of the same functional class and are therefore considered to act within discrete neuronal populations. Here, we challenge that view and show that the probability of electrical coupling is the same within and between regular-spiking (RS) and fast-spiking (FS) cortical INs in 16-21 days old mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764400/chimera-states-in-a-multilayer-network-of-coupled-and-uncoupled-neurons
#5
Soumen Majhi, Matjaž Perc, Dibakar Ghosh
We study the emergence of chimera states in a multilayer neuronal network, where one layer is composed of coupled and the other layer of uncoupled neurons. Through the multilayer structure, the layer with coupled neurons acts as the medium by means of which neurons in the uncoupled layer share information in spite of the absence of physical connections among them. Neurons in the coupled layer are connected with electrical synapses, while across the two layers, neurons are connected through chemical synapses...
July 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750887/probing-the-interplay-between-dendritic-spine-morphology-and-membrane-bound-diffusion
#6
Max Adrian, Remy Kusters, Cornelis Storm, Casper C Hoogenraad, Lukas C Kapitein
Dendritic spines are protrusions along neuronal dendrites that harbor the majority of excitatory postsynapses. Their distinct morphology, often featuring a bulbous head and small neck that connects to the dendritic shaft, has been shown to facilitate compartmentalization of electrical and cytoplasmic signaling stimuli elicited at the synapse. The extent to which spine morphology also forms a barrier for membrane-bound diffusion has remained unclear. Recent simulations suggested that especially the diameter of the spine neck plays a limiting role in this process...
July 24, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717219/versatile-functional-roles-of-horizontal-cells-in-the-retinal-circuit
#7
Taro Chaya, Akihiro Matsumoto, Yuko Sugita, Satoshi Watanabe, Ryusuke Kuwahara, Masao Tachibana, Takahisa Furukawa
In the retinal circuit, environmental light signals are converted into electrical signals that can be decoded properly by the brain. At the first synapse of the visual system, information flow from photoreceptors to bipolar cells is modulated by horizontal cells (HCs), however, their functional contribution to retinal output and individual visual function is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated functional roles for HCs in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) response properties and optokinetic responses by establishing a HC-depleted mouse line...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714538/the-symphony-of-smell-a-role-for-electrical-synapses
#8
Graeme Lowe
Rhythmic electrical activities are ubiquitous in the brain and inextricably tied to neural circuit operations. Macroscopic oscillations in extracellular voltage - the local field potential (LFP) - are commonly observed and span a wide frequency spectrum (∼1.5 - 100 Hz). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703129/precise-inhibitory-microcircuit-assembly-of-developmentally-related-neocortical-interneurons-in-clusters
#9
Xin-Jun Zhang, Zhizhong Li, Zhi Han, Khadeejah T Sultan, Kun Huang, Song-Hai Shi
GABA-ergic interneurons provide diverse inhibitions that are essential for the operation of neuronal circuits in the neocortex. However, the mechanisms that control the functional organization of neocortical interneurons remain largely unknown. Here we show that developmental origins influence fine-scale synapse formation and microcircuit assembly of neocortical interneurons. Spatially clustered neocortical interneurons originating from low-titre retrovirus-infected radial glial progenitors in the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence and preoptic area preferentially develop electrical, but not chemical, synapses with each other...
July 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694772/connexin-dependent-neuroglial-networking-as-a-new-therapeutic-target
#10
REVIEW
Mathieu Charvériat, Christian C Naus, Luc Leybaert, Juan C Sáez, Christian Giaume
Astrocytes and neurons dynamically interact during physiological processes, and it is now widely accepted that they are both organized in plastic and tightly regulated networks. Astrocytes are connected through connexin-based gap junction channels, with brain region specificities, and those networks modulate neuronal activities, such as those involved in sleep-wake cycle, cognitive, or sensory functions. Additionally, astrocyte domains have been involved in neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation during development; they participate in the "tripartite synapse" with both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons by tuning down or up neuronal activities through the control of neuronal synaptic strength...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692643/inverse-stochastic-resonance-in-networks-of-spiking-neurons
#11
Muhammet Uzuntarla, Ernest Barreto, Joaquin J Torres
Inverse Stochastic Resonance (ISR) is a phenomenon in which the average spiking rate of a neuron exhibits a minimum with respect to noise. ISR has been studied in individual neurons, but here, we investigate ISR in scale-free networks, where the average spiking rate is calculated over the neuronal population. We use Hodgkin-Huxley model neurons with channel noise (i.e., stochastic gating variable dynamics), and the network connectivity is implemented via electrical or chemical connections (i.e., gap junctions or excitatory/inhibitory synapses)...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656774/emulating-bilingual-synaptic-response-using-a-junction-based-artificial-synaptic-device
#12
He Tian, Xi Cao, Yujun Xie, Xiaodong Yan, Andrew Kostelec, Don DiMarzio, Cheng Chang, Li-Dong Zhao, Wei Wu, Jesse Tice, Judy J Cha, Jing Guo, Han Wang
Excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are the two fundamental categories of synaptic responses underlying the diverse functionalities of the mammalian nervous system. Recent advances in neuroscience have revealed the co-release of both glutamate and GABA neurotransmitters from a single axon terminal in neurons at the ventral tegmental area that can result in the reconfiguration of the postsynaptic potentials between excitatory and inhibitory effects. The ability to mimic such features of the biological synapses in semiconductor devices, which is lacking in the conventional field effect transistor-type and memristor-type artificial synaptic devices, can enhance the functionalities and versatility of neuromorphic electronic systems in performing tasks such as image recognition, learning, and cognition...
July 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652625/dendritic-mitoflash-as-a-putative-signal-for-stabilizing-long-term-synaptic-plasticity
#13
Zhong-Xiao Fu, Xiao Tan, Huaqiang Fang, Pak-Ming Lau, Xianhua Wang, Heping Cheng, Guo-Qiang Bi
Mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are recently discovered excitable mitochondrial events in many cell types. Here we investigate their occurrence in the context of structural long-term potentiation (sLTP) at hippocampal synapses. At dendritic spines stimulated by electric pulses, glycine, or targeted glutamate uncaging, induction of sLTP is associated with a phasic occurrence of local, quantized mitochondrial activity in the form of one or a few mitoflashes, over a 30-min window. Low-dose nigericin or photoactivation that elicits mitoflashes stabilizes otherwise short-term spine enlargement into sLTP...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643696/artificial-synaptic-characteristics-with-strong-analog-memristive-switching-in-a-pt-ceo2-pt-structure
#14
Hyung Jun Kim, Hong Zheng, Jong-Sung Park, Dong Hun Kim, Chi Jung Kang, Jun Tae Jang, Dae Hwan Kim, Tae-Sik Yoon
Artificial synaptic potentiation and depression characteristics were demonstrated with Pt/CeO2/Pt devices exhibiting polarity-dependent analog memristive switching. The strong and sequential resistance change with its maximum to minimum ratio >10(5), imperatively essential for stable operation, as repeating voltage application, emulated the potentiation and depression motion of a synapse with variable synaptic weight. The synaptic weight change could be controlled by the amplitude, width, and number of repeated voltage pulses...
July 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612182/invaginating-presynaptic-terminals-in-neuromuscular-junctions-photoreceptor-terminals-and-other-synapses-of-animals
#15
REVIEW
Ronald S Petralia, Ya-Xian Wang, Mark P Mattson, Pamela J Yao
Typically, presynaptic terminals form a synapse directly on the surface of postsynaptic processes such as dendrite shafts and spines. However, some presynaptic terminals invaginate-entirely or partially-into postsynaptic processes. We survey these invaginating presynaptic terminals in all animals and describe several examples from the central nervous system, including giant fiber systems in invertebrates, and cup-shaped spines, electroreceptor synapses, and some specialized auditory and vestibular nerve terminals in vertebrates...
June 13, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605376/anatomically-inspired-three-dimensional-micro-tissue-engineered-neural-networks-for-nervous-system-reconstruction-modulation-and-modeling
#16
Laura A Struzyna, Dayo O Adewole, Wisberty J Gordián-Vélez, Michael R Grovola, Justin C Burrell, Kritika S Katiyar, Dmitriy Petrov, James P Harris, D Kacy Cullen
Functional recovery rarely occurs following injury or disease-induced degeneration within the central nervous system (CNS) due to the inhibitory environment and the limited capacity for neurogenesis. We are developing a strategy to simultaneously address neuronal and axonal pathway loss within the damaged CNS. This manuscript presents the fabrication protocol for micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), implantable constructs consisting of neurons and aligned axonal tracts spanning the extracellular matrix (ECM) lumen of a preformed hydrogel cylinder hundreds of microns in diameter that may extend centimeters in length...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594440/calcium-signalling-in-medial-intercalated-cell-dendrites-and-spines
#17
Cornelia Strobel, Robert K P Sullivan, Peter Stratton, Pankaj Sah
KEY POINTS: Dendritic and spine calcium imaging in combination with electrophysiology in acute slices revealed that in medial intercalated cells of the amygdala: Action potentials back-propagate into the dendritic tree, but due to the presence of voltage-dependent potassium channels, probably Kv4.2 channels, attenuate over distance. A mixed population of AMPA receptors with rectifying and linear I-V relations are present at individual spines of a single neuron. Decay kinetics and pharmacology suggest tri-heteromeric NMDA receptors at basolateral-intercalated cell synapses...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580666/connexins-and-pannexins-at-the-junction-of-neuro-glial-homeostasis-disease
#18
REVIEW
Andrew S Lapato, Seema K Tiwari-Woodruff
In the central nervous system (CNS), connexin (Cx)s and pannexin (Panx)s are an integral component of homeostatic neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity. Neuronal Cx gap junctions form electrical synapses across biochemically similar GABAergic networks, allowing rapid and extensive inhibition in response to principle neuron excitation. Glial Cx gap junctions link astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the pan-glial network that is responsible for removing excitotoxic ions and metabolites. In addition, glial gap junctions help constrain excessive excitatory activity in neurons and facilitate astrocyte Ca(2+) slow wave propagation...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577972/electrical-synapses-in-mammalian-cns-past-eras-present-focus-and-future-directions
#19
REVIEW
James I Nagy, Alberto E Pereda, John E Rash
Gap junctions provide the basis for electrical synapses between neurons. Early studies in well-defined circuits in lower vertebrates laid the foundation for understanding various properties conferred by electrical synaptic transmission. Knowledge surrounding electrical synapses in mammalian systems unfolded first with evidence indicating the presence of gap junctions between neurons in various brain regions, but with little appreciation of their functional roles. Beginning at about the turn of this century, new approaches were applied to scrutinize electrical synapses, revealing the prevalence of neuronal gap junctions, the connexin protein composition of many of those junctions, and the myriad diverse neural systems in which they occur in the mammalian CNS...
June 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561933/cx36-cx43-and-cx45-in-mouse-and-rat-cerebellar-cortex-species-specific-expression-compensation-in-cx36-null-mice-and-co-localization-in-neurons-vs-glia
#20
J I Nagy, J E Rash
Electrical synapses formed by connexin36 (Cx36)-containing gap junctions between interneurons in the cerebellar cortex have been well characterized, including those formed between basket cells and between Golgi cells, and there is gene reporter-based evidence for the expression of connexin45 (Cx45) in the cerebellar molecular layer. Here, we used immunofluorescence approaches to further investigate expression patterns of Cx36 and Cx45 in this layer and to examine localization relationships of these connexins with each other and with glial connexin43 (Cx43)...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
31334
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"