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Urothelial cancer

Frits H M van Osch, Sylvia H J Jochems, Anke Wesselius, Frederik J van Schooten, Richard T Bryan, Maurice P Zeegers
Background : Active smoking is a major risk factor for urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). However, the evidence that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) either in childhood or adult life is also associated with UBC risk is ambiguous. With this meta-analysis, we aim to summarise how exposure to ETS is associated with UBC risk. Methods : In total, 11 studies (3 cohort studies, 8 case-control studies) were included in this meta-analysis and summary odds ratios (SORs) for UBC risk were calculated for never smokers who were exposed to ETS during childhood at home, during adulthood at home, or during adulthood in a work environment compared to never smokers who were never exposed to ETS...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Elie El Rassy, Ziad Bakouny, Fouad Aoun, Fadi G Haddad, Ghassan Sleilaty, Tarek Assi, Joseph Kattan
AIM: To determine which of the approved immune checkpoint inhibitors is the optimal treatment in metastatic urothelial bladder cancer. METHODS & MATERIALS: Only the pivotal Phase III trials of second-line metastatic urothelial bladder cancer were included in this network meta-analysis. RESULTS: This NMA included three pooled trials (NCT00315237, NCT02256436 and NCT02302807) of 1125 participants. Pembrolizumab was the only treatment with positive effect on overall survival compared with the best supportive care...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
Gokmen U Erdem, Mutlu Dogan, Abdullah Sakin, Zeynep Oruc, Emel Yaman, Havva Yesil Cinkir, Mükremin Uysal, Oktay Bozkurt, Banu Ozturk, Aydin Aytekin, Melike Ozcelik, Aykut Bahceci, Umut Cakiroglu, Serdar Turhal, Suleyman Sahin, Dogan Uncu, Nurullah Zengin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Oncology Research and Treatment
Simeon U Springer, Chung-Hsin Chen, Maria Del Carmen Rodriguez Pena, Lu Li, Christopher Douville, Yuxuan Wang, Joshua David Cohen, Diana Taheri, Natalie Silliman, Joy Schaefer, Janine Ptak, Lisa Dobbyn, Maria Papoli, Isaac Kinde, Bahman Afsari, Aline C Tregnago, Stephania M Bezerra, Christopher VandenBussche, Kazutoshi Fujita, Dilek Ertoy, Isabela W Cunha, Lijia Yu, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Arthur P Grollman, Luis A Diaz, Rachel Karchin, Ludmila Danilova, Chao-Yuan Huang, Chia-Tung Shun, Robert J Turesky, Byeong Hwa Yun, Thomas A Rosenquist, Yeong-Shiau Pu, Ralph H Hruban, Cristian Tomasetti, Nickolas Papadopoulos, Ken W Kinzler, Bert Vogelstein, Kathleen G Dickman, George J Netto
Current non-invasive approaches for detection of urothelial cancers are suboptimal. We developed a test to detect urothelial neoplasms using DNA recovered from cells shed into urine. UroSEEK incorporates massive parallel sequencing assays for mutations in 11 genes and copy number changes on 39 chromosome arms. In 570 patients at risk for bladder cancer (BC), UroSEEK was positive in 83% of those who developed BC. Combined with cytology, UroSEEK detected 95% of patients who developed BC. Of 56 patients with upper tract urothelial cancer, 75% tested positive by UroSEEK, including 79% of those with non-invasive tumors...
March 20, 2018: ELife
Takeshi Yuasa, Shinji Urakami, Junji Yonese
Cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the mainstay of medical therapy for metastatic urothelial cancer. Currently, the gemcitabine/cisplatin regimen is widely used worldwide as the standard first-line medical treatment. Very recently, in 2017, pembrolizumab, a highly selective, humanized monoclonal IgG4κ isotype antibody against programmed death 1, was approved as a second-line treatment to be used after platina-based chemotherapy for metastatic urothelial cancer in Japan. Based on its promising anti-tumor efficacy and manageable safety profile as demonstrated in the phase III KEYNOTE-045 trial, pembrolizumab therapy is expected to be rapidly introduced for treating metastatic urothelial cancer in clinical practice...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
William Tabayoyong, Jianjun Gao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of five new immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of metastatic urothelial cancer represents the first major treatment breakthrough for this disease since the introduction of combination chemotherapy over 30 years ago. This review examines the recent clinical trials leading to FDA approval of these agents, the current challenges facing immunotherapy and areas that require further research. RECENT FINDINGS: The programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1) and its ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are important negative regulators of immune activity, preventing destruction of normal tissues and autoimmunity...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Junqi Liu, Chuanfeng Zhang, Jiegang Hu, Qing Tian, Xin Wang, Hao Gu, Song Zhang, Di Zhao, Ruitai Fan
Background: Urothelial carcinoma ranks the ninth among malignant cancers. We conducted this study to identify which patients could benefit more from the treatment of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand1 (PD-L1) inhibitors. Materials and Methods: We performed literature searches, combined data from qualified literature and performed comparative analyses on the effectiveness of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in patients with different PD-L1 expression levels...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Hamid Emamekhoo, Puneet Dhillon, Dharmesh Gopalakrishnan, Paul Elson, Andrew Stephenson, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Jesse McKenney, Holly Harper, Georges-Pascal Haber, Jihad Kaouk, Byron Lee, Amr Fergany, Ryan Berglund, Michael Gong, Robert Stein, Venkatesh Krishnamurthi, Timothy Gilligan, Moshe Ornstein, Brian Rini, Jorge Garcia, Petros Grivas
BACKGROUND: Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) accounts for approximately 5% of all urothelial cancers. Because of similarities in morphology and histology between UTUC and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, most treatment guidelines used for UTUC are extrapolated from the urothelial bladder carcinoma setting. With the emergence of new treatment modalities, such as immunotherapy, UTUC-specific prognostic and predictive models are needed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 454 UTUC patients who received surgery at Cleveland Clinic (1995-2014) was conducted...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Chihyun Ahn, Chang Wook Jeong, Cheol Kwak, Hyeon Hoe Kim, Hyung Suk Kim, Ja Hyeon Ku
BACKGROUND: We systematically evaluated the prognostic significance of Ki-67 on survival outcomes in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the Embase, Scopus, and PubMed databases for all articles published up to February 2017 by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses guidelines. The outcomes of interest included intravesical recurrence (IVR)-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS)...
February 24, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Akash A Kapadia, Ann Martinez Acevedo, Jen-Jane Liu, Mark Garzotto, Michael Conlin, Christopher Amling, Ryan P Kopp
PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an important adjunct to cystectomy in management of muscle invasive bladder cancer. We investigated factors that predict failure to receive surgery following multi-agent chemotherapy for non-metastatic muscle invasive bladder cancer utilizing the National Cancer Database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cohort study including patients diagnosed with cT2-4aN0M0 urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder between 2004 and 2013 who underwent multi-agent chemotherapy...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Urology
Matthew Katz, Daniel A Wollin, Nicholas M Donin, William Meeks, Scott Gulig, Lee C Zhao, James S Wysock, Samir S Taneja, William C Huang, Marc A Bjurlin
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status has been increasingly recognized as an important predictor of prognosis and surgical outcomes for cancer patients. We evaluated the effect of preoperative malnutrition on the development of surgical complications and mortality after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, we evaluated the association of poor nutritional status with 30-day postoperative complications and overall mortality after RNU from 2005 to 2015...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Naotaka Nishiyama, Hiroshi Hotta, Atsushi Takahashi, Masahiro Yanase, Naoki Itoh, Hitoshi Tachiki, Noriomi Miyao, Masanori Matsukawa, Yasuharu Kunishima, Keisuke Taguchi, Hiroshi Kitamura, Naoya Masumori
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic indicators for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) following intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy for nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). METHODS: Data from 402 patients who received intravesical BCG therapy between January 1990 and November 2011 were collected from 10 institutes. The median follow-up interval from transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by BCG treatment was 50...
March 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Francesco Soria, Andrea I Beleni, David D'Andrea, Irene Resch, Kilian M Gust, Paolo Gontero, Shahrokh F Shariat
OBJECTIVES: A small subset of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors manifest atypical patterns of response, the so-called pseudoprogression (PP) and hyperprogression (HP). Their prevalence in urothelial (UC) and renal cancer (RCC) remains, to date, mostly uninvestigated. Therefore, we aimed to provide a summary of the current knowledge about PP and HP during immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in UC and RCC patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A systematic medline/pubmed© literature search was performed...
March 16, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Masaki Momota, Shingo Hatakeyama, Noriko Tokui, Tendo Sato, Hayato Yamamoto, Yuki Tobisawa, Tohru Yoneyama, Takahiro Yoneyama, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Takuya Koie, Satoshi Narita, Toshiaki Kawaguchi, Chikara Ohyama
BACKGROUND: The impact of preoperative renal impairment severity on prognosis in urothelial carcinoma remains unelucidated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of severe preoperative renal insufficiency on oncological outcomes in patients with urothelial carcinoma who underwent radical cystectomy or nephroureterectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1066 patients with urothelial carcinoma who underwent radical cystectomy or nephroureterectomy at six medical centres from February 1995 to November 2017 were retrospectively examined...
March 13, 2018: European Urology Focus
Ana Isabel Padrão, Rita Nogueira-Ferreira, Rui Vitorino, Dulce Carvalho, Catarina Correia, Maria João Neuparth, Maria João Pires, Ana Isabel Faustino-Rocha, Lúcio Lara Santos, Paula Alexandra Oliveira, José Alberto Duarte, Daniel Moreira-Gonçalves, Rita Ferreira
Limiting cancer-induced cardiac damage has become an increasingly important issue to improve survival rates and quality of life. Exercise training has been shown to reduce cardiovascular complications in several diseases; however, its therapeutic role against cardiovascular consequences of cancer is in its infancy. In order to add new insights on the potential therapeutic effect of exercise training on cancer-related cardiac dysfunction, we used an animal model of urothelial carcinoma submitted to 13 weeks of treadmill exercise after 20 weeks of exposure to the carcinogenic N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN)...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Karishma K Mehra, Daniel P Petrylak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Philip A Fontenot, Brian D Barnes, William P Parker, Hadley Wyre, Eugene K Lee, Jeffrey M Holzbeierlein
OBJECTIVES: To compare complication rates, perioperative outcomes, and survival after radical cystectomy (RC) in patients with prior abdominal and/or pelvic radiation therapy (RT) versus those without an RT history. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing RC for urothelial carcinoma (UC) between January 2008 and January 2016. Patients were stratified by receipt of RT, and differences in complications (any, minor, and major) at 30 and 90 days, as well as, estimated blood loss, length of surgery, length of hospital stay, and pathologic stage were compared...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Wei Tse Li, Hao Zheng, Vincent Nguyen, Jessica Wang-Rodriguez, Weg M Ongkeko
Though bladder urothelial carcinoma is the most common form of bladder cancer, advances in its diagnosis and treatment have been modest in the past few decades. To evaluate miRNAs as putative disease markers for bladder urothelial carcinoma, this study develops a process to identify dysregulated miRNAs in cancer patients and potentially stratify patients based on the association of their microRNAome phenotype to genomic alterations. Using RNA sequencing data for 409 patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas, we examined miRNA differential expression between cancer and normal tissues and associated differentially expressed miRNAs with patient survival and clinical variables...
March 12, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Suk Young Lee, Sang Hee Choi
Intravesical BCG therapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) is considered the most effective treatment for prophylaxis against the recurrence of high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, and generally well tolerated and infectious complication are rare. We reported a case of granulomatous prostatitis is a patient who had undergone intravesical BCG therapy due to non-invasive superficial urothelial carcinoma of bladder. This patient was diagnosed by prostate biopsy because of PSA elevation without any other voiding symptoms and abnormal abscess pocket in transrectal ultrasonography...
March 2018: Urology Case Reports
Takahiro Yoshida, Nikolai A Sopko, Max Kates, Xiaopu Liu, Gregory Joice, David J McConkey, Trinity J Bivalacqua
There has been increasing awareness of the importance of three-dimensional culture of cancer cells. Tumor cells growing as multicellular spheroids in three-dimensional culture, alternatively called organoids, are widely believed to more closely mimic solid tumors in situ . Previous studies concluded that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for regeneration of the normal urothelium after injury and that β-catenin is upregulated in human bladder cancers, but no clear evidence has been advanced to support the idea that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is directly involved in deregulated proliferation and the other malignant characteristics of bladder cancer cells...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
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