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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450209/creation-and-assessment-of-a-clinical-predictive-calculator-and-mortality-associated-with-candida-krusei-bloodstream-infections
#1
Ryan Kronen, Kevin Hsueh, Charlotte Lin, William G Powderly, Andrej Spec
Background: Candida krusei bloodstream infection (CK BSI) is associated with high mortality, but whether this is due to underlying comorbidities in affected patients or the organism itself is unknown. Identifying patient characteristics that are associated with CK BSI is crucial for clinical decision-making and prognosis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of hospitalized patients with Candida BSI at our institution between 2002 and 2015. Data were collected on demographics, comorbidities, medications, procedures, central lines, vital signs, and laboratory values...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444733/medically-attended-catheter-complications-are-common-in-patients-with-outpatient-central-venous-catheters
#2
Steven S Spires, Peter F Rebeiro, Mickie Miller, Katie Koss, Patty W Wright, Thomas R Talbot
OBJECTIVE Outpatient central venous catheters (CVCs) are being used more frequently; however, data describing mechanical complications and central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in the outpatient setting are limited. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study to understand the burden of these complications to elucidate their impact on the healthcare system. METHODS Data were retrospectively collected on patients discharged from Vanderbilt University Medical Center with a CVC in place and admitted into the care of Vanderbilt Home Care Services...
February 15, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432776/establishment-of-cre-mediated-hbv-recombinant-cccdna-rcccdna-cell-line-for-cccdna-biology-and-antiviral-screening-assays
#3
Min Wu, Jin Li, Lei Yue, Lu Bai, Yaming Li, Jieliang Chen, Xiaonan Zhang, Zhenghong Yuan
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), existing in hepatocyte nuclei as a stable minichromosome, plays a central role in the life cycle of the virus and permits the persistence of infection. Despite being essential for HBV infection, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of cccDNA formation, regulation and degradation, and there is no therapeutic agents directly targeting cccDNA, fore mostly due to the lack of robust, reliable and quantifiable HBV cccDNA models. In this study, combined the Cre/loxP and sleeping beauty transposons system, we established HepG2-derived cell lines integrated with 2-60 copies of monomeric HBV genome flanked by loxP sites (HepG2-HBV/loxP)...
February 9, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427997/impact-of-the-international-nosocomial-infection-control-consortium-inicc-s-multidimensional-approach-on-rates-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-in-14-intensive-care-units-in-11-hospitals-of-5-cities-in-argentina
#4
Victor Daniel Rosenthal, Javier Desse, Diego Marcelo Maurizi, Gustavo Jorge Chaparro, Pablo Wenceslao Orellano, Viviana Chediack, Rafael Cabrera, Daniel Golschmid, Cristina Graciela Silva, Julio Cesar Vimercati, Juan Pablo Stagnaro, Ivanna Perez, María Laura Spadaro, Adriana Miriam Montanini, Dina Pedersen, Teresa Laura Paniccia, Ana María Ríos Aguilera, Raul Cermesoni, Juan Ignacio Mele, Ernesto Alda, Analía Edith Paldoro, Agustín Román Ortta, Bettina Cooke, María Cecilia García, Mora Nair Obed, Cecilia Verónica Domínguez, Pablo Alejandro Saúl, María Cecilia Rodríguez Del Valle, Alberto Claudio Bianchi, Gustavo Alvarez, Ricardo Pérez, Carolina Oyola
OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Argentina from January 2014 to April 2017. DESIGN This prospective, pre-post surveillance study of 3,940 ICU patients was conducted in 11 hospitals in 5 cities in Argentina. During our baseline evaluation, we performed outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions...
February 12, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423939/human-mait-cells-show-metabolic-quiescence-with-rapid-glucose-dependent-upregulation-of-granzyme-b-upon-stimulation
#5
Madeleine E Zinser, Andrew J Highton, Ayako Kurioka, Barbara Kronsteiner, Joachim Hagel, Tianqi Leng, Emanuele Marchi, Chansavath Phetsouphanh, Chris B Willberg, Susanna J Dunachie, Paul Klenerman
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a well-characterized innate-like T cell population abundant in the human liver, peripheral tissues and blood. MAIT cells serve in the first line of defense against infections, through engagement of their T cell receptor, which recognizes microbial metabolites presented on MR1, and through cytokine-mediated triggering. Typically, they show a quiescent memory phenotype but can undergo rapid up-regulation of effector functions including cytolysis upon stimulation...
February 9, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423646/equivalent-success-and-complication-rates-of-tunneled-common-femoral-venous-catheter-placed-in-the-interventional-suite-vs-at-patient-bedside
#6
Alex Chau, Jose Alberto Hernandez, Sheena Pimpalwar, Daniel Ashton, Kamlesh Kukreja
BACKGROUND: Femoral tunneled central line placement in the pediatric population offers an alternative means for intravenous (IV) access, but there is concern for higher complication and infection rates when placed at bedside. OBJECTIVE: To describe the complications and infection outcomes of primary femoral tunneled central venous catheter placement in the interventional radiology suite compared to the portable bedside location at a single tertiary pediatric institution...
February 8, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422174/efficacy-of-a-care-bundle-to-prevent-multiple-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-quasi-experimental-pretest-posttest-design-study
#7
Gulay Yazici, Hulya Bulut
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections extend hospitalization time, increase treatment costs and increase morbidity-mortality rates. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a care bundle aimed at preventing three most frequent intensive care unit-acquired infections. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This quasi-experimental study occurred in an 18-bed tertiary care intensive care unit at a university hospital in Turkey. The sample consisted of 120 patients older than 18years and receiving invasive mechanical ventilation therapy, or had a central venous catheter or urinary catheter...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416274/trend-analysis-of-bacterial-uropathogens-and-their-susceptibility-pattern-a-4-year-2013-2016-study-from-aseer-region-saudi-arabia
#8
Abdulaziz Alamri, Mohamed E Hamid, Muhammad Abid, Abdulrahman M Alwahhabi, Khalid M Alqahtani, Mohammed S Alqarni, Mosleh Abomughaid
Purpose: To analyze the prevalence and resistance rates of bacterial agents causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Aseer, Saudi Arabia (2013-2016). Patients and Methods: This was a 4-year (2013-2016) retrospective study undertaken in Aseer Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia. A total of 49,779 urine and other UT specimens obtained from patients suspected of having a UTI were analyzed. Urine specimens were inoculated onto cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar following standard procedures...
January 2018: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402297/cos-7-based-model-methodological-approach-to-study-john-cunningham-virus-replication-cycle
#9
C Prezioso, D Scribano, D M Rodio, C Ambrosi, M Trancassini, A T Palamara, V Pietropaolo
John Cunningham virus (JCV) is a human neurotropic polyomavirus whose replication in the Central Nervous System (SNC) induces the fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCV propagation and PML investigation have been severely hampered by the lack of an animal model and cell culture systems to propagate JCV have been very limited in their availability and robustness. We previously confirmed that JCV CY strain efficiently replicated in COS-7 cells as demonstrated by the progressive increase of viral load by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) during the time of transfection and that archetypal regulatory structure was maintained, although two characteristic point mutations were detected during the viral cycle...
February 5, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399528/anti-fouling-strategies-for-central-venous-catheters
#10
REVIEW
Alex Wallace, Hassan Albadawi, Nikasha Patel, Ali Khademhosseini, Yu Shrike Zhang, Sailendra Naidu, Grace Knuttinen, Rahmi Oklu
Central venous catheters (CVCs) are ubiquitous in the healthcare industry and carry two common complications, catheter related infections and occlusion, particularly by thrombus. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) are an important cause of nosocomial infections that increase patient morbidity, mortality, and hospital cost. Innovative design strategies for intravenous catheters can help reduce these preventable infections. Antimicrobial coatings can play a major role in preventing disease. These coatings can be divided into two major categories: drug eluting and non-drug eluting...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397962/clearance-of-tunneled-central-venous-catheter-associated-blood-stream-infections-in-children
#11
Maziar M Nourian, Angelina L Schwartz, Austin Stevens, Eric R Scaife, Brian T Bucher
BACKGROUND: The optimal time to reinsert central venous catheters (tCVC) after a documented central line associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) is unclear. The goal of this study is to identify risk factors for children who develop persistent bacteremia after tCVC removal due to CLABSI. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study from a tertiary children's hospital. Children who underwent removal of a tCVC due to CLABSI were included in our analysis. Our primary outcome was persistent bacteremia after tCVC removal defined by a persistently positive blood culture...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397801/comments-on-a-model-to-predict-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-among-patients-with-peripherally-inserted-central-catheters-the-mpc-score
#12
Saeid Safiri, Erfan Ayubi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395511/healthcare-associated-infections-in-the-neurological-intensive-care-unit-results-of-a-6-year-surveillance-study-at-a-major-tertiary-care-center
#13
Yasser B Abulhasan, Susan P Rachel, Marc-Olivier Châtillon-Angle, Najayeb Alabdulraheem, Ian Schiller, Nandini Dendukuri, Mark R Angle, Charles Frenette
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) occur frequently in neurological intensive care units (neuro-ICUs); however, data differentiating associations with various diagnostic categories and resulting burdens are limited. This prospective cohort study reported incidence rates, pathogen distribution, and patient-related outcomes of HAIs in a neuro-ICU population from April 2010 to March 2016. METHODS: Laboratory results and specific clinical indicators were used to categorize infections as per National Healthcare Safety Network nosocomial infection surveillance definitions...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387211/a-retrospective-comparison-of-escherichia-coli-and-polyethylene-glycol-conjugated-asparaginase-for-the-treatment-of-adolescents-and-adults-with-newly-diagnosed-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#14
Jiabao Liang, Pengcheng Shi, Xutao Guo, Jie Li, Lingli He, Yan Wang, Qi Wei, Fen Huang, Zhiping Fan, Bing Xu
Data from clinical trials suggest that polyethylene glycol-conjugated asparaginase (PEG asparaginase) should be recommended as a replacement for Escherichia coli (E. coli) asparaginase in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) due to its prolonged effect, similar safety profile and convenience. The present study investigated the efficacy and safety of PEG asparaginase in adolescents and adults with newly diagnosed ALL. The clinical data of 122 patients, ≥14 years old with de novo ALL, who received either PEG asparaginase or E...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379577/aminosugar-based-immunomodulator-lipid-a-synthetic-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Alla Zamyatina
The immediate immune response to infection by Gram-negative bacteria depends on the structure of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also known as endotoxin), a complex glycolipid constituting the outer leaflet of the bacterial outer membrane. Recognition of picomolar quantities of pathogenic LPS by the germ-line encoded Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) complex triggers the intracellular pro-inflammatory signaling cascade leading to the expression of cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins and reactive oxygen species which manifest an acute inflammatory response to infection...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373689/central-line-associated-mucor-velutinosus-bloodstream-infection-in-an-immunocompetent-pediatric-patient
#16
Madan Kumar, Barbara Jantausch, Clarivet Torres, Joseph Campos, Adrian Zelazny
We report here the isolation of Mucor velutinosus from multiple blood cultures performed on samples from Broviac catheters and culture of a Broviac insertion-site wound sample from a 6-year-old boy with a history of intestinal failure secondary to chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, parenteral nutrition, and jejunostomy tube dependence. Examination of a slide from the culture revealed the presence of wide nonseptate hyphae with sporangiophores, columella, and chlamydospores. The fungal isolate was sent to the National Institutes of Health for further evaluation and was identified as Mucor velutinosus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and genomic sequencing...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370992/nivolumab-with-or-without-ipilimumab-treatment-for-metastatic-sarcoma-alliance-a091401-two-open-label-non-comparative-randomised-phase-2-trials
#17
Sandra P D'Angelo, Michelle R Mahoney, Brian A Van Tine, James Atkins, Mohammed M Milhem, Balkrishna N Jahagirdar, Cristina R Antonescu, Elise Horvath, William D Tap, Gary K Schwartz, Howard Streicher
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic sarcoma have limited treatment options. Nivolumab and ipilimumab are monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4, respectively. We investigated the activity and safety of nivolumab alone or in combination with ipilimumab in patients with locally advanced, unresectable, or metastatic sarcoma. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, non-comparative, randomised, phase 2 study that enrolled patients aged 18 years or older and had central pathology confirmation of sarcoma with at least one measurable lesion by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1...
January 19, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367348/integrin-%C3%AE-4-%C3%AE-7-expression-on-peripheral-blood-cd4-t-cells-predicts-hiv-acquisition-and-disease-progression-outcomes
#18
Aida Sivro, Alexandra Schuetz, Daniel Sheward, Vineet Joag, Sergey Yegorov, Lenine J Liebenberg, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Andrew Stalker, Ruth S Mwatelah, Philippe Selhorst, Nigel Garrett, Natasha Samsunder, Anisha Balgobin, Fatima Nawaz, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos, Anthony S Fauci, Aggrey Omu Anzala, Joshua Kimani, Bernard S Bagaya, Noah Kiwanuka, Carolyn Williamson, Rupert Kaul, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Nittaya Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich, Aftab Ansari, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim, Lyle R McKinnon
The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is central to HIV pathogenesis, and the integrin α4β7promotes the homing of immune cells to this site, including those that serve as viral targets. Data from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) animal models suggest that α4β7blockade provides prophylactic and therapeutic benefits. We show that pre-HIV infection frequencies of α4β7+peripheral blood CD4+T cells, independent of other T cell phenotypes and genital inflammation, were associated with increased rates of HIV acquisition in South African women...
January 24, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361361/a-national-survey-of-interventions-and-practices-in-the-prevention-of-blood-culture-contamination-and-associated-adverse-health-care-events
#19
Robert A Garcia, Eric D Spitzer, Barbara Kranz, Sue Barnes
The scientific literature indicates that blood culture contamination often leads to inappropriate antimicrobial treatment, adverse patient occurrences, and potential reporting of false-positive central line-associated bloodstream infections. The findings of a national infection prevention survey of blood culture practices and related interventions in hospitals support the need for infection preventionists to expand their participation in the review of topics related to the ordering and collection of blood for culture...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357210/risk-factors-associated-with-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
Kushal Patel, Jessica J Kram, Dennis J Baumgardner
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections resistant to carbapenem antimicrobials have increased. Traditional risk factors for non-carbapenem resistance include intensive care unit stay, mechanical ventilation, previous hospitalization, and major comorbidities. As microbes evolve, our understanding of their risk factors for resistance also should evolve. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of adult inpatients and outpatients with a positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture during 2014...
December 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
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